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ABSTRACT The study was done to assess voters education for rural people.

It was carried out at Missisi village in Bunda District. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of voter education for rural people. The specific study was to examine mobilization process of voters by stakeholders, to determine voters registration and voting process and to analyze the effect of lack of voter education on voting. The methods of data collection used were; focus group discussion and questionnaires to get qualitative data.The purpose of the study was to understand election and voter related matters such as knowing their rights and ultimately enable them to participate in choosing their leaders through the ballot box.

Generally the results from the study revealed that there is a need for Government and other stakeholders to provide voter education despite different attitudes from respondents. This will enable all citizens especially the rural people to understand their rights and ultimately bring positive changes in their communities The community members should work perpendicular with the Government and any

institution that show interest on provision of voter education rather than blaming while they have made efforts to rescue them.

DECLARATION I, Gerald Mlambo, Clara R. Ndilla and Neema Mbogo, declare to the students

research committee of Tumaini University Iringa University College that, this research paper product is our original research work and it has not been submitted to any other Institute, College or University for similar award of Bachelor of Arts in Community Development or its equivalent.

Gerald Mlambo

Signature

Date .

Clara R. Ndilla

Signature

Date

Neema Mbogo

Signature

Date .

CERTIFICATION This research report has been submitted for examination in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor Degree in Community Development (BACD)

of Tumaini University, Iringa University College, with the approval of university supervisor

NAME OF SUPERVISOR Signature Date

Agnes Nzali

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We convey our heartfelt gratitude to our almighty God for His blessings. We would like to convey our thanks to our parents and sponsors who supported us financially and materially towards attaining this degree award, may God bless them abundantly.

In particular we would like to give distinguished thanks to our supervisor Mrs. A. Nzali for her tireless assistance throughout this research who has taken much of her 3

precious time advising us from the beginning to completion of this paper.

Also we would like to express our sincere thanks to the community members of Bunda District (missis village-Sazira ward) for their support during gathering information about assessment of voter education for rural people.

DEDICATION

With gratitude to God, We would like to dedicate this work to our beloved parents and to all our family members.

TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................... DECLARATION............................................................................................................. CERTIFICATION............................................................................................................ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................................... DEDICATION................................................................................................................. CHAPTER ONE.............................................................................................................. 1.0 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 1.1 Background of the study............................................................................................ 1.2 Statement of the problem....................................................................................... 1.3 Objectives............................................................................................................... 1.3.1 Main objective..................................................................................................... 5

1.3.2 Specific objectives.............................................................................................. 1.4 Research questions..................................................................................................... 1.5 Significance of the study............................................................................................ 1.6 Conceptual framework............................................................................................... CHAPTER TWO............................................................................................................. 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................................. 2.1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 2.2 voter registration and voting process......................................................................... 2.3 Mobilization of voters by NGOs and government..................................................... 2.4 The effects of lack of voter education on voting........................................................ CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................... 3.0 METHODOLOGY...................................................................................................... 3.1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................... 3.2 Description of study area........................................................................................... 3.3 Study Population........................................................................................................ 3.4 Sample size......................................................................................................... 3.5 Sampling techniques.................................................................................................. 3.6 Data collection methods............................................................................................. 3.6.1 Primary sources................................................................................................... 3.6.1.1 Questionnaires.............................................................................................. 3.2.1.2 Focus group discussion................................................................................ 3.6.2 Secondary sources........................................................................................... 3.6.3 Data analysis................................................................................................... CHAPTER FOUR........................................................................................................ 4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION.............................................................................. 4.1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 4.2 Gender of respondents............................................................................................ 4.3 Age of the respondents........................................................................................... 4.4.1 What do you understand on voter education?................................................. 4.4.2 Who do you think deserve to have voter education?...................................... 4.4.3 What is the qualification to vote?.................................................................... 4.5.1 Do you think the Government is doing enough to mobilize the citizens to come for education seminars?.................................................................................. 4.5.2 Are there any NGOs support on voter education provision........................... 4.6.0 Determination of voters registration and voting process............................... 4.6.1 Have you register your name in national register book ?................................ 4.7.0 Analyzation of the effect of lack of voter education on voting....................... 4.7.1 Does lack of voter education lead to spoil of votes?....................................... 4.7.2 Poor attendance of people in voting ;.............................................................. 5.1 What is your opinion concerning voter education provision and how it is............ CHAPTER FIVE.......................................................................................................... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................... 5.1 CONCLUSION...................................................................................................... 5.2 RECOMMENDATION......................................................................................... 5.2.1 To the Government......................................................................................... 5.2.2 To the community........................................................................................... 5.2.3 To the NGOs................................................................................................... APPENDIX 1 :Time Frame............................................................................................. APPENDIX 2. Research Budget...................................................................................... APPENDIX 3: Questionnaires.........................................................................................

