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. .

2007

517.122
22.143
A-13
- -

:
.-. , . .
:
.-. . .,
.-. . .

A-13 . .
1. : /
.:
-, 2007.112 .
ISBN 978-5-93000-045-0
,
, , ,
, , , , . .
, .

ISBN 978-5-93000-045-0

, 2007
c . .,2007

1.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.
1.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
2.1. . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
2.3.
. . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . .

7
. . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . 20
. . . . . . . 24

28
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
. . . . . . 31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
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.
.

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.

.
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.

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42
43
47
50
53
54
57

. . . . . 57
. . . . . 60
.
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.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
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.

.
.
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63
66
68
70

4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5. -
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
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.
.

.
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.
.

76
76
78
82
89

6.
6.1.
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91
91
93
96
101

103

110


, . ,
, .
, ,
, , , , () . . , , , , ,
.
. , , ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
, . ,
.
, , , , ,
, ,
.
. .



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.


.

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.
( ), ,
,
,
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.
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, .
,

41 . .
- .
,
.
. .

1.
1.1.
. ( )
. .
, . . () ().1
, . .2 .
.
l, O,
. O ,
, . M, l, x R
:
(1) O x = 0;
(2) M ,
x := OM , OM OM
;
(3) M , x := OM .
x M .
x R M l:
x = 0, M = O; x > 0, M OM x; x < 0,
M OM x. , (1
. . [11].
2 (15961650) , , . (1637) .

1.


, . [14]):
,
.
, C AB,
c a b A B , . . , A ,
a < c < b.
.
. O.
. ,
, . . ,
, ( Ox), , ,
( Oy). xOy.

y
M
6
(x0 ; y0 ), x0 y0 M
M Ox Oy y0

. x0
M , y0 M (.
1
. 2).

x0
x
O 1
,
. 2.
(. [14]), :
.
, :
(1) ;

1.1.

(2) , .
. X
, . . X R. x X
( ) f y. y
f (x). , ,
X, , , X R,
f : X R. f (x) x f
f x y = f (x) f : x 7 y.
x X . x x0 , . . x := x0 ,
x0 f (x0 ) y0 = f (x0 ). X f .
, y = f (x) (x X), .
: , , , .
.
() : y = 6x + 20.
() :
x
y

10
80

11
88

12
96

13
104

14
112

15
120

16
128

17
136

() : 1, 0,
. .
() : , , , .
y = |x|. ,
(
x,
x > 0,
y = |x| :=
x, x < 0.
() (. . 1):

10

1.
y

3
32

O
. 1.

f : X R g : Y R f = g, X = Y f (x) = g(x)
x X. , , ,
(), y = 2x + 3 (x R); ,
(), y = 8x
(x {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17}), ,

2
(), y = x .
graph(f ) f : X R
(x; f (x)), x X; ,
graph(f ) := {(x; f (x)) : x X}.
xOy.
, f : M R xOy (x; f (x)),
x .
. .
(VVI . . .) .
(16431727), , .
, XVII , XVII ,
(15691650) , ; .
,
, . (16011665) ,

1.2.

11

1694 . (16461716),
.
. ,
, . , .
(17071783).
(18051859).
. . . ( )
.
, ( ) [3].


1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. .
5. ?
6. .
7. ?
8. .

1.2.
. R R , y = kx + b
(x R), k b (), x .
y = kx + b.
1.
R.
2. , b = 0; , k = 0;
, k 6= 0 b 6= 0.
3. y = kx + b k 6= 0
x = b/k, k = 0 b 6= 0,
k = 0 b = 0.
4. y = kx + b
k > 0 (. . 3)
k < 0 (. . 3).

12

1.
6

kb

kb

y = kx + b
k>0

y = kx + b
k<0
)

)
. 3.


.
. b = 0,
y = kx
y = kx,

k>0
( ). x
O

, . 4.
(. . 4).
. k = 0, y = b .
, Ox (b 6= 0)
Ox (b = 0).
(), Oy (
Ox) . , , .
y = kx + b, k b ,

.
.
y6

1.
. , y = kx + b, k b , .

1.2.

13

C . l .
1. l (. 5). Oy , , (0; b).
l Ox, y = b.
y 6= b. , , (0; b)
y = b.
y

y0

y1

a)

M 1 N1
x0 x1 O

l0 K

l0

y1

N1 M 1
x0
O x1

y0
6

y0
O

x0

y0

x0 O

)
. 5.

2. l . l
, . . I III
(. . 5) l , . . II IV
(. . 5).
l M (x0 ; y0 ) N (x1 ; y1 ), M N

14

1.

. M N , Oy. M1 (x0 ; 0) N1 (x1 ; 0) Ox.


, M OM1 N ON1 ,
M OM1 .
:
N N1
M M1
=
.
M1 O
N1 O
: l I III M1
(. 5), M
M1 O = k, l M1
II IV (. 5), M
M1 O = k.

y0
y1
=
= k.
x0
x1
N (x1 ; y1 ) ,
(x; y) l, . . xy = k.
, (x; y) l
y = kx, l y = kx.
3. l
. Oy , , B(0; b), b 6= 0. l b > 0
. 5 5. b < 0 .
l 0 , l. l 0 M (x0 ; y 0 ) , Oy.
K l OBKM . OB M K OB = b,
M K = b, K (x0 ; kx0 ).
M (x0 ; y 0 ) l0 y 0 = kx0 , K (x0 ; kx0 + b), . .
y 0 = kx0 + b.
(x; y) l y = kx + b, . .
l y = kx + b
.
y = kx + b. y = kx + b
(x; kx + b) .

1.2.

15

(0; b) (1; k + b), . (0; b) (1; k + b)


l. , l , , y = k 0 x+b0 .
(0; b) (1; k + b) , : b = b0 , kx+b = k 0 x+b0 , . . k = k 0 . l
y = kx + b, .
. y = kx + b , (0; b) (b/k; 0).
k b. b . y = kx + b Oy.
k y =
kx + b. k > 0, , . . k = tg ( . 6 = M N M 0 ).
, M0
tg = M
M 0 N = k (. 1,
2).
k < 0, , (k = tg ) (. 6
M0
= M N M 0 ). , tg = M
M 0 N = k (. 1, 2).
y
y2

6
M

y = kx + b
k>0
M

N
M0
x1 O x2

6
y2

N
M0
x1
x2 O

x
y = kx + b
k<0

)
. 6.

.
y = k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2 .
, ,
,
k1 , k2 , b1 b2 .

16

1.

() , k1 = k2
b1 = b 2 .
6

C , k1 = k2
b1 = b2 , , . , y =
k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2 , . .

y = k1 x + b1

graph(f1 ) = {(x; k1 x + b1 ) : x R} =

= graph(f2 ) = {(x; k2 x + b2 ) : x R},

y = k2 x + b2

(. . 7).
(x1 ; k1 x1 + b1 ) (x2 ; k2 x2 + b2 ) , x1 = x2 k1 x1 + b1 = k2 x2 + b2 .
k1 x + b1 = k2 x + b2 x R. ,
(k1 k2 )x = b2 b1 , x,
x := 0 , b1 = b2 , x := 1 k1 = k2 . B
() ,
k1 = k2 b1 6= b2 .
. 7a.

C k1 = k2 , (. .
7). b1 6= b2 , (a). , .
, y = k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2
. . c 6= 0 , y = k1 x + b1 + c y = k2 x + b2
. , k1 x + b1 + c = k2 x + b2
x R. , (), b2 = b1 + c 6= b1
k1 = k 2 . B
y

6y = k1 x + b1

6
y = k1 x + b1

x
y = k2 x + b2

y = k2 x + b2
)

)
. 7.

1.3.

17

() , k1 6= k2 .

C ,
. () () , k1 6= k2 ,
(. . 7 ).
, k1 6= k2 , , () ()
. B


1. .
2. .
3. ?
4. y =
kx + b?
5. ?
6. y = kx?
7. y = b?
8. y = k1 x + b1
y = k2 x + b2 , , ?

1.3.
. ax+by+c = 0, a, b, c (), x y ,
( 1- )
. a b
, c .

x0 y0 x y , ,
.
(x; y). x y
(x0 ; y0 ),
x0 x y0 y.
.
, . , (. . ). ,

18

1.

.

. ,
, .
.

