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LITERARY STANDARDS (Marjorie Ann "GEGET" Alcantara) 1.ARTISTRY - this is a quality which appeals to our sense of beauty. 2.

INTELLECTUAL VALUE - a literary work stimulates thought. It enriches our mental life by making us realize fundamental truths about life and human nature. 3.SUGGESTIVENESS - this is the quality associated w/the emotional power of literature. 4.SPIRITUAL VALUE - Literature elevates the spirit by bringing out moral values which make us better persons. 5.PERMANENCE - a great work of literature endures. 6.UNIVERSALITY - great literature is timeless and timely. 7.STYLE - this is the peculiar way in which a writer sees life, forms his ideas and expresses them.

Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale


III. THE FUNCTIONS OF DRAMATIS PERSONAE In this chapter we shall enumerate the functions of the dramatis personae in the order dictated by the folktale itself. For each function we are given: 1) a brief summary of its essence, 2) an abbreviated definition in one word, and 3) its conventional sign. (The introduction of signs eventually shall permit a schematic comparison of the structure of various folktales.) Then follow examples. These examples far from exhaust our material. I cite them only as models. They are distributed into certain groups. These groups are in relation to the definition as "species" to "genus." The basic task is clearly the extraction of "genera." An examination of species cannot be included in the problems of general morphology. Species can be further subdivided into "varieties." Here we have the beginning of systematization. 'The arrangement to be given later will not pursue similar goals. The citation of examples should only illustrate the presence of the function as a certain generic unit. As was already mentioned, all functions are bound up within one consecutive story. The groups of functions to be given here form a morphological basis for the study of fairy tales in general. A folktale usually begins with some sort of initial situation. The members of a family are enumerated, or else the future hero is introduced (i.e., a soldier) in some manner; either his name is revealed or his status is indicated. Although this situation does not, in itself, constitute a function, it nevertheless is an important morphological element. The species of folktale beginnings can be examined only at the end of the present work. We shall designate this element as the "initial situation," giving it the sign a. Functions follow the initial situation:

I. One of the members of a family is absent from home. (Definition: absence.) 1. The person absent can be a member of the older generation. Parents leave for work (64). "The prince had far to travel, to abandon his wife in foreign lands" (148). "The merchant goes away, as to foreign lands" (115). Usual forms of absenting oneself in folktales: going to work, going to the forest, departing in order to trade, leaving for war, "on business." 2. An intensified form of absence is represented by the death of parents ((12 ). 3. Sometimes members of the younger generation absent themselves (R3 ). They ride (or walk) to someone as guests (57); they leave to go fishing (62); they go for a walk (77); they go out to gather berries (137). 2. An interdiction is addressed to the hero. (Definition: interdiction.) 1. "You dare not look in this pantry" (94). "Take care of your brother, do not venture forth from the courtyard" (64). "If Baba Jaga comes, say nothing, and be silent" (61). "Often did the prince try to persuade her and order her not to leave the high tower" (148). Interdiction not to go out is often given a forceful note, or is replaced by putting children in a tower (117). Sometimes, on the contrary, an interdiction is evidenced in a weaker form, as a request or bit of advice: a mother warns her son not to go out fishing, "you're still a youngster," etc. (62). The folktale generally begins with an absence, and then proceeds with the interdiction. The sequence of events, of course, actuallyTuris in the reverse. Interdictions can also be made without being connected with an absence: "do not pick the apples" (127); "do not pickup the golden feather" (103); "do not open the drawer"; "do not kiss the sisters" (125). 2. An interdiction in the form of an address to someone is either an injunction or a proposal (y2). "Bring breakfast out into the field" (74)." "Take your brother with you to the woods" (137). Here, for the sake of a better understanding of the matter at hand, a small digression may perhaps be made. The folktale further presents a sudden (yet not without a traceable form of preparation) emergence of misfortune. In connection with this, the initial situation gives a description of particular, often plainly stated prosperity to follow. For example, the king has a wonderful garden in which golden apples grow, and so on. A particular form is agrarian

prosperity: a peasant and his sons achieve a wonderful haying. One often encounters the description of sowing with excellent shoots. This prosperity naturally serves as a contrasting background, since misfortune already hovers invisibly over the heads of the happy family. From this situation stems the interdiction, for example, not to go out into the street, and so forth. The very absence of the parents prepares for the oncoming misfortune, creating the opportune moment for its emergence. The children, either upon the departure of parents or after their death, are left on their own. An order often plays the role of interdiction. If the children are urged to go out into the field or in the forest, the fulfillment of this injunction produces the same consequences as an interdiction not to go to the forest or out into the field. II. The interdiction is violated (Definition: violation.) The forms of violation correspond to the forms of interdiction. Functions II and III form a twin element. The second half can sometimes exist without the first (the princesses go into the garden [3]; they are late in returning home). Here the interdiction of tardiness is omitted. A fulfilled injunction corresponds, as demonstrated, to a violated prohibition. At this point a new personage, who perhaps can be termed the villain, enters the folktale. His role is that of the disturber of the peace of a happy family, the cause of some form of misfortune or harm. The villain (s) may be a dragon, a devil, bandits, a witch, or a stepmother, etc. (the question of how new personages, in general, enter into the scheme of action of a folktale will be discussed in a special chapter). Here, the villain enters the scene. He comes on foot, sneaks up on, or flies down upon a particular setting, etc., and begins the performance of his role.

IV. The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance. (Definition: reconnaissance.) 1. The reconnaissance has as its aim the obtaining of information about, for example, where certain children reside, the location of precious objects, etc. (E1). Examples: a bear: "Who will tell me what has become of the king's children? Where did the children disappear?" (117); an employee: "Where do you get these precious stones?" (11-1); a priest inquires: "How were you able to make such a quick recovery?" (114); a princess: "Tell me, Ivan, the merchant's son, wherein does your wisdom lie?" (120); "With what does the bitch live?" Jagiga thinks. She sends One-Eye, Two-Eye, and Three-Eye to find out (56). 2. An invented form of reconnaissance is evidenced in the questioning by the villain of his intended victim (52). "Where is your death, Kozej?" (93). "What a swift steed

you have ! Might you not get another somewhere that could outrun yours?" (95). 3. In separate instances one encounters forms of reconnaissance by means of other personages (3 ). V. The villain receives information about his victim. (Definition: delivery.) 1. The villain spontaneously receives an answer to his question. The chisel answers the bear: "Take me out into the courtyard and throw me down upon the ground; there where I stick into the ground will you also find the hive." The merchant's wife responds to the question about the precious stones, put to her by the employee, in the following manner: "Oh, may the hen lay eggs for us," etc. Once again we are confronted with twin functions. They often occur in the form of a dialogue. The dialogue between the stepmother and the mirror belongs to this category. Although she does not directly, here, question her stepdaughter, the mirror answers her: "There is no doubt of your beauty; and you have a stepdaughter, living with knights in the deep forest, and, truly, she is even more beautiful than you." As in similar instances, the second half of a twin function can existwithout the first. In these cases the delivery of information takes the form of an unwary, careless act: a mother calls her son home in a loud voice and thereby betrays his presence to a witch (62). An old man receives a marvelous bag; he gives the godmother a treat from the bag and` thereby gives away the secret of his talisman to her (109). 2. Inverse or other forms of information gathering evoke corresponding answers. Ko~~_ej reveals the secret of his death (93), the secret of the swift steed (94), and so forth. VI. The villain attempts to deceive his victim in order to take possession of him or of his belongings. (Definition: fraud.) The villain, first of all, assumes a disguise. A dragon turns into a golden goat (97); or a handsome youth (118); a witch pretends to be a "sweet old lady" (148) and imitates the voice of the mother (62); a priest dresses himself in a goat's hide (144); a thief pretends to be a beggar (111). Then follows the function itself. 1. The villain makes an attempt at persuasion (6l). The witch tries to have a ring accepted (65); the witch suggests the taking of a steam bath (109), the removal of clothes (147),

and the bathing in a pond (148); the beggar asks alms (111). 2. The villain proceeds to act by the direct application of magical means (12). The stepmother gives a sleeping potion to her stepchild (128). She sticks a magic pin into his clothing (128). 3. The villain employs other means of deception or coercion (3). Evil sisters place knives and spikes around a window through which Finist is supposed to fly (129). A dragon rearranges the wood shavings that are supposed to show a young girl the way to her brothers (74). VII. The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps his enemy. (Definition: complicity.) [The remainder is not yet edited.]

1. The hero agrees to all of the villain's persuasions (i.e., takes the ring, goes to steambathe, etc.). One notes that interdictions are always broken and deceitful proposals, conversely, are always accepted and fulfilled (01). 2-3. The hero mechanically reacts to the employment of magical or other means (i.e., falls asleep, wounds himself, etc.). It is possible to observe that this function can also exist separately. No one lulls the hero to sleep: he suddenly falls asleep by himself in order, of course, to facilitate the villain's dirty work (0Z -03 ). The deceitful agreement constitutes a special form of deceitful proposal and assent ("Give away that which you do not know you have in your house."). Assent in these instances is compelled, the villain taking advantage of some difficult situation in which his victim is caught: a scattered flock, extreme proverty, etc. The villain, on another occasion, induces these very same difficulties for the hero: the bear seizes the king by the beard (117). This element may be defined as "preliminary misfortune." (Designation: differentiating between this and other forms of deception.)

