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CHAPTER 7—ROTATIONAL MOTION AND THE LAW OF GRAVITY

CHAPTER 7—ROTATIONAL MOTION AND THE LAW OF GRAVITY
 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following angles equals 2

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following angles equals 2 rad? a. 360 c. 0 b.

rad?

a.

360

c.

0

b.

180

d.

3.14

ANS: A

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-1.1

STO:

TEKS 3B

2. One radian is equal to

 

a.

60 .

c.

57.3 .

b.

58 .

d.

56 .

ANS: C

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-1.1

STO:

TEKS 3B

3. How would an angle in radians be converted to an angle in degrees?

a. The angle in radians would be multiplied by 180 / .

b. The angle in radians would be multiplied by 360 / .

c. The angle in radians would be multiplied by 180 /2 .

d. The angle in radians would be multiplied by 2 /360 .

ANS:

STO:

in radians would be multiplied by 2 /360 . ANS: STO: A TEKS 3B DIF: II
in radians would be multiplied by 2 /360 . ANS: STO: A TEKS 3B DIF: II
in radians would be multiplied by 2 /360 . ANS: STO: A TEKS 3B DIF: II
in radians would be multiplied by 2 /360 . ANS: STO: A TEKS 3B DIF: II

A

TEKS 3B

DIF:

II

OBJ: 7-1.1

4. How would you convert an angle in degrees to an angle in radians?

a. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2

b. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2

c. multiply the angle measured in degrees by

d. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2 r

ANS:

STO:

/180 measured in degrees by d. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2 r ANS: STO:

/360 measured in degrees by d. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2 r ANS: STO:

/360

in degrees by d. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2 r ANS: STO: /180
in degrees by d. multiply the angle measured in degrees by 2 r ANS: STO: /180

B

TEKS 3B

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-1.1

1

5.

A cave dweller rotates a pebble in a sling with a radius of 0.30 m

 

counterclockwise through an arc length of 0.96 m. What is the angular displacement of the pebble?

a. 1.6 rad

c.

3.2 rad

b. –1.6 rad

d.

–3.2 rad

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

6. Earth has an equatorial radius of approximately 6380 km, and it rotates

360 every 24 h. What is the angular displacement of a person standing at the equator for 3.0 h?

a. 0.26 rad

c.

0.78 rad

b. 0.52 rad

d.

0.39 rad

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-1.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

7. A child sits on a carousel at a distance of 3.5 m from the center and rotates through an arc length of 6.5 m. What is the angular displacement of the child?

a. 1.9 rad

c.

3.0 rad

b. 0.93 rad

d.

5.0 rad

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

8. A bucket on the circumference of a water wheel travels an arc length of 18

m. If the radius of the wheel is 4.1 m, what is the angular displacement of the bucket?

a. 1.0 rad

c.

3.7 rad

b. 4.4 rad

d.

2.3 rad

ANS:

B

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

9. What is the approximate angular speed of a wheel rotating at the rate of 5.0 rev/s?

a. 3.2 rad/s

c.

16 rad/s

b. 1.6 rad/s

d.

31 rad/s

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-1.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

2

10.

A grinding wheel initially at rest with a radius of 0.15 m rotates until it reaches an angular speed of 12.0 rad/s in 4.0 s. What is the wheel's average angular acceleration?

 

a. 96

rad/s 2

c.

3.0 rad/s 2

b. 48

rad/s 2

d.

0.33 rad/s 2

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-1.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

11. A potter's wheel moves from rest to an angular speed of 0.54 rad/s in

30.0 s. What is the angular acceleration of the wheel?

a. 16 rad/s 2

c.

0.018

rad/s 2

b. 1.3 rad/s 2

d.

0.042

rad/s 2

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

12. A record player is turned on and reaches an angular velocity of 4.7 rad/s in

1.37 s. What is the average angular acceleration of the record?

a. 3.4

rad/s 2

c.

6.4 rad/s 2

b. 4.3

rad/s 2

d.

0.29 rad/s 2

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-1.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

13. A Ferris wheel initially at rest accelerates to a final angular speed of 0.70 rad/s and rotates through an angular displacement of 4.90 rad. What is the Ferris wheel's average angular acceleration?

a. 0.10

rad/s 2

c.

1.80

rad/s 2

b. 0.05

rad/s 2

d.

0.60

rad/s 2

ANS:

B

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

14. A Ferris wheel rotates with an initial angular speed of 0.50 rad/s and

accelerates over a 7.00 s interval at a rate of 4.0 ¥ 10 –2 rad/s 2 . What is its angular speed?

a. 0.20 rad/s

c.

0.46 rad/s

b. 0.30 rad/s

d.

0.78 rad/s

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.4

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

3

 

15. An automobile tire with a radius of 0.30 m starts at rest and accelerates at a constant angular acceleration of 2.0 rad/s 2 for 5.0 s. What is the angular displacement of the tire?

a. 12 rad

c.

2.0 rad

b. 25 rad

d.

