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Istvn Gyrgy Tth and Andrs Gbos (Trki, Budapest, www.tarki.

hu) Material and non-material dimensions of child well-being in Europe

Logic/outline: To start with: some important causal mechanisms on the relationship between education, well being and adult performance (and GDP at the end) Wide dispersion in country level performances, mostly due to institutional differences There is a need for monitoring, benchmarking and policy comparisons, much of what can be initiated and operated by the EU

For less waste of human capital in a country:


- The longer the education is the better - Less institutional selectivity brings better overall results - Early childhood is crucial for both current well being and for adult performance - Chain of transmission of adverse conditions can best be broken by education These mechanisms create a relationship between education and performance and well being in adulthood (and GDP at the end).

The above are rarely questioned in research, (but not that often respected in policy )

Child poverty and child-well being in the European Union

Report for the European Commission DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities Unit E.2

TARKI Social Research Institute (Budapest, Hungary) Applica (Brussels, Belgium)

January 2010 Budapest Brussels

There is a large cross country variance of child poverty outcomes between EU countries
(country clusters by relative at risk of poverty rates)
8

Bulgaria, Romania

Italy, Spain, Portugal, Lithuania, Poland, Greece Latvia, Slovakia, Hungary, UK, Luxemburg Malta, Ireland, Czech Rep. France, Belgium Estonia, Austria, Germany, Sweden, Netherlands Slovenia, Finland, Cyprus, Denmark

-2

-4 DK CY FI SI NL SE DE AT EE BE FR CZ IE MT LU UK HU SK LV EL PL LT PT ES IT BG RO

Indicators included in this presentation: at-risk-of-poverty rate relative median poverty gap (both based on EU-SILC) z-scores based on the difference between the national figure for children and the overall national figure the difference between the national figure and the EU average for children z-scores added together, without weighting Six clusters to maximise the steps between the groups to minimise within-group variance

There are consistently good and bad performers in the EU (Relative outcomes of countries - child poverty risk and main determinants)
Child poverty risk outcomes Denmark Finland Slovenia Good performers (in all dimensions) Sweden Cyprus Estonia Netherlands Austria France Slovakia Latvia UK Lithuania Romania +++ +++ +++ ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ + Joblessness +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + In-work poverty +++ ++ ++ +++ ++ + ++ ++ ++ Impact of social tr. +++ +++ ++ +++ + +++ ++ + +

Bad performers in all dimensions

Source. TRKI (2011) Child Well-being in the European Union commissioned by the HU Pres, which has been a a follow-up of the TRKI-Applica (2010) report and EU Task-Force (2008) report. Notes. Data are derived from the EUROSTAT database,. All data refer to 2008. Child poverty outcomes: at-risk-of-poverty rate, relative median poverty gap (EU-SILC). Joblessness: share of children in jobless households (EU-LFS) In-work poverty: at-risk-of-poverty rate of children in hhs with WI>= 0.5 (EU-SILC) Impact of social transfers: (EU-SILC): at-risk-of-poverty rate before and after social transfers (excl. pensions)

Depending on labour markets and institutional setting, in some countries joblessness, in others in work poverty hits children more
Child poverty risk outcomes Belgium Joblessness is a challenge Czech Republik Germany Ireland Hungary Bulgaria (?) Greece In work poverty is a challenge Spain Italy Luxemburg Poland Portugal + + ++ + Joblessness +++ + ++ +++ + ++ In-work poverty ++ ++ ++ ++ + + Impact of social tr. ++ +++ ++ +++ +++

Source. TRKI (2011) Child Well-being in the European Union commissioned by the HU Pres, which has been a a follow-up of the TRKI-Applica (2010) report and EU Task-Force (2008) report. Notes. Data are derived from the EUROSTAT database,. All data refer to 2008. Child poverty outcomes: at-risk-of-poverty rate, relative median poverty gap (EU-SILC). Joblessness: share of children in jobless households (EU-LFS) In-work poverty: at-risk-of-poverty rate of children in hhs with WI>= 0.5 (EU-SILC) Impact of social transfers: (EU-SILC): at-risk-of-poverty rate before and after social transfers (excl. pensions)