VIII. The villain causes harm or injury to one member of a family. (Definition: villainy. Designation: A.) This function is exceptionally important, since, by means of it, the actual_ movement of the folktale is created. Absence, the 'creaking of an interdiction, delivery, the success of a deceit, all prepare the way for this function, create its possibility of occurrence, or else simply facilitate its happening. Therefore, the first seven functions may be regarded as the preparatory section of the folktale, whereas the plot is begun by an act of villainy. The forms of villainy are exceedingly varied. , 1. The villain abducts a person (AL). A dragon kidnaps the king's daughter (72), the daughter of a peasant (74); a witch kidnaps a boy (62); older brothers abduct the bride of a younger brother

(102). Z. The villain abducts or steals a magical agent (AZ). The "uncomely chap" steals a magic coffer (111); the princess steals a magic shirt (120); the little peasant makes off with a magic steed. Za. The forcible seizure of a magical helper creates a special subclass of this form (All). The stepmother orders the killing of the miraculous cow (56, 57). The employee orders the slaying of a magic duck or chicken (114, 115). The villain plunders or spoils the crops (A3 ). The mare eats up the haystack (60). The bear steals the oats (82). The crane steals the peas (108). 4. The villain steals the daylight (A4). (This occurs only once [75] .) 5. The villain performs abduction in other forms (AS ) . The object of a theft fluctuates to an enormous degree, and there is really no necessity for registering all of its many forms. The object of a theft, as will be demonstrated later on, does not influence the process of action. It would be much more logically correct to consider all thievery, generally, as one form of villainy, and all constituent forms of thievery (subdivided according to their objects and objectives) not as classes, but as subclasses. Nevertheless, it is technically more useful to isolate several of its most important forms while, on the other hand, generalizing about those remaining. Examples: the fire bird steals the golden apples (102); the burrowing beast each night eats animals Morphology of the Folktale from the king's menagerie (73); the general steals the king's (nonmagical) sword (145), and so forth. 6. The villain causes bodily injury (A6). The servant girl cuts out the eyes of her mistress (70). The princess chops off Katoma's legs (116). It is-interesti~j4 llote that these forms (from a morpholo~ical point off view), are also forms of stealing. The eyes, for example, are placed by the servant girl in a pocket and are carried away, in the same manner as other stolen objects when put in their place. This is also true in the case of a heart that has been torn out of someone's breast. 7. The villain effects a sudden disappearance (A7). Usually this disappearance is the result of the application of bewitching or magical means; the stepmother lulls her stepson to sleep-his bride disappears forever (128). Sisters place knives and needles in the window through which Finist is supposed to fly-he wounds his wings and disappears forever (129). A wife flies away from her husband forever upon a magic carpet (113). Folktale No. 150 demonstrates an interesting form. There, disappearance is effected by the hero himself: he sets fire to the jacket of his bewitched wife, and she disappears forever. A special occurrence in folktale No. 125 might, conditionally, be placed in the same class: a bewitched man's kiss causes his bride's total loss of memory. In this case the victim is the bride, who loses her betrothed (Avii), 8. The villain demands or tricks his victim (A8). Usually this form constitutes the result of a deceitful agreement. The kipg of the sea demands his son, who leaves his house (125). 9. The villain expels someone (A9): The stepmother drives her daughter out (52); the priest expels his grandson (82). 10. The villain orders someone to be thrown into the sea (A1). The king places his daughter and sonin-law in a barrel and orders the barrel to be thrown into the sea (100). Parents launch a small boat, carrying their sleeping son, into the sea (138). 11. The villain casts a spell upon someone or something (All). At this point one must take note of the fact that the villain often causes two or three harmful-acts at once. There are forms

which rarely are encountered independently and which show a marked propensity for uniting with other forms. The casting of spells belongs to this group. For example: a wife turns her husband into a mare and then drives him out (i.e., A91; 139); the stepmother turns her stepdaughter into a lynx and proceeds to drive her out (149). Even in instances when a bride is changed into a duck and flies away, we actually are presented with a case of expulsion, although, as such, it is not expressly stated (147, 148). 12. The villain effects a substitution (A12). This form also is mostly concommitant. The nursemaid changes the bride into a duckling and substitutes her own daughter in the bride's place (A,,. ; 70 ). The maid blinds the king's bride and pretends to be the bride. 13. The villain orders a _murder to be committed (A13). This form._ is,_ in actualityintensified .._variation of expWsion: the stepmother orders a servant to kill her stepdaughter while they are out walking (121). The princess orders her servants to take her husband away into the forest and, there, to kill him (113). It is usual, in such cases, that the heart and liver of the victim be taken after the murder has taken place. 14. The villain commits murder (A14). This form is usually a component of other kinds of villainous acts or crimes and serves to intensify them: the princess steals her husband's magic shirt and then proceeds to murder him (i.e.,A14; 120). Elder brothers kill a younger brother and steal his bride (i.e., A14;102). The sister steals her brother's berries and then kills him (137). 15. The villain incarcerates, imprisons (A15 ). The princess imprisons Ivan in a dungeon (107). The king of the sea jails Semen as a prisoner (142). 16. The villain threatens forcible matrimony (A16). The dragon demands the princess as his wife (68). 16a. The same form among relatives (Axvi). The brother demands his sister for a wife (65). 17. The villain makes a threat of cannibalism (A17). The dragon demands the princess as his dinner (104). The dragon ate all the people in the village and threatens the last living person, a peasant, with the same fate (85). 17a. The same form among relatives (Axvii). The sister desires to devour her brother (50). The villain torments at night (A1a). A dragon (113) and a devil (66) torment the princess at night; a witch flies to a maiden at night and sucks at her breast. 19. The villain declares war (A19). The neighboring king declares war (96); similarly, a dragon brings a kingdom to ruin (77). With this, the forms of villainy are exhausted within the confines of the selected material. However, far from all folktales begin with an affliction or misfortune. \There are, as well, other beginnings which often present the same development as folktales which begin with A. On examining this phenomenon, we will ob.s,erve that these folktales contain a certain situation of insufficiency, or lack, which provokes quests analogous to those in the case of villainy. We conclude from this that lack can be consjdered as the morphological equivalent of, for example, abduction. Let us consider the following cases: the princess steals Ivan's talisman. The result of this abduction is that Ivan lacks the talisman. And so we see that a_folktale, in omitting villainy, very often begins directly with a lack: Ivan desires to have a magical sabre or a magical steed, etc. Insufficiency, just as abduction, defines- the following,moment of initial plot: Ivan sets out on a quest. The same may be said in reference to the abducted bride, etc. In the first instance, a certain act is given, the result of which creates an insufficiency and provokes a quest; in the second instance a ready-made insufficiency is presented which also provokes a quest. _In the first instance, a lack is created from without; in the second it is realized from within.

We realize fully that the terms "insufficiency" and "lack" are not wholly satisfactory. But there are no words in the Russian language with which the given concept may be expressed completely and exactly. The word "shortage" sounds better, but it bears a special meaning which is inappropriate for the given concept. This insufficiency can be compared to the zero which, in a series of figures, amounts to a definite value. The given moment may be fixed in the following manner: VIIIa. One member of a family lacks something, he desires to have something. (Definition:lack. Designation: a. ) These instances lend themselves to a grouping only with difficulty. It would be possible to break them down according to the forms of the recognition of lack (see pages 6667); but here it is possible to limit oneself to a distribution according to the objects lacking. It is possible to register the following forms: 1) lack of a bride (or of a friend, generally a human being). Thislackis sometimes delineated very strongly (the hero intends to search for a bride), and sometimes it is not even mentioned verbally. The bachelor hero sets out to find a bride and thereby a beginning is given to the moment of the action ( al). 2) A magical agent is needed, for example, apples, water, horses, sabres, etc. (a2). z 3) Wonders are lacking (without magical power), as, the fire bird, ducks with golden feathers, a wonder-of-wonders, etc. (a3). 4) a specific form: the magical egg containing Kog~!ej's death (and the love of the princess) is lacking (a4 ). 5) Rationalized forms, money, the means of existence, are insufficient, etc. (ca s ). We note that similar beginnings from daily living sometimes develop quite fantastically; 6) various other forms (a6) . The form of the folktale is not determined by the object of an abduction, nor by what is lacking. In consequence, there is no necessity for systematizing all instances for the sake of general morphological goals. One can limit oneself to the important ones, while those remaining may be generalized. Here the following problem necessarily arises: far from all folktales begin either with misfortune or with the beginning just described. The tale of Emel the fool begins with the fool's catching a pike, not with a villainy. In comparing a large number of folktales, it becomes apparent, however, that the elements peculiar to the middle of the folktale are sometimes transferred to the beginning, in the manner mentioned here. The catching and pitying of an animal is a typical middle element, as we shall observe later on. Generally, elements A or a are required for each folktale of the class being studied. Other forms of initial plot do not exist. IX. Misfortune or shortage is made known: the hero is either approached with a request and responds to it of his own accord, or is commanded and dispatched, (Definition: mediation, the connective [conjunctive] moment. Designation: B.) This function brings the hero into play. Under the closest analysis, this function may be subdivided into a number of components, but for our purposes this is not mandatory. The folktale hero may be one of two types: 1) if a young girl is kidnapped, and her father disappears beyond the horizon (both of the young girl in question and of the reader), and if Ivan goes off in search of her, then the hero of the tale is Ivan (and not the kidnapped girl). Heroes of this type may be termed "seekers." 2) If a young girl or boy is kidnapped or driven out, and the thread of the narrative is linked to his or her fate and not to those who remain behind, then the hero of the tale is, in effect, the kidnapped boy or young girl. Heroes of this variety may be called "victim- heroes."3 Seekers are absent from such tales. The problem of whether tales develop in the same manner when either type of hero is present will be treated further on. Suffice it to say, for the moment, that there is absolutely no instance, in our material, inwhich the