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF APPENDIXES

LIST OF ACRONYMS ECK ESP FGD ICEI NEC NGO(s) Election Commission of Kenya Election Support Project Focus Group Discussion Independent Commission Election in Iraq National Electoral Commission Non Government Organization(s)

SPSS UNDP URT VEO WEO ZEC

Statistical Package for Social Science United Development Programs United Republic of Tanzania Village Executive Officer Ward Executive Officer Zanzibar Electoral Commission

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Referring to the afore mentioned proposed title which says assessment of voter education for rural people .A researcher aimed to verify and scrutinize how voter education is vital to rural people so as to find out whether they have awareness and understanding of their rights and duties with respect to the electoral process. A researcher wanted to find out whether they know that voter education is part and parcel of any free and fair election as well as a democratic country. This study was conducted on qualitative basis and the purpose of the study was to understand election and voter related matters such as knowing their rights and ultimately enable them to participate in choosing their leaders through the ballot box.

1.1 Background of the study.


Poor electoral process and lack of voter education is a major problem around the world especially in third word countries as compared to the first world nations. It is proven enough in the third world countries that some of the major problems such as conflicts, poverty, political instability and wars are sometimes brought about by poor electoral process as well as lack of education, for example conflicts in Congo, Sudan and more recently in Kenya 2007.with comparison with the first world nations the majority of these countries have a wide knowledge on voter education and the whole electoral processes thats why they dont fall on such crisis. The major concern is to bring together the international world and local people to come up with proper electoral process and provision of voter education so as to minimize the problems. In Tanzania voter education is one of the key components of a project known as ESP 11

(Electoral Support Project) which was formulated and signed in June 2009 that is being funded by UNDP, the program is supporting two election management bodies in their voter education efforts to influence the public to effectively participation the electoral process, these are NEC voter education strategic plan and ZEC action plan for voter education 2008-2010, this project intends to ensure mobilization of voters inform voters about the registration and voting process Support key civil society networks and specialized organizations to enhance participation and promote fairness in the electoral process.

Among the fore runners of this change in the world is UNDP, which is teaming up with other non governmental organisations, local governments and international institutions in trying to come up with strategies, solutions and sound policies to eliminate the foretasted problems. coming back to Tanzania the electoral process is also said to be known as first-past-post system, this system the candidate who wins the majority of the votes is declared the winner, and such a system generally disfavours women and leads to a low number of women getting elected, for example in 2005 only 17 out of 230 contested seats 7.3% were won by women. (http://www.vegf.or.tz ) 1.2 Statement of the problem Lack of voter education in rural Tanzania has been a major problem in Tanzanian since the days of independence up to the current days. It is clearly seen that in most rural parts of Tanzania most citizens are not aware of the electoral process due to lack of voter education. they do not know their basic right to vote as citizens of their nation as well as why should they vote, all this is lacking in rural Tanzania and in

some urban areas but the main area of concern is rural Tanzania. however the government and other stakeholders have been trying to mobilise people on the whole process starting from registration still the problem persist as a result leaders chosen do not stand for their people in all matters concerning development. Solution to this problem is of paramount importance as this will assist the nation to achieve the UN stated millennium development goals which will lead our nation to prosperity. (www.undp.com/esp),(www.nec.co.tz) 1.3 Objectives 1.3.1 Main objective To explore level of voter education to rural people. 1.3.2 Specific objectives To examine the mobilization process of voters by NGOs and the government. To determine voters registration and voting process. To analyze the effect of lack of voter education on voting.