0.50 rad

ANS:

B

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-1.4

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

16. A bicycle wheel rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 3.0 rad/s 2 . If the initial angular speed of the wheel is 1.5 rad/s, what is the angular displacement of the wheel after 4.0 s?

a. 6.0 rad

c.

3.0 ¥ 10 1 rad

b. 24 rad

d.

36 rad

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.4

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

17. A gear in a machine accelerates at 11.2 rad/s 2 . If the wheel's initial angular speed is 5.40 rad/s, what is the wheel's angular speed after exactly 3.0 seconds?

a. 39.0 rad/s

c.

209 rad/s

b. 13.6 rad/s

d.

28.2 rad/s

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.4

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

18. A ball rolls downhill with an angular speed of 2.5 rad/s and has a constant angular acceleration of 2.0 rad/s 2 . If the ball takes 11.5 s to reach the bottom of the hill, what is the final angular speed of the ball?

a. 13 rad

c.

33 rad/s

b. 31 rad/s

d.

25.5 rad/s

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-1.4

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

19. A helicopter has 3.0 m long rotor blades that are rotating at an angular speed of 63 rad/s. What is the tangential speed of each blade tip?

a. 99 m/s

c.

21 m/s

b. 190 m/s

d.

66 m/s

ANS:

B

DIF:

IIIC

OBJ: 7-2.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

4

 

20. The end of the cord on a weed cutter is 0.15 m in length. If the motor

rotates at the rate of 126 rad/s, what is the tangential speed of the cord?

a. 628 m/s

c.

19 m/s

b. 25 m/s

d.

63 m/s

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

21. A point on the rim of a 0.30 m radius rotating wheel has a tangential speed of 4.0 m/s. What is the tangential speed of a point 0.20 m from the center of the same wheel?

a. 0.8 m/s

c.

2.6 m/s

b. 1.3 m/s

d.

8.0 m/s

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-2.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

22. A cylinder with a diameter of 0.150 m rotates in a lathe at a constant angular speed of 35.6 rad/s. What is the tangential speed of the surface of the cylinder?

a. 2.67

m/s

c.

2.37

¥ 10 2 m/s

b. 5.34

m/s

d.

4.75

¥ 10 2 m/s

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-2.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

23. A wheel with a radius of 1.2 m rotates at a constant angular speed of 10.5 rad/s. What is the tangential speed of a point 0.55 m from the wheel's axis?

a. 19 m/s

c.

13 m/s

b. 5.8 m/s

d.

8.7 m/s

ANS:

B

DIF:

IIIC

OBJ: 7-2.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

24. An automobile tire with a radius of 0.3 m accelerates from rest at a constant 2 rad/s 2 over a 5 s interval. What is the tangential component of acceleration for a point on the outer edge of the tire?

a. 30 m/s 2

c.

0.6

m/s 2

b. 7 m/s 2

d.

0.3

m/s 2

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

5

 

25. A hamster gets on a stationary wheel with a radius of 0.15 m and runs

until the wheel rotates at an angular speed of 12.0 rad/s in 4.0 s. What is the tangential acceleration of the wheel's edge?

a. 0.45 rad/s 2

c.

0.65

rad/s 2

b. 0.6 rad/s 2

d.

1.30

rad/s 2

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

26. A flywheel with a radius of 0.30 m starts from rest and accelerates with a constant angular acceleration of 0.50 rad/s 2 . What is the tangential acceleration of the flywheel?

a. 0.63

m/s 2

c.

0.65

m/s 2

b. 0.15

m/s 2

d.

1.30

m/s 2

ANS:

B

DIF:

IIIC

OBJ: 7-2.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

27. A contestant in a game show spins a stationary wheel with a radius of 0.50 m so that it has a constant angular acceleration of 0.40 rad/s 2 . What is the tangential acceleration of a point on the edge of the wheel?

a. 0.20

m/s 2

c.

1.3 m/s 2

b. 0.60

m/s 2

d.

0.73 m/s 2

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.2

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

28. A stone on the edge of the tire of a unicycle wheel with a radius of 0.25 m

has a centripetal acceleration of 4.0 m/s 2 . What is the tire's angular speed?

a. 1.0 rad/s

c.

3.2 rad/s

b. 2.0 rad/s

d.

4.0 rad/s

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

29. A point on the rim of a rotating wheel with a 0.37 m radius has a

centripetal acceleration of 19.0 m/s 2 . What is the angular speed of the wheel?

a. 0.89 m/s

c.

3.2 rad/s

b. 1.6 rad/s

d.

7.2 rad/s

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

6

 

30. A lapidary plate at rest is turned on to cut a gemstone. The plate rotates until it reaches an angular speed of 12.0 rad/s in 4.0 s. What is the centripetal acceleration of a point 0.10 m from the center of the plate?

a. 0.45 m/s 2

c.

14

m/s 2

b. 7.2 m/s 2

d.

29

m/s 2

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

31. If the distance from the center of a merry-go-round to the edge is 1.2 m, what centripetal acceleration does a passenger experience when the merry-go-round rotates at an angular speed of 0.5 rad/s?

a. 1.7

m/s 2

c.

