Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 291

ENTERPRISE V5.0.

2
ASSET3G for GSM-
GPRS Tool User
PS-TR-PDF-TC-E101-V5.0.2-2





AIRCOM International

1 (291)

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the
product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the
use of AIRCOM Internationals customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which
the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
means without the prior written permission of AIRCOM International. The document has been
prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer
assumes full responsibility when using it. AIRCOM International welcomes customer
comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the
documentation.
The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or
performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding
but shall be defined in the agreement made between AIRCOM International and the customer.
However, AIRCOM International has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the
instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and
omissions. AIRCOM International will, if necessary, explain issues, which may not be covered
by the document.
AIRCOM Internationals liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary
correction of errors. AIRCOM International WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT
FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this
document or the information in it.
This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according
to the applicable laws.
ASSET3G is a registered trademark of AIRCOM International.
Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective
companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only.
Copyright AIRCOM International 2005. All rights reserved.
2 (291) AIRCOM International

Document Control

Document Control
Change History
Ver si on Dat e Aut hor Descr i pt i on
1 26/ 05/ 2005 D. Ramirez I nit ial revision of exist ing V5.0.1 document
1 27/ 05/ 2005 F. Mart inez Review and approve
2 08/ 06/ 2005 D. Ramirez Polygons screenshot s updat ed, Exercise 7.5 revised, Carrier Layer
Global Edit sect ion revised, Neighbours sect ion revised
2 10/ 06/ 2005 F. Mart inez Review and approve

Reviewers
Name Descr i pt i on
F. Mart inez Compet ence Development Services Manager

Related Documents
Ref er ence Document Number Ti t l e
1
PS-TR-TC-E101-V5.0.1-2 Asset 3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User V5.0.1
2
PS-TR-TC-E101-V5.0.2-1 Asset 3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User V5.0.2














AIRCOM International

3 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Contents
Document Control ................................................................................................. 3
Change History ..................................................................................................... 3
Reviewers ..................................................................................................... 3
Related Documents ................................................................................................. 3
Scope and Course Objectives............................................................................ 10
Scope ................................................................................................... 10
Course Objectives ................................................................................................. 10
Sessions ................................................................................................... 11
Course Timetable .................................................................................................. 12
1 Introduction to ENTERPRISE.................................................. 13
1.1 Objectives of this session .......................................................... 13
1.2 The ENTERPRISE Tools Suite.................................................. 13
1.3 Support and Website information............................................... 14
1.3.1 Obtaining Help On-Screen......................................................... 14
1.3.2 Printing Copies of the ENTERPRISE User Reference
Manuals ..................................................................................... 15
1.3.3 Obtaining Support ...................................................................... 15
1.3.4 Linking to the AIRCOM Website ................................................ 15
1.4 The ENTERPRISE Database .................................................... 15
1.4.1 Database Contents .................................................................... 16
1.5 Two-Stage Commit .................................................................... 16
1.6 Summary Checklist E........................................................... 18
2 Setting up a New Project......................................................... 19
2.1 Objective of this session ............................................................ 19
2.2 Starting ENTERPRISE............................................................... 19
2.3 Creating a New Project .............................................................. 21
2.3.1 Co-ordinate System................................................................... 22
2.3.2 Map data directories .................................................................. 23
2.3.3 User data directories.................................................................. 23
2.3.4 Map Data Extents ...................................................................... 24
2.3.5 Region Load............................................................................... 25
2.3.6 Info............................................................................................. 25
2.3.7 Override Database Directory Settings ....................................... 25
2.4 Starting the Project .................................................................... 25
2.4.1 Viewing settings for the current project ...................................... 26
2.5 Message Log Window................................................................ 26
2.6 Exercise: Starting a Project ................................................ 27
2.7 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................. 28
3 Using the GIS and other Visual tools..................................... 29
3.1 Objective of this session ............................................................ 29
3.2 Introduction ................................................................................ 29
3.3 Opening the 2D View window.................................................... 29
3.4 Map View Toolbar ...................................................................... 30
4 (291) AIRCOM International