1.4 Research questions 1. Are stakeholders mobilizing the rural people? 2. Is the registration and voting process conducted basing on proper procedures? 3. What is the effect of lack of voter education on choice of leaders? 1.5 Significance of the study 1. Create public awareness on election related matters such as knowing their rights and ultimately enable them to participate in choosing their leaders through their votes as per constitution of The United Republic of Tanzania states your vote is your right. 2. The information obtained will help rural people to be aware of their right to 13

vote. If they are not aware. 3. This study will give a room to other researchers to investigate further on the issue of voter education. 1.6 Conceptual framework With reference to figure 1 below; personal characteristics have been influencing voter education; it is sort of a hybrid system that mainly depends on various factors which will result in lack of knowledge in voter literacy. From figure it all start with demographic issues such as marital status and usually this problem mainly affects the married women as most of them are not free to make decisions and choices of their own. Their husbands mainly want them to follow what they want as a result it lead to poor economic development as we all know that women are the driving force behind any development and voting. If they do not get a fare share in decision making and freedom to choose this will hinder their participation in election related matters and eventually failing to vote. As on gender it all goes back to the oppression of women in these communities as it is in marriages so it is just the same as marital issues. another background variable is age, mainly age affects so many things might be economic development and socio-cultural development especially the youth in these rural areas they do not know that the future of the country belongs to them and their right to vote is what makes them democratic citizens, so it is a must for them to take part in all election related matters, but instead most of them lack education and poor communication. They leave all these issues to the elders thereby leaving a big demarcation line of voter education literacy between the elders and the youth, this has a very big negative impact on economic and sociocultural development as no one will be working towards sustainability of the nation. All these are assumptions.

Economic -Poor government support in voter education to the rural people. Voter education for rural people - Lack of fund to establish voter education programmes. Figure 1: conceptual framework - Poverty. Social Background variables Independent variables Dependent -Low level of education. variable -Poor source of information. 0100090000038800000002001c00000000000400000003010800050000000b0200000 000050000000c02fe040e04040000002e0118001c000000fb021000070000000000bc0 2000000000102022253797374656d00770811280828b71900cc03717740917477e851 630c34b71900040000002d010000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000f b02a4ff0000000000009001000000000440002243616c6962726900000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010100040000002d0101000400 00002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a5700000001000400000000000 e04fb0420003600040000002d010000040000002d010000030000000000

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CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION A number of authors have dealt with voter education, most of the literatures as it will be observed, have discussed generally on mobilization of voters by NGOs, determining voter registration and voting as well as analyzing whether lack of voter education influence bad choice of leadership. 2.2 voter registration and voting process. Voters registration plays a central role in Tanzania election. Every region and district have database contains the name and registration information of each legally registered voter, this is done apart from the local way of recording on books. It is done so as to keep the process efficient. Election officers must perform regular maintenance regarding the accuracy and completeness of the registration list; however, other candidates leave their posts vacant due to death or disqualification as per constitution 1977 article 41 which was amended in 2000 to abolish the requirement for an absolute majority (NEC, 2005).

Kiravu, (2005) emphasizes on what kind of documents needed to bring at registration centres for proof of identity, address and citizenship.Aditional information includes whether voters can register family members if they cannot visit the registration centres during the time publicized for registration. a person who will have access to vote should be above 18 years old must register at one centre which will be the place where the voter will cast his or her ballot.

According to European Union report on election observation mission on Kenya general elections 27th December 2007 they observed that the ECK (election commission of Kenya) did an extra job in creating and increasing the number of polling stations used as voters registration centres which enhanced peoples accessibility to register. This is done to reduce the problem of delay as well as people travel for a distance. Together with all the effort on registration done there are few complaints reported concerning exclusion or discrimination of particular groups. The main issue that affect negatively upon the entire exercise was issuing of the identity cards and there are communities experiencing difficulties obtaining national identity or passport therefore were impeded during registration for 2007 polls being regarded as non citizens. Also there are number of cases on double and multiple registrations remain high. According to electoral officials in Kenya general election, they indicated that the main reason for double and multiple registrations are lack of knowledge of voters. 2.3 Mobilization of voters by NGOs and government. The government and non government organizations have a big responsibility to educate the general public particularly on the meaning, process and all procedures of election. Just in few days ago the NEC director who was addressing the meeting which involved the electoral body and representatives of the civic organizations Mr. Kiravu said we NEC have been given mandate to provide voter education and also to coordinate and supervise other institutions which are willing to provide such education to the target population.

Kiravu added that the NGOs, media and other stakeholders have a duty to mobilize

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people, provide voter education so as to promote free and fair election in the coming general elections. Being a duty of both NGOs and government, USAID coordinated with the independent election commission in Iraq (ICEI) and supported Iraq civil society groups reaching out to voters. With regard on voter mobilization and public awareness campaign, successful trained about 15,000 election monitors in 2003 together with the support of the assistance of the United Nations.