. ,

, .
(a) a 6= 0 b 6= 0. ax+by+c = 0 y y = ab x cb .
, ax + by + c = 0
y = ab x cb . , , . 1 1.2. ,
, (0; cb ) ( ac ; 0), (. 8).
6

cb
ac
O
cb

ax + by + c = 0
a 6= 0, b = 0

ax + by + c = 0
a = 0, b 6= 0

O ac

ax + by + c = 0
a 6= 0, b 6= 0
a)

. 8.

() a = 0, b 6= 0, 0x + by + c = 0. y,
y = c/b x,
. 1 . 1.2. .
, ,
(0; c/b) . ,
(x; c/b),
x (. 8).

1.3.

19

() a 6= 0, b = 0, ax + 0y + c = 0.
x
x = c/a y
. y, x.

, Oy (c/a; 0) .
(c/a; y),
y (. 8).
() , a b . a = 0, b = 0, 0x + 0y + c = 0.
c 6= 0 ,
. c = 0 (x; y), ,
xOy .
()() 1 . 1.2
.
2. ax+by+c = 0, a
b , . ,
, .
ax+by +c = 0 . , , , , , . ,
ax + by + c = 0 6= 0, ,
.

1. .
2. a, b c ax + by + c = 0?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?

20

1.

7.
?

1.4.

.
,
.
(x0 ; y0 ),
.
.

,
.
. l1 l2 ,
a1 x+b1 y+c1 = 0 a2 x+b2 y+c2 =
0, , ai , bi , i = 1, 2 . , ,
. a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 c1 , c2 ,
.
(1) l1 l2 ,
, a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 c1 = c2 .
C , , . . a1 = a2 ,
b1 = b2 c1 = c2 , l1 l2 .
. l1 l2 . l1 l2
, 1.3 () a1 6= 0, a2 6= 0, b1 = b2 = 0 (c1 /a1 ; 0) = (c2 /a2 ; 0),
, c1 /a1 = c2 /a2 . c1 = 0, c2 = 0
:= a1 /a2 . c1 6= 0, c2 6= 0 := c1 /a1 .
. l1 l2 ,
1.3 () a1 = a2 = 0 := b1 /b2 6= 0, c1 = c2 = 0, := c1 /b1 = c2 /b2 6= 0,
c1 6= 0, c2 6= 0.
.

1.4.

21

, 1.3 () , : (0; c1 /b1 ) =


(0; c2 /b2 ) (c1 /a1 ; 0) = (c2 /a2 ; 0),
a1 ,b1 ,a2 ,b2 . cb11 = cb22 ac11 = ac22
c1
a1
b1
b2 = c2 = a2 . := c1 /c2 , . B
(2) l1 l2 ,
, a1 = a2 , b1 = b2
c1 6= c2 .
C , l1 l2 . , b1 = b2 = 0, a1 6= 0 a2 6= 0. := a1 /a2 ,
a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 . c1 = c2 , (1) l1 l2 , , c1 6= c2 .
l1 l2 .
l1 l2 , b1 6= 0 b2 6= 0, ,
y. ,
l1 l2 y = ab11 x cb11
y = ab22 x cb22 . 1.2 (), l1 l2 ab11 = ab22 cb11 6= cb22 . := a1 /b1 ,
.
, a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 c1 6= c2 6= 0. , , l1 (), b1 = 0 (, a1 = 0),
a2 = 1 a1 = 0 (b2 = 1 b1 = 0), , (). , l1 l2 .
, , , 1.2 (), aa12 = bb21 = 6= cc12 . B
(3) l1 l2
, a1 b2 = a2 b1 .
C l1 l2 (1) (2)
a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 6= 0. a1 b2 = (a2 )b2 =
a2 (b2 ) = b1 a2 .
, , a1 b2 = a2 b1 . a1 = 0, b1 6= 0,
a2 = 0. , b1 = 0, a1 6= 0, b2 =
0. , l1 l2
, . a2 6= 0
b2 6= 0, a1 b2 = a2 b1 a2 b2 , aa12 =
b1
b2 =: . a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 , (1) (2) ,
l1 l2 . B

22

1.

(4) l1 l2 ,
a1 b2 6= a2 b1 .

C , . , (3). B


.

.
:
(

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0,
a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0.

(1.1)

a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 c1 c2 .
l1 l2 a1 x+
b1 y + c1 = 0 a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 .
(1.1)
l1 l2 . .
() (1.1) , a1 = a2 , b1 = b2 c1 = c2 6= 0.
, 1.4 (1) l1 l2 .
() (1.1) , a1 = a2 ,
b1 = b2 c1 6= c2 6= 0. 1.4 (2)
, , .
() (1.1) ,
a1 b2 6= a2 b1 . 1.4 (4) l1 l2 , .
1. (1.1) , (), (), () :
a1
b1
c1
=
=
;
a2
b2
c2
b1
c1
a1
=
6=
;
a2
b2
c2
b1
a1
6=
.
a2
b2

1.4.

23

2. , a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 , c1 , c2 .
a1 /a2 = b1 /b2 , , , .
a1 /a2 6= b1 /b2 , O(0; 0).
c1 = 0, c2 6= 0, a1 /a2 = b1 /b2 ,
, ; a1 /a2 6= b1 /b2 .
3. (1.1)
, :
1)

l1
l2

2)

a2 = 0,

6l2

l1

b2 = 0,

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0,
a2 x + c2 = 0;

3)

(
a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0,
b2 y + c2 = 0;

6l1

l2

4)

l1
l2

b1 = 0, a2 = 0,

a1 = 0, a2 = 0,
b1 6= b2 ,

(
a1 x + c1 = 0,
b2 y + c2 = 0;

b1 y + c1 = 0,
b2 y + c2 = 0;

24

1.
5)

6l1

l2

b1 = 0, b2 = 0,
a1 6= a2 ,

a1 x + c1 = 0,
a2 x + c2 = 0.

1)3) , . . . 4- 5- , b1 6= b2
(a1 6= a2 ), ; b1 = b2 (a1 = a2 ), ,
[1].

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. , ,
?
5. , , .

1.5.
1. , )) ? .
a)

1.5.
)

25
)

2. ?
) y = 5x + 2;
) y = 3x;
) y = 45 2x;
) y = 3x2 + 1;
) y = 2x + 5x;
) y = 6;
2

) y = (3x + 2)/6;
) y = xx + 1;
( 2
x
+ 1, x 6= 0,
) y = x
1,
x = 0.
( 2
ax +(a+b)x+b
+ 1, x =
6 1,
x
) y =
b a,
x = 1.
3.
))?
)

6
1

0,4

0
3

4.
( ):
) y = 4x y = 4x 3;
) y = 2 y = 6x + 4;

) y = 0, 5 + 2x y = 3x;
) y = 7x 12 y = 63,5x
0,5 .

5. , :

26

1.
) 2x y + 3 = 0;
) 5x 4 = 0;
) 3x y + 1 = 3x y 1;
) x + 3y = 50;

) y 5 = 0;
) 2x2 + y = 15;
) 12 x 3y 3 + 1 = 0;
) 7x2 2 = 0.

6. (2; 1)
2x y + 3 = 0.
7. 4x y + 3 = 0.

8. , 3x + y 2 = 0
x/2 + y/6 1/3 = 0 .

9. , B(1, 3);
10. , (0; 4)
y = 3x.
11. , :
) (1; 2) (3; 4);
) (1; 2) (2; 1).

12. :
(
(
(
2x 4y = 6,
2x + 3y = 5,
x + y 2 = 0,
)
)
)
x 2y = 3.
3x 4y = 6;
x + y 3 = 0;

13.
:
(
3x y 1 = 0,
2y x 12 = 0.
14. ,
:
(
x y + 1 = 0,
x y + 2 = 0.
15.
(
2x + 2y 1 = 0,
4x 4y + 2 = 0.

1.5.

27

16. a b,
, ,

:
(
(
x + (a 1)y = a,
ax + y = 5,
)
a)
3x ay = b + 2.
x + 2y = b 3.
17. a,
, :
a) y = 2ax 1 y = x + 3,
) y = ax + 2 x + y = a 1.

18. a, :
) 4ax + y = 2 x + ay = 1 III
(x < 0, y < 0);
) y = x 2 y = 2x + a 1 IV
(x > 0, y < 0).

2.
2.1.
. ,
, . .
, . , ,
l, , :
1) l, ;
2) A B ,
l, AB l;
3) A , C , AC l (. 9) [4].

l
B

6 A
C

)
. 9.