narrative follows both seekers and victim-heroes in the same tale (cf. "Ruslan and Ludmila"). The topic of mediation is present in both cases. The meaning of this topic lies in the fact that it constitutes the signal for the hero's departure from home. 1. A call for help is given (with the resultant dispatch of the hero) (B1). The call usually comes from the king and is accompanied by promises. 2. The hero is immediately dispatched (B?). Dispatch is presented either in the form of a comniand or a request. In the former instance, it is often coupled with threats; in the latter case, with promises. Sometimes, as well, both threats and promises are given. 3. The hero departs from home (B3). In this instance the initiative for departure is often taken by the hero himself, apart from a sender or dispatcher. Parents bestow their blessing. The hero sometimes does not explain his genuine aims for leaving: he may, for example, ask for permission to go out walking, while, actually, intending to set off for a fight. 4. Misfortune is announced (B4). A mother tells her son about the abduction of her daughter that took place before his birth. The son sets out in search of his sister, without having been asked to do so by his mother (74). More often, however, the story of a particular misfortune does not come from parents but, rather, from various old women or passers-by, etc. These four preceding forms are all attributed to seeker-heroes. The forms following are directly in relation to the victimhero type. ;The structure of the folktale makes it necessary for the hero to home for one reason or another. If this is not accomplished by means of some form of villainy, then the connective moment is employed to this end." 5. The banished hero is taken away from home (B5): The father leads his daughter, banished by her stepmother, into the forest. This form is interesting in a number of ways. Logically, the father's action is not necessary. The daughter could, herself, go to the forest. But the folktale insists upon parent-senders in the connective moment. It is possible to show that the form in question is a secondary formation; but this does not enter into the attempt of a general morphology. One must, as well, take note of the fact that abduction also adapts itself in relation to the princess, threatened by the dragon. In such cases, she is transported to the seashore. Yr,t, concurrently, a call for rescue \, is issued. The process of action is determined by the call and not by the abduction to the seashore. This explains why abduction, in these instances, cannot be attributed to the connective moment. 6. The hero condemned to death is secretly freed (B6 ). A cook or an archer spares the young girl (or boy), frees her, and instead of killing her, slays an animal in order to be able to exhibit a heart and a liver as proof of the murder (121, 114). Moment B is defined as the factor provoking the setting out of the hero from home. If a dispatch presents the necessity for setting out, then, in this case, the possibility of departure is granted. The first instance is characteristic of the seeker-hero. The second applies to the victim-hero. 7. A lament is sung (B7). This form is specifically for a murdered person (and is sung by the remaining kin, by a brother, etc.), for one bewitched and banished, or for someone who has been replaced by a different person. Misfortune, by means of a lament, becomes known and calls forth counteraction. X. The seeker agrees to or decides upon counteraction. (Definition: beginning counteraction. Designation: C.) This moment is characterized in such words, for instance, as the following: "Permit us to go in search of your daughters, the princesses." In certain cases this moment is not expressed in words;

but, naturally, a volitional decision precedes the search. This moment is characteristic only of those folktales in which the hero is a seeker. Banished, vanquished, bewitched, and substituted heroes demonstrate no volitional aspiration toward freedom, and in such cases this element of decision or agreement is lacking. The hero leaves home. (Definition: departure. Designation: t . ) Departure, here, denotes something different from the temporary absence element, designated by (3. The departures of seekerheroes and victim-heroes are also various. The former have "the search" as their goal; the latter travel along a route in which a search is not involved, which, instead, prepares a series of adventures for them. It is necessary to keep the following in mind: if a young girl is abducted and a seeker goes in pursuit of her, then two characters have left home. Yet the route followed by the story and on which action is developed is actually the route of the seeker. If, for example, a girl is driven out and no seeker is present in a given tale, then the narrative is developed along the route of the victim-hero. The sign t designates the route of the hero, regardless of type. In several folktales a special transference of the hero is completely absent. The entire flow of action takes place in one location. Sometimes, quite to the contrary, departure is intensified to the point of assuming the character of flight. i he elements ABC t present the inaugurations of the plot on which the course of action develops further. At this juncture a new character enters the folktale: this personage might be termed the "donor, " or, more precisely, the provider. Usually he is encountered accidentally, in the forest, along the roadway, etc. (cf. Chapter VI, forms of appearance of folktale characters). It is from him that the seeker-hero obtains some means (usually magical) to be used in the eventual liquidation of misfortune. Prior to this, however, the hero experiences a number of different adventures which all lead to the moment when he eventually obtains a magical agent. XII. The hero is tested, interrogated, attacked, etc. in preparation for receiving either a magical agent or helper. (Definition: the first function of the donor. Designation: D.) 1. The donor tests the hero (Dl). A witch gives a girl household chores to tend to (58). The forest knights propose that the hero serve them for three years (123). The hero is to serve three years in the service of a merchant (66). The hero is supposed to serve as a ferryman for three years, without remuneration (71). The hero must listen to the playing of the gusla without falling asleep (123). The apple tree, the river, and the stove offer a very simple meal (64). A witch proposes an evening in bed with her daughter (104). A dragon suggests the raising of a heavy stone (71). (The former request is often written on the stone itself, and brothers, on finding it, attempt to raise it of their own accord.) A witch proposes the guarding of a herd of mares (94), and so forth. Z. The donor greets and interrogates the hero (DZ ). This form may be considered as a weakened method of testing. Greeting and interrogation is, of course, present, as well, in the forms mentioned above; but in these cases the elements did not have the char - acter of a test but, rather, preceded same. In the examples to follow, direct testing is absent, and interrogation assumes the character of testing indirectly. If the hero answers rudely he receives nothing, but if he responds politely he is rewarded with a steed, a sabre, and so on. 3. A dying or deceased person's request for the rendering of a service or favor (D 3 ). This form sometimes takes on the character of a trial. For example, a cow asks the following: "Eat not of my meat, but gather up my bones. Tie them in a kerchief and bury them in the garden. Forget me not, and water them each morning" (56). A similar request is made by the ox in tale No. 117. Another type of last wish is evident in tale No. 105. Here, a dying father instructs his sons to spend three nights beside his grave.

4. A prisoner asks for his freedom (D4 ). The brazen little peasant is held captive and asks to be freed (68). A devil sits in a tower as a prisoner; he begs a soldier to free him (130). A jug fished out of water begs to be broken, i.e., the spirit imprisoned within the jug asks for its liberty (114). 4. The same as the preceding, stipulating, here, the preliminary imprisonment of the donor (*D4 ) . If, for example, as in tale No. 67, a wood goblin is caught and confined, the deed of capture and imprisonment cannot be considered an independent function: it merely sets the stage for the subsequent request of the captive. 5. The hero is approached with a request for mercy (DS ). This form might be considered as a subclass of the preceding class (4). It occurs either before capture or while the hero takes aim at a particular animal with the intention of killing it. Examples: the hero catches a pike who begs him to let her go (100b); the hero aims at animals who beg to be spared (93). 6. Disputants request a division of property (D6). Two giants ask that a crutch and a broom be divided between them ( 107). Disputants do not always voice their request: the hero often proposes a division of some sort on his own initiative (d6). Beasts are incapable of dividing carrion; the hero apportions it for them (97). 7. Other requests (D7). Strictly speaking, requests constitute an independent class and their individual types, subclasses; but, in order to avoid an unwieldy system of designation, it is possible, on certain conditions, to consider all such varieties as classes in themselves. :-saving defined the basic forms in question, one can generalize about those remaining: Mice ask to be fed (58); a thief asks the robbed person to carry the stolen goods for him (131). Further, a happening takes place which can be immediately divided into two classes: A fox is caught; it begs, "Don't kill me (a request for mercy, D5), cook a chicken with a little butter, it's fatter than me" (second request, D7). And, since imprisonment preceded this incide t, the designation for the complete happening is =` D . Here is an example of another occurrence of still a different character, though also preceded by a suppliant's either being threatened with, or caught up in, a helpless situation: the hero steals the clothes of a lady bather who begs him to return them (131). Sometimes a helpless situation occurs without the pronouncement of a request (fledglings become soaked in the rain, children torment a cat). The hero is presented, on these occasions, with the possibility of rendering assistance. Objectively, this amounts to a test, although subjectively the hero does not sense it per se (d7). 8. A hostile creature attempts to destroy the hero (De). A witch tries to place the hero in an oven (62). A witch attempts to behead the hero during the night (60). A host attempts to feed his guests to rats at night (122). A magician tries to exhaust the hero, leaving him alone on a mountain (136). 9. A hostile creature joins in combat with the hero (D9 ). A witch fights with the hero, for example. Combat of one sort or another, taking place between the hero and various inhabitants of the forest in a forest hut, is a frequently recurring element. Combat, here, has the character of an out and out brawl. 10. The hero is shown a magical agent which is offered as an exchange (D1). A robber shows a cudgel (122); an old man reveals a sword (151). They propose these things as an exchange. XIII. The hero reacts to the actions of the future donor. (Definition: the hero's reaction. Designation: E.) In the majority of instances, the reaction of the hero is either clearly positive or clearly negative. 1. The hero sustains (or does not sustain) an ordeal (E1). 2. The hero answers (or does not answer) a greeting (E z ).

3. He performs a favor (or does not) for a dead person (E 3 ). 4. He frees a captive (E4). 5. He shows mercy to a suppliant (E5). 6. He apportions something between disputants and reconciles them (E6 ). The request of disputants (or simply an argument with a stated request) more often evokes a different reaction. The hero deceives the disputants into running after an arrow which he shoots into the distance; and, in the meantime, he escapes with the disputed objects (Evi). 7. The hero performs other forms of services, favors (E7). Sometimes these services are performed in response to requests; sometimes, as well, they are done purely through the generosity of the hero (a young girl feeds passing beggars [65]). A special subclass might be made by forms of services of a religious nature: the hero lights incense to the glory of God. To this group one instance of a prayer might also be relegated (66). 8. The hero saves himself from an attempt on his life by employing the same tactics used by his adversary (E$). He puts the witch in the stove, ordering her to show how to climb in (62). The heroes change clothes with the daughters of the witch in secret; she proceeds to kill them instead of the heroes (60). The magician himself remains on the mountain where he wanted to abandon the hero (136). 9. The hero vanquishes (or does not vanquish) this adversary (E9 ). The hero agrees to an exchange but immediately employs the magic power of the object exchanged against the barterer (E1). An old man offers to trade his magic sword to a cossack for a magic cask. The cossack agrees to the exchange, whereupon he orders the sword to cut off the old man's head while he, in the meanwhile, retrieves his cask (151). XIV. A magical agent at the disposal of the hero. (Definition: the provision, receipt of a magical agent. Designation: F.) The following things are capable of serving as magical agents: 1) animals (a horse, an eagle, etc.); 2) objects out of which helpers appear (a fire kindler containing a steed, a ring containing young men, etc.); 3) objects possessing a magical property such as, cudgels, swords, gusla, balls, and so forth; ')qualities or capacities which are directly given, such as, the power of transformation into aniinals forms, etc. All of these objects of transmission we shall conditionally term magical agents.' The forms by which they are transmitted are the following: 1. The agent is directly transferred (Fl). Similar acts of transference often have the character of a reward: an old man presents a horse as a gift; forest animals offer their offspring, etc. Quite often the hero, instead of receiving a certain animal directly for his own use, obtains the power of turning himself into it at will (cf. Chapter VI). Several folktales end on the note of a reward. In these instances the gift amounts to something of innate material value and not a magical agent (f 1) . If a hero's reaction is negative, then the transference is not actuated (F neg.), or some form of fierce retribution can follow as a result of refusal. In cases such as these the hero may be devoured, frozen, may have his back injured, or may be thrown under a stone, etc (F contr.). 2. The agent is made known (F Z). An old woman shows the hero an oak tree under which lies a flying ship (83). An old man points out a peasant from whom a magic steed may be obtained (78). 3. The agent is prepared (F3). "The magician went out on the shore, drew a boat in the sand and said: `Well, brothers, do you see this boat?' 'We do see it.' `Then get into it."' (78).

