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1.

In 1928, 1.0 g of a new element was isolated from 660 kg of the ore molybdenite. The percent by mass of this element in the ore was: a) d) 1.5% 1.5 x 10-4% b) e) 6.6% 3.5 x 10-3% c) 1.0%

2.

A set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon is called a(n) a) c) e) observation. theory. experiment. b) d) measurement. natural law.

3.

Express 784000000 in scientific notation. a) c) e) 7.84 x10 6 78.4 x 101 784 x 10 7 b) d) 7.84 x 108 784 x 10 6

4.

A piece of indium with a mass of 16.6 g is submerged in 46.3 cm3 of water in a graduated cylinder. The water level increases to 48.6 cm3. The correct value for the density of indium from these data is: a) b) c) d) e) 7.217 g/cm3 7.2 g/cm3 0.14 g/cm3 0.138 g/cm3 more than 0.1 g/cm3 away from any of these values.

5.

Using the rules of significant figures, calculate the following: 6.167 + 83 5.10 a) d) 17.5 20 b) e) 18 17.48 c) 17

6.

The state of matter for an object that has a definite volume but not a definite shape is a) c) e) solid state. gaseous state. mixed state. b) d) liquid state. elemental state.

7.

In a recent accident some drums of uranium hexafluoride were lost in the English Channel. The melting point of uranium hexafluoride is 64.5C. What is the melting point of uranium hexafluoride on the Fahrenheit scale? a) d) 1.35F 122F b) e) 82.3F 148F c) 116F

8.

An example of a pure substance is a) c) e) elements. pure water. all of these b) compounds. d) carbon dioxide.

9.

In a face-centered cubic crystal, for the element gold, how many gold atoms are present in a unit cell? a) 2 d) 14 b) e) 3 4 c) 1

10.

Which one of the following statements about atomic structure is false? a) b) c) d) The electrons occupy a very large volume compared to the nucleus. Almost all of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus. The protons and neutrons in the nucleus are very tightly packed. The number of protons and neutrons is always the same in the neutral atom.

11.

Which of the following is (are) correct? 1. sulfide: S23. acetic acid: HC2H3O2 a) d) all 3, 4 b) e) none 1, 3, 4 2. 4. ammonium chloride: NH 4Cl barium oxide: BaO c) 1, 2 127 I are: 53

12.

The numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a) c) e) 52 p, 128 n, 53 e 53 p, 127 n, 52 e 53 p, 74 n, 52 e b) d)

53 p, 127 n, 54 e 53 p, 74 n, 54 e

13.

All of the following are true except : a) b) c) d) e) Ions are formed by adding electrons to a neutral atom. Ions are formed by changing the number of protons in an atoms nucleus. Ions are formed by removing electrons from a neutral atom. An ion has a positive or negative charge. Metals tend to form positive ions.

14.

How many oxygen atoms are there in one formula unit of Ca 3(PO4)2? a) d) 2 8 b) e) 4 none of these c) 6

15.

The formula of water, H 2O, suggests a) b) c) d) e) there is twice as much mass of hydrogen as oxygen in each molecule. there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom per water molecule. there is twice as much mass of oxygen as hydrogen in each molecule. there are two oxygen atoms and one hydrogen atom per water molecule. none of these

16.

Gallium consists of two isotopes of masses 68.95 amu and 70.95 amu with abundances of 60.16% and 39.84%, respectively. What is the average atomic mass of gallium? a) d) 69.95 69.75 b) e) 70.15 69.55 c) 71.95

17.

A sample of copper weighing 6.93 g contains how many moles of copper atoms? a) c) e) 9.17 moles 0.109 moles 1.09 moles b) d) 0.917 moles 0.0645 moles

18.

A sample of ammonia has a mass of 56.6 g. How many molecules are in this sample? a) c) e) 3.32 molecules 6.78 x 1023 molecules 1.78 x 1024 molecules b) d) 17.03 x 10 24 molecules 2.00 x 1024 molecules

19.

