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What is Cartography?

Cartography (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. Definition : The art , science, technology of making maps together with their study as scientific documents and works of art (International Cartographic Association, ICA 1973). Cartography is the making and study of maps in all their aspects. With the advent of digital technology and GIS, the scope of cartography includes production, usage of maps, organization, management, analysis and exploitation of cartographic digital files. Mapmaking : An aggregate of technical processes of data collection, cartographic design and construction (analogue or digital) and reproduction associated with production of maps.

Why Map? Definition: A representation normally to scale and on a flat medium of a selection of material or abstract features on, or in relation to the surface of the earth or other celestial bodies (ICA 1973). Maps are a vital tool to man that have been in use for thousand of years and with evolving technology are becoming more useful. Reducing the spatial characteristics of a large area and putting it in map form to make it observable. A map is carefully designed instrument for recording, calculating, displaying, analyzing and understanding the interrelation of things. Real Map : is any tangible map product that has a permanent form and that can be directly viewed. eg. Conventionally drawn or printed products. Virtual Map: either non-permanent, non-physical or non-visible.eg. mental, conceptual image, geographic data files stored in digital form. Basic Characteristics of Maps


Locations : positions in two-dimensional space. Attributes - qualities or magnitudes of geographic variables Examples: o Relationships among locations, e.g. Distance. o Relationships among various attributes at one location, e.g. Temperature, rainfall and soil.

Relationships among the locations of the attributes of a given distribution. e.g. Rainfall.

All geographical maps are reductions. o Scale: metric relationship between map and reality o Selection : based on the purpose of the map All maps involve geometrical transformations. o Map projection. All maps are abstractions of reality. Generalizations. The selection and simplified representation of detail appropriate to the scale of the map.

Involved variety of modifications that can and must be performed as a result of reduction
All maps use signs/graphics to stand for elements of reality. oSymbolism : replicative and abstract (take the form of geometric shapes)

Purposes Maps Serve

Store geographical information. Serve mobility and navigation needs e.g. to give directions, to plan travel arrangements, to plan communication routes. Analytical purposes, e.g. Measuring and computing. Summarise statistical data to assist forecasting and spotting trends. Visualise invisible. Stimulate spatial thinking.


Basic Steps for Communication Map Information Consider what the real world distribution of the phenomenon might look like Determine the purpose of the map and its intended audience Collect data appropriate for the map's purpose Design and construct the map

Types and Functions of Maps

Classed by medium o Real maps o Virtual maps o Mental Maps o Perception o Experience o Imagination Classed by scale o Small scale -birds eye viewof a large area o Large scale close-up view of a small area 1:1000 1:5000 very large 1:5000 1:25000 large General Purpose/reference maps o archive of spatial information answers 'where', 'when', 'what' o shows many different things, where specific objects are relative to one another, user is generally looking location of specific feature relative to others Topographic maps o maps whose principal purpose is to portray and identify the features of the earths surface as faithfully as possible within the limitations imposed by scale o usually made by public agencies using photogrametric methods o issued in series of individual sheets eg. L7030 map series o varying from large to small scale o 1:25000,1:50000,1:100000,1:200000,1:250000, 1:500000, 1:1000000 o multi-purpose maps : maps that can be used for different purposes by different types of users o used as base map for preparing thematic maps Thematic maps o analysis of spatial pattern ,answers 'why' o special purpose maps o maps designed to demonstrate particular features or concepts o concentrate on spatial distribution of a single attribute or relationships among several attributes. o distinction based on themes represented o appear both at large and small scales o data represented either qualitatively or quantitatively o eg. Major soil groups, Annual rainfall, Ave. annual income , Population density, Land use changes, Soil suitability, Distribution of industries. Charts o designed to serve the needs of navigators whether on the sea, the land, or in the air o charts are to be worked on Eg: nautical charts: sailing charts for navigation in open waters, coastal charts for near-shore navigation Aeronatical charts: for visual flying o chart scales depend on detail necessary o chart series are not made at uniform scales

Common Map Elements Map face Title / subtitle : the purpose of the map Legend (box) : the meaning of map symbols Neatline : a narrow line that frames the mapped area Scale (bar) : the ratio between the size /distance of features on the map and the size/ distance of the same features on the ground Orientation : relative alignment of map Latitude and longitude (grid) : geolocation and direction Inset : small additional maps on the main map.

Cartographic Design 1. The design process 2. Design is creation Graphic design produces visual forms Assign qualitative and quantitative meanings to distinctive marks; relating graphic characteristics of the marks to attributes of the data Arrange the marks in total composition that will make the viewer see the result you intend Skill and artistry have played a significant role in map design: intuitive judgements, fundamental training and experiences

Criteria for a Good Design Should be suited to the needs of map users Should be easy to use Should be accurate, present information without error and distortion Should be clear, legible, and aesthetically pleasing Should be thought provoking, and communicative Beauty : beauty of symbols, beauty of colour, beauty of layout., beauty of typographic appearance


