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E.M. Planning Characteristics of Planning -Planning is a mental process Involving imagination for sight and sound judgement.

It is not guesswork or wishful thinking. It requires a mental disposition before doing and actually in the field of facts rather than existing state of mind.

-Planning is a continuous process. It is a dynamic exercise. As the assumptions of events on which plans are based change, old plans have to be revised or new ones have to be prepared. -Planning is forward )(@*@! All planning is done with an eye on the future. It involves looking ahead and preparing for the future. Therefore forecasting is the essence of planning. -Planning involves Choice It is basically a problem of decision making or choosing among alternative courses of action. There is no need for planning if there is only one way of doing something. Plans are decisions made in advance of operations. -Planning is an integrated process Planning does not just happen, it has to be initiated. It is a structured process and different plans constitute a hierarchy. Different plans are inter dependent and interrelated.

Planning Process 1. Objective -What do we want? -Ideas and proposals: Screening -Criteria for screening -Event objectives and detailed Aims 2. Draft outline plan -Environmental Search i. Competition ii. Problems iii. Precedents and similarities iv. Stakeholders -Information Gathering i. Dates ii. Cost and revenue iii. Venue

iv. Staffing (Diagram) State the event objectives -> Identify Information Needs -> Identify Information Sources -> Identify Participants -> Assign Tasks -> Collate and check information-> Disseminate information -> Deal with any problems or oversights a.Competition around proposed date b. Precedents and history of previous events c. Problems with similar events d. Opportunities for this event e. Suitability of the event for the market Identifying information sources -Local information from ors. - Previous events -Local event diaries - Upcoming event diaries -Tourist information diaries -Local societies -Websites -Stakeholders -Knowledgable induviduals Identifying Participants -Staff and organizers involved in the event -Allocate people to research information -Get interested individuals involved Assign Tasks -Give particular tasks to various team members -Delegate and spread the load -Try to ensure some overlap in searching Collate and Check information -Record information in minutes or data file -Feed information to a specific person to crosscheck Disseminate Information -"All hands meeting to disseminate information" -Summary sheet of main points and outcome -Meetings act as a check of results -Identify any problems or oversights Deal with any problem or oversights -Ensure gaps are closed wherever possible -Feedback from staff and other sources 3. Systematic detailed planning

-Financial Plan a.Budget b. Charges/ Income c. Sponsorship d. Investment e.Cash Flow -Operational Plan a. Operations, resources b. Staffing / Team c. Location / Site / Venue d. Logistics e. Equipments f. Production Schedule (Run Sheet) g. Health, safety and security h. Contingenencies -Marketing Plan a. Research b. Marketing activities c. Promotion and PR d. Marketing Schedule 4. Discussion of Plans 5. Organizing and preparing the Event -Development activities -Preparations and Deadlines 6. Implementing the Event -Operations, control and action 7. Divestment/Legacy -Closedown ; evaluation, feedback and recording ; handover