Contentsl

3.4.1 Displaying Map Data...................................................................31
3.4.2 Key/Legend.................................................................................32
3.4.3 Selecting Items on the Map ........................................................33
3.4.4 Selection Expert Toolbox............................................................33
3.4.5 Zooming......................................................................................33
3.4.6 Zoom Box ...................................................................................34
3.4.7 Panning.......................................................................................34
3.4.8 3D View ......................................................................................34
3.4.9 Settings.......................................................................................35
3.4.10 Zooming In and Out ....................................................................36
3.4.11 Solid View...................................................................................36
3.4.12 Wireframe View ..........................................................................36
3.4.13 Printing the 3D Map View...........................................................37
3.4.14 Searching the 2D View...............................................................37
3.4.15 Printing Maps..............................................................................37
3.4.16 Export to MapInfo .......................................................................38
3.5 2D View Context menu .............................................................38
3.5.1 Favourites...................................................................................39
3.6 Map View Gadgets Window........................................................40
3.7 Exercise: Using the 2D View and Favourites .........................42
3.8 Master View Window..................................................................42
3.9 Session Summary Checklist E...............................................45
4 Polygons and Vectors..............................................................46
4.1 Objective of this session.............................................................46
4.2 Overview.....................................................................................46
4.3 Creating a user Polygon .............................................................46
4.4 Adding Segments to a Polygon ..................................................49
4.5 Adding Attributes to a Polygon ...................................................50
4.6 Viewing Attributes.......................................................................52
4.7 Creating your own Vector ...........................................................53
4.8 Adding Segments to a Vector .....................................................56
4.9 Importing Vector Data.................................................................57
4.10 Exercise: Creating Polygons and Vectors ..............................58
4.11 Session Summary Checklist E...............................................59
5 Setting up a GSM Network.......................................................60
5.1 Objectives of this session ...........................................................60
5.2 Setting Up...................................................................................60
5.2.1 Importing Antennas.....................................................................61
5.2.2 Setting up a Propagation Model .................................................62
5.2.3 XML Imports ...............................................................................65
5.2.4 Setting the Nominal Cell Radii ....................................................67
5.2.5 Setting the Display Characteristics.............................................68
5.2.6 Defining a Site Template ............................................................70
5.3 Exercise: Setting up a GSM Network .....................................73
5.4 Adding Sites/Cells to a GSM Network ........................................74
5.4.1 Adding Network Elements from the 2D View..............................74
5.4.2 Creating cellular connections to provide network
hierarchy.....................................................................................76
AIRCOM International

5 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5.4.3 Locating elements in the 2D view or Site Database .................. 77
5.4.4 Viewing Property Information for a Network Element ................ 77
5.4.5 Re-orienting antennas................................................................ 78
5.5 Predicting the Pathloss .............................................................. 78
5.6 Displaying Coverage.................................................................. 80
5.6.1 Coverage Bands & Colours ....................................................... 83
5.6.2 Service Areas............................................................................. 85
5.7 Analysing Coverage................................................................... 86
5.7.1 Array Manager ........................................................................... 88
5.8 Exercise: Starting to Plan Coverage .................................... 89
5.9 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................. 90
6 Fields, Filters & Visualisers .................................................... 91
6.1 Objectives of this session .......................................................... 91
6.2 Status Fields .............................................................................. 91
6.2.1 Viewing Fields for Sites or Links................................................ 92
6.3 Filters ......................................................................................... 93
6.3.1 Filters can be used to:................................................................ 94
6.4 Creating a Dynamic Filter using the Filter Wizard...................... 95
6.5 Creating a Static Filter using the Filter Wizard......................... 101
6.6 Creating a Filter using the Selection Expert tool ...................... 101
6.6.1 The Selection Expert tool:........................................................ 101
6.6.2 The Selection Filter: ................................................................. 101
6.7 Editing Filters ........................................................................... 104
6.8 Deleting Filters......................................................................... 104
6.9 Exporting Filters using XML Export.......................................... 105
6.10 Advice on how to create faster-running Filters....................... 106
6.11 Visualisers................................................................................ 107
6.12 Creating Visualisers................................................................. 107
6.13 Customising Visualisers........................................................... 108
6.14 Session Summary Checklist E............................................ 111
7 Traffic Planning on a GSM Network..................................... 112
7.1 Objectives of this session ........................................................ 112
7.2 Introduction .............................................................................. 112
7.3 Terminal Types ........................................................................ 112
7.4 Traffic Raster ........................................................................... 116
7.5 Exercise: Producing a Traffic Density Raster ...................... 123
7.6 Traffic Analysis Process........................................................... 125
7.6.1 Process.................................................................................... 125
7.6.2 Channel-to-Transceiver Maps.................................................. 126
7.6.3 Frequency Bands..................................................................... 127
7.6.4 Carrier Layers .......................................................................... 128
7.6.5 Cell Layers............................................................................... 134
7.6.6 Allocating Cell & Carrier Layers using Global Editor................ 137
7.6.7 Capturing Traffic ...................................................................... 139
7.6.8 Calculating Carrier Requirements............................................ 141
7.7 Exercise: Traffic+Carrier Requirement Planning ................. 144
7.8 Session Summary Checklist E............................................ 147
6 (291) AIRCOM International