(x; y) ,
ax + by = c,
ax + by > c ax + by < c.
, A B , AB ,
ax + by = c; A C ,
AC ,
ax + by = c.
( ).
A0 A1 c -

2.1.

29

A0 (x0 ; y0 ) A1 (x1 ; y1 ). At (xt ; yt )


A0 A1 A0 At = t A0 A1 0 < t < 1,
:
xt = (1 t)x0 + tx1 ,

yt = (1 t)y0 + ty1 .

C , A0 At Bt A0 A1 B1
(. 10),
A0 At
A0 Bt
=
= t.
A0 B1
A0 A1

y6
y1

A1

At

y(t)
y0

A0

Bt

B1

A0 Bt = xt x0 A0 B1 =
x0 x(t)
x1 x
O
x1 x0 , xt x0 = t(x1 x0 ), xt = (1 t)x0 + tx1 . . 10.
,
yt = (1 t)y0 + ty1 . B

ax + by = c, (x; y)
, ,
, , ..
, ax + by = c,
: ax + by > c ax + by < c.
3. l xOy
ax + by = c. ,
, , ax + by > c,
, ax + by 6 c.
C , A0 (x0 ; y0 ) A1 (x1 ; y1 ) , l,
,
(ax0 + by0 c) (ax1 + by1 c) < 0.
A0 A1 , A0 A1
l , , At ,

30

2.

A0 A1 t, 0 < t < 1. , At (xt ; yt )


:
xt = (1 t)x0 + tx1 ,

yt = (1 t)y0 + ty1 .

At l, ax + by = c, . .
a((1 t)x0 + tx1 ) + b((1 t)y0 + ty1 ) = c.
(1 t)c + tc = c,

(1 t)(ax0 + by0 c) + t(ax1 + by1 c) = 0.


ax0 + by0 c = u, ax1 + by1 c = v,

(1 t)u + tv = 0

t(u v) = u.
t
u v. , u 6= 0 v 6= 0,
A0 A1 l.
t, 0 <
t < 1 , u v .
, u > 0 v > 0, 0 < t < 1
(1 t)u + tv > 0; u < 0 v < 0,
t (1 t)u + tv < 0.
, u v < 0 (. . u v ),
u
, t = uv

t(u v) = u , , 0 < t < 1. , ,
|u|
u
, t = uv
= |u|+|v|
, 0 < t <
1, .
, A0 (x0 ; y0 ) A1 (x1 ; y1 )
, l,
,
(ax0 + by0 c) (ax1 + by1 c) < 0.

2.2.

31

.
, l , 1 2 . A0 (x; y0 ) 1 , l, ax0 +by0 c
. , ax0 + by0 c > 0.
A1 (x1 ; y1 ), l.
A1 (x1 ; y1 ) 1 , , , ax1 + by1 c > 0; A1 (x1 ; y1 )
l, ax1 + by1 c = 0;
A1 (x1 ; y1 ) 2 , l, ax1 + by1 c < 0. , 1
ax0 + by0 c > 0, 2 ax0 + by0 c 6 0. B

1. .
2. .
3. ?
4. xOy , ax + by = c.

2.2.
.
ax + by < c,

ax + by > c,

ax + by 6 c,

ax + by > c,

a, b, c , x y , . ,
.
(x0 ; y0 ), x0 y0 x y ,
.
.
M (x0 ; y0 )
xOy (x0 ; y0 ), . -

32

2.

. ,

, .
.
1. . , .
2. , .
3. ,
. , . O(0; 0), .
, . , , , ,
. .
1. ,
( ),
.
, .
1. x < 2.
. x = 2 , , (2; 0)
x < 2
, x = 2 (. . 11).
2. 2x y > 3.
. ,
2x y = 3.
(. . 12).
O(0; 0)
. 0 > 3,

2.2.

33

,
( O(0; 0))
. 2x y > 3
, .
6

y6

3
2

O
3

. 12.

. 13.

. ax + by 6 c x y.
1. b = 0, ax 6 c. ax = c ,
( ac ; 0).
, a > 0 , , a < 0
, x = ac
(. 13).
6

c
b

c
a

(b > 0)

(a > 0)
. 13.

. 14.

2. a = 0, by 6 c.
by = c ,
(0; cb ).

34

2.

, b > 0 , , b < 0
(. 14).

1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. .

2.3.

. ,
.
, .
.
. , ,
,
.
. .
.
, , , , (. . 15). . , :
.

2.3.
y

2
3

O
1

O
2

35

. 15.

, ( , ) ,
, (. 16),
(. 16) ,
AB AA0 BB 0 (. 16).
y

3
2

2
3

1
O
1
)

A 2
A

1
O
1

. 16.

,
, , (, . .
21, 23).
.
1. .
2.
.
1. :

36

2.
(

x < 0,
2x y 6 3.

.
3
O
2


3 A
(. 1, 2 . 2.2),
,
F

. 17.
(. . 17). DAF DA.
2. :

0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8,

0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2,


0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4,

x > 0,

y > 0.

. ,
.
y

12
10
8
6
2
O

12

. 18.
0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8.

10

. 19.
0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2.

0,2x+0,3y = 1,8, , (0; 6) (9; 0). (0; 0).


0 0 , 0, . . , , 0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8 (. . 18).

2.3.

37

0,2x + 0,1y = 1,2 , (0; 12) (6; 0).


O(0; 0). , , ,
0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2 (. . 19).
0,3x + 0,3y = 2,4 , (0; 8) (8; 0). , , ,
, ,
0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4 (. . 20).
y

12

12

4
O

12

. 20.
0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4.

P
Q

2
O

R
6 8

. 21.
2.

x = 0 ,
Oy, ( ).
(1; 1). , ,
, (1; 1)
x > 0.
y = 0 ,
Ox, :
( ). (1; 1). , ,
(1; 1) y > 0.
, .
. 21 , OP QR O(0; 0),
P (0; 6), Q(4, 5; 3), R(6; 0).

38

2.
3. :

2,5x + 10y > 1250,

x + y > 250,

5x + 3y > 900,
x > 50,

x > 0,

y > 0.

. , , , ,
, , I .
, . 22.
y

400

400
2,5x + 10y > 1250

300
200

O 100

300

500 x

400

O 100

400

5x + 2y > 900

300

500 x

300

x > 50

200

100
O 100

100

y
6
500

300
200

x + y > 250

300
200

100

300

500 x

100
O 100

300

500 x

. 22.
3.

2.4.

39


.
( ), , P QRS
P M SN (. . 23).

500 M
400

300
200

100

O 100

300

S N

x
500

. 23.


1. ?
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
5. .

2.4.
1. :
) x > 5;
) y 6 3;
) x + y > 10;

) 2x + 3y 6 12;
) 3x 6y > 2;
) 25x + 10y 125 > 0;

) x > 0;
) y > 0.

2. , (2; 2), (0; 8),


(4, 5; 3) :
(
0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8,
0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2.
3.

:
(
(
)

0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8,


0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4;

0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2,


0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4;

40

2.

0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8,

0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2,


)

0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4,

x > 0.

0,2x + 0,3y 6 1,8,


) 0,2x + 0,1y 6 1,2,

0,3x + 0,3y 6 2,4;

4. xOy,
:
(
(
(
0 < x < 1,
x + y < 3,
x > 2,
)
)
a)
y > 1;
x y < 1;
y 6 3;

x > 0,
x + y > 0,
0 < y < x + 2,
) x < 1,
) x y < 0,
)

y < x + 2;

x < 2;
x 2 < 0;
) x < y < x + 1;

x
y

> 1.

5. , :
)

2
1
0

1 0 1

0 1 2

6. (1; 0), B(3; 1), C(0; 3), D(8; 4) , 4x 2y + 6 > 0?

7. , , A(5; 2):
) 3x 4y + 1 < 0;
) 7x + y 16 > 0;

) 4x + 5y 11 > 0;
) 15x 12y + 71 6 0?

8. A(1; 6)
:
(
(
4x 6y + 1 > 0,
3x 4y + 1 > 0,
)
)
x + 3y + 8 < 0.
2x + 5y + 7 > 0;

2.4.

41

9. (x; y)

x + 2y > 3,

2x y 6 1,

x > 0,

y > 0;

, x2 + y 2
.
10. a

x + y 6 3,

x > 0,
y > 0,

x + 2y > 2,

y + 4x 6 a;

?
11. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
12. , . 15, 16.