4. The agent is sold, purchased (F'). The hero buys a magic hen (114); he buys a magic dog and cat (112), etc. The intermediate form between purchase and preparation is "preparation on order": The hero orders a chain to be made by a blacksmith, for example (60). (The designation for this 4 instance: F3 .) 5. The agent falls into the hands of the hero by chance (is found by him) (FS ). Ivan sees a horse in the field and proceeds to mount him (73); he comes upon a tree bearing magic apples (113). 6. The agent appears independently, of its own accord (F6 ). A staircase suddenly appears, leading up a mountain side (93). Agents sprouting out of the ground constitutes a special form of independent appearance (Fvi), by which magical bushes (56, 57), branches, dogs and horses (117), as well as dwarfs alike, make themselves available. 7. The agent is drunk or eaten (F7). This is not, strictly speaking, a form of transference, although it may be coordinated, conditionally, with such instances. Examples: three beverages provide the drinker with unusual strength (68); the eating of a bird's entrails endows the hero with various magical capacities (114). 8. The agent is stolen (F8). The hero steals a horse from a witch (94); he steals the objects of the disputants' quarrel (115). The application of magical agents on the person who exchanged them as a barter, and the seizing of given objects also constitute forms of stealing. 9. Various characters place themselves at the disposal of the hero (F9). An animal, for example, may either present its offspring or offer itself in the service of the hero, making, as it were, a present of itself. Compare the following incident: a steed does not always present himself directly, or by means of a kindling tool. Sometimes the donor informs the hero simply of anincantatory formula with which the hero may invoke the steed to appear. In this instance, Ivan is not actually given anything: he only receives the right to a helper. Another instance of this type is present when the donor offers Ivan the right to make use of him: the pike informs Ivan of a formula by which he may call on the pike for help ("Say only this pike-command...." etc). If, finally, no formula is mentioned and, instead, the animal simply says, "Sometime I'll prove useful, " then, at that moment, the hero is assured of the aid of a magical agent in the form of the animal itself. Later on it will become Ivan's helper (f9). It often happens that various magical creatures appear without warning, are met on a journey, offering their services and eventually becoming helpers (Fg). Mostly all of these are heroes either with extraordinary attributes, or in control of various magical means ~ (Obedalo, Opivalo, Moroz-Treskun). Here, before continuing with the further registration of functions, the following question should be taken into consideration: in what combination does one encounter the types contained in the elements D (preparation of transmission), and F (transmission itself)?5 One need only state that, in the face of a negative reaction on the part of the hero, one encounters F neg. (the transmission ;does not take place), or F contr. (the unfortunate hero is punished). Under the condition of the hero's positive reaction, one encounters the combinations shown in Figure 1. One can see from this scheme that the connections are exceptionally varied and that, in general, a wide range of substitution of certain variations for others is plausibly traceable. Yet if one examines this scheme with care, one immediately becomes aware of the absence of several connections. This absence is in part explained by the insufficiency of material. Nevertheless, certain combinations would not prove logical. Therefore the conclusion to be made is that there exist types of connections. In proceeding according to the designation of types from the forms of transmission of a magical agent. one can isolate two types of connections:

1. The abduction of a magical agent, linked with an attempt to destroy the hero (burn, etc.), with a request for apportionment, and, finally, with a proposal for an exchange. Z. All other forms of transmission and receipt are linked with all other preparatory forms. The request for apportionment belongs to the second type if the division is actually accomplished. If it is not, and the disputants are deceived, then this form belongs to the first type. Further, it is possible to observe that afind,a purchase, and a sudden independent appearance of a magical agent or help are mostly encountered without the slightest preparation. These are rudimentary forms. If, however, they are prepared in some manner or another, then they belong to the second rather than to the first type. One might, in connection with these matters, touch on the question of the character of donors. The second type most often presents friendly donors (with the exception of those who surrender a magical agent unwillingly as the result of combat), whereas the first type exhibits villainous (or, at any rate, deceptive) donors. These are not donors in the true sense of the word, but, rather, characters who, against their will, furnish the hero with something. Within the forms of each type, all combinations are possible and logical, whether actually present or not. In this manner, for example, an exacting or grateful donor is capable of giving, revealing, selling, or preparing an agent, or he may tell the hero how to find the agent, etc. On the other hand, a magical agent in the possession of a deceptive donor can be obtained only through theft, abduction. Therefore, for example, it is not logical if a hero performs a difficult task for a witch and then proceeds to steal a colt from her. This is not, of course, to say that such combinations do not exist; but in these instances the story teller is obliged to motivate fully the heroes' actions. Here is another model of an illogical connection which is clearly motivated: Ivan fights with an old man. During the struggle the old man inadvertently permits Ivan to drink some strength giving water. The "inadvertence" of this situation becomes understandable when one compares this incident with those folktales in which a beverage is given to the hero by a friendly or grateful donor. In this light one readily sees that the apparent lack of logic of the story teller is perfectly resolved. If one were to follow a purely empirical approach, one would be inclined to confirm the possibility of the substitution of all varied forms of elements D and F in relation to each other. Below are several concrete examples of connection: Type II: D'E'Fl. Jaga instructs the hero to pasture a herd of mares. After completing a second task, the hero receives a steed (95). DZEZF?. An old man interrogates the hero. He answers rudely and receives nothing. Later, he returns and responds politely, whereupon he receives a horse (9Z). DIES F1. A dying father requests his sons to spend three nights beside his grave. The youngest son fulfills the request and receives a horse (195). D3 E3 Fvl. A young ox asks the king's children to kill him, burn him, and plant his ashes in three beds. The hero does these things. From one bed an apple tree sprouts forth; from the second a dog; and from the third a steed (118). Brothers find a large stone. "Should it not be moved?" (trial without a tester). The elder brothers cannot manage to move it. The youngest moves it, revealing below it a vault in which there are three horses (77). This list could be continued ad libitum. It is important only to note that in similar situations other magical gifts besides horses are presented. The examples given here, which include steeds, were selected for the purpose of more sharply outlining a morphological kinship.

Type I: D6Ev1F8. Three disputants request the apportionment of magical objects. The hero instructs them to chase after one another, and, in the meanwhile, he makes off with the object (s) (a cap, a blanket, boots, etc.). D8E8F8. Heroes come upon a witch's house. At night she plans to behead them. Instead, they put her daughters in their place and run away, the youngest brother making off with a magic kerchief (61). D'OE'OF8. Smat-Razum, an invisible spirit, serves the hero. Three merchants offer a little chest (a garden), an axe (a boat), and a horn (an army) in exchange for the spirit. The hero agrees to the barter but later calls his helper back to him. We observe that the substitution of certain aspects by others, within the confines of each type, is practiced on a large scale. But another question crops up at this point: are not the objects of transmissions in fact linked to particular known forms of transmission (i.e., isn't a horse always presented as a gift while a flying carpet is always stolen)? Although our examination pertains solely to functions per se, it is nevertheless possible to indicate that a norm such as this does not exist. For example, the steed, given as a gift in the majority of cases recorded, is stolen in tale No. 95, whereas the magical handkerchief which is usually stolen is, instead, given to the hero in tale No. 94, as well as in a number of other cases. Let us return to the enumeration of the functions of dramaris personae. The employment of a magical agent usually follows its receipt by the hero; or, if the agent received is a living creature, it is immediately- placed at the disposal of the hero as a helper. With this the hero outwardly loses all meaning; he himself does nothing while his helper performs all manner of deeds. The morpholo i~cal_ significance of the hero is nevertheless very great, since-hisu,intentions create the pivot on which thenarrative. is based. These intentions appear in the form of various commanus ~~hich the hero gives to his helpers. At this point it is possible to render a more exact definition of the hero than what has p_-eceded. The hero of a fairy tale is that character who either directly suffers from the action in the initial plot of the villain (resp., senses =e_ o- th_o aj-ees to liauidate the misfortune o.- shortage of another person. In the process of action, the hero is the person who is supplied with a magical agent (a magical helper), and who makes use of it. XV. The hero is transferred, reaches, or is led to the whereabouts of an object of search. (Definition: spatial translocation between two kingdoms, guidance. Designation: G.) Generally the object of search is located in another or different kingdom. This kingdom may lie far beyond the horizon, or either very high above or very deep below the ground. The means of transportation may be identical in most cases; but specific forms exist for great heights and depths. 1. The hero flies through the air (G'): on a steed (104); on a bird (121); in the form of a bird (97); on board a flying ship (78); on a flying carpet (113); on the back of a giant or a spirit (121); in the carriage of a devil (91), and so forth. Flight on a bird is often accompanied by a detail. Since it is necessary to feed the bird, the hero provides himself with an ox for the purpose before the journey. Z. He travels on the ground or on water (GZ ): on the back of a horse of wolf (102); on board a ship (138); a handless person carries one legless (116); a cat swims a river on the back of a dog (112). 3. He is led (G3 ). A tiny ball shows the way (129); a fox leads the hero to the princess (98). 4. The route is shown to him (G41. The hedgehog 5. He makes use of stationary means of Communication (G' ). lie climbs a stairway (93); he