In balancing an equation, we change the __________ to make the number of atoms on each side of the equation balance. a) b) c) d) e) formulas of compounds in the reactants coefficients of compounds formulas of compounds in the products subscripts of compounds none of these

20.

What is the coefficient for water when the following equation is balanced? __ As(OH)3(s) + __ H2SO4(aq) a) d) 1 6 b) e) 2 12 __ As2(SO4)3(aq) + __ H2O(1) c) 4

21.

Arrange the following three liquids, X, Y, and Z, with vapor pressures at room temperature of 90, 710, and 180 torr respectively, in the order of increasing boiling points. a) c) e) Y<Z<X Y <X<Z Z<Y<X b) d) X<Z<Y Z<X<Y

22.

An oxide of iron has the formula Fe 3O4. What mass percent of iron does it contain? a) d) 0.72% 70.% b) e) 28% 72% c) 30.%

23.

Phenol is a compound that contains 76.57% carbon, 6.43% hydrogen, and 17.0% oxygen. The empirical formula of phenol is a) d) CHO C2HO b) e) CH2O C6H6O c) C3H3O

24.

Give (in order) the correct coefficients to balance the following reaction: __ H2SnCl6 + __ H2S a) d) 1, 2, 1, 6 6, 2, 1, 1 b) e) __ SnS2 + __ HCl 1, 2, 2, 2 2, 4, 2, 6 c) 1, 1, 1, 6

25.

A 6.32-g sample of potassium chlorate was decomposed according to the following equation: 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 How many moles of oxygen are formed? a) d) 1.65 g 0.0774 moles b) e) 0.051 moles none of these c) 0.0344 moles

26.

The reaction of 11.9 g of CHCl3 with excess chlorine produced 12.6 g of CCl4, carbon tetrachloride: 2CHCl3 + 2Cl2 2CCl4 + 2HCl. What is the percent yield? a) d) 100% 113% b) e) 27.4% 46.2% c) 82.2%

27.

How many grams of NaCl are contained in 350. mL of a 0.250 M solution of sodium chloride? a) d) 41.7 g 87.5 g b) e) 5.11 g none of these c) 14.6 g

28.

What volume of 12.0 M nitric acid is required to prepare 6.00 L of 0.100 M nitric acid? a) d) 1.20 L 0.0500 L e) b) 1.00 L 0.0200 L c) 0.500 L

29.

If all of the chloride in a 5.000-g sample of an unknown metal chloride is precipitated as AgCl with 70.90 mL of 0.2010 M AgNO 3, what is the percentage of chloride in the sample? a) c) e) 50.55% 1.425% none of the above b) d) 10.10% 20.22%

30.

You have separate solutions of HCl and H2SO4 with the same concentrations in terms of molarity. You wish to neutralize a solution of NaOH. Which acid solution would require more volume (in mL) to neutralize the base? a) b) c) d) e) the HCl solution the H2SO4 solution You need to know the acid concentrations to answer this question. You need to know the volume and concentration of the NaOH solution answer this question. c and d

31.

In which of the following does nitrogen have an oxidation state of +4? a) d) HNO3 NH4Cl b) NO2 NaNO2 c) N2O

e)

32.

What type of force or forces are know to exist between water molcules? a) b) c) d) e) hydrogen bonds, London forces, and dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole forces dipole-dipole forces London forces

33.

Daltons Law states: P T = P 1 + P 2 + . . . + P n Which of the following statements is consistent with Daltons Law? nT = ni (i = 1 to ) a) d) P T = V/nTRT P T = nTRT/V b) e) P T = nnRT/V P T = (n1 + n2)RT/V 2NH3(g), N2 is b) reduced. d) the reducing agent. c) P T = n1RTV

34.

In the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) a) c) e) oxidized. the electron donor. two of these

35.

Given the following reaction in acidic media: Fe2+ + Cr2O72 Fe3+ + Cr3+

the coefficient for water in the balanced reaction is a) d) 36. 1. 7. b) e) 3. none of these c) 5.