3.
.
-
.
.
,
.
, . , ,
, , .... . , , -
, , , ,
. ,
.
.
1. . , , , . . , , .

. , .
.
2. , . ,
.
3.

3.1.

43

. , , , .
4. . , .
5. . , ,
[16].
, ,
. .
.
3.1.

.
:
1. . (, ). , ( ) (), .
2. .
, , . .
.
3. .
.
,
,
.
[19].
. , 70 24 , 30
60 . 96 ?
. , ,
, .

, -

44

3.


.
a ,
b . 1
c .
.
24 (a + 24b) ,
70 . 70 24
24 70 c = 1680c , , a + 24b = 1680c.
, 30 60 ,
:
a + 60b = 1800c.
96 a + 96b ,
x . 96xc
, :
a + 96b = 96xc.
,
. x.

a + 24b = 1680c,
a + 60b = 1800c,

a + 96b = 96xc.

,
: 36b = 120c.
c = 0,3b.
c , a +
24b = 504b,
a = 480b.
c a ,
480b + 96b = 28,8xb
576b = 28,8xb. , b,
x = 20.
: 20 .

3.1.

45

, ,
(a, b, c) , . ,
, .
.
.
:
, , . , 1
40 ., 1 20 .
300 500 .,
? ,
?
. x y .
40x + 20y .
300 500 ., . .
40x+20y 6 500 40x+20y > 300.
x y (x > 0, y > 0) ,
,
x 6 y 6 3x.
, :

40x + 20y 6 500,

40x
+ 20y > 300,

x 6 y 6 3x,

x > 0,

y > 0.
. :

2x + y 6 25,

2x + y > 15,

x y 6 0,

y 3x 6 0,

x > 0,

y > 0.

46

3.

,
. 2.3., (. 24).
y
6
ABCD, 25
20
.
B
15
, 10 A
. , C
: x = 7, y = 10 x = 6, y = 9, . .
5
D
7 10 ,
O
5 10 15 20 x
6 9 .
(5; 15). . .
5 15
. 24.
.
[18]. ,
A, B, C. A
B 3 : 5, B C
1 : 2, A C 2 : 3.
,
A, B, C 3 : 5 : 2?
. , - . P , A B
3 : 5. , a
A b B, a + b = P ab = 35 .
Q ,
A, B, C 3 : 5 : 2, a, b, c , a + b + c = Q ab = 35 , cb = 52 .
. x
, y z . a b
A B, x .
a + b = x ab = 35 , a = 83 x, b = 85 x.
, y
y/3 B 23 y C. , , z
25 z A 53 z
C.
A 83 x+ 25 z
. B 58 x+ 31 y, C
3
2
3 y + 5 z .

3.2.

47

, A, B, C
3 : 5 : 2.
3
2

3
8x + 5z

5
1 = 5,
x
+
y
8
3
5
x + 31 y

= 25 .
2
3
y
+
z
3
5

, ,
20
, y = 2z, x = 20
3 z. , x : y = 3 : 2,
20
y : z = 2 : 1, 3 : 2 : 1,
, , 20 : 6 : 3.
: 20 : 6 : 3.
3.2.
.
,
.
, (. 1.1).
.
:
1) ,
, ;
2) - ,
,
;
3) , . . ,
, , - .
:
(
).
,
.

48

3.

, , ,
, t = 0, . ,
, ,
.
.
x6
.
x(b)

. x(t2 )
,
x = x(t)
x(t1 )

x(a)
. x(t)
O a
t1
t2 b t
t, a 6 t 6 b, . .
a b.
. 25.
x : [a, b] R
.
(. . 25).
t1 t2 , a 6 t1 < t2 6 b. x(t2 ) x(t1 )
[t1 ; t2 ]. , , ,
.
, , ,
. , , [t1 ; t2 ], [t01 ; t02 ] ,
t2 t1 = t02 t01 , x(t2 ) x(t1 ) = x(t02 ) x(t01 ).
:
? , , ?
. ( ., , [14]).
4. f ,
[a; b] R, 0. -

3.2.

49

, x, y [a; b], , x + y [a; b], :


f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y).
k R , x [a; b] f (x) = kx.
,
, .
5. x : [a; b] R , , ,
v R , x(t2 ) x(t1 ) = v(t2 t1 )
t1 , t2 [a; b].
C l := b a f : [0; l] R
f (u) := x(a + u) x(a) (u [0; b]).
u1 , u2 [0, l], u1 + u2 6 l.
t1 := a, t2 := a + u2 t3 := a + u1 + u2 .
f (u1 + u2 ) = x(t3 ) x(t1 ) = x(t3 ) x(t2 ) + x(t2 ) x(t1 ).
f x(t2 ) x(t1 ) = x(a + u2 ) x(a) =
f (u2 ). t3 t2 = u1 = (a + u1 ) a,
x(t3 ) x(t2 ) = x(a + u1 ) x(a) = f (u1 ).
, f (u1 + u2 ) = f (u1 ) + f (u2 ). f
x. , f 4, f (t) = vt (t [0; l]), v
.
t1 , t2 [a; b] t1 6 t2 ,
[t1 ; t2 ] [a, a + t2 t1 ],
x(t2 ) x(t1 ) = x(a + t2 t1 ) x(a) = f (t2 t1 ) = v(t2 t1 ). B
,

x(t) = x(t0 ) + v(t t0 ),
t0 [a; b] . v . ,

50

3.

,
[t1 ; t2 ]
:
x(t2 ) x(t1 )
v=
.
t2 t 1
, t2 > t1 . Ox (x(t2 ) > x(t1 )),
,
(x(t2 ) < x(t1 )), .
, x(t1 ) x(t2 )
[t1 ; t2 ] ,
.
,
. S, . . S = |x(t2 ) x(t1 )|. t := t2 t1 ,
: S = vt.
[5]. A B . B 27 ,
A 12 .
AB?
. t , v1 v2 . , I
v1 t, , II v2 t.
, v1 v2 ,
t:
(
v1 t = 12v2 ,
v2 t = 27v1 .

v1 = 32 v2 , t . , t = 18. ,
, I AB 18 + 27 = 45
, , II 18 +
12 = 30 . : 45 ., 30 .
3.3.
,
-

3.3.

51


. .
S , .
D , .
. , ,
, ,
, . .
: D = f (p), p .
,
,
: S = g(p), p .
, f ,
g .
,
.
f g
. , f g , . .
D = k 1 p + b1 ,

S = k 2 p + b2 ,

k1 > 0, k2 < 0. D
(. . 26) S (. . 27), , p > 0.
S

D6

D = k 1 p + b1
S = k 2 p + b2

0
. 26.

. 27.


, .
, Q,
(. 28).

52

3.

, . ,
, . . ,
.
Q

6
D = f (p)

Q D1
Q S2
Q0
Q D2
Q S1

S = g(p)

P2

P0

P1

. 28.

. 28 ,
P1 P0 , QS1 , , QD1 , , . . . .

, . . P1 P0 . .
P2 P0 , QS2 , ,
QD2 , , . . . , ,
, , . . P2
P0 . ,

3.4.

53

,
.
3.4.
. .
. . , . .
. , , , ,
, , . .
,
, .
: Y , C ,
I ,
. :
Y = C + I.
C Y . Y C, ,
C = f (Y ) .
, C = f (Y ) , . .
C6
C = kY + b,
C = kY + b

k , , b
0
Y
, . .
( ). ,
. 29.
0 6 k 6 1.
. 29. k b
. I . , I, k b

54

3.

, . Y C, , . . () .
Y C:
(
Y = C + I,
C = kY + b.
C ,

Y = kY + b + I,
(1 k)Y = b + I,
b+1
.
Y =
1k
, Y . , C
C=

k(b + 1)
+ b.
1k


.
3.5.
1. 1 30 ., 1 40 .
, 200 .?
.
2. 120 . , 20? . .
3. 5 . ,
6 .

3.5.

55

II, IV V , 12 , III V , 16 .
I IV ?
4. 6 ,
6 , I, II, III VI 12 .
II, III IV , 8 ,
IV, V VI , 24 .
I V ?
5.
A B, 30 .
2 , 2,5
. 2
, , 3
. ?
6. , ,
14,7 .

80%, 24%,
21,42 .
?
7. 1 20 . 15%,
25%,
18,2 . ?
8. ,
30 ,
1 . 20
, 3 20 .
.
9. , , ,
4, 3.
, 8, 7.
.
10. ,
A 4/5 B .
B A,
8 B.

56

3.

