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EXPERIMENT: SHEAR FORCE

Figure 1: Shear force test apparatus.

OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENT To draw influence line for bending moment at a section of simply supported beam.

APPARATUS 1. Force gauge reading. hangers. 2. A set of weights with several load

3. A pair of simple supports (pin and roller).

4. Special beam with a cut section.

THEORY

The shearing force (SF) at any section of a beam represents the tendency for the portion of the beam on one side of the section to slide or shear laterally relative to the other portion.

The diagram shows a beam carrying loads points where the reactions are

. It is simply supported at two Assume that the beam is divided into two parts

by a section XX The resultant of the loads and reaction acting on the left of AA is F vertically upwards and since the whole beam is in equilibrium, the resultant force to the right of AA must be F downwards. F is called the Shearing Force at the section AA. It may be defined as follows:-

The shearing force at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the lateral components of the forces acting on either side of the section.

Where forces are neither in the lateral or axial direction they must be resolved in the usual way and only the lateral components use to calculate the shear force.

PROCEDURE 1. The two simple supports to the aluminium base at a distance equal to the span of the beam were fixed. 2. Load hanger was hanging to the beam that has been place to the support. 3. With the help of the spirit level on both side of the cut section, the beam was level using screw attached to the tension spring and the spring balance rod. 4. The force gauge reading was adjust to zero using the adjustment screw at the bottom of the balance. 5. The load hanger was placed again and the beam levelled again. Begin with the nut a top of the force gauge was adjusted (nut A) until the left section is just lifted from the right section. 6. The spirit level was check. The nut at the tension spring (nut B) was adjusted if the beam was not level. 7. The cut section was check. Nut A was adjusted until the two section separated. Nut A was adjusted again so that the two sections just rest on each other. 8. Step 6 and 7 was repeated until the beam is levelled. 9. Record the force gauge reading. This represents the shear force at the cut section.

10. All load was remove from the load hangers and different set of loading at different locations was apply.

RESULT Beam span Distance of the shear section from the left support Load case = 1000 mm = 342 mm Shear Force Theory N 2.5 Shear Force Exp. N 6.32 Percentage Error %

Load and its distance from the left support W1 N L1 mm 250 W2 N 5 L2 mm 500 W3 N 5 L3 mm 750

Case 1

60.44

Case 2

10

250

10

500

10

750

5.0

14.72

66.03

Case 3

15

250

15

500

15

750

7.5

11.30

33.63

Case 4

20

250

20

500

20

750

10.0

27.40

63.50

Case 5

25

250

25

500

25 Table 1.

750

12.5

29.00

56.90

DISCUSSSION 1. In this experiment, state the percentage errors either increased or decreased? Explain. The value of percentage error was increased because the gauge force reading had systematic error which is it not equal to zero at the beginning and that will affected the value. 2. Why we must compare theoretical and experiment value? Because we want to compare the differences of percentage error between theoretical and experiment values.

Calculate the shear force. Draw the bending moment diagram.

CONCLUSION When the load is applied to the beam, the internal forces are increases. In this experiment, we conclude the shear force at a cut-section of a beam is equal to the algebraic sum of the force acting to the left or right of the section.

REFERENCES Books 1. Afidah A.B. (2000), Basic Solid Mechanics, Vol. 1, Cerdik Publications Sdn. Bhd., pg. (63 112). 2. ECS 228 Lab Manual, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Uitm, pg. (82 105). Internet 1. http://www.codecogs.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_mo ment.php, (7 April 2011, 2.07am).