A gas sample is held at constant pressure. The gas occupies 3.62 L of volume when the temperature is 21.6C. Determine the temperature at which the volume of the gas is 3.45 L. a) d) 309 K 294 K b) e) 281 K 326 K c) 20.6 K

37.

Calculate the density of nitrogen at STP. a) d) 0.312 g/l 1.25 g/L b) e) 0.625 g/L 1.60 g/L c) 0.800 g/L

38.

Use the ideal gas law to predict the relationship between n and T if pressure and volume are held constant. a) b) c) d) e) n T n 1/T n /T = constant PT = nRV PV /T = R

39.

A 4.40-g piece of solid CO2 (dry ice) is allowed to sublime in a balloon. The final volume of the balloon is 1.00 L at 300 K. What is the pressure of the gas? a) d) 2.46 atm 122 atme) b) 246 atm none of these c) 0.122 atm

40.

Use the kinetic molecular theory of gases to predict what would happen to a closed sample of a gas whose temperature increased while its volume decreased. a) b) c) d) e) Its pressure would decrease. Its pressure would increase. Its pressure would hold constant. The number of moles of the gas would decrease. The average kinetic energy of the molecules of the gas would decrease.

41.

A gaseous mixture containing 1.5 mol Ar and 3.5 mol CO 2 has a total pressure of 7.0 atm. What is the partial pressure of CO 2? a) d) 1.8 atm 4.9 atm b) e) 2.1 atm c) 2.4 atm 3.5 atm

42.

When a nonvolatile solute is added to a volatile solvent, the solution vapor pressure __________, the boiling point __________, the freezing point __________, and the osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane __________. a) b) c) d) e) decreases, increases, decreases, decreases increases, increases, decreases, increases increases, decreases, increases, decreases decreases, decreases, increases, decreases decreases, increases, decreases, increases

43.

Which of the following chemical or physical changes is an endothermic process? a) b) c) d) e) the evaporation of water the combustion of gasoline the mixing of sulfuric acid and water the freezing of water none of these

44.

Which of the following are state functions? I. energy III. enthalpy a) d) I, II I, II, III II. heat b) e) work

IV.

I, III All are state functions.

c)

II, III

45.

Two metals of equal mass with different heat capacities are subjected to the same amount of heat. Which undergoes the smallest change in temperature? a) b) c) d) The metal with the higher heat capacity. The metal with the lower heat capacity. Both undergo the same change in temperature. You need to know the initial temperatures of the metals.

46. Consider the reaction H2(g) + 1/2 02(g) H2O(l) H = 286 kJ

Which of the following is true? a) b) c) d) e) 47. The reaction is exothermic. The reaction is endothermic. The enthalpy of the products is less than that of the reactants. Heat is absorbed by the system. Both a and c are true.

What is the heat capacity of mercury if it requires 167 J to change the temperature of 15.0 g mercury from 25.0C to 33.0C? a) c) e) 6.92 x 10-3 J/gC 0.445 J/gC 313 J/gC b) 1.12 x 10-2 J/gC d) 1.39 J/gC

48.

A certain substance, X, has a triple-point temperature of 20C at a pressure of 2.0 atm. Which one of the statements a through d cannot possibly be true? a) b) c) d) e) X can exist as a liquid above 20C. X can exist as a solid above 20C. Liquid X can exist as a stable phase at 25C, 1 atm. Both liquid and solid X have the same vapor pressure at 20C. All of the statements a through d could be true.

49.

The heat of formation of Fe 2O3(s) is 826 kJ/mol. Calculate the heat of the reaction when a 55.8g sample of iron is reacted. 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) a) d) 206 kJ 1650 kJ 2Fe2O3(s) b) 413 kJ 3.30 x 103 kJ c) 826 kJ

e)

50.

Calculate H for the reaction C4H4(g) + 2H2(g) C4H8(g), using the following data: H combustion for C4H4(g) = 2341 kJ/mol H combustion for H2(g) = 286 kJ/mol H combustion for C4H8(g) = 2755 kJ/mol a) d) 128 kJ 158 kJ b) e) 158 kJ none of these c) 128 kJ

51.