finds an underground passageway and makes use of it (81); he walks across the back of an enormous pike, as enough across a bridge (93); he descends by means of a strap or line, etc. 6. He walks following bloody tracks (G6 ). The hero defeats the inhabitant of a forest but who runs away, hiding himself under a stone. Following his tracks the hero finds the way into another kingdom. With the preceding example we exhaust the forms of transference of t'-,e hero. "Delivery," as a function in itself, is often eliminated: the hero simply walks to some spot or other (i.e., function G amounts to a natural continuation of function In the latter function, G is not pointed out. XVI. The hero and the villain join in direct combat. (Definition: struggle. Designation: H.) This form needs to be distinguished from the struggle (hand to hand skirmish) with a villainous donor. These two forms can be recognized and contrasted according to the effects they produce. If the hero obtains an agent, for the purpose of further seeking, as the result of combat with a villainous character, this would be element D. We_ would designate as element H. a, situation whereby y_.the" hero would receive, as the result of combat, the very object of quest for which he was dispatched. 1. They fight in an open field (H1). Fights with dragons or with 1~udo-Juda (68), or, as well, with an enemy army or knight, etc. (122). 2. They engage in a competition (H2). In humorous tales a fight itself often does not occur. After a squabble of some sort (often completely analogous to the squabble that precedes an out and out fight), the hero and the villain engage in a competition. The hero wins, with the help of cleverness: a gypsy puts a dragon to flight by brandishing a piece of cheese as though it were a stone, striking blows, at the same time, with a club, etc. (85). 3. They play at cards (H3 ). The hero and a dragon (a devil) play at cards (113, 90). 4. Tale No. 50 presents a special form: a dragon proposes the following to the hero: "Let IvanTsarevi~! get on the scales with me; one of the two will outweigh the other." (6) XVII. The hero is branded. (Definition: branding, marking. Designation: J.) 1. A brand is applied to the body (Jl). The hero receives a wound during the skirmish. The princess awakens him before the fight, brands hint with a knife, making a small mark on his cheek (68); the princess brands the hero on the forehead with a signet ring (114); she kisses him, leaving a burning star on his forehead. 2. The hero receives a ring or a towel (J- ). Both forms are joined in the case of a hero's being wounded in battle and subsequently having the wound bound in the kerchief of either a king or queen. XVIII. The villain is defeated. (Definition: victory. Designation: 1.). 1. The villain is beaten on an open field (IL). 2. He is defeated in a contest (1 Z). 3. He loses at cards (I3). 4. He loses at being weighed (I4). 5. He is killed without a fight (IS ). The serpent is killed while asleep (81). Zmiulan hides in the hollow of a tree; he is found and killed (99). 6. He is immediately driven out (I6 ). The princess, possessed by a devil, places an image around her neck: "The evil power flew away in a puff of smoke" (66). Victory is also encountered in a negative form. In a case of two or three heroes who have assembled for combat, one of them (a general) hides, while the other is victorious (designation: *h ) XIX. The initial misfortune or lack is liquidated. (Designa tion: K.) This function, together with villainy (A), constitutes a pair. The narrative reaches its peak in this function.

1. The object of a search is abducted by means of force or cleverness (K'). Here heroes sometimes employ the same means adopted by villains for the initial abduction. Ivan's steed turns into a beggar who goes asking alms. The princess gives it to him. Ivan hops out of the underbrush; they seize her and carry her away (107). 1a. The object is sometimes attained by two personages, one of whom orders the other to perform the actual business of catching or obtaining something (Ki). For example, a horse steps on a crab and orders it to bring him a bridal dress; a cat catches a mouse, then orders it to fetch a little ring (112). 2. The object of search is obtained by several personages at once, through a rapid interchange of individual actions (K2). The distribution of action in this case is created by a series of unsuccessful attempts on the part of the abducted person to escape. The seven Semionov brothers obtain a princess; the thief kidnaps her, and she flies away in the form of a swan; the archer shoots her down, and a third, in the guise of a dog, retrieves her from the water, etc. (84). Similarly, the egg containing Kog~ej's death is stolen by a hare, a duck, and a fish (running, flying, and swimming); a wolf, a raven, and a fish obtain it (93). 3. The object of search is obtained by the help of a lure (K3). This form is, in many instances, quite close in nature to K. The hero lures the princess on board a ship with the aid of golden objects, then he kidnaps her (135). A special subclass might be made out of a decoy in the form of a proposal for an exchange. A blinded girl sews a wonderful crown and sends it to her thiefservant girl. In exchange for the crown she gives her back her eyes. 4. The obtaining of a sought after thing occurs as the direct result of preceding actions (K4). If, for example, Ivan kills a dragon and later marries the princess whom he freed by liquidating the dragon, we are not confronted with an example of receipt as a special act, but, rather, as a function which is a sequence in the process of the action. The princess is neither seized nor abducted; but she is, nevertheless, "obtained." She is obtained as a result of a struggle. Quest fulfillment in these cases is a logical element. It may be realized as the result of acts other than personal struggles. Thus Ivan can find a princess as the result of journeying, etc . 5. The object of search is obtained instantly through the use of a magical agent (K5). Two young men (appearing from inside a magical book) obtain a golden horned stag in a whirlwind (122). 6. The use of a magical agent overcomes poverty (K6). A magic duck presents golden eggs (114). The magic tablecloth which sets itself, and the horse who scatters gold both belong here (108). Another form of the self-setting tablecloth appears in the image of a pike: "By the pike command and God's blessing let the table be covered and the dinner ready!" (101). 7. The object of search is hunted (K7). This form is typical for agrarian plunderings. The hero hunts the mare who steals hay (60). He hunts the crane who was eating the beans (109). Enchantment is broken (K8). This form is typical for All (enchantment). The breaking of an enchantment or spell takes place either by burning a fur hide or by means of formulae: "Be a girl once again! " 9. A slain person revives (K9). A hairpin or a dead tooth appears from a head (118-119). The hero is sprinkled with deadly and life-giving waters. 9a. Like the above instance, with the incidence of one animal effecting another's actions: a wolf catches a raven and tells its mother to bring deadly and life-giving waters (102). This means of revival, preceded by the obtaining of water, may be singled out as a special, subclass (Kix) (7). 10. A captive is freed (K10) . A steed breaks open the doors of a dungeon and frees Ivan (107). This form does not morphologically contain any general implications. For example, just as the

freeing of a wood spirit creates the basis for his grateful attitude toward the hero, and for the transmission of a magical agent, it also implies the liquidation of an initial misfortune. Tale No. 145 evidences a special form of liberation: here, the king of the sea always drags his prisoner out onto the shore at midnight. The hero begs the sun to free him. The sun is late on two occasions. On the third occasion "the sun showed forth its rays and the king of the sea no longer could drag him back into bondage." 11. The receipt of an object of search is often accomplished by means of the same forms present in the receipt of a magical agent (i.e., it is given as a gift, its location is indicated, it is purchased, etc.). Designation of these occurrences: KF1, direct transmission; KFZ, indication, etc., as in the above mentioned example. XX. The hero returns. (Definition: return. Designation: A return is generally accomplished by means of the same forms as an arrival. It is, however, impossible to distinguish a special function that follows a return, since returning, in itself, already implies a surmounting of space. This is not always true in the case of a departure. On the one hand, the giving of a magical agent (ahorse, an eagle, etc.)follows the departure, and thereupon either a flight or other forms of travel take place. On the other hand, return takes place immediately, as does arrival, in most instances. A return often has the character of a flight from someone or something. XXI. The hero is pursued. (Definition: pursuit, chase. Designation: Pr.) 1. The pursuer flies after the hero (Prl). A dragon chases Ivan (95); a witch flies after a boy (60); geese fly after a girl (64). 2. He demands the guilty person (Pr'). This form is mostly linked with a chase involving actual flight through the air: the father of a dragon dispatches a flying boat. Calls for the extradition of the guilty one, "Guilty one! " are shouted from the boat (68). 3. He pursues the hero, rapidly transforming himself into various animals, etc. (Pr3). This form, at several stages, is also connected with flight: a magi_ cian pursues the hero in the forms of a wolf, a pike, a man, and a rooster (140). 4. Pursuers (dragons' wives, etc.) turn into alluring objects and place themselves in the path of the hero (Pr4). "I'll run ahead and make the day hot for him, and I shall turn myself into a green meadow. In this green meadow, I'll change into a well, and in this well there shall swim a silver goblet.... here they'll be torn asunder like a poppy seed (76). She-dragons change into gardens, pillows, wells, etc. The folktale does not inform us, however, as to how they manage to run ahead of the hero in order to set their traps. 5. The pursuer tries to devour the hero (Pr 5) . A shedragon changes into a maiden who seduces the hero, whereupon it changes into a lioness bent on devouring Ivan (92). A dragon mother opens her jaws from heaven to the earth (92). 6. The pursuer attempts to kill the hero (Pr' ). lie tries to strike him on the head with a dead tooth (118). 7. He tries to gnaw through the tree in which the hero is sleeping. (Pry). XXII. The hero is rescued from pursuit. (Definition: rescue. Designation: Rs.) 1. He is carried away through the air (sometimes he is saved by lightning fast running) (Rsl). The hero flies away on a horse (95), on geese (62). 2. The hero runs away, placing obstacles in the path of his pursuer on the way (Rsz). He throws a brush, a comb, a towel, etc. They turn into mountains, forests, lakes, etc. Similarly, Vertogor 'Mountain- Turner' and Vertodub 'Oak-Turner' tear down and break up mountains and oak trees, placing them in the path of the she-dragon (50). 3. The hero, while in flight, changes into objects rendering him unrecognizable (Rs3). A princess