Contentsl

8 Planning Neighbours..............................................................148
8.1 Objectives of this session .........................................................148
8.2 Introduction to Neighbours........................................................148
8.3 Neighbours in the database......................................................148
8.4 Graphical Neighbour Design.....................................................151
8.4.1 Displaying Neighbours..............................................................151
8.4.2 Adding Neighbours ...................................................................153
8.4.3 Deleting Neighbours .................................................................153
8.5 Exercise: Manual Neighbour Planning ...............................154
8.6 Automatic Neighbour Generation .............................................154
8.7 Analysing Neighbours...............................................................159
8.8 Exercise: Automatic Neighbour Creation ............................161
8.9 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................162
9 Interference and Frequency Planning ..................................163
9.1 Objectives of this session .........................................................163
9.2 Interference Tables...................................................................163
9.2.1 Interference Table Wizard ........................................................163
9.2.2 Viewing the Interference Table.................................................167
9.3 Exercise: Creating Interference Tables ...............................168
9.4 Frequency Planning..................................................................169
9.4.1 Manual Frequency Planning.....................................................169
9.4.2 Group Planning.........................................................................170
9.4.3 Group Planning within ASSET3G.............................................170
9.5 Analysing the Frequency Plan..................................................173
9.5.1 Interference Arrays ...................................................................173
9.5.2 Cell Info Reporter......................................................................178
9.5.3 Frequency Re-use Display .......................................................180
9.6 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................182
10 Candidate Planning................................................................183
10.1 Objectives.................................................................................183
10.2 Nominal and Candidate Functionality.......................................183
10.3 Nominal and Candidate Configuration......................................183
10.3.1 Candidate Functionality Field ...................................................184
10.3.2 Automate Field..........................................................................184
10.3.3 Nominal Restrictions Field........................................................185
10.3.4 Candidate Restrictions Field.....................................................185
10.3.5 Candidates BTS Equipment Field............................................185
10.4 Site Database View ..................................................................185
10.5 2D View Functionality ...............................................................187
10.6 Assigning Candidates...............................................................187
10.6.1 Using the search area button....................................................187
10.6.2 Using the Make Candidates button...........................................189
10.6.3 Displaying Candidates..............................................................190
10.6.4 De-Assigning Candidates .........................................................190
10.7 Exercise: Candidate Planning ...........................................191
10.8 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................192
AIRCOM International

7 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

11 Dual Band Networks.............................................................. 193
11.1 Objective of this session .......................................................... 193
11.2 Introduction .............................................................................. 193
11.3 Overview.................................................................................. 194
11.4 Pre-requisites........................................................................... 194
11.5 Dual-band Configuration.......................................................... 195
11.5.1 Sharing Antennas .................................................................... 195
11.5.2 Configuring a Dual Band system ............................................. 196
11.5.3 Defining Two Cells (Method one)............................................. 196
11.5.4 Define a Single Cell with Two SubCells (Method Two)............ 200
11.6 Dual-Band Coverage ............................................................... 205
11.7 Exercise: Dual-Band Planning .......................................... 206
11.8 Session Summary Checklist E............................................ 207
12 Macrocell Model Tuning........................................................ 208
12.1 Objectives of this session ........................................................ 208
12.2 Introduction .............................................................................. 208
12.3 The Standard Macrocell Model ................................................ 208
12.4 Required Mapping Data........................................................... 209
12.4.1 Countrywide Dataset................................................................ 210
12.4.2 Urban Datasets........................................................................ 210
12.5 Recommended CW Data......................................................... 210
12.6 The Calibration Process........................................................... 211
12.6.1 Loading Survey Data ............................................................... 213
12.6.2 Setting the Options for CW Measurement Data....................... 214
12.6.3 Displaying Survey Data............................................................ 216
12.6.4 Analysing CW Data.................................................................. 217
12.6.5 CW Measurement Graphs ....................................................... 219
12.7 Manual Calibration of the Std Macrocell Model ....................... 221
12.7.1 K1 and K2 (Intercept and Slope).............................................. 221
12.7.2 K7 (Diffraction Parameter) