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# Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7.

## Structural Vibration and Dynamics

1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 167
III. Damping
Two commonly used models for viscous damping.
A. Proportional Damping (Rayleigh Damping)
K M C +
(17)
where the constants & are found from
,
2 2
,
2 2
2
2
2
1
1
1

+ +
with
2 1 2 1
& , ,
(damping ratio) being selected.
B. Modal Damping
Incorporate the viscous damping in modal equations.
D
a
m
p
i
n
g

r
a
t
i
o
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics
1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 168
IV. Modal Equations
Use the normal modes (modal matrix) to transform the
coupled system of dynamic equations to uncoupled
system of equations.
We have
[ ] n 1,2,..., ,
2
i
i i
0 u M K
(18)
where the normal mode i u satisfies:

'

, 0
, 0
j
T
i
j
T
i
u M u
u K u
for i j,
and

'

,
, 1
2
i i
T
i
i
T
i
u K u
u M u
for i = 1, 2, , n.
Form the modal matrix:

[ ]
n n n
u u u
2 1 ) (
L

(19)
Can verify that
.
, matrix) Spectral (
0 0
0
0
0 0

2
n
2
2
2
1
I M
K

1
1
1
1
]
1

T
T

L
O M
M
L
(20)
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics
1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 169
Transformation for the displacement vector,
z u u u u + + +
n n
z z z L
2 2 1 1 , (21)
where

'

) (
) (
) (
2
1
t z
t z
t z
n
M
z
are called principal coordinates.
Substitute (21) into the dynamic equation:
Pre-multiply by
T
, and apply (20):
), ( t p z z C z + + & & &

(22)
where
+

I C
(proportional damping),

) ( t
T
f p
.
Using Modal Damping
1
1
1
1
]
1

n n

2 0
2 0
0 0 2
2 2
1 1
L
M O M
L
C
. (23)
). ( t f z K z C z M + + & & &
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics
1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 170
Equation (22) becomes,
), ( 2
2
t p z z z
i i i i i i i
+ + & & &
i = 1,2,,n. (24)
Equations in (22) or (24) are called modal equations.
These are uncoupled, second-order differential equations,
which are much easier to solve than the original dynamic
equation (coupled system).
To recover u from z, apply transformation (21) again, once
z is obtained from (24).
Notes:
Only the first few modes may be needed in constructing
the modal matrix (i.e., could be an nm rectangular
matrix with m<n). Thus, significant reduction in the
size of the system can be achieved.
Modal equations are best suited for problems in which
higher modes are not important (i.e., structural
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics
1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 171
V. Frequency Response Analysis
(Harmonic Response Analysis)
3 2 1
& & &
sin t F Ku u C u M + +
(25)
Modal method: Apply the modal equations,

, sin 2
2
t p z z z
i i i i i i i
+ + & & &
i=1,2,,m. (26)
These are 1-D equations. Solutions are

), sin(
) 2 ( ) 1 (
) (
2 2 2
2
i
i i i
i i
i
t
p
t z

(27)
where

'

ratio damping ,
2
,
angle phase ,
1
2
arctan
i
2
i
i
c
i
i
i
i
i i
i
m
c
c
c

## Recover u from (21).

Direct Method: Solve Eq. (25) directly, that is, calculate
the inverse. With
t i
e

u u
(complex notation), Eq. (25)
becomes
[ ] .
2
F u M C K + i
This equation is expensive to solve and matrix is ill-
conditioned if is close to any
i
.
z
i
/
i