To monitor child well being a complex and integrated child well-being indicator portfolio is needed Dimensions
0-5 Child age groups 6-11 At-risk-of-poverty rate Relative median poverty risk gap Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate (Dispersion around the poverty threshold) 12-17

A1: Income

A2: Material deprivation A3: Housing A4: LM attachment B1: Education B2: Health

Primary indicator of mat. depr. (Secondary indicator of mat. deprivation) Severe material deprivation Housing costs, Overcrowding Share of children in jobless households (Share of children in low work- intensity (including jobless) households) Childcare use Participation in preprimary education (Life expectancy) (Perinatal mortality) Infant mortality Vaccination Low birth weight Breastfeeding (Low) Reading lit. perf. - 10y Educational deprivation Oral health Fruit daily Breakfast every school day (Overweight) (Low) Reading lit. perf. 15y Educational deprivation Early school-leavers (1824) General life satisfaction Physical activity (Self-perceived general health)

B3: Risk behaviour

Teenage births Daily smoking Regular alcohol use; Heavy episodic drinking Illicit drug use; Tranquill. use (Share in single-parent households) (Crime in the area is a problem), (Pollution or dirt is a problem in the area)

B4: Social part., fam. Env. B5: Local environment

To better advance policy feedback, analytic and monitoring instruments are suggested to be introduced
1. Policy marker report card Overall country picture based on main indicators Suggested breakdowns to complete main indicators Relative performance 2. Child well being monitoring framework Relative performance assessment for each Member States along each indicator Seven country groups based on distribution of z-scores (sample: EU-27) Definitions and cut-off points

Presentation of countries relative policy performance in a policy marker report card


Main indicators

EU-27 max EU-27 min

Lead indicators
HIGH performance: the value of that specific indicator differs from the EUaverage in the good direction (by at least 1 SE) LOW performance: the value of that specific indicator differs from the EU-average in the bad direction (by at least 1 SE)

A general finding: the relationships between material and non-material well-being outcomes
E d u c A T I O n Ro BG IE H E a l t h R i s k b e h a v I u r
NL, DK, SE, FI, FR

UK, HU

IE EL

- There is a significant correlation between material well-being on the one hand and education and health performance on the other - This is not the case for risk behaviour
SE, FI, CY

NL, DK, SE,

EL Ro

BG MT Ro

DK, NL, FR, AT

BG

Suggestions for the improvement of policy feedback (to enable countries learning from each others good practices)
Suggestion 1: New education, health and risk behaviour indicators be introduced to fill in the reserved child well-being slot within the Social OMC portfolio of indicators Suggestion 2: Build-up a comprehensive and separate set of child well-being indicators to allow for monitoring their situation in a comparative way across the MSs Suggestion 3: To complement this portfolio with context indicators (e.g. institutional indicators or measures of intergenerational redistribution) Suggestion 4: To improve and adjust the data infrastructure accordingly

Suggestions for policies for more equitable (and effective) human capital formation
Suggestion 5: Focus on equality of opportunities: to improve on education performance and to improve on family background disparities Suggestion 6: Focus on interventions in early childhood Suggestion 7: Improve strategies to strenghten family AND to improve formal care institutons Suggestion 8: Adjust the incentive system to foster the largest possible education and health service take-up

Andrs Gbos Istvn Gyrgy Tth

Thank you
Child poverty and child-well being in the European Union
Report for the European Commission DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities Unit E.2

http://www.tarki.hu/en

TARKI Social Research Institute (Budapest, Hungary) Applica (Brussels, Belgium)

January 2010 Budapest Brussels

Annex slides

Surveyed datasets
The EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) The Labour Force Survey (LFS) The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD)

Relative performance methods for computing


Seven country groups based on distribution of z-scores (sample: EU27) Definitions and cut-off points Notation Very high High Moderately high Average Moderately low Low Very low +++ ++ + 0 ---Range of z-score* 2< 1<2 0.25 < 1 - 0.25 < + 0.25 -1 < -0.25 -2 < -1 < -2

Cut-off points: the distance from average of EU-27, measured by standard deviations

An integrated child well-being indicator portfolio breakdowns


Dimension A1: Income A2: Material deprivation B1: Education Indicator with 0-17 age breakdown
A1: At-risk-of-poverty rate A1.2 Relative median poverty risk A2.1: Material deprivation A2.2: Severe material deprivation B1.1: Low reading literacy performance of pupils aged 15 B1.2: Low reading literacy performance of pupils aged 10 B1.5 Educational deprivation Child age Child age, work intensity, household type, migrant st. Child age, work intensity, household type, migrant st. Parents education, migrant status Parents education Parents education Gender Gender Gender Gender Gender, family affluence scale Gender, family affluence scale Gender, family affluence scale Gender, family affluence scale Gender Gender Gender Gender Gender

Breakdown
Child age, work intensity, household type, migrant st.

B2: Health

B2.1 Infant mortality B2.2a-c Vaccination in children B2.3 Low birth weight B2.4 Exclusive breastfeeding B2.5: General life satisfaction B2.2: Oral health B2.3: Eating fruit daily B2.4: Having breakfast every school day

B3: Risk behaviour

B3.2 Daily smoking B3.3 Regular alcohol use B3.4 Heavy episodic drinking B3.5 Illicit drug use B3.6 Tranquillizers/medicines use

Lead indicators of the policy marker report cards: a first list for consideration
Income poverty: at-risk-of-poverty rate Material deprivation: severe material deprivation rate Housing: overcrowding rate Labour market participation of parents: children in low work intensity households Education: early school-leavers Health: low birth-weight Exposure to risk and risk behaviour: daily smoking

Overall country picture based on main indicators


Rel. perf. to the EU27

Figures for children

Figures for overall pop. EU-27 average figures

Trends

Unweighted EUaverage

Suggested breakdowns to complete main indicators


A. Material well-being B. Non-material well-being

Unreliable estimate (N<20)

Educational deprivation among children

Source: Social Situation Observatory 2011-7. research note. Note. Results are estimations using EU-SILC 2009 specific module on material deprivation. The source of the OECD results is the PISA 2009 survey. The OECD indicator is a composite index based on 7 items. Deprived: has less than 5 out of 7 items. MDR material deprivartion rate. Suitable books: affordability of books at home suitable for childs age every child aged 1-15 in the hh must have the item. Suitable place to study: affordability of a plcae to study or do homework every child aged less than 16 and attending school must have the item. Countries are ranked according to the material deprivation rate among children at hh level.

Reading literacy performance 15 yrs


Definition: share of 15-yearold pupils who are at level 1 or below on the PISA combined reading literacy scale. Rec: to follow changes in country performances according to maths and science literacy scores. Definition: Difference in average reading literacy scores between pupils who have at least one parent with completed tertiary education and pupils who have at least one parent with only lower secondary education (or below), (score point diff.)
Source: OECD, PISA survey, 2006-2009

Reading literacy performance 10 yrs


Definition: share of 10-year-old pupils at or below the Low International Benchmark in reading Rec: to reflect on performance in later phases of childs cognitive development (based on PISA).

Definition: test- score difference in the average literacy performance according to the education level of parents

Source: PIRLS survey, 2006

Early school-leavers

Definition. Numerator: persons aged 1824 (i) with the highest level of education ISCED 0, 1, 2 or 3c; (ii) and who declared that they had not received any education or training in the four weeks preceding the survey. Denominator: consists of the total population of the same age group. Source: Eurostat, EU-LFS

Educational deprivation

Definition: % of students who report having less than 5 out of 7 educational items in their homes. Items: quiet place to study, desk, computer, educational software, internet connection, textbook, dictionary. Rec: further work on item selection and regular monitoring using EU-SILC is strongly recommended. Source: OECD, PISA survey, 2009