, B 50 ,
A.
11. , , . , , 3 . ,
7 . ,
4%,
5%. .
: 3) 16 ; 4) 12 ; 5) 5 3 /; 6) 10, 26, 11, 16 ; 7) 1,2
8 ; 8) 18 12 /; 9) 71; 10) 50, 150 200 ; 11) 35:12.

4.
4.1.

, ,
( ) ,
, .
- ,
()
, . . .

.
.
, .
, , .

, 3.1
: ( ),
, .
, : 1) -
X,
; f , X, ; C X,
( ).

58

4.

, x0 C, f (x0 ) ()
{f (x) : x C} :
x C f (x) min (max).
f , C
,
. ,
, .
, .

: , .
.
. , , .
, , ,
x, y, z . . . x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . ,
() . ,
.
. ,

.
. , ,
. ,
ax + by + cz + . . . a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . . ,
(,
. .)
( , . .).

4.1.

59

. , , .
,
.
.
. , . , (a, b, c, . . .
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . . ), . ,
.
. ,
.
. (1912
1986) , . .
1938
. , . .
. 1939 .
, . ,
,
. , . . . .
,
. 1959 , ,
, 1942 .
.
, 1940- ,
. , . ,

60

4.

. . . 1947 . , -,
. . . . , ,
, . . . 1950
. . , ,
, .
.
. , 1966 . ,
: . . 1939 . , 1960 . 1975 . .
- (
. ) .


,
.
4.2.
.
.
, :
, K X .
,
.
. , K X,
, , K X,
.
1.
, 1 A 0,2 , 0,2 K 0,3
X; 0,3 .
: 1 0,3
, 0,1 0,3 X; 0,3 .

, 1 , 1 . ,

4.2.

61

5 6 .
:
,
, .
1.

0,2
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,3
0,3
5
6
x1
x2



1,8
1,2
2,4


, , : , , ,
.
, , , :
1) , 1,8 ;
2) , 1,2 ;
3) , 2,4 .
,
.
.
:
x1 , ;
x2 , .
(x1 ; x2 ) .
. ,
, 5x1 , (. . ). ,

62

4.

6x2 . ,
(x1 ; x2 ) (5x1 + 6x2 ).
,
, .
.
1. .
, 1,8 .
(x1 ; x2 ) 0,2x1 , 0,3x2
. :
0,2x1 + 0,3x2 6 1,8.
2. .
, 1,2 . (x1 ; x2 )
0,2x1 ,
0,1x2 .
:
0,2x1 + 0,1x2 6 1,2.
3. X. , 2,4 . (x1 ; x2 )

0,3x1 0,1x2 X. ,
:
0,3x1 + 0,3x2 6 2,4.
4. .
, x1 x2 :
x1 > 0,

x2 > 0.

(x1 ; x2 ),
,
().
,
:
(x1 ; x2 )

4.3.

63

. , :

5x1 + 6x2 max,

0,2x1 + 0,3x2 6 1,8,

0,2x + 0,1x 6 1,2,


1
2

0,3x
+
0,3x
1
2 6 2,4,

x1 > 0,

x2 > 0.

4.3.

x2

6
(. 30). 12


8
: 6 P
(4,5; 3)
,
Q
2
R
. ,
x1
2
6
10
O
,
(x1 > 0, x2 > 0).
. 30.
. ,
, . . 2.3.
.
. 30 . OP QR O(0; 0), P (0; 6), Q(4,5; 3), R(6; 0).
, .

(. 31).
, .

64

4.

,
z = 5x1 + 6x2 .
, z.
z . z. , , z = 15,
5x1 + 6x2 = 15, N (3; 0) M (0; 2,5).
, 15. . 31 M 0 N 0 M 00 N 00
, z = 30 z = 45.
x2

8 M 00

5x1 + 6x2 = 45

M0

4
M
2

5x1 + 6x2 = 30

N0

N
O

5x1 + 6x2 = 15
N 00
x1
8
10

. 31.

(. 32).
M 0 N 0 , M N , M 00 N 00 , M 0 N 0 .
,
, , ,
. M 00 N 00
OP QR, . .
, , z = 45
OP QR. , M N
( - )
, V W ,
OP QR (. . 32).
, Q(4,5; 3), V W , . 5 4,5 + 6 3 =
40,5. , V W 5x1 + 6x2 = 40,5.

4.3.
x2

65

10
6

V
P

Q(4,5; 3)

5x1 + 6x2 = 40,5

R
O

x1

6 W 10

. 32.

, (4,5; 3) , 4,5 A 3 B.
.
x2

x2

z = 18 6 P
z = 2x1 + 3x2
z = 15
z = 12 4
Q
z=9

6 P
4

2
O

2
2
)

R
6

x1

* z = 2x

1 + x2
R
x1
2
4
6
z = 6 z = 10
z = 8 z = 12

. 33. .

(. 33). , Q(4,5; 3)
. , (. .
) . ,
P Q. z = 2x1 + 3x2 (. .
33,). V W (. . M N , -

66

4.

), P Q.
P Q .

QR z = 2x1 + x2 (. . 33,).
QR ,
.
4.4.
.
,
. ,
1 2 ().
(). , ,
, , . , 1
2 , 2.
.
2.

1
2,5
1
5
1
41
x1

2
10
1
2
0
35
x2



1250
250
900
50


, ,
. , (, ) :
1) , 1250;

4.4.

67

2) , 250;
3) , 900;
4) , 50.
,
. ,
.
.
:
x1 (.) 1 ;
x2 (.) 2 .
(x1 ; x2 ) .
. . 1 41,
x1 . 1 41x1 . , x2 . 2
35x2 . , (x1 ; x2 ) z = 41x1 + 35x2 .
, .
.
1. . 1250.
2 , , x1 .
1 x2 . 2 2,5x1 10x2 . ,
(x1 ; x2 ) 2,5x1 + 10x2
:
2,5x1 + 10x2 > 1250.
2. . 250. , (
) , 1 2
. ,
(x1 ; x2 ) x1 + x2
:
x1 + x2 > 250.
3. . 900. , x1 . 1 x2 . 2

68

4.

5x1 3x2 . , (x1 ; x2 ) 5x1 + 3x2 :


5x1 + 3x2 > 900.
4. . 1
, 2 .
50,
:
x1 + 0 x2 > 50.
5. . , :
x1 > 0, x2 > 0.
(x1 ; x2 ), ,
().
,
: (x1 ; x2 ),
, :

41x1 + 35x2 min,

2,5x1 + 10x2 > 1250,

x1 + x2 > 250,
5x1 + 3x2 > 900,

x1 + 0x2 > 50,

x1 > 0,

x2 > 0.

4.5.
. 2.3 ( 3)
.

4.5.

69

. ,

. 2.3, M


400
,
P
300
.
200

Q
R
100
,
S . 34. , O 100 200 300 400 500 x1
. 34.
.
. ,
( ).
. , . 34 ( ). , ,
P QRS P M SN . P , Q, R S :
(
5x1 + 2x2 = 900,
x1 = 50, x2 = 325;
P :
x1 = 50;
(
x1 + x2 = 250,
1
2
x1 = 133 , x2 = 116 ;
Q:
3
3
5x1 + 2x2 = 900;
(
2,5x1 + 10x2 = 1250,
2
1
R:
x1 = 166 , x2 = 83 ;
3
3
x1 + x2 = 250;
(
2,5x1 + 10x2 = 1250,
x1 = 500, x2 = 0.
S:
x2 = 0;
x2

500

, P (50; 325), Q(133 13 ; 116 23 ), R(166 23 ; 83 13 ), S(500; 0).


. . 35 ,
. z = 41x1 + 35x2
,
. M 00 N 00
21525, M 0 N 0 14350 M N 4100.

70

4.

, (. . - ).
,
V W ,
, P QRS (. . 35).

x2
6
,

z = 21525 M 00
Q 133 13 ; 116 23 ,
600

V W ,
500
.
z = 14350
400 M 0

z = 9360
41 133 13 + 35 116 23 = 9550.
P
300 V

V W
200
41x1 + 35x2 = 9550.
z = 4100
M
Q R
, 100

(133 13 ; 116 23 ) ,
S N 00 N
W
N0


x1
O
100 200 300 400 500

133 13
. 35. .
. 1 116 23 .
2 .
4.6.
OP QR (. . 30) , P QRS
P M SN , (. . 34).
: , , . ,
, . . , (
,
, ) .

