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Inisiatif Pengurusan Pengetahuan Dalam Agensi Sektor Awam

SEMINAR PERSONEL ICT SARAWAK 2011 19 Julai 2011 (Selasa) Auditorium Tingkat 17, Bangunan Sultan Iskandar, Kuching Dr Mohamad Zainuddi bin Mat Taib Perunding ICT (Pengurusan Maklumat)

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Skop Perbincangan
1. Knowledge Concepts 2. Knowledge Management (KM) 3. KM in Business Environment 4. Public Sector KM Blueprint 5. Conclusion

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1. Knowledge Concepts

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What is Knowledge?
Knowledge is a set of organized statements of facts or ideas, presenting a reasoned judgement or an experimental result, which is transmitted to others through some communication medium in some systematic form.
Daniel Bell. The Coming of Post industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Knowledge is information that changes something or somebody either by becoming grounds for actions, or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of different or more effective action."

Peter F. Drucker in The New Realities

Knowledge is information in action.

(O Dell and Grayson 1998)

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Classic Data to Knowledge Hierarchy Wisdom (Intelligence) Knowledge

(This is a useful collection of appropriate information)

intelligence as the ability to understand and to apply knowledge

Information (data endowed with

relevance and purpose)


(raw symbols that just exist)

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Types of Knowledge
Tacit knowledge: ...highly personal. It is hard to formalize and therefore difficult to communicate to others ...tacit knowledge is deeply rooted in action and in an individual's commitment to a specific context ...tacit knowledge consists partly of technical skills [and partly] of mental models, beliefs and perspectives so ingrained that we take them for granted and cannot easily articulate them. Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is easily expressed, captured, stored and reused. It can be transmitted as data and is found in databases, books, manuals and messages. (Nonaka, 1998) knowledge that can be codified and therefore more easily communicated and shared. explicit knowledge as structured and conscious and therefore it can be stored in information technology (Martensson), For Nonaka tacit and explicit knowledge are not separate but mutually complementary entities. They interact with each other in the creative activities of human being

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2. Knowledge Management

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Knowledge Management
Managing the leadership, organisation, technology and learning aspects of internal and external knowledge assets through retention and sharing of knowledge for the purpose of improving performance and inspiring innovation and creativity throughout an organisation
(Charlie Bixler, 2001)

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Agency s Business Goal? Increase productivity, profit margin, effectiveness and efficiency of operations, stakeholders satisfaction, Role of KM? Enable knowledge flow in organisation involve people to support organisational knowing and learning; Turn individual knowledge and experience into organisation asset; Create/ Capture Organise Share Role of KMS? Supporting technological infrastructure for effective mobilisation of knowledge; Organise Store/ Access Use Together We Transform

KM as a Collection of Processes (Four Major KM Processes)

This comprises of activities associated with entry of new knowledge into the system, and includes knowledge development, discovery and capture This includes the activities and events connected with the application of knowledge to business processes

Knowledge Creation/ Acquisition

Knowledge Organisation/ Storage/ Retention

This includes activities that preserve knowledge and allow it to remain in the system once introduced. It also includes those activities that maintain the viability of knowledge within the system

Knowledge Sharing/ Distribution/ Transfer

This refers to activities associated with the flow of knowledge from one party to another. This includes communication, translation, conversion, filtering and rendering

Knowledge Application/ Utilisation

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3. Knowledge Management in Business Environment

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KM Environment
Communities of Practice Training and communications Prioritisation and Resource allocation Knowledge sharing climate and culture

Business Process
Workflows and Collaboration process Shared standards Measurement metrics and reporting Cross-organisational integration Feedback loop Other operational aspects of K assets

Governance Structure Rules & Procedures Motivation and reward systems Performance Management

Collaboration Expertise database Content management Learning Portals with searcher & locators Problem resolution systems Operations enablers

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Basic Requirements for Successful Implementation of KM

Leadership: Knowledge Champions should be created in the organization. Communication: It is important to promote and highlight KM initiatives to the employees. Reward and Recognition: A frequently overlooked aspect, it is an important motivator. Infrastructure: No KM system will work without an in house infrastructure to store, transfer and share knowledge. Education/Learning: Training is essential to build a KM culture in an organization Formalisation: KM agenda becomes KPI of an agency
Todd Kulik. Knowledge Management: Becoming an E Learning Organization. New York: The Conference Board, 2000. p. 5.