Map Design Criteria What is the motive, intent or goal of the map? Who will read the map (the audience)? How will the map be used? Stand alone, in a report, or simply for your viewing? Issues of generalization Steps in design process


forces the designer to construct a map with a particular focus & purpose directs the reader's attention to a particular message combines intellectual and aesthetic processes

Principles of Design . Clarity and Legibility Graphic symbols must be easy to read and understand Differences between colours, pattern, and shadings used to differentiate between symbols must be visually distinct Symbols should be larger than minimum size for average vision and viewing conditions Focus of attention : attempt to get important part in visual center Viewing Size Distance (m) (width, mm) 0.5 0.3 2 1.15 5 2.9 10 5.8 15 8.7 20 11.6 25 14.5 30 17.4 Approximate minimum sizes for legibility of point symbols Visual Contrast contrast --> perceptual differentiation ;a sign contrast with its background and adjacent signs. This determines how crisp, clean and sharp a map looks critical to distinguishing important pieces of information - IMPORTANT achieved through: o line character weight o texture o value human limitation in number of different values that can be perceived o detail o color . Figure- Ground Organisation establish figure - ground o figure = object of importance - to be remembered o ground = background - ,less distinct,not to be remembered techniques to make figure stand out o grouping - multiple smaller items appear 'on top' o closure - objects are 'complete' o texture - heterogeneous visual display - perceive difference o crisp edges - sharpness & intensity will pull object forward o interposition - interrupt the plane of one object with another o map frame - use frame to extend object boundaries o vignetting / gradience - to distinguish land from water, to recognize outlines of towns, islands and harbors Hierarchical Organisation

visual layering of mapped features separate meaningful characteristics and to show likeness, differences and interrelationships visual order defines the place and function of each element of the whole implies an underlying structure rather than randomness techniques :through stereogrammic, extensional and subdivisional

Geographic Data and Symbolization 1. Thematic Maps

specific information on a particular location general information on spatial patterns comparison of patterns in 2 or more areas 4 basic types o Choropleth - show relative magnitudes of continuous variables as they occur within the boundaries of unit areas o isopleth - maps represent quantities by lines of equal value and emphasise gradients among the values o graduated symbol o dot

Nature of Geographic Data A. Asking Geographic /Spatial questions/concepts


Direction Distance Scale Location Distribution Localization Pattern analysis Spatial interaction Regional concept Change

Data representation of geographic phenomena

Dimensionality o 0 dimension - point : convey sense of position o 1 dimension - line (arc) : exhibit direction and position o 2 dimensions area (polygon) : exhibit extent, direction and position o 3 dimensions - volume o 4 dimensions - time Behavior Measurement

Visual Variables (Bertin)

Size : different geometric dimension Orientation Shape : pictorial,abstract, letters and numbers Texture (Arrangement) Value (Lightness) Color o hue o saturation (chroma)

value (lightness) Visual Perception (Bertin)

Perception of and the immediate discriminatory response / spontaneous impression to an object which is presented to the viewer. If all symbols look of equal importance , the perception characteristics of the visual variable applied is called ASSOCIATIVE If groups of symbols can easily be distinguished, the perception characteristics of the visual variable is called SELECTIVE If any order between symbols can be distinguished, the perception characteristics of the visual variable applied is called ORDERED If any order in terms of amounts can be distinguished, the perception characteristics of the visual variable is called QUANTITATIVE


Definition of Generalization Generalization is the process of reducing the information content of maps due to scale change, map purpose, intended audience, and/or technical constraints. (Slocum et al) To fit portrayal of selected features to the map scale and to the requirements of effective communication (Robinson et al 1995) Generalization is "the reduction of detail or simplification of reality" maps cannot retain 'all detail', and if they could, they would be too complex to understand. Purpose of Generalization



the reduction in scope, amount, type and cartographic portrayal of mapped or encoded data maintenance of graphical clarity at the target scale Basic principle of map generalization is to emphasis salient object AND omit less important ones Ensure readability AND preserve geographical meaning of the map as faithfully as possible.

Effect of Scale on Visual Perception There is a practical level of detail asssociated with any scale. Traditionally on printed maps, one could identify a 'minimal resolvable unit' of about 0.5 mm. This translates for common scales to these amounts in metres: 1:20,000 10 1:50,000 25 1:25,000 125 1:1,000,000 500

That is, if your map or display is for example at 1:50,000 it is not reasonable to be able to depict a feature or detail smaller than about 25 metres in size. Data captured at one scale are not transferrable to widely different scales. Data captured at a larger scale are too detailed for smaller scales, and data captured at a small scale are too generalised for larger scales.