4.6.
x2

71

500
400
300
200
100
O

M 00

QR

M (300, 200)

M0

100 200 300 400 500

x1

. 36. .

P , Q, R S (. . 36). ,
,
.
. 30 O, P , Q R.

M (300; 200)

(. . 36).
: 300 . 1
200 . 2 . ,
1 , M
M 00 = (100; 200), . , M
M 0 = (300; 50) 2
. . ,
,
, . . P QRS. ,
.
:

, , .
. , .
a)
O (0; 0), P (0; 6), Q (4,5; 3), R (6; 0).
, .
4.3 (. 3).

72

4.
3.


P
Q
R
S

(0; 0)
(0; 6)
(4,5; 3)
(6; 0)


50+60=0
5 0 + 6 6 = 36
5 4,5 + 6 3 = 40,5
5 6 + 6 0 = 30

) P , Q, R S.
, . 4.
, z = 9550
Q (133 13 ; 116 23 ), . . ,
. 4.5 (. 4).
4.

P
Q
R
S

(50; 325)
(133 31 ; 116 23 )
(166 32 ; 83 13 )
(500; 0)


41 50 + 35 325 = 13425
41 133 31 + 35 116 32 = 9550
41 166 32 + 35 83 31 = 9750
41 550 + 35 0 = 22550

, , ,
, . ,
m-
m

B := {x = (x1 , . . . , xm ) : 0 6 xi , i := 1, . . . , m}

2 ! m = 100 ,
.
,

.
-, . . .

4.7.

73

4.7.
1. .
60, 50. C1 2 . 10 1 8 2 .
20 1 5 2 . ,
:
200 1 80 2 . .
- ,
, . .

. ?
) .
) .
2. , (
1 2 ) , .
,
, 5.
5.


1
3
6
4
x1

4
4
2
8,5
x2

14
18
27

) (. .
1 2 ), .
) .
) , . .
3.
( ). ,

74

4.

, . ,
( )
, 6.
6.

(./)
25
28
35

(./)
40
35
25

, , 20 .
30 . 50 60 . .
200; 140
175 . , .
, .
) .
) .
) .
4. ,
. ,
, 300 . 250 . .
, ,
, -, - ( ).
2 - 1 ;
1 - 3 .
. :
1)
40 - ;
2)
45 ;
3) 12 .
,
?
) .

4.7.

75

) .
5. :

8x1 + 6x2

5x1 + 2x2

2x1 + 4x2
3x1 > 15,

5x1 4x2

x1 > 0,

x2 > 0.

max,
6 60,
6 4,8,
6 40,

) .
) .
) .
) .

5. -

5.1.
, , ,
( )
, . , . 4.6.
(. .
) ,
. .
-, 1947 . . .
- , .
1.
.
2. ,
.
3. , .
, 4 5 (
), 6.
4. ,
, , .
5. . ,
3 4. , 6.
6. , .
.

5.1.

77

?
1

:

(,
)


:
( )

?
4

?
,

?
5

. 37. -.

6
-

78

5. -

- , .
- :
,
. (. 6.3) -
.
5.2.
. , ,
. -
, , . -,
(, ) .
. , . , , 0,2x1 + 0,3x2 6 1,8
:
(
0,2x1 + 0,3x2 + s1 = 1,8,
s1 > 0.
s1
.
(. . x1 = 0, x2 = 0), s1 1,8.
.

, . , , x1 +x2 > 250
:
(
x1 + x2 s1 = 250,
s2 > 0.

5.2.

79

s2 .
.
(x1 = x2 = 0), x1 + x2 s2 = 250
s2 = 250, s2 .
, ,
. . :
(
x1 + x2 s2 + a1 = 250,
s2 > 0, a1 > 0.
x1 = x2 = s2 = 0, a1 = 250, a1
.
. , 3x1 + 2x2 = 50,
x1 = 0 x2 = 0,
0 = 50. a2 :
3x1 + 2x2 + a2 = 50.
x1 = 0 x2 = 0 a2 = 50.
.
.
, M ( ).
. 4.2 4.4 .
. ,
s1 , s2 s3 (
, ).
, .

5x1 + 6x2 + 0 s1 + 0 s2 + 0 s3 max,

0, 2x + 0, 3x + 1 s + 0 s + 0 s = 1, 8,
1
2
1
2
3
0, 2x1 + 0, 1x2 + 0 s1 + 1 s2 + 0 s3 = 1, 2,

0, 3x1 + 0, 3x2 + 0 s1 + 0 s2 + 1 s3 = 2, 4

80

5. -

. , , . , , :

41x1 + 35x2 min,

2, 5x1 + 10x2 > 1250,

x
1 + x2 > 250,

x1 > 0, x2 > 0.

s1 s2 (
) a1 a2 . ,
. .

41x1 + 35x2 + 0 s1 + 0 s2 + M a1 + M a2 min,


2, 5x1 + 10x2 + 1s1 + 0 s2 + 1a1 + 0 a2 = 1250,

x1 + x2 + 0 s1 + 1s2 + 0 a1 + 1a2 = 250.

. -
.
, . m n, . - , . m
, n m . , ,
m. .
, , .

5.2.

81

7.

()
O
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9

x1

x2

s1

s2

s3

0
0
0
0
9
6
8
4,5
6
4

0
6
12
8
0
0
0
3
2
4

1,8
0
1,8
0,6
0
0,6
0,2
0
0
1,2

1,2
0,6
0
0, 4
0,6
0
0, 4
0
1,2
0

2,4
0,6
1,2
0
0,3
0,6
0
0,15
0
0

. ,
, . s1 , s2 , s3 , x1 x2 . , 10
: ;
10 , 7. ,
7 ( ). x1 = 0 x2 = 0
s1 , s2 , s3 .
M1 , . . . , M9 , .
, 10 4
, , .
, , 8.
8.

O
M1
M5
M7

x1
0
0
6
4,5

x2
0
6
0
3

s1
1,8
0
0,6
0

s2
1,2
0,6
0
0

s3
2,4
0,6
0,6
0,15

82

5. -

- ,
( ) . , ,
. , . (. . 38).
x2

12

M2

10
8

M3

M1

(4,5; 3)

M9
M8

M7

M5

M6
M4

8 10 12

x1

. 38.

O M1 M1 (0; 6)
36 = 5 0 + 6 6, M5 (6; 0) 30 = 5 6 + 6 0.
M1 M7 (4,5; 3). .
5.3.
.
, . ,
(. 9).

5.3.

83

9.
.

,
(

)
B
P
Q
s1
0
1,8
s2
0
1,2
s3
0
2,4
cj
zj
(cj zj )

(,
)

x1
0,2
0,2
0,3
5
0
5

s1
1
0
0
0
0
0

x2
0,3
0,1
0,3
6
0
6

s2
0
1
0
0
0
0

s3
0
0
1
0
0
0

. (-)
(3 5 , ),
. , . .
Q. P , . . ,
. B . ( ) ,
. .
; cj .
zj . , ,
, , cj zj .
.
zj . . ,
: . , , x2 :

84

5. -

1) s1 0,3,
0,2x1 + 0,3x2 + 1s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 = 1,8;
2) s2 0,1,
0,2x1 + 0,1x2 + 0s1 + 1s2 + 0s3 = 1,2;
3) s3 0,3,
0,3x1 + 0,3x2 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 1s3 = 2,4.
() :
0 0,3 + 0 0,14 0 0,3 = 0, s1 , s2 s3
. , x1 s1 , s2 s3
0,2, 0,2 0,3 ,
: 0 0,2 + 0 0,2 + 0 0,3 = 0.
, . , , . .
zj . zj , .
-
, .
.
, cj zj , (, ,
).
cj zj , x1 , x2 , ,

5.3.

85

. ,
.
, , , .
-.
. ,

cj zj , , .
x2 , ,
6 .
.
Q . , +.
( )
, . .
Q x2 , : 1, 8/0, 3 = 6;
1, 2/0, 1 = 12; 2, 4/0, 3 = 8. ,
, , Q/x2 . , 6, . ,
s1 .
10.

B P
s1
0
s2
0
s3
0
cj
zj
(cj

Q
1,8
1,2
2,4

zj )

x1
0,2
0,2
0,3
5
0
5

x2
0,3
0,1
0,3
6
0
6

s1
1
0
0
0
0
0

s2
0
1
0
0
0
0

s3
0
0
1
0
0
0

Q/x2
6
12
8

-. , ,

86

5. -

. , , ,
, cj , zj cj zj . ,
,
. 0,3.
.
, Q,
.
. Q.
:
1. ,
, . , 0, 1.
2.
( ).
3. ( );
.
,
. , , . ( ) :
.