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6 Top Reasons Why KM is Important to Public Sector Agency

The need for speed in decision making, higher decision quality, and speed in execution Minimise bureaucracy barriers Complexity of national and global issues Accessibility to the right, accurate and updated information The need for higher degree of collaboration and reduction of silos mentality The need to draw insights from lessons learned and past experiences The need for speed in mastery of tasks / skills / knowledge

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4. Public Sector KM Blueprint

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Public Sector KM Blueprint

The Knowledge Management Blueprint depicts the strategies and recommendations for setting up the Knowledge Management initiatives within the Malaysian public sector environment. As the basis of the strategies formulation, assessments and analysis in the areas of business and technical environments to ensure alignment with the national aspirations and stakeholders demands.

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Managing knowledge systematically in the public sector; Creating a learning organisation; Establishing an organised knowledge repository shared by everyone and usable by all; Establishing a lifecycle of knowledge production, integration and validation (creation, share and innovate); Creating an ongoing and adaptive interaction with the knowledge base; Allowing for organised and proactive transfer of skills, knowhow and expertise; Instituting support through integrative technological means (e.g. knowledge management systems); and Instituting better governance for promoting knowledge sharing and creation for the benefit of the whole public sector.




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Knowledge Management Environment in the Public Sector Agencies Current Environment Overview
Only 12% of government agencies claim to have KM strategy Knowledge Management exist in silos 83% believe that their knowledge belongs to their agency alone Reliance on NotaSerahan-Tugas as a form of knowledge transfer when staff leaves
KM Environment in the Public Sector

Different understanding of KM concept

Minimal knowledge sharing across the public sector

Insufficient work transition plan with regards to knowledge

* based on survey response from 94 government agencies and interviews conducted on 30 selected government agencies. (survey conducted in 2010)

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Knowledge Management Implementation Approach

Shared KM Understanding, Problems KM Addresses & Relate KM to Organisation Awareness Methods Training Knowledge Technology, Framework & Implementation

KW? (1H+5Ws) Tacit Explicit Current Environment Assessment Future State Formulation Portfolio/Plan Prioritisation


Tools Selection/Creation Cultural & Process Change Effectiveness Measurement, KM Expansion & Evolution


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Objective To improve service delivery and decision making through an informed knowledge environment Areas of Concern The application of Knowledge Management in the public sector not fully optimised due to lack of sharing culture and different understanding of its concept. Strategies
Strategy 1: Inculcate the Culture of Knowledge Management Strategy 2: Strengthen Knowledge Management Initiative in the Public Sector

Program 1 - KM Foundation Program Program 2 - Knowledge Practitioner Development Program Program 3 - Rewards & Recognition Program

Program 4 - Identification of High Impact KM Projects Program 5 - Intelligence Hub Program

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Knowledge Management

Strategy 1: Inculcate the Culture of Knowledge Management

Program 1: Knowledge Management Foundation Program - Conceptual Model

Prerequisite of developing Knowledge Management

Change & Communicate Champion Selection Awareness & Participation Management & Stakeholder Support Reward Establishment Skills Cultivation Program Profile Spreading KM foundation awareness as well as guiding agencies in identifying and managing key components that will facilitate KM implementation

To assist agencies prior to developing their knowledge management initiative To create & increase awareness, participation and usage of KM within the public sector Implementation Approach

Key Benefits
Agencies are able to identify what are the key components that are needed to build a strong KM foundation