Which one of the following types of radiation has the shortest wavelength, the greatest energy, and the highest frequency? a) ultraviolet radiation b) infrared radiation c) visible red light d) visible blue light e) none, because short wavelength is associated with low energy and low frequency, not high energy and high frequency

52.

Which of the following frequencies corresponds to light with the longest wavelength? a) c) e) 3.00 x 1013 s1 8.50 x 1020 s1 3.20 x 109 s1 b) d) 4.12 x 105 s1 9.12 x 1012 s1

53.

Green light has a wavelength of 5.50 x 102 nm. The energy of a photon of green light is a) c) e) 3.64 x 10-38 J 3.61 x 10-19 J 5.45 x 1012 J b) d) 2.17 x 105 J 1.09 x 10-27 J

54.

A 2.300 molal solution of KCl is prepared. How many grams of KCl are present in a sample containing 5.000 kg of water? a) d) 546.7 g 74.5 g b) e) 856.8g 224.6 g c) 113.7 g

55.

Which of the following combinations of quantum numbers do not represent permissible solutions of the Schroedinger equation for the electron in the hydrogen atom (i.e., which combination of quantum numbers is not allowed)? n l m 9 8 4 8 2 2 6 5 1 6 5 5 All are allowed. s (or m5) 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2

a) b) c) d) e)

56.

What is the electron configuration of calcium? a) b) c) d) e) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 1s2 2s2 2p6 2d 10 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 2 1s2 2s3 2p6 3s3 3p3 4s2 1s2 2s3 2p5 3s4 3p5 4s1

57.

All halogens have the following number of valence electrons: a) d) 2 7 b) e) 3 none of these c) 5

58.

Fe has __________ that is (are) unpaired in its d orbitals. a) c) e) 1 electron 3 electrons none of these b) d) 2 electrons 4 electrons

59.

Which of the following exhibits the correct orders for both increasing atomic radius and ionization energy, respectively? a) c) e) S, O, F, and F, O, S S, F, O, and S, F, O none of these b) d) F, S, O, and O, S, F F, O, S, and S, O, F

60.

Researchers in Germany recently formed a new synthetic element with atomic number 109. Which of the following elements would have chemical properties most similar to this new element? a) d) W Lr b) e) Rn U c) Ir

61.

Atoms having greatly differing electronegativities are expected to form: a) c) e) no bonds nonpolar covalent bonds covalent bonds b) d) polar covalent bonds ionic bonds

62.

Which of the following bonds is least polar? a) d) CO BrBr b) e) HC They are all nonpolar. c) SCl

63.

2.5 L of an aqueous solution containing 50.00 g of MgCl2 dissolved in pure water is prepared. The molarity of the solution is: a) d) 0.21 M 0.82 M b) e) 0.59 M 1.1 M c) 0.47 M

64.

Which of the following molecules has a dipole moment? a) d) CH4 SO3 b) e) CCl4 none of these c) CO2

65.

Consider the following: I. Al, Si, P, S III. I, Br, Cl, F

II. IV.

Be, Mg, Ca, Sr Na+, Mg2+, Al3+ , Si4+

Which of these is an isoelectronic series? a) d) 66. IV I b) e) III none of them c) II

Which of the following has the smallest ionic radius? a) Ca2+ b) Cl d) O2 e) Be2+

c)

Li+

67. a) d)

Which of the following molecules contains a double bond? CO2 all b) e) NH3 none c) H2O

68.

Which of the following compounds contains only one unshared pair of valence electrons? a) d) NH3 NaCl b) e) H2O BeF3 c) CH4

69.

Which of the following species has a trigonal bipyramidal structure? a) d) NH3 PCl5 b) e) IF5 none of these c) I3

70.

The process of evaporation happens when which of the following occurs? a) c) e) A solid becomes a liquid. A liquid becomes a gas. A solid becomes a gas. b) d) A liquid becomes a solid. A gas becomes a liquid.

71.

Which of the following sets has elements with the most nearly identical atomic radii? a) c) e) Cr, Mn, Fe, Co Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe C, P, Se, I b) d) Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba Be, B, C, N

72.