Colour 1. Introduction


Using colour on maps is one of the most interesting and challenging aspect s of cartography Colour is a perceptual phenomenon, a product of our mental processing of electromagnetic radiation detected by our eyes Perception of and reaction to color is unique to each person - several factors o physical cornea iris lens retina rod cells cone cells optic nerve e.g. color blindness o psychological personality mood age sex o conditioning culture education no conclusive rules for cartography - all are generalizations

Physical Properties of Color

3. A.

Light or different colours, is a narrow frequency band within the electro magnetic spectrum Visible colours are electromagnetic wave with the wavelength of approximately 400nm (voilet) to 700nm (red) Colour is measured by its hue, value and saturation Three Psychological Dimensions of colour Hue Unique wavelength in the color spectrum Name given to various colours: red, green, blue, etc

B. Value = Brightness, Lightness, Darkness The quantity of lightness or darkness of achromatic and chromatic colours Achromatic : white, gray or black Chromatic : with colour The value is controlled by the addition of white or black pigment to a hue a hue with addition of white = lightness = a TINT a hue with addition of black = darkness = a SHADE perception not linear - Munsall and Stevens curves

C. Chroma = saturation Brilliance, richness and purity of colour With the addition of more and more pigment of a colour, it will appear more and more brilliant Chroma varies from 0%( gray) to 100% (saturated, pure colour and contains no gray) - amount of pigment versus amount of gray Achromatic colour have 0 chroma change in gray levels = TONE

4. Colour Wheel
Typically used by artist to illustrate the hues and their relationships to other hues A colour wheel includes no more than 24 hues and 8 or 12 are more common A complementary colours are opposite on the colour wheel. Mixing two complementary hues produces gray. The primary complementaries are yellow-voilet, blue-orange, red-green Subjective Reactions to Color A. Preferences


Cold colors : cool colours have shorter wavelengths:violet,blue,green Warm colors : those of longer wavelengths: red, orange, yellow Exciting colors Striking colors Tranquil colors Natural colors

B. Combinations

large differences in lightness light on dark background highlights object green/blue vs yellow/green vivid colors in contrast to gray Harmonious combinatons o complementary colors = opposites on the color wheel o adjacent colors o various other formal combinations Creating your own combination

C. Connotations


learned associations that affect perception varies with cultures, learning (Conventional vs Subjective associations) colors in context with each other (Advancing and Retreating) o warm hues appear closer to the viewer

cold hues appear to recede appear far away to the viewer Colour Specification System

Munsell Colour System Use three colour dimensions : hue,value saturation 10 hues make up the colour band with ten divisions with each hue;100 different hues on the colour wheel vertical axis is the value; saturation going outward from value axis for each hue band Used in the US Ostwald Colour System Colour wheel compose of 24 separate hues, 3 in each of 8 primary hues Value and saturation varies with hue by mixing different amounts of white and black for each hue Tint, Shade and tone Compatible to printers, artist and ink manufacturer


]Computer Colour Models- Examples-RGB colour Model Most applicable to the colour generated by computer display devices Based on Additive mixture of three primary colour : red, green, blue Each hue is specified in terms of intensities of red, green and blue. At the corners of RGB colour cube are Red + Green..Yellow-Red + Blue=Magenta,-Green+ Blue=Cyan-Red + Green+ Blue=White Equal amounts of RGB give grays along a scale from black (0,0,0 for RGB) to white (255,255,255 for RGB). The line joining the black and white points in colour space is the neutral or gray axis The combination of 256x256x256 creates 16,777216 possible colours on the computer display

CYMK Color Model Subtractive colour combination of, Cyan , Yellow ,Magenta, and Black Procee colour printing uses transparent inks (pigments) : Cyan , Yellow, Magenta which together can create any hue in a continuous tone colour image. CYM are the Subtractive primary colours. Magenta subtracts (absorbs) the blues and greens and transmits red light Theoretically mxing magenta, cyan and yellow should produce black, but it results in dark muddy brown in practice. Thus Black is usually used to overcome the limitation Colour printers or plotters use this model to produce colour images, known as four-colour process printing. Colour produced by printing is not based on additive primaries of projective light, but on ink pigment laid down on paper 9. Perceptual and Psychological Factors influencing colour choice With decreasing size the symbol of hue differences becomes less clear With increasing areas, the apparent saturation of specific hue also increases, therefore perception of the hue The eyes is more sensitive for small value changes as compared to small hue changes Contrast between two adjacent object two almost similar hues close to each other may be easily distinguishable as when they are separated from each other Contrast enhancement is depending upon the background. A light clolour may appear more clear or bright against a dark background and will look darker if against a light background


Design strategies for the use of Colour Warm colours tend to take on figural qualities, and cool colours tend to make good grounds Far away objects are rendered in cold colours and nearby objects in warmer tones Yellow on Black is noted to be the most visible colour combination and yellow tends to be perceived as figure. The least visible and therefore the worst combination is red on green in terms of figure-ground relationship Black lettering on yellow is most legible and green lettering on red is the least A balance of complementary colour can achive harmony and dstability in a map composition The use of adjacent colours on colour wheel can also achieve harmony


Colour Conventions for Qualitative Maps on nominal data classes : use different hues of same value Maximum number of hues is often limited between 8 to 15 Blue for water- learned association Red with warm and blue with cool temperature for climatic and ocean representations Yellow on tans for dry and little vegetation Brown for soil or bare ground Green for vegetation


Colour Convention for Quantitative maps The quantitative colour plan is based on graded series of colours to show varying amounts Either colour value (lightness) or chroma differences correspond with numerical gradations in the mapped variable A number of colour schemes can be used for quantitative maps, namely the schemes to use dimensions of hue, value and chroma to symbolize varying amounts of data on the map

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