0.3

m/s 2

b. 0.9

m/s 2

d.

0.6

m/s 2

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-2.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TAKS 5

32. A 80.0 kg passenger is seated 12 m from the center of the loop of a roller coaster. What centripetal force does the passenger experience when the roller coaster reaches an angular speed of 3.14 rad/s?

a. 1.7

¥ 10 3 N

c.

7.2

¥ 10 3 N

b. 6.9

¥ 10 3 N

d.

9.5

¥ 10 3 N

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-3.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C

33. A 0.40 kg ball on a 0.50 m string rotates in a circular path in a vertical plane. If the angular speed of the ball at the bottom of the circle is 8.0 rad/s, what is the force that maintains circular motion?

a. 5.6 N

c.

13 N

b. 11 N

d.

20.0 N

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIC

OBJ: 7-3.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C

34. A 0.40 kg ball on a 0.50 m string rotates in a circular path in a vertical plane. If a constant angular speed of 8.0 rad/s is maintained, what is the tension in the string when the ball is at the top of the circle?

a. 9.0 N

c.

13 N

b. 11 N

d.

10.0 N

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIC

OBJ: 7-3.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C

7

 

35. A roller coaster loaded with passengers has a mass of 2.0 ¥ 10 3 kg; the radius of curvature of the track at the lowest point of the track is 24 m. If the vehicle has a tangential speed of 18 m/s at this point, what force is exerted on the vehicle by the track?

a. 2.3

¥ 10 4 N

c.

3.0

¥ 10 4 N

b. 4.7

¥ 10 4 N

d.

2.7

¥ 10 4 N

ANS:

D

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-3.1

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C

36. What is the gravitational force between two trucks, each with a mass of 2.0 ¥ 10 4 kg, that are 2.0 m apart? (G = 6.673 ¥ 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 )

a. 5.7 ¥ 10 –2 N

c.

6.7 ¥ 10 –3 N

b. 1.3 ¥ 10 2 N

d.

1.2 ¥ 10 7 N

ANS:

C

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-3.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 6A,TAKS 5

37. The gravitational force between two masses is 36 N. What is the gravitational force if the distance between them is tripled?

(G = 6.673 ¥ 10 –11 N m 2 /kg 2 )

a. 4.0 N

c.

18 N

b. 9.0 N

d.

27 N

ANS:

A

DIF:

IIIA

OBJ: 7-3.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 6A,TAKS 5

38. Two small masses that are 10.0 cm apart attract each other with a force of 10.0 N. When they are 5.0 cm apart, these masses will attract each other with what force? (G = 6.673 ¥ 10 –11 N m 2 /kg 2 )

a. 5.0 N

c.

20.0 N

b. 2.5 N

d.

40.0 N

ANS:

D

DIF:

II

OBJ: 7-3.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 6A,TAKS 5

8

 

SHORT ANSWER

1. Is there an outward force in circular motion?

ANS:

No, there is only an inward force causing a deviation from a straight-line path.

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-3.2

STO:

TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C,TAKS 5

2. Pizza makers traditionally form the crust by throwing the dough in the air and spinning it. Why does this make the pizza crust bigger?

ANS:

Each point on the crust (except the center) has an inertial tendency to move in a straight line. This causes the circle to become bigger as the points move away from each other. The cohesion of the dough keeps it from flying apart.

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-3.2

STO:

TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C,TAKS 5

3. A ball is whirled in a horizontal circular path on the end of a string. Predict the path of the ball when the string breaks, and explain your answer.

ANS:

Inertia causes the ball to move in a straight path tangent to the circle.

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-3.2

STO:

TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C,TAKS 5

9

4.

A parent holds a child by the arms and spins around in a circle at a constant speed. If the parent spins fast enough, will the child's feet leave the ground? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

As the angular velocity increases, the parent’s arms must exert a larger and larger force, F, because the horizontal component of this force, F h , is the

centripetal force and this force F c = mr

does its vertical component. When F is large enough so that its vertical component is equal to the weight of the child, the child’s feet leave the ground.

weight of the child, the child’s feet leave the ground. 2 . However, if F increases

2 . However, if F increases so

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-3.2

STO:

TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C,TAKS 5

5. A tether ball is tied to a string and whirled in a horizontal circular path at a constant speed. What causes the ball and string to move away from the post?

ANS:

The tension in the string is the force that maintains the circular motion and acts along the string away from the ball. Inertia causes the ball and string to move outward.

DIF:

I

OBJ: 7-3.2

STO:

TEKS 4B,TEKS 4C,TAKS 5

PROBLEM

1. A 61 kg student sits at a desk 1.25 m away from a 70.0 kg student. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two students?

(G = 6.673 ¥ 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 )

ANS:

1.8 ¥ 10 –7 N

DIF:

IIIB

OBJ: 7-3.3

STO:

TEKS 3B,TEKS 6A,TAKS 5

10