The hybridization of the central atom, sulfur, in SF4 is: a) d) sp sp3d b) e) sp2 sp3d2 c) sp3

73.

The fact that O2 is paramagnetic can be explained by a) b) c) d) e) the Lewis structure of O2. resonance. a violation of the octet rule. the molecular orbital diagram for O 2. hybridization of atomic orbitals in O 2. O22

74.

Which of the following has the largest bond energy? a) O2 b) O2 d) O2+ e) O22+ Order the following from shortest to longest bond: C2, B2, H2 , N2 a) c) e) H2, N2, C2, B2 C2, N2, H2, B2 none of these b) d) N2, C2, B2 , H2 C2, B2, H2 , N2

c)

75.

76.

Which of the following is a correct listing in terms of increasing boiling point? a) CH4 < NH3 < H2O < HF b) CH4 < NH3 < HF < H2O c) CH4 < HF < NH3 < H2O d) HF < H2O < NH3 < CH4 e) CH4 < HF < H2O < NH3

77.

The boiling points of the halogens increase from F2 to I2. What type of intermolecular forces are responsible for this trend? a) c) e) permanent dipole ion-ion attraction ion-dipole attraction b) d) hydrogen bonding London dispersion forces

78.

Which of the species below would you expect to show the least hydrogen bonding? a) NH3 b) H2O c) HF d) CH4 e) all the same On the basis of your knowledge of bonding in liquids and solids, arrange the following substances in order of highest to lowest melting temperature: NaCl, Na, Cl2 , SiO2 a) c) e) Cl2, Na, NaCl, SiO2 SiO2 , NaCl, Na, Cl2 SiO2 , Na, NaCl, Cl2 b) d) Na, NaCl, Cl2, SiO2 NaCl, SiO2, Na, Cl2

79.

80.

A certain solid substance that is very hard, has a high melting point, and is nonconducting unless melted is most likely to be: a) I2 b) NaCl c) CO2 d) H2O e) Cu Which of the statements a through d is incorrect? a) b) c) d) e) Molecular solids have high melting points. The binding forces in a molecular solid include London dispersion forces. Ionic solids have high melting points. Ionic solids are insulators. All of the statements a through d are correct.

81.

82.

Which of the following statements about phase changes are true? I. II. III. IV. No temperature change is observed during a phase change. Vaporization is an exothermic process. When a phase change occurs, no energy is transferred to or from the substance. When cooling a given amount of a substance, the rate at which cooling occurs is a function of the mass of the substance and its specific heat. V. The heat of fusion for ice would determine how much energy would be required to change the temperature of a 10-g block of ice from 20C to 2C. I and III II, III, and IV b) I and IV e) IV only c) II and III

a) d) 83.

How much energy is needed to convert 64.0 grams of ice at 0.00C to water at 75.0C? specific heat (ice) = 2.10 J/(gC) specific heat (water) = 4.18 J/g(gC) heat of fusion = 333 J/g heat of vaporization = 2258 J/g a) d) 10.1 kJ 41.4 kJ b) e) 20.7 kJ 65.8 kJ c) 31.4 kJ

Answers for Chem 151 Practice Final 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. b 5. c 6. b 7. e 8. e 9. e 10. d 11. a 12. d 13. b 14. d 15. b 16. d 17. c 18. d 19. b 20. d 21. a 22. e 23. e 24. a 25. d 26. c 27. b 28. d 29. b 30. a 31. b 32. a 33. d 34. b 35. d 36. b 37. d 38. b 39. a 40. b 41. d 42. e 43. a 44. b 45. a 46. a 47. d 48. c 49. b 50. b 51. a 52. b 53. c 54. b 55. c 56. a 57. d 58. d 59. d 60. c 61. d 62. d 63. a 64. e 65. a 66. e 67. a 68. a 69. d 70. c 71. a 72. d 73. d 74. e 75. b 76. b 77. d 78. d 79. c 80. b 81. a 82. b 83. d