These NGOs are championing the projects in trying to make sure that all the eligible voters at least are provided information and education as to why they should vote as well as the benefits of voting. He also added that the government has the leading role in evaluating these projects that are being provided for by various NGOs and chiefly among them ESP (election support project) being carried out this year in all regions by UNDP.In this project which was carried again in the last election in Tanzania which was 2005.Kiravu,(2005) mention that UNDP recruited and trained election educators in all provinces and mainly teachers were selected to carry out the project which helped in some regions were they were less hindrances.

Because in some parts of the country it is not easy to carry out such projects instead the people depend on radio information which is one way of communication. He noted that trained personnel should be given assistance to enable them to access all corners of the country so as to educate the citizens face to face and enabling them to ask questions as well. Another problem on mobilization of voter was noted by Kanazawa, S in his book called a possible solution to the paradox of voter turnout he argued that Low turnout is often considered to be undesirable, and there is much debate over the

factors that affect turnout and how to increase it. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on reasons for the decline. Its cause has been attributed to a wide range of economic, demographic, cultural, technological and institutional factors. There have been many efforts to increase turnout and encourage voting. with the above statement he went on further to elaborate more on that issue and he said low voter education is the main contributing factor, so people should be mobilized more and educated more in order for them to take part in the voting process. He also noted that most of the citizens in third world countries are not fully attended on voter education due to mobilization problems that the education providers come across. He said most parts of these third world countries most parts are in accessible making it difficult for educators to get the chance to talk face to face with citizens so as to hear from them as well as giving them a chance put forward their views and ideas. There is inaccessibility but the need to propose on the use of radios in these remote areas as it is the fastest and cheapest way of passing information as well as educating the people on voter education matters. He also noted that most people in these rural areas they do not have trust anymore in their governments so even if education providers are send to these rural vicinities most of the citizens they do not attend because they are tired of being sweet talked all the time but nothing has changed as of up to date and most Non Governmental Organizations come across these problems when they are in rural areas to educate the people on their voting rights. He also put forward the notion that explained the lack of financial and technical backup when it comes to the provision of voter education which makes it hard to mobilize the people to come for voter education classes

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(www.usaid.gov/iraq/accomplisment/election

2.4 The effects of lack of voter education on voting. (Dassu,2010 )in his article on voter education whether its a basis of electing a good leader in his feature story ,is trying to bring out the facts and problems behind voter education in Tanzania when it comes to the electoral process, whether lack of voter education influences bad choice leadership. It is good in his observation and analysis but he only pointed out the necessity of voter education towards the electoral process in Tanzania, he did not stress out what should be done in order to make sure that voter education becomes a necessity to all the citizens of the country, he also said since the introduction of multiparty system in this country we have not yet gained considerable grounds towards educating the electorate, he argued that instead of finding ways to make sure the government and all stake holders are fully involved as well as committed towards ensuring that lack of voter education will not result in other problems such as Lack of funds to educate the electorate. Poor infrastructure which includes transport and communication. Political will to make sure that the political arena is stable so as for the people to fully participate in the election process. Tanzania constitution also states that the right of every citizen; one is educational right article 11(1) the state authority shall make appropriate provision for the realization of peoples right to self education. Also article 11(3) states that the government shall endeavor to ensure that there are equal and adequate opportunities to all persons to enable them to acquire education at all level of schools and learning institutions.

A word education is a wide context, so even voter education is within the context of education, therefore it is a right of every individual to be provided with such education so as to understand the whole process of election, how to vote, who should vote. When the citizens have all these details and knowledge they will be in a position to come up with good voting decisions to choose their leader

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CHAPTER THREE 3.0 METHODOLOGY.

3.1 INTRODUCTION Research methodology sets the procedures for carrying out the study and tries to explain the reason for using a particular method. Research methodology, does not mean only research methods but also the logic behind the method. (Kothari, 2004). 3.2 Description of study area. The study was conducted in Bunda district which is one of the five districts of Mara region in Tanzania. It is boarded to the Northern by Musoma, to the South by Lake Victoria and Mwanza region, to the East by Serengeti district and the West by Lake Victoria. The district has four divisions namely; Kenkyomo, Nansimo, Serengeti and Chamuliro.It have 3088km. The district has twenty wards. Among all, the study based on Sazira Ward at Missisi village as it is amongst the rural areas in Bunda District. (URT; Census 2002) 3.3 Study Population Study population based on citizens of Tanzania who were male and female, aged from eighteen and above and mentally fit. 3.4 Sample size. Sample size is the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. The size of the sample should neither be extremely large nor too small. (Kothari, 2004).The study sample was 50 respondents so as to be effective and efficient to carry the study. The individuals were adults from the age of 18 and above who are mentally fit.