turns herself, as well as the prince, into a well, a ladle, a church, and a priest (125). 4. The hero hides himself during his flight from the pursuer (Rs4). A river, an apple tree, and a stove conceal a maiden (64). 5. The hero is hidden by blacksmiths (Rss). A dragon demands the guilty person. Ivan hides himself with blacksmiths who seize the dragon by the tongue and beat it with their hammers (76). An incident in tale No. 90 undoubtedly is related to this form: devils are placed in a knapsack by a soldier, are carried to blacksmiths and beaten to death with heavy hammers. 6. The hero saves himself, while in flight, by means of rapid transformations into animals, stones, etc. (Rsb). The hero flees in the form of a horse, a ruff, a ring, a seed, a falcon, etc. (140). Transformation is essential to this form. Flight may sometimes be omitted. (Such forms may be considered as a special subclass: a maiden is killed, and a garden springs forth from her remains. When the garden is cut down, it turns to stone, etc. [70] .) 7. He avoids the temptations of transformed she-dragons (Rs 7). Ivan cuts the garden, the well, and so forth, from which blood flows forth (77). 8. He avoids being devoured (Rs8) : Ivan jumps his horse over the she-dragon's jaws, recognizes the lioness as the she-dragon, and thereupon he kills her (92). 9. He avoids an attempt on his life (Rs9). Animals extract a deadly tooth from his head in the nick of time. 10. He jumps to another tree (Rslo). A great many folktales end on the note of rescue from pursuit, The hero arrives home and subsequently marries (provided he has obtained a girl). Nevertheless, this is not generally prevalent. A tale often may have another misfortune in store for the hero: a villain may appear once again, may steal whatever Ivan has obtained, and may finally kill him. An initial villainy is, in a word, repeated either in the same form as in the beginning of a given tale or, as sometimes happens, in another, new form, corresponding to the case in point. With this a new story commences. There are no specific forms of repeated villainies (i.e., we are once again confronted with either an abduction, an enchantment, or a murder, etc.), but there are specific villains connected with the new misfortune(s), namely, Ivan's elder brothers. Shortly after his arrival home they steal his prize and often kill him. If they permit him to remain alive, it is for the sake of instigating another search, for which a special barrier must, somehow, again be placed between the hero and the object of search. This is accomplished by their throwing him into a chasm (into a pit, a subterranean kingdom, or, as sometimes is the case, into the sea), into which he may sometimes fall for three days on end. Thereupon, everything begins anew (i.e., again, an accidental meeting with a donor; a successfully completed ordeal [or; service rendered], etc.; the receipt of a magical agent, its employment, in order that the hero may return home to his own kingdom). From this moment onward, development is different from in the beginning of the tale (to which we return later). This phenomenon attests to the fact that many folktales are composed of two kinds of functions which may be labelled "moves." , A new villainous act creates a new move, and, in this manner, sometimes a whole range of folktales. Nevertheless, the process of development to be described later does constitute the continuation of a given tale, despite the fact that it also creates a new move. In connection with this, one must eventually ask how to distinguish the number of tales in

each text. VIII (bis). Ivan's brothers steal his booty from him and cast him into a chasm. Villainy has already been designated as A. If the brothers kidnap Ivan's bride, the designation for this act would be A1. If they steal a magical agent, one is confronted with an AZ incident. Theft accompanied by murder is termed Ali. Forms connected with the hero's t being thrown into a chasm shall be designated as ,A1, =:;A?, TA14, and so forth. X-XI (bis). The hero once more sets out in search of something (Gt) (cf. X-XI). This element is sometimes omitted here. Ivan wanders about and weeps, as though not thinking about returning. Element B (dispatch) is also always absent in such instances, since there is no reason for dispatching Ivan once his bride, for example, has been kidnapped from him. XII (bis). The hero once again is the subject of actions leading to the receipt of a magical agent (D) (cf. XII ). XIII (bis). The hero again reacts to the actions of the future donor (E) (cf. XIII). XIV (bis). A new magical agent is placed at the hero's disposal (F) (cf. XIV). XV (bis). The hero once again reaches by himself or is transported to the location of the object of the quest (G) (cf. XV ). In this case he reaches home. From this point onward, the development of the narrative proceeds differently, and the tale gives evidence of new functions. XXIII. The hero, unrecognized, arrives home or in another country. (Definition: unrecognized arrival. DesignaC ti on: 6A) Here, two classes are distinguishable: 1) arrival home, in which the hero stays with some sort of artisan (goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, etc.), serving as an apprentice; 2) he arrives either as a cook or a groom. At the same time it is sometimes necessary to single out and designate even a simple arrival. XXV. A difficult task is proposed to the hero. (Definition: the difficult task. Designation: M.) This is one of the folktale's favorite elements. Tasks are assigned, as well, outside the connections previously described; these connections will be dealt with somewhat later. In the meanwhile, let us rather take up the matter of the tasks per se. These tasks are so varied that each would need a special designation as a special case. There is, however, no need yet to go further into these details. Although no exact distribution will be made, I shall enumerate, here, all instances present in the material on hand, having approximately arranged them into groups: Ordeal by food and drink: to eat a certain number of oxen or wagonloads of bread; to drink a great deal of wine (77, 78, 83). Ordeal by fire: to bathe in a burning hot cast-iron tub. This form is always connected with the previous ordeal (77, 78, 83). Bathing mentioned otherwise: a bath in boiling water (103). Riddle guessing and similar ordeals: to solve an unsolvable riddle (132); to recount and interpret a dream (134); to explain the meaning of ravens' croaking at the king's window, and to drive them away (138); to find out (to guess) the distinctive marks of the king's daughter (131). Ordeal of choice: to select the sought after person among twelve identical girls (or boys) (125, 126, 240). Hide and seek: to hide and stay hidden, avoiding discovery (130). To kiss the princess in a window (105, 106). To jump up on the gates (57). Test of strength, cleverness, and fortitude: the princess perfumes Ivan at night, or rubs his hand (116, 76); to lift the heads of decapitated dragons (104); to break in a horse (116); to milk dry a herd of wild mares (103); to triumph over an amazon (118); to defeat a rival (101). Test of endurance: to spend seven years in the tin kingdom (151). As tasks of delivery and manufacture: to deliver a medicine (67); to obtain a wedding dress, a ring, and shoes (73, 79, 93, 103); to deliver the hair of the king of the sea (77, 133); to deliver a flying boat (83); to deliver

running water (83); to deliver a troop of soldiers (83); to deliver seventy-seven mares (103); to build a palace during one night (112) (and a bridge leading to it '1121]); "prinesti k moemu neznaemomu _pod paru." As tasks of manu_facture: to sew shirts (59, 150); to bake bread (150). As the third task, the king asks who dances better. Other tasks: to pick berries from a certain bush or tree (56, 57); to cross a pit on a pole (77); to have a candle light by itself (114). The method of differentiation of these tasks from other highly similar elements will be outlined in the chapter on assimilations. XXVI. A task is accomplished. (Definition: solution. Designation: N.) Forms of accomplishment correspond, of course, to the forms of tasks. Certain tasks are completed before they are set, or before the time required by the person assigning the task in question (i.e., the hero finds out the princess' distinctive marks before he is requested to guess what they are). Preliminary solutions of this type shall be designated by the sign *N. XXVII. The hero is recognized. (Definition: recognition. Designation: Q.) He is recognized by a mark, a brand (a wound, a star marking), or by a thing given to him (a ring, towel, etc.). In this case, recognition serves as a function, corresponding to branding and marking. The hero is also recognized through his accomplishment of a difficult task (in this case an unrecognized arrival of the hero almost always precedes recognition of him). Finally, the hero may be recognized immediately upon his appearance after a long period of absence. In the latter case, parents and children, brothers and sisters, may recognize one another, etc. XXVIII. The false hero or villain is exposed. (Definition: exposure. Designation: Ex.) This function is, in most cases, connected with the one preceding. Often, it is the result of an uncompleted task (the false hero is incapable of lifting the dragon's heads). More often than not, it is present in the form of a story ("Here the princess told all about how it was."). Sometimes all events are recounted from the very beginning in the form of a folktale. The villain is among the listeners, and he gives himself away by expressions of disapproval (115). Sometimes a song is sung, telling of a series of events that have occurred and, in being sung, serves to expose the villain (137). Other individual instances of exposure are also in evidence (144). XXIX. The hero is given a new appearance. (Definition: transfiguration. Designation: T.) 1. A new appearance is directly effected by means of the magical action of a helper (T1). The hero passes through the ears of a horse (or cow) and receives a new, handsome appearance. Z. The hero builds a marvelous palace (TZ). He resides in the palace himself, as the prince. A maiden suddenly awakens after spending a night there (70). Although the hero is not always transformed in these instances, he, nevertheless, does undergo a change in personal appearance. 3. The hero puts on new garments (T3). A girl dresses in a (magical) dress and hat and suddenly assumes a radiant beauty (129). 4. Rationalized and humorous forms (T4). These forms are partly explained by those preceding (as their transformations), and, in part, must be studied and explained in connection with the study of folktale anecdotes, whence they originate. Actual changes of appearance do not take place in these cases: a new appearance is achieved by means of deception. For example, a fox brings Kuzinka, who is supposed to have fallen into a ditch. The fox is given the royal garments. Kuzinka appears in the royal attire and is taken for the king's son. All similar instances may be formulated in the following manner: false evidence of wealth and beauty is accepted as true.

XXX. The villain is punished. (Definition: punishment. Designation: U.) The villain is shot, banished, tied to the tail of a horse, commits suicide, and so forth. At times, one of these incidences is accompanied by a magnanimous pardon (U neg.). Usually only the villain and the false hero of the secondary narrative are punished, while the first villain is punished only in those cases in which a battle and pursuit are absent from the story. Otherwise, he is killed in battle or perishes during the pursuit (a witch bursts in an attempt to drink up the sea, etc.). XXXI. The hero is married and ascends the throne. (Definition: wedding. Designation: W.) 1. A bride and a kingdom are awarded at once. Otherwise, he receives half a kingdom, with the stipulation that he will receive the remainder after the death of the bride's parents (W*;-,). 2. Sometimes the hero simply marries without obtaining a throne, due to the fact that his bride is not a princess 3. Sometimes, to the contrary, only accession to the throne is taken into consideration (W,,ti). =1. If a new act of villainy interrupts a tale shortly before a bethrothal, then the first stage of action ends with a promise of marriage (W1). 5. Opposite to the preceding case, a married hero loses his wife; the marriage is resumed as the result of a quest (designation for a resumed marriage: WZ). 6. The hero sometimes receives a monetary reward or some other form of compensation in place of the princess' hand (W).

