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Standard normal distribution table to 7.5 SD.

Standard Normal Distribution Table (z value table).

Column D in the standard normal distribution table is the area under the standard normal distribution curve from Z to +Z. This is the area around zero from plus or minus the SD stated. For plus or minus 1.5 SD the area is 0.8664. Column E in the standard normal distribution table is the area under the standard normal distribution curve outside of -Z to +Z. This is 1.0 minus the values for Column D. For outside plus or minus 1.5 SD the value is 0.1336. Note that 0.8664 + 0.1336 = 1.0 This is the appropriate value with a centered process to find out the fraction defective for a given sigma level. Note that at 6 sigma it is 1.98 or almost 2 parts per billion. Column C shows that have of that is on the high side and half on the low side. Column F in the standard normal distribution table we have converted the fraction to parts per million (PPM). Now we will address the part that seems to cause a lot of people confusion. In six sigma the mean is allowed to move 1.5 SD. Explaining why 1.5 SD was chosen is beyond the scope of this newsletter. Those that take our Black Belt training learn this secret. Most people agree that no process stays centered directly on the target value. For the standard normal distribution this centered value is 0. The actual averages with any real process move a little to one side of zero to the other. Allowing the mean to shift 1.5 SD means that the calculation is no longer for a symmetric distribution. If the mean shifts up by 1.5 SD then it is 7.5 SD from the lower spec ( 4.5 SD from the upper spec) and similarly if it shift down it is 7.5 SD from the upper specification (4.5 SD from the lower spec). It cant do both at the same time so instead of a centered process where we consider both tails of the distribution, it becomes a single sided test where only one tail, 4.5 SD, of the distribution need be addressed. The amount beyond 7.5 SD from the mean is so small that it is neglected. Column G in the standard normal distribution table shows the area under the standard normal distribution curve from a negative infinity to the sigma value shifted 1.5 SD Column H in the standard normal distribution table shows the area under the standard normal distribution curve from the sigma value shifted 1.5 SD to positive infinity. Column I in the standard normal distribution table converts the Column H values to parts per million. Note that at 6 sigma there are 3.4 PPM. Look at Column C from the sigma level to positive infinity, at 4.5 sigma the values is 3.4 PPM. Column F at 4.5 sigma show 6.8 PPM (half on the lower tail and half on the upper tail.). We have highlighted a couple of the sigma values (z) that are of special interest. Between 3 sigma and 4 sigma are typical North American organizations. At 4.5 sigma without the shift you will find the same values as 6 sigma when the shift is considered. (6.0-1.5=4.5) be sure to confirm a single sided test or a double sided test. We hope the standard normal distribution table from Excel is helpful. Remember you can make your own standard normal distribution table if you dont like the layout etc of ours. A last bit of warning, Excel is not perfect and there are some round off errors. For most of us these are not significant enough to worry about. Anyone who needs more accuracy that

provided by Excel is likely a professional statistician. These data for a standard normal distribution table will be more than adequate for most Black Belt applications. Finally Excel has a number of math and statistical functions. We have focused on only one of these, NORMSDIST(Z). You might find it useful to investigate others. http://www.adamssixsigma.com/Newsletters/standard_normal_table.htm