3.5 Sampling techniques.


Sampling is obtaining information about the entire population by examining only part of it. (Kothari,2004) stratified random sampling was used to gather information from respondent; this was preferred so as to avoid biasness in choosing people for focus group discussion and filling questionnaires. The number of focus group discussion was twenty four in three groups of which each group had eight respondents. The strata were male and females. 3.6 Data collection methods. Data collection refers to the gathering of specific information aimed at proving some facts. A researcher should have clear vision of the instrument to be used, respondent and the selected area. (Kombo, 2006).There are two major sources of data collection method used in this research of which are;

3.6.1 Primary sources


These are information gathered directly from the respondent. This is through questionnaires and focus group discussion. In this study questionnaire and focus group discussion were used. 3.6.1.1 Questionnaires These are research instruments which gather data over large samples. It involves collection of information from a large samples and diverse regions. They are presented in paper in form of question with a space to answer those questions. During the study, this method was used.

3.2.1.2 Focus group discussion


Is a special type of group in terms of its purpose, size, composition and procedures.

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Usually composed of six up to eight individuals who share certain characteristics which are relevant for the study. Also it composed of homogenous members of the targeted population i.e. same age, education level, gender and professionals. This method was used when carrying out the study. 3.6.2 Secondary sources These are data neither collected directly by the user nor specifically for the user. It involves the collection and analysis and published material and information from internal sources. Data collected may be conducted by collecting information from diverse source of documents such as books, journals, magazines and news papers or electronically stored information like internet.

3.6.3 Data analysis. When carrying out our study we will have to make correction on the questionnaire filled by respondent when found that there is a slight mistake. For example when a respondent writes 8years was assumed he or she meant 18years.Questionnaire were coded regarding the answers from respondents by using Statistical package for social science (SPSS.

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the research and discussion findings obtained during data collection. This includes findings from questionnaire and focus group discussion. We had 26 people who answered the questionnaire and 24 people sat for focus group discussion. Table 1.Gender of respondents

Gender Male Female Total

Frequency 15 11 26

Percentage 57.7 42.3 100

4.2 Gender of respondents The table above presents the distribution of respondents gender who volunteered to answer the questionnaire. The majority were male with 57.7% followed by women with 42.3%., due to the fact that men are free to move around as well as patriarchy system still prevails in most parts of rural areas. Most men who participated were even saying that women are not allowed to take part in meetings or discussion during rainy season; instead women should be busy preparing and plaguing their fields. Another contributing factor towards the high turn out of males was that women are the ones who are usually occupied with almost all of the household chores, so most of them they did not turn up.

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Table 2.Age of the respondents Age 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Total Frequency 13 8 2 2 1 26 Percent (%) 50.0 30.7 7.7 7.6 3.8 100

4.3 Age of the respondents The respondents age ranges from 18-56. A total number of 26 people answered the questionnaire reason being that they had some sort of interest in issues concerning voting as some were lacking enough education when it comes to voting issues and were willing to know and understand anything that has to do with voting and some thought if they participate they would get some sort of payment for participating. The most frequent age groups was 18 to which contributed 15.4% of all the participants and the main reasons for them to take part were as follows Ability to walk to and from the distribution point of the questionaires,this was the main reason as most members of this category are still strong to walk even longer distances as the place were distributing the questionnaires was a bit far and most of the homes are far from each other. The eagerness to understand and contribute towards developmental issues, on this note most of the people who participated were educated to ordinary level and they had some interest in contributing towards the success of our research as they felt the research that we were making was of vital importance towards the future of the youths of today.

Access to technological means, most of the people in this category is educated enough and they knew that participating was not for the benefit of us but for everyone. They also argued that the government does not invest more in educating people within villages how to vote, what to do when voting and benefits of voting, most youth have access to radios and they poses cell phones. Were even saying they once listened to radio programs which were similar to what we were discussing about.

