You are on page 1of 11

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks !

All source media is first broken down into a stream of fixed sized units known as cells. ! Cell streams relating to different media types are multiplexed together on a statistical basis for transmission and switching. ! The resulting networks are known as Cell-Based Networks or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networks. ! Transfer Mode: - Packet oriented transfer mode using ATDM - No link-by-link error control - No link-by-link flow control - End-to-End error control if needed - Use of internal virtual circuits - Switching based on table look-up - Fixed size blocks (cells)

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-1

ATM Protocol Architecture

! ATM Layer: - Common to all services and provides cell transfer capabilities. - Provides logical connections upon the physical layer: ! Virtual Channels ! Virtual Paths ! ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL): - Provides a range of alternative service types known as service classes. - Converts the source information into streams of 48-octet segments.

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-2

ATM Connection Relationships

! Logical connections in ATM are referrred to as Virtual Channel Connections (VCCs). ! VCCs are a concatenation of Virtual Channels (VCs). ! A Virtual Path is a group of VCs going the same way.

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-3

ATM Logical Connections ! Logical connections in ATM are referrred to as Virtual Channel Connections (VCCs). ! VCCs are used for: - user-to-user exchange of variable rate, full duplex, fixed-size cells carrying user data. - user-to-network exchange of control signaling information. - network-to-network exchange of management and routing information. ! A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) is a bundle of VCCs that have the same endpoints. ! All the cells flowing over all VCCs in a single VPC are switched together. ! To set up a VCC, there must first be a VPC to the required destination node with sufficient available capacity to support the VCC with the appropriate QOS. ! The virtual path control mechanisms include: - calculating routes - allocating capacity - storing connection state information

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-4

Representation of VP and VC Switching Hierarchy

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-5

ATM Cell Format ! Cell Structure: Header (5 Octets) Information Field (48 Octets)

! User-Network Interface (UNI) Header Format: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Generic Flow Control Virtual Path Identifier VPI cont. Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type CLP Header Error Control (HEC) Notes: GFC - Enables a local switch to regulate (flow control) the entry of cells by a user into the network. CLP - Cell Loss Priority - provides guidance to the network in the event of congestion: - 0 indicates cell of relatively high priority. - 1 indicates cell is subject to discard. PT: 000 - user data, no congestion, SDU type 0 001 - user data, no congestion, SDU type 1 010 - user data, congestion, SDU type 0 011 - user data, congestion, SDU type 1 100 - OAM segment associated cell 101 - OAM end-to-end associated cell 110 - Resource management cell 111 - Reserved for future function

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-6

ATM Cell Format cont. ! Network-Network Interface (NNI) Header Format: 8 7 6 5 4 3 Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type Header Error Control (HEC) 2 1

CLP

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-7

ATM Service Categories ! Real-Time Service: - Constant Bit Rate (CBR) - Real-Time Variable Bit Rate (rt-VBR) ! Non-Real-Time Service: - Non-Real-Time Variable Bit Rate (nrt-VBR) - Available Bit Rate (ABR) Application specifies a peak cell rate (PCR) that it will use and a minimum cell rate (MCR) that it requires. - Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) This is a best-efforts service using capacity not allocated to any other service.

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-8

AAL Sublayers ! Convergence Sublayer (CS): Performs a convergence function between the service offered at the layer interface and that provided by the underlying ATM layer. ! Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) Sublayer: Provides cell segmentation and reassembly functions.

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-9

AAL 5 ! Known as the Simple and Efficient Adaptation Layer (SEAL). ! AAL 5 is also used as the AAL in the C plane (Signaling AAL). ! CS PDU and SAR PDU Formats:

CS & SAR PDU Formats for AAL 5

Notes: - There is no header in the CS PDU. - The CS PDU is padded to an integral multiple of 48 octets. - The UU fields enables the two correspondent user layers to relate the AAL SDU to a particular SAP. - The use of the CPI field is yet to be defined. - The Length field indicates the number of octets in the data field. - There is no header or trailer in the SAR PDU. - The SAR protocol is said to be null. - Segments relating to the same CS PDU are identified using the field in the header of the ATM cell that is used to transport the segment. - The SDU Type Bit in user data cells, is used to indicate BOM, COM (type 0) or EOM (type 1)

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-10

Example of AAL 5 Transmission

Copyright December 21, 2004 by Chaim Ziegler, Ph.D.

ATM-11