Introduction to Vladimir Propp

Vladimir Propp extended the Russian Formalist


approach to narratology (the study of narrative structure). Where, in the Formalist approach, sentence structures had been broken down into analysable elements morphemes - Propp used this method by analogy to analyse folk tales. By breaking down a large number of Russian folk tales into their smallest narrative units narratemes - Propp was able to arrive at a typology of narrative structures. By analysing types of characters and kinds of action, Propp was able to arrive at the conclusion that there were thirty-one generic narratemes in the Russian folk tale. While not all are present, he found that all the tales he analysed displayed the functions in unvarying sequence. Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Russian:
; 29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1895 22 August 1970) was a Russian and Soviet

formalist scholar who analyzed the basic plot components of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible narrative elements.

Biography
Vladimir Propp was born on April 17, 1895 in St. Petersburg to a German family. He attended St. Petersburg University (19131918) majoring in Russian and German philology.[1] Upon graduation he taught Russian and German at a secondary school and then became a college teacher of German. His Morphology of the Folktale was published in Russian in 1928. Although it represented a breakthrough in both folkloristics and morphology and influenced Claude Lvi-Strauss and Roland Barthes, it was generally unnoticed in the West until it was translated in 1958. His character types are used in media education and can be applied to almost any story, be it in literature, theatre, film, television series, games, etc. In 1932, Propp became a member of Leningrad University (formerly St. Petersburg University) faculty. After 1938, he shifted the focus of his research from linguistics to folklore. He chaired the Department of Folklore until it became part of the Department of Russian Literature. Propp remained a faculty member until his death in 1970.[1]

Try applying these to Star Wars or episodes of X-Files or Star Trek - It can be interesting to see how powerful are the narrative structures of folk mythology, and how they are continually reinserted into contemporary popular culture. The functions he described were as follows: After the initial situation is depicted, the tale takes the following sequence: A member of a family leaves home (the hero is introduced); An interdiction is addressed to the hero ('don't go there', 'go to this place'); The interdiction is violated (villain enters the tale); The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance (either villain tries to find the children/jewels etc; or intended victim questions the villain); 5. The villain gains information about the victim; 6. The villain attempts to deceive the victim to take possession of victim or victim's belongings (trickery; villain disguised, tries to win confidence of victim); 7. Victim taken in by deception, unwittingly helping the enemy;
1. 2. 3. 4.

Villain causes harm/injury to family member (by abduction, theft of magical agent, spoiling crops, plunders in other forms, causes a disappearance, expels someone, casts spell on someone, substitutes child etc, comits murder, imprisons/detains someone, threatens forced marriage, provides nightly torments); Alternatively, a member of family lacks something or desires something (magical potion etc); 9. Misfortune or lack is made known, (hero is dispatched, hears call for help etc/ alternative is that victimised hero is sent away, freed from imprisonment); 10. Seeker agrees to, or decides upon counter-action; 11. Hero leaves home; 12. Hero is tested, interrogated, attacked etc, preparing the way for his/her receiving magical agent or helper (donor); 13. Hero reacts to actions of future donor (withstands/fails the test, frees captive, reconciles disputants, performs service, uses adversary's powers against them); 14. Hero acquires use of a magical agent (directly transferred, located, purchased, prepared, spontaneously appears, eaten/drunk, help offered by other characters); 15. Hero is transferred, delivered or led to whereabouts of an object of the search; 16. Hero and villain join in direct combat; 17. Hero is branded (wounded/marked, receives ring or scarf); 18. Villain is defeated (killed in combat, defeated in contest, killed while asleep, banished); 19. Initial misfortune or lack is resolved (object of search distributed, spell broken, slain person revivied, captive freed); 20. Hero returns; 21. Hero is pursued (pursuer tries to kill, eat, undermine the hero); 22. Hero is rescued from pursuit (obstacles delay pursuer, hero hides or is hidden, hero transforms unrecognisably, hero saved from attempt on his/her life); 23. Hero unrecognised, arrives home or in another country; 24. False hero presents unfounded claims; 25. Difficult task proposed to the hero (trial by ordeal, riddles, test of strength/endurance, other tasks); 26. Task is resolved; 27. Hero is recognised (by mark, brand, or thing given to him/her); 28. False hero or villain is exposed; 29. Hero is given a new appearance (is made whole, handsome, new garments etc);
8.

30. 31.

Villain is punished; Hero marries and ascends the throne (is rewarded/promoted).

What is the Hegelian Dialectic?


By Niki Raapana and Nordica Friedrich
October 2005
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Introduction: Why study Hegel? "...the State 'has the supreme right against the individual, whose supreme duty is to be a member of the State... for the right of the world spirit is above all special privileges.'" Author/historian William Shirer, quoting Georg Hegel in his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1959, page 144) In 1847 the London Communist League (Karl Marx and Frederick Engels) used Hegel's theory of the dialectic to back up their economic theory of communism. Now, in the 21st century, Hegelian-Marxist thinking affects our entire social and political structure. The Hegelian dialectic is the framework for guiding our thoughts and actions into conflicts that lead us to a predetermined solution. If we do not understand how the Hegelian dialectic shapes our perceptions of the world, then we do not know how we are helping to implement the vision. When we remain locked into dialectical thinking, we cannot see out of the box. Hegel's dialectic is the tool which manipulates us into a frenzied circular pattern of thought and action. Every time we fight for or defend against an ideology we are playing a necessary role in Marx and Engels' grand design to advance humanity into a dictatorship of the proletariat. The synthetic Hegelian solution to all these conflicts can't be introduced unless we all take a side that will advance the agenda. The Marxist's global agenda is moving along at breakneck speed. The only way to completely stop the privacy invasions, expanding domestic police powers, land grabs, insane wars against inanimate objects (and transient verbs), covert actions, and outright assaults on individual liberty, is to step outside the dialectic. This releases us from the limitations of controlled and guided thought. When we understand what motivated Hegel, we can see his influence on all of our destinies. ... Hegelian conflicts steer every political arena on the planet, from the United Nations to the major American political parties, all the way down to local school boards and community councils. Dialogues and consensusbuilding are primary tools of the dialectic, and terror and intimidation are also acceptable formats for obtaining the goal. The ultimate Third Way agenda is world government. Once we get what's really going on, we can cut the strings and move our lives in original directions outside the confines of the dialectical madness. Focusing on Hegel's and Engel's ultimate agenda, and avoiding getting caught up in their impenetrable theories of social evolution, gives us the opportunity to think and act our way toward freedom, justice, and genuine liberty for all. Today the dialectic is active in every political issue that encourages taking sides. We can see it in environmentalists instigating conflicts against private property owners, in democrats against republicans,

in greens against libertarians, in communists against socialists, in neo-cons against traditional conservatives, in community activists against individuals, in pro-choice versus pro-life, in Christians against Muslims, in isolationists versus interventionists, in peace activists against war hawks. No matter what the issue, the invisible dialectic aims to control both the conflict and the resolution of differences, and leads everyone involved into a new cycle of conflicts. We're definitely not in Kansas anymore. For a visual concept, see this simple chart [page now deleted] of the Hegelian Dialectic and Marx's Dialectical Materialism, posted by the Calverton Private School.

Definitions: Merriam-Webster: "Dialectic ....the Hegelian process of change in which a concept or its realization passes over into and is preserved and fulfilled by its opposite... development through the stages of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis in accordance with the laws of dialectical materialism ....any systematic reasoning, exposition, or argument that juxtaposes opposed or contradictory ideas and usually seeks to resolve their conflict ... ....the dialectical tension or opposition between two interacting forces or elements." "Dialectical Materialism ... 1 : the Marxist theory that maintains the material basis of a reality constantly changing in a dialectical process and the priority of matter over mind." Wikipedia: "Hegel's dialectic often appears broken up for convenience into three moments called "thesis" (in the French historical example, the revolution), "antithesis" (the terror which followed), and "synthesis" (the constitutional state of free citizens). ... Much Hegel scholarship does not recognize the usefulness of this triadic classification for shedding light on Hegel's thought. Although Hegel refers to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i.e. the subjective side of knowledge and will, with its life, movement, and activity" (thesis and antithesis) he doesn't use "synthesis" but instead speaks of the "Whole": "We then recognised the State as the moral Whole and the Reality of Freedom, and consequently as the objective unity of these two elements." ... "Hegel used this system of dialectics to explain the whole of the history of philosophy, science, art, politics and religion, but many modern critics point out that Hegel often seems to gloss over the realities of history in order to fit it into his dialectical mold.... In the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. This was due partly to the rediscovery and reevaluation of him as the philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists, partly through a resurgence of the historical perspective that Hegel brought to everything, and partly through increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method. The book that did the most to reintroduce Hegel into the Marxist canon was perhaps Georg Lukacs's History and Class Consciousness. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, Ernst Bloch.... "Beginning in the 1960's, Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has attempted to challenge the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system." See Popular Occultism

The Hegelian dialectical formula: A (thesis) versus B (anti-thesis) equals C (synthesis). For example: If (A) my idea of freedom conflicts with (B) your idea of freedom then (C) neither of us can be free until everyone agrees to be a slave. The Soviet Union was based on the Hegelian dialectic, as is all Marxist writing. The Soviets didn't give up their Hegelian reasoning when they supposedly stopped being a communist country. They merely changed the dialectical language to fit into the modern version of Marxist thinking called communitarianism. American author Steve Montgomery explores Moscow's adept use of the Hegelian dialectic in Glasnost-Perestroika: A Model Potemkin Village.

How is it possible to consider a Hegelian argument? If the ideas, interpretations of experiences, and the sources are all wrong, can a conclusion based on all these wrong premises be sound? The answer is no. Two false premises do not make a sound conclusion even if the argument follows the formula. Three, four, five, or six false premises do not all combine to make a conclusion sound. You must have at least one sound premise to reach a sound conclusion. Logical mathematical formulas are only the basis for deductive reasoning. Equally important is knowledge of semantics, or considering the meanings of the words used in the argument. Just because an argument fits the formula, it does not necessarily make the conclusion sound. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel knew this when he designed his dialectic. Hegel is an imperialist con artist who established the principles of dialectical "no-reason." Hegel's dialectic has allowed globalists to lead simple, capable, freeborn men and women back into the superstitious, racist and unreasonable age of imperial global dominance. National governments represent people who are free from imperial controls over private property, trade and production. National governments protect their workers from imperial slavery by protecting the worker's markets. But if you use Hegel's logical Marxism, the only way to protect people from slavery is to become the slave trader, just for a while. Twisted logic is why cons are so successful, and Hegel twisted it in such a way as to be "impenetrable." Like Hegel and Marx, the best street con knows his spiel has to use logic to bend and distort the story, and good cons weave their lies on logical mathematical progression. The fallacy is in the language, not in the math. Detective Phillip Worts' 2001 article Communist Oriented Policing is a nice explanation of Dialectical Materialism's influence on America.