2 1

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Knowledge Management

Strategy 1: Inculcate the Culture of Knowledge Management

Program 2: Knowledge Practitioner Development Program

Connecting People to People

Program Profile Connecting the individuals within the Public Sector to the relevant knowledge provider to explore ways of working in a specific area of knowledge

Community of Practice

Mentor Mentee

Knowledge Forum

To instill the habit of knowledge sharing practices within and across the Public Sector

Key Benefits
Learning from shared experience through best practices First hand knowledge transfer from mentor to mentee As entry point for connecting people to people, people to document and vice versa

Implementation Approach



2 2

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Knowledge Management

Strategy 1: Inculcate the Culture of Knowledge Management

Program 3: Knowledge Management Rewards and Recognition Program - Conceptual Model

Key approaches in building KM reward and recognition program

Performance Appraisal
Program Profile Key approaches in building reward and recognition program to create a positive work environment and drive performance of Knowledge Management initiative

Author Tagging

Sense of Mission

To encourage the usage and participation of users in knowledge management initiative

Key Benefits
Creating a positive work environment, improve employee morale, and motivate user high performance in KM initiative

Implementation Approach





2 3

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Knowledge Management

Strategy 2: Strengthen Knowledge Management Initiative in the Public Sector Program 4: Identification of High Impact Knowledge Management Projects - Conceptual Model
Economy Public Transport Management National Trade Management KM Projects Social Security Justice Management KM Projects General Administration Statistic Centre KM Projects

Welfare Aid Management Central Education Resources Infrastructure Management Health Management KM Projects

Program Profile To identify potential high impact knowledge management projects that will be beneficial for the public sector as a whole.


NKRA : Eradicating poverty NKRA : Improving Rural Infrastructure NKRA : Improving Urban Public Transport

NKRA : Reducing Crime NKRA : Improving the Quality of Education NKRA : Fighting Corruption

RMK10: Creating Environment for Economic Growth

To increase usage and appreciation of KM within the public sector To maximize potential KM usage Implementation Approach

Key Benefits
All crucial areas of knowledge management needed within the public sector are covered Optimised public sector knowledge management initiative

Assess Current Environment

Design To-Be Stage

Implementation & Improvement

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Knowledge Management

Strategy 2: Strengthen Knowledge Management Initiative in the Public Sector Program 5: Intelligence Hub - Conceptual Model

Intelligence Hub
Program Profile A project that links knowledge management systems into 1 interconnected knowledge network and also serves as a reference point for agencies who wish to implement KM. Phase I: linking all existing relevant KM systems. Phase II: enhancement of the Intelligence hub via the additional knowledge management systems.

To create an integration point that combines all public sector knowledge management efforts into a single access point to maximise knowledge management system usage and value

Key Benefits
Knowledge sharing across government agencies Serves as an introductory platform for agencies who do not have KM initiative in place Availability of a KM template for agencies to start-off their own KM initiative

Implementation Approach

Selection of KM Systems





Phase I Together We Transform

Phase II

Public Sector ICT Knowledge Management Roadmap (2011- 2015)

Current environment Establish the KM Governance & deploy the 5 programs: KM Foundation Program Knowledge Practitioner Development Program Identification of High Impact KM Projects Rewards & Recognition Program Intelligence Hub (phase I)

Grouping of available public sector KM Systems and encouragement of knowledge sharing within the public sector 0-2 years

Existence of a Centralized Knowledge Management Hub for the public sector Implementation of strategies to initiate and inculcate the knowledge management practice within the public sector

2-5 years

Deploy the last program phase: Intelligence Hub (phase II)

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5. Conclusion
Remedial for KM Implementation: What To Start Follow Steps in the KM Processes When To Start Start with Awareness Programmmes How To Start - Bottom-up or Top-Down Approach Who s Responsible - Formulate Governance Structure

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Terima Kasih

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