Interest in political affiliated issues, majority of responded within category were very much involved in political issues within the village and some were affiliated to different political parties which are available in the country

The last frequent were 22, 32,33,48,49 and 56.This implies that we had a group of people who are adults who participate fully in different activities in the village, as a matter of fact they cooperated with us to fill up questionnaires seeing it as part and parcel in contributing to their development. Table 3.What do you understand on voter education

Variety of answers No idea at all Understand Doesnt understand Provision of education Total

Frequency 3 14 6 3 26

percentage 11.5 53.8 23.1 11.5 100

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4.4.0 Exploration of level of voter Education to rural people 4.4.1 What do you understand on voter education? The majorities which were 53.8% had some sort of idea concerning what voter education is all about, due to the fact that some once participated as election clerks and played some logistical services during times of election in the village. Another reason which contributed to their knowledge was; are usually glued on to radios during election times that were they get to adopt some knowledge on voting 23.1% of the total participants did not understand at all,; they argued that they have never come across anything to educate them on voting issues as well as lack of education and interest in knowing what is voting, another contributing factor was lack of interest in political issues as they argued that voting or not voting is just the same.

The next category was the group which was willing to be educated in voting matters but they did not have access and means to get education they require. They amounted to 11.5%.The last of them was the group which did not have any idea at all and they contributed 11.5%,

Table 4.Who do you think deserve to have voter education

Variety of answers Women Both Total

Frequency 2 24 26

percentage 7.7 92.3 100

4.4.2 Who do you think deserve to have voter education? The findings show that the majority of respondents 92.3% said both men and women had the same chance on voting; however this implied gender balance to the residents of Missisi village. Though 7.7% responded that only women had a right to have voter education. As for the focus group discussion a man replied on the question that it is a right off all citizen to vote and the majority seemed to node their heads indicating that they agree on the same response though insisted many people who understood that it is their right to vote they are fooled by parties policies which seem to be in favor while on stage but they fail to implement. On contrary the eldest man responded that literary speaking it seems to be every ones right to vote but being evident that the mental retarded do not participate as the constitution states that only 18years and above and who are mentally fit. 4.4.3 What is the qualification to vote? When the respondents were asked the qualification to vote, the findings showed that 96.2% responded that the person who is eighteen years old and above, is Tanzanian citizenship as well as mental fitness is qualified, this implies they understand who is supposes to vote and who should not. Only few (3.8%) responded that it is a person who has enough money, aged twenty five and above and who is physically fit. (See table no 6. below)

Table 5.what is the qualification to vote Variety of answers 18,tz citizens, mental fitness Enough money, 25, physically fit Total Frequency 25 1 26 percentage 96.2 3.8 100

4.5.0 Examination of mobilization process of voters by NGOs and the 29

Government 4.5.1 Do you think the Government is doing enough to mobilize the citizens to come for education seminars? However, when the citizen were asked if the Government is doing enough to mobilize them to go for education seminars, the findings were as follows; the majority responded yes to the extent of 80.8% and the rest answered no to the question at the percentage of 19.2.The result implied that there are efforts made by the Government to make sure that its citizens attend seminars, however; when conducting FGD,one man stood up to answer the same question and said; the seminars are not for all citizens, its only leaders such as VEO,WEO and few elders are appointed to attend also he has been witnessing only the volunteers who will supervise on election attending such seminars. The majority only sees posters outside offices and to them seminars mean campaigns

Table 6 Variety of answers Yes No Total . Frequency 21 5 26 percentage 80.8 19.2 100

4.5.2 Are there any NGOs support on voter education provision Again the respondents were asked whether any NGOs are giving support on voter education. The findings were; 30.8% said yes which implied that Non-Governmental Organization provide support on such education whilst the majority responded no to the extent of 69.2% of which implied that the NGOs had not shown up. The

assumption being due to poor road network. Similar question were asked to Focus group discussion, one woman responded that NGOs are not providing them with voter education rather they normally send their representatives to look for vulnerable groups such as orphans, widows and elders to give them aid. Table 7 Variety of answers Yes No Total Frequency 8 18 26 percentage 30.8 69.2 100

4.6.0 Determination of voters registration and voting process. 4.6.1 Have you register your name in national register book ?
Also the researcher wanted to know whether the respondents have registered their names in national register book. The findings shows that the majority 73.1% have registered themselves and 26.9% have not registered. Though the findings had shown a big number of people were registered in the national register book but they do not show up at the ballot station. To the side of women in FGD; one woman when responding to the question said that they do register themselves because they get voters identity card of which they get a lot of advantage to have them such as citizenship Identity Card to be used at post offices when receiving money and letters.