.
11.

()


:

x1

x2

s1

s2

s3

6
1,2
0,6
0,6

2/3
0,2
1/15
2/15

1
0,1
1
0

10/3
0
1/3
1/3

0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0

5.3.
12.
Q
x1
x2

()
6
2/3
1

2,4 0,3 0,3

()
1,8 0,2 0,3
: 0,6 0,1
0

87

s1
s2

s3

10/3
0

0
0

0
1

1
1

0
0

0
1

cj .
.
zj . ,

P :
2
2
+0
+ 0 0,1 = 4
3
15
z(x2 ) : 6 1 + 0 0 + 0 0 = 6;

10
1
z(s1 ) : 6
+0
+ 0 (1) = 20;
3
3
z(x1 ) : 6

z(s2 ) : 6 0 + 0 1 + 0 0 = 0;
z(s3 ) : 6 0 + 0 0 + 0 0 = 0.

cj zj . zj cj .
( 13).

13.
( 1)
B P
Q
x1
x2
s1
s2 s3 Q/x1
x2
6
6
2/3
1
10/3
0
0
9
s2
0
0,6
2/15
0
1/3
1
0
9/2
s3
0
0,6
0,1
0
1
0
1
6
cj
5
6
0
0
0
zj
4
6
20
0
0
(cj zj )
1
0
20
0
0

88

5. -
14.
( 2)
B P
Q
x 1 x2
s1
s2
s3
x2
6
3
0
1
5
5
0
x1
5
4,5
1
0
2,5
7,5
0
s3
0
0,15
0
0
0,75 0,75
1
cj
5
6
0
0
0
zj
5
6
17,5
7,5
0
(cj zj )
0
0
17,5
7,5
0

, P ,
P (x2 ) = 6 , P (x2 ) = 0.
: x2 = 6, s2 = 0, 6, s3 = 0, 6.
z = 5 0 + 6 6 = 36. , 1, ,
.
4 5. , , ,
x1 , s2 . ,
7, (. 14).
14 : x1 = 4,5, x2 = 3,
s3 = 0,15. z = 5 4,5 + 6 3 =
40,5. , ,
.
.
- . , , . . ,
. ,
. , ( .4.3).
.
. ,
, , .
14
, , -

5.4.

89

.
5.4.
1. -:
) 8x1 + 6x2 max,
4x1 + 2x2 6 60,
2x1 + 4x2 6 48,

1x1 > 5,
3x2 > 5.
) 2x1 + 4x2 + 1x3 min,
1x1 + 2x2 1x3 > 5,
2x1 1x2 + 2x3 = 2,

1x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 > 1,


1x3 6 2.

) 15x1 + 6x2 + 9x3 + 2x4 max,


2x1 + 1x2 + 5x3 + 0,6x4 6 10,
3x1 + 1x2 + 3x3 + 0,25x4 6 12,
7x1 + 0x2 + 0x3 + 1x4 6 35,
0 6 xj (xj := 1, 2, 3, 4).
) 60x1 + 26x2 + 15x3 + 4,75x4 max,
20x1 + 9x2 + 6x3 + 1x4 6 20,
10x1 + 4x2 + 2x3 + 1x4 6 10,

0 6 xj (xj := 1, 2, 3, 4).
2. .
5x1 + 4x2 min,

4x1 + 2,5x2 > 60,


2x1 + 5x2 > 60,
5x1 + 4x2 > 82.

) .
) , .

90

5. -
) -.
) - -

.
) 2x1 + 62 + > 60.
?
3. .
5x1 + 3x2 min,
4x1 + 2x2 6 10,
2x1 + 2x 6 8.
) .
) 1x1 > 2.
) , .
) , 1x1 1x2 6 1.

6.
6.1.
. , ,
.
, .
.
,
-

.
, .
,
, ( ), ( )
Y ( ) Z. , , , .
. . 15.
,
, ?
, , , ,
.

92

6.
15.

- -
- Y ()
- Z ()
. (.)

1
1
7
3
4

2
1
5
5
5

3
1
3
10
9

4
1
2
15
11

x1

x2

x3

x4

15
120
100

.
. : x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , xk , k
(k := 1, 2, 3, 4).

.
,
:
z = 4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 .
. :

1x1 + 1x2 + 1x3 + 1x4 6 15;
Y
7x1 + 5x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 6 120;
Z
3x1 + 5x2 + 10x3 + 15x4 6 100.
,
, . . xk ,
:
0 6 x1 , 0 6 x2 , 0 6 x3 , 0 6 x4 .

6.2.

93

, :
4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 max,
1x1 + 1x2 + 1x3 + 1x4 6 15,
7x1 + 5x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 6 120,
3x1 + 5x2 + 10x3 + 15x4 6 100,
0 6 x1 , 0 6 x2 , 0 6 x3 , 0 6 x4 .
6.2.
, , . :
? .
. ,
,
,
.
. 2
4 2 -, 7
Y 20 Z;
16 .
(). , ,
.
, , - , .
. 1
(x1 = 5), 5 , 35 Y 15 Z;
20 .

94

6.

1
(x1 = 2,5), 2,5 -, 17,5 Y 7,5 Z;
10 .
( )
. ,
. : -
, ( )
, .
, () , .
.
[16].3
v0 = 30 / = 45 ; S
.
, . xOy, O
, , x ,
y (. 39).
y

6
V0

. 39.

, , :
x = tv0 cos ,

y = tv0 sin

gt2
,
2

3 1968 .

6.2.

95

t , g = 10 /2 .
. t x , :
y = x tg

2v02

x2 g
.
cos2

() x x0 = 0 (v2
) x2 = S = g0 sin 2 ( ).
v0 , y = x 90x2 , S = 90 .
: y = x 90x2 , S = 90 .
, : , , ,
.
.
.

. 100 . . . ,
20 , 4 ., , 35 ,
6 ., , 50 , 9 .
,
?
1/5 .,
6/35 ., 9/50 . :
6/35 < 9/50 < 1/5. , ,
.
I

II

III

20

35

50

4 .

6 .

9 .

I
1
1
5

II
1
6
35

III
1
9
50

100 . , ,
, . ,
16 6 . 96 .
4 ., .
16 35 + 20 = 580 .

96

6.

, . -
: 15 , 10 .

.
, .
, 16 6 . 1 4 .
580 .
: , .
, , , .
.
x, y z I, II III . x, y z, 4x+6y+9z 6 100 S = 20x+35y+50z
.

4x + 6y + 9z =
,

6
35 S

4
3
6
6
S+ x+ z >
S,
35
7
7
35

6 100, S 6 583 13 .

S = 20x + 35y + 50z , 5,


S 6 580. x = 1, y = 16, z = 0
S = 580.
, , .

6.3.
-
1. (.
5.2). s1 ,

6.3. -

97

s2 , s 3 :
4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 max,
1x1 + 1x2 + 1x3 + 1x4 + 1s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 = 15,
7x1 + 5x2 + 3x3 + 2x4 + 0s1 + 1s2 + 0s3 = 120,
3x1 + 5x2 + 10x3 + 15x4 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 1s3 = 100,
0 6 x1 , 0 6 x2 , 0 6 x3 , 0 6 x4 .
2. s1 , s2 , s3
. :
x1 = 0, x2 = 0, x3 = 0, x4 = 0, s1 = 15, s2 = 120, s3 = 100.
:
4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 =
= 4 0 + 5 0 + 9 0 + 11 0 + 0 15 + 0 120 + 0 100 = 0.
, . 5.3.
16.

B P
Q
s1 0
15
s2 0
120
s3 0
100
cj
zj
(cj zj )

x1
1
7
3
4
0
4

x2
1
5
5
5
0
5

x3
1
3
10
9
0
9

x4
1
2
15
11
0
11

s1
1
0
0
0
0
0

s2
0
1
0
0
0
0

s3
0
0
1
0
0
0

Q/x4
15
60
6 32

zj P , .
3 ( 1). , ,
. ,

. , 4.
4 ( 1). 11 x4 . , x4 .

98

6.