The communitarian purpose for the Hegelian dialectic Hegel's theory is basically that mankind is merely a series of constant philosophical conflicts. Hegel was an idealist who believed that the highest state of mankind can only be attained through constant ideological conflict and resolution. The rules of the dialectic means mankind can only reach its highest spiritual consciousness through endless self-perpetuating struggle between ideals, and the eventual synthesizing of all opposites. Hegel's dialectic taught all conflict takes man to the next spiritual level. But in the final analysis, this ideology simply justifies conflict and endless war. It is also the reasoning behind using military power to export an illogical version of freedom and false democratic ideals. The reason we can call it the justification for modern conflicts and war, with impunity, is because no one can prove Hegel's theory is true. No matter how many new words they make up to define it, or how many new theories they come up with to give it validity, we can prove beyond a doubt that it is all false. And, we can show the final equation in Hegels' Dialectic is: A: The [your nation goes here] System of Political Economy (List 1841) B: state controlled world communism C: state controlled global communitarianism.

The Hegelian dialectic is the ridiculous idea that constant conflict and continual merging of opposite ideologies, as established by extreme right or left belief systems, will lead spiritual mankind into final perfection. (Americans understood man's spiritual quests to be outside the realm of government control). Hegel's brilliance rests in his ability to confuse and obfuscate the true motives of the planners, and millions of people world-wide have been trying to make sense of why it doesn't work for over 150 years. But like the AA definition of insanity, the world keeps trying it over and over expecting different results. ... When Frederick Engels and Karl Marx based their communist theory on Hegel's theory of spiritual advancement via constant resolution of differences, they based the theory of communism on an unproven theory. While Darwin's theory of evolution is still being debated, there's absolutely no proof that societies are continually evolving. When Engels and Marx later based their communist theory on Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of anthropology in 1877, they again based the theory of communism on an unprovable theory. And when Amitai Etzioni used Hegelian reasoning to base the Communitarian Network on a "balance" between (A) Rights and (B) Responsibilities, he built the entire theory of (C) communitarianism on nothing but disproven and unprovable unscientific theories.... Already gaining substantial ground against the Americans, British Marxism was bolstered when Charles Darwin published his theory of human evolution in 1859. Engels, according to modern day scholars, seized upon Darwin's theory to substantiate communism: "When Marx read The Origin of Species he wrote to Engels that, 'although it is developed in the crude English style, this is the book which contains the basis in natural history for our view.' They turned against what they saw as the social, as opposed to the biological, implications of Darwinism when they realised that it contained no support for their shibboleth of class oppression. Since they were slippery customers rather than scientists, they were not likely to relinquish their views just because something did not fit." (see: Marxism and Darwinism by Anton Pannekoek, 1912.) In 1877 Lewis Henry Morgan published Ancient Society, or Researches in Life, Lines of Human Progress from Savagery, through Barbarism, to Civilization. Then the "slippery" Engels seized upon Morgan's work as the constantly "evolving" basis for the totally unsubstantiated theory of natural social evolution into utopian world communism.... Hegel's formula has been so successful that in 2003 all U.S. domestic and foreign policy is dominated by "communitarian thinking," the whole country is living under the new laws, and yet Americans most affected by "impenetrable" Hegelian laws have never once heard the term used.

Conclusion: The Hegelian dialectic presupposes the factual basis for the theory of social evolutionary principles, which coincidentally backed up Marx. Marx's Darwinian theory of the "social evolution of the species," (even though it has been used for a century to create a vast new scientific community, including eugenics and socio-economics), does not adhere to the basis for all good scientific research, and appears to exist mainly to advance itself, and all its sub-socio-scientific arms, as the more moral human science. To the ACL this means the entire basis for the communitarian solution is based on a false premise, because there is no FACTUAL basis that "social evolution of the species" exists, based as it is only on Darwinian and Marxist ideology of man's "natural" evolution towards a British version of utopia. The London-Marxist platform in 1847 was "to abolish private property." The American Revolution was based in private property rights. Marxist societies confiscate wealth and promise to "re-distribute it

equally." America promised everyone they could keep and control what was the product of their own labor. Modern Marxist adherents openly claim they will "rebuild the world," and they train activist "change agents" to openly support overthrowing the legitimate governments of the world. Since their inception, Marxist agent provocateurs can be linked to every anarchist assassination and student uprising that caused chaos to the established European civilization throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Modern Americans have succumbed to the conspiracy theory label and will only listen to what the propaganda machines tell them. Now our people don't believe anyone other than maybe the Arab world "hates our freedom." Most modern Americans will never know what went wrong with their "great experiment in democracy." While the Marxist-communitarian argument has not provided a shred of evidence to prove their utopian vision, and their synthesis does not match their own projected conclusions of world justice, we are convinced their argument does in fact substantiate our conclusion, that the entire philosophical dialectical argument is nothing but a brilliant ruse. We used to call it "a cheap parlor trick" until a responder to this page wondered how we could call it "cheap" when it's been so successful. And he was right. The dialectical arguments for human rights, social equity, and world peace and justice are a perfectly designed diversion in the defeated British Empire's Hegelian-Fabian-Metaphysical-Theosophical Monopoly game. It's the most successful con job in the history of the modern world. (For a well presented Christian overview of the con, see American Babylon: Part Five-the Triumph of the Merchants by Peter Goodgame.) The communitarian synthesis is the final silent move in a well-designed, quietly implemented plot to remake the world into colonies. To us it doesn't matter if there is some form of ancient religion that propels the plotters, nor does it really matter if it turns out they're aliens (as some suggest). The bottom line is the Hegelian dialectic sets up the scene for state intervention, confiscation, and redistribution in the U.S., and this is against our ENTIRE constitutional based society. The Hegelian dialectic is not a conspiracy theory because the Conspiracy Theory is a fraud. We've all been duped by global elitists who plan to take totalitarian control of all nation's people, property, and produce. Communitarian Plans exist in every corner of the world, and nobody at the local level will explain why there's no national legal avenue to withdraw from the U.N.'s "community" development plans.

Hegel's Dialectic
One of the earliest forms of employing the dialectical method was the Dialogues of Greek philosopher Plato. in which the author sought to study truth through discussion in the form of questions and answers. The Greek philosopher, Aristotle, thought of dialectic as the search for the philosophic basis of science, and he frequently used the term as a synonym for the science of logic. Hegel's aim was to set forth a philosophical system so comprehensive that it would encompass the ideas of his predecessors and create a conceptual framework in terms of which both the past and future could be philosophically understood. Such an aim would require nothing short of a full account of reality itself. Thus, Hegel conceived the subject matter of philosophy to be reality as a whole. This reality, or the total developmental process of everything that is, he referred to as the Absolute, or Absolute Spirit. According to Hegel, the task of philosophy is to chart the development of Absolute Spirit. This involves (1) making clear the internal rational structure of the Absolute; (2) demonstrating the manner in which the Absolute manifests itself in nature and human history; and (3) explicating the teleological nature of the Absolute, that is, showing the end or purpose toward which the Absolute is directed.

Hegel, following the ancient Greek philosopher Parmenides, argued that "what is rational is real and what is real is rational." This must be understood in terms of Hegel's further claim that the Absolute must ultimately be regarded as pure Thought, or Spirit, or Mind, in the process of selfdevelopment Traditionally, this dimension of Hegel's thought has been analyzed in terms of the categories of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. Although Hegel tended to avoid these terms, they are helpful in understanding his concept of the dialectic. The thesis, then, might be an idea or a historical movement. Such an idea or movement contains within itself incompleteness that gives rise to opposition, or an antithesis, a conflicting idea or movement. As a result of the conflict a third point of view arises, a synthesis, which overcomes the conflict by reconciling at a higher level the truth contained in both the thesis and antithesis. This synthesis becomes a new thesis that generates another antithesis, giving rise to a new synthesis, and in such a fashion the process of intellectual or historical development is continually generated (reference- Encarta Encyclopedia) Hegel believed that the evolution of ideas occurs through a dialectical process-that is, a concept gives rise to its opposite, and as a result of this conflict, a new and third view, the synthesis, arises. This synthesis is at a higher level of truth than the first two views. Hegel's work is based on the idealistic concept of a universal mind that, through evolution, seeks to arrive at the highest level of self-awareness and freedom. At Nuremberg Hegel worked on his 'Science of Logic', which was published between 1812 and 1816. The success of this work brought him three offers of professorships. He taught at Heidelberg for a time and then in 1818 went to the University of Berlin (reference- Comptons Encyclopedia)

Hallidays metafunction

The theory of metafunctions plays a very important role in Hallidayan systemic functional linguistics.It includes three kinds of meanings: ideational,interpersonal,and textural.According to Halliday,all the specific functions can be assigned to one or other of the three functions,hence these broad functions are referred as metafunctions.There are different kinds of classifications of language functions.Still we think that the three metafunctions of Halliday are the most influential.Then what are the differences between Halliday and other scholars on the study of language functions? Why does Halliday study language functions from these three points of view? What are the theoretical bases for these? This article will explore these questions.The theory of metafunctions is closed related with the other key concepts in systemic functional linguistics,such as the theory of system,the theory of register and context,the theory of stratum.And it is in compliance with his opinion of language,that is,language as social semiotic.From the analysis of the above questions,we draw the following conclusions: The three aspects of metafunctions are the abstract generalizations of language functions and this classification constitutes the framework of systemic functional linguistics.If we break this

classification,we will break the whole picture of systemic functional grammar and the whole theory of systemic functional linguistics will not be as intact as it is now.