Table 8 31

Variety of answers Yes No Total

Frequency 19 7 26

percentage 73.1 26.9 100

4.7.0 Analyzation of the effect of lack of voter education on voting 4.7.1 Does lack of voter education lead to spoil of votes? The respondents were asked whether lack of voter education lead to spoil of votes. The findings shown that the majority responded yes at 53.8% and 46.2% said no. From the results it shows that the majority normally vote without knowing why they are there at the secret ballot thats why a lot of votes are spoiled. A certain man when responding to the question said that as the majority do not understand what it means and simply because they have not been provided with voter education, people tend to vote for more than one contestant or writing aggressive words on voting papers expressing emotion of which doesnt help to solve problems rather spoiling of votes.

Table 9 Variety of answers Yes No Total Frequency 14 12 26 percentage 53.8 46.2 100

4.7.2 Poor attendance of people in voting ; However when the villagers were asked the reasons for poor attendance on voting day the findings were; 38.5% responded that they lack awareness meaning that they dont understand what to do when they go at the polling stations thats the reason why they attend less. The majority number which constitutes 57.7% said that; poor attendance is caused by low level of voter education. This is because The Government and other stakeholders had less response on it thus necessitate poor attendance. However 3.8% said that poor attendance is caused by lack of time. Seemed that one can not surrender his or her little time to vote to the leader of his or her choice as they see no importance. (See table no10.below)

Table 10 Variety of answers Lack of awareness Low level of education Lack of time Total Frequency 10 15 1 26 percentage 38.5 57.7 3.8 100

5.1 What is your opinion concerning voter education provision and how it is important in the whole process of voting?
Concerning the opinion of people on how voter education is crucial in the whole process of voting, only 19.2% of respondents had no opinion thus they left the space blank.50% of respondents gave out their opinion that they have no enough education thus the Government should respond positively to equip them with voter education as it is very important for them to understand the whole process in order to eliminate

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mistakes made when voting.30.8% of respondents gave their opinion that they need no provision of voter education as they have enough knowledge. However; their opinion can not prevent the Government and other stakeholders willing to provide voter education for rural people because their percentage do not convince. When conducting FGD one man said that; measures should be taken to rescue them as having a good leader will help them achieve their goals otherwise they will not move ahead. To regard them backward will not help; as for the nation they need to be counted developed as well. (See table no 11 below). Table 11 Variety of answers No idea Doesnt have enough Have enough Total Frequency 5 13 8 26 percentage 19.2 50.0 30.8 100

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 CONCLUSION Generally the result from the study revealed that there is lack of voter education amongst rural dwellers due to many factors such as lack of Government initiatives to ensure that the villagers are taught and have access to all the necessary resources that enable them to learn and acquire knowledge on voting issues. The Government also is reluctant in some areas in provision of education as it does not make follow up in checking whether the little education they provide is reaching the target people.

On the same token being realized that even other relevant stakeholders are not involved in voter education. Instead they focus on other issues such as provision of food, water well, and family planning techniques as well as many other needs for the rural people of which this will not enable them to know how, when, who to vote for when the time come.

The local people themselves are adamant in terms of getting organized themselves and approach the relevant stakeholders who are capable of providing the much needed voter education to them. It is not the duty of the government and NGOs, but should be a duty of every citizen to ensure that everyone is educated to vote since the problem does not affect Missisi village almost all rural people in Tanzania. 5.2 RECOMMENDATION Reflecting back to the information gathered and the findings, recommendation to the 35

relevant stakeholders is of vital importance since more efforts are needed to reach the desired goal of making sure that everyone acquires voter education. Therefore; the following are recommendations to stakeholders to make action and take the necessary measures. 5.2.1 To the Government As the mother of all developmental programmers in Tanzania the government should ensure that all the channeled resources are distributed evenly and they reach the required people as usual. Most Government leaders who are responsible for the management of required resources abuse these resources as a result development will not take place. An issue like corruption should be addressed .It is the duty of the Government to ensure that the electorate is full of his or her rights on who to vote for and why to vote for a particular person.