? ,
Q x4 .
6 23 , s3 .
.
5 ( 1).
. (. . 19),
s1 , s2 x4 :
.
) (. . 11
, P , 15. P 11 x4 .
) (. .
) 17:
17.
()

x1

x2

x3

1
5

1
3

2
3

x4
1

s1
0

s2
0

s3

20
3

15

20
3

1
5

1
3

2
3

1
15

25
3

4
5

2
3

1
3

1
15

1
15

) (. .
17) 18:
18.
()

x1

x2

x3

x4

s1

s2

s3

20
3

1
5

1
3

2
3

1
15

120

40
3

2
5

2
3

4
3

2
15

320
3

33
5

13
3

5
3

2
15

6.3. -

99

, :
19.
( 1)
B
P
Q
s1
0
25/3
s2
0
320/3
x4 11
20/3
cj
zj
(cj zj )

x1
4/5
33/5
1/5
4
11/5
9/5

x2
1/3
13/3
1/3
5
11/3
4/3

x3
2/3
5/3
2/3
9
22/3
5/3

x4
0
0
1
11
11
0

s1
1
0
0
0
0
0

s2
0
1
0
0
0
0

s3
-1/15
-2/15
1/15
0
11/15
-11/15

Q/x4
125/12
1600/99
100/3

19 , :
x1 = 0, x2 = 0, x3 = 0, x4 =

25
320
20
, s1 =
, s2 =
, s3 = 0.
3
3
3

:
4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 =
20
25
320
220
= 4 0 + 5 0 + 9 0 + 11
+0
+0
+00=
.
3
3
3
3
3 ( 2). cj zj 19, , . ,
. ,
4.
4 ( 2). cj zj 9/5 x1 . , x1 .
Q x1 .
125/12 , s1
. ,
.
5 ( 2). . ,
x1 , s2 x4 (. 20).
, ,
. :
x1 =

125
55
4550
, x2 = 0, x3 = 0, x4 =
, s1 = 0, s2 =
, s3 = 0.
12
12
12

100

6.


:
4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 =
55
455
1105
125
+ 5 0 + 9 0 + 11
+00+0
+00=
.
=4
12
12
12
12
20.
( 2)
B
x1
s2
x4

P
4
0
11

Q
125/12
455/12
55/12

cj
zj
(cj zj )

x1
1
0
0
4
4
0

x2
5/6
-7/6
1/6
5
31/6
-1/6

x3
5/12
13/12
7/12
9
97/12
11/12

x4
0
0
1
11
11
0

s1
5/4
-33/4
-1/4
0
9/4
-9/4

s2
0
1
0
0
0
0

s3
-1/12
5/12
1/12
0
7/12
-7/12

Q/x4
25
+
55/7

3 ( 3). cj zj , 20
. ,
; 4.
4 ( 3). cj zj 11/12, x3 . , x3 .
Q x3 .
55/7 , x4 20
.
5 ( 3). . , x1 , s2 x3 :
21.
( 3)
B
x1
s2
x3

P
Q
4
50/7
0 325/7
9
55/7
cj
zj
(cj zj )

x1
1
0
0
4
4
0

x2
5/7
-6/7
2/7
5
38/7
-3/7

x3
0
0
1
9
9
0

x4
-5/7
13/7
12/7
11
88/7
-11/7

s1
10/7
-61/7
-3/7
0
13/7
-13/7

s2
0
1
0
0
0
0

s3
-1/7
4/7
1/7
0
5/7
-5/7

6.4.

101

. :
x1 =

55
325
50
, x2 = 0, x3 =
, x4 = 0, s1 = 0, s2 =
, s3 = 0.
7
7
7

:
4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 + 0s1 + 0s2 + 0s3 =
50
55
325
695
=4
+50+9
+ 11 0 + 0 0 + 0
+00=
.
7
7
7
7
3 ( 4). cj zj 21, , .
, . , ,
x1 =

55
325
50
, x2 = 0, x3 =
, x4 = 0, s1 = 0, s2 =
, s3 = 0.
7
7
7


695
7 . 6.
6. ( 21)
cj zj , .
, .
, , : Z (s1 = s3 = 0), Y
120 s2 = 73 47 .
6.4.
1. (. 6.1) ,
,
:
) 1 3 (, x2 = x4 = 0);
) 1 4 (, x2 = x3 = 0);
) 2 3 (, x1 = x4 = 0);
) 2 4 (, x1 = x3 = 0).

102

6.

2. . 6.1.
-, ,
, :
) 14x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 11x4 ; ) 4x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 8x4 ;
) 4x1 + 5x2 9x3 + 11x4 ; ) 4x1 5x2 9x3 11x4 .


[autonomous consumption] ( ).
[additivity assumption]
, ,
,
.
[divisibility assumption]
, , .
[algorithm] , .
[basic variable] ,

.
[basic solution] m n (n > m)
m , , n m .
- [block diagram, flowchart]
,
.
[convex set] , : ,
, .

104

[graph of an equation] , .
[graph]
(x; f (x)), x X.
[Cartesian coordinate system]
( ) .
[Cartesian coordinates] ( ) (x0 ; y0 ), x0 y0
Ox Oy . x0
, y0 .
[discrete programming]
, .
|feasible solution] , .
() [nutrient problem]
;
.
[resources allocation problem]
; .
[surplus variable] , .
[artificial variable]
, , -.
[operational, operations research]

, , , .
[iterative method] , ,

105
,
.
[iteration]
( )
.
[canonical form] , ; ,
.
() [profit (cost) coefficients]
, ; ,
.
[extreme point] ,
,
.
[linear optimization
model] , .
[linear function] R R, y = kx + b (x R), k b (), x
.
[linear inequality] ( ) ax + by < c, ax + by > c, ax + by 6 c,
ax + by > c, a, b, c , x
y .
[linear programming]
, ,
.
[linear equation]( 1- ) ax + by + c = 0,
a, b, c (), x
y .

106

[mathematical model] , .
[mathematical programming] ,
.
[coordinate method] ,
( )
( );
.
[national income] , ,
.
[nonlinear programming]
, ,
.
[uncontrollable parameters] , ,
.
[feasible solution space (area)]
.
[constraints] , . ()
.

, ,
. .
[basic solution] .
[optimal solution]
; . . ,
() .

107
[slack variable] , .
[half-plane] ,
l : 1)
l, ; 2) A B
, l, AB
l; 3) A , C ,
AC l .
[consumption] , , ,
, , . .
[marginal propensity
to consume] .
[supply]
; ,
( ).
() [isoprofit (isocost)
line] , (,
) .
[rectilinear motion]
.
[orthogonal coordinate
system] , .
() [orthogonal
coordinates] , .
[function] X , . . X R. x X
( ) f y. y f (x). , ,
X, , , X R.
[equilibrium] ,
.

108

[equilibrium] , , . .
,
.
[solution of a system of
equations] , .
[solution of an equation] ( x y)
(x0 ; y0 ) , x0 y0 x y .
[simplex method] ,
, .
() [system of linear
inequalities (equations)]
(),
.
[propensity to consume] , .
[demand] ;
, (
).
[optimization theory] , ,
.
[theory of extremal problems]
, .
[input-output (technology)
coefficients] ,
, .

109
[control, management] , , , .
[decision variables]
, . ,
.
[supply function]
.
[demand function] .
[objective function] ,
, ,
.
[integer programming]
, ,
,
.
[extremum] .


1. : . 8 . . / . . , . . , . . , . . .2-
..: , 2003.287 .
2. : . 7 . . / . . , . . , . . , . . .3-
..: , 2002.285 .
3. : 8 .: . .
. . / . . , . . ,
. . ., . . . ..: ,
1995.256 .
4. . . . 89 : . . /
. . , . . , . . ..: ,
1991.415 .
5. / . . ..:
, 2004.639 .
6. . . . 1..: , 1972.
335 .
7. . .
.: - , 2005.160 .
8. . . ..: , 1969.
464 .
9. . . : .
..: -, 1997.208 .
10. . . .
: - , 1997.64 .
11. . . // .
. .2003.. 5, . 3.. 5256.
12. : / . . . ..: , 2003.845 .
13. .
.., 1993.
14. . . . . I, . 1.
: - , 1999.454 .
15. . . // . .1991.. 1, . 1.. 1625.

111
16. . // .
2003, 14.
17. . . .
. . 9 ..: , 1974.144 .
18. . . ..: , 2006.960 .
19. . ., . . :
. . ..: ,
1989.192 .

. .

31.05.2007. 60841/16 .
. . . 6,51. 100 .
-,
362025, . , . , 93.