5.2.2 To the community Sense of ownership should be encouraged amongst the local people so as for them to work as a team in solving issues that might need attention. This is not a time to talk about personal differences but to sit down and plan the way forward rather than just wait to be spoon fed by donors, the government and other supporting agents. If the community want to move ahead they should stop blaming the government instead they should initiate development for themselves as the problem will be focused at them and where they face obstacles its where they should seek Government advice. To them the community is theirs, the Country is theirs and the development is theirs so every citizen must rise up and develop a positive approach toward achieving development especially when focusing on voting as this is also part of development.

5.2.3 To the NGOs To those NGOs within the society, they are supposed to help the Government in provision of education to the people. NGOs should walk perpendicular with the Government in order to make sure that citizens get education in voting not only in National election but can help at village level when choosing leaders.

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REFERENCES Dasu, S (2010) Local features: Voter Education, a tool for free and fair election. Daily News 22nd 2010 ISSN 0856-3812

Kothari, C.R(2004): Research methodology: methods and Techniques New Deihi: Wishwa Prakashan

Kanazawa, S Possible solution to the paradox of voter turnout. The journal of politics. Last modified 7th June 2010

Kombo, D.K and D.Tromp(2006).Proposal and thesis writing. Paulines Publishing Africa Inc

National Electoral Commission 2000, a hand book of Tanzania regulations.

electoral laws &

R, Kiravu. (2005), Improving election in Tanzania, In improving the quality of election management.

The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania1977 (CAP2). The United Republic of Tanzania 2002:2002 population and housing census, National Bureau of statistics.Bunda District. www.usaid.gov/iraq/accomplishment/election http://www.vegf.or.tz www.undp.com/esp/nectz

APPENDIX 1 :Time Frame

Time Location Week 1 Week 2 Week 3

Activities undertaken Farmiliarize on Sazira ward(Missisi village) Provide questionnaire to the respondent. Conduct focus group discussion and

collection of questionnaire. Week 4 Week 5-6 Week 7 Collection of secondary data. Data processing, analysis and interpretation. Drafting the report, counterchecking and finalization of the report, rechecking and binding of the report.

APPENDIX 2. Research Budget. This budget is estimated per three people.


S/No 1. 2. DESCRIPTION AMOUNT TOTAL AMOUNT 200,000/= 12,000/=

Transport fare; 200,000/= To and from the field area Stationary; 6,000/=

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2A4 Paper ream 1 Stapler machine 5,000/= 5,000/= 1,000/= 12,000/= 25,000/=

3.

2 Packets of staple 500/= pins 2 boxes of pen @ 6,000/= Access internet 1000/= per hour

4. 5.

Communication Meals accommodation Binding Miscellaneous

50,000/= & 840,000/=

50,000/= 840,000/=

6. 7. TOTAL

15,000/= 200,000/=

15,000/= 200,000/= 1,420,000/=

APPENDIX 3: Questionnaires Dear respondent, we kindly request you to answer these questions on your understanding so as to make our research work successful. Tick where appropriate/ explain where necessary.

1. Gender

Male

( )

Female

( )

2. Age

( )

3. What do you understand on voter education?

................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 4. Who do you think deserves to have voter education?

a) Men b) Women c) All citizens

( ( (

) ) )

5. Have you register your name in the National election book? a) Yes b) No ( ( ) )

6 What is the qualification to vote? a) Above 18years, Tanzanian citizen, mentally fitness? b) Enough money, above 25years, physically fit? c) Many cows, degree holder, secondary education? ( ( ( ) ) )

7 Do you think the Government is doing enough to mobilize the citizens to come for education seminar?

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a) Yes b) No

( (

) )

8. Are there any NGOs support on voter education provision? a) Yes b) No ( ( ) )

9. Lack of voter education may lead to the spoil of votes? a) Yes b) No ( ( ) )

10. Poor attendance of people in voting is caused by the following? a) Lack of awareness b) Low level of voter education c) Lack of time ( ( ( ) ) )

11. What is your opinion concerning voter education provision and how it is important in the whole process of voting? .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................

APPENDIX 4; DISCUSSION

GUIDING

QUESTIONS

FOR

FOCUS

GROUP

1. What do you understand on voter education? 2. Who do you think deserve to have voter education?

3. Have you register your name in National register book? 4. Do you think the Government is doing enough to mobilize the citizens to come for education seminars? 5. What is your opinion concerning voter education provision and how it is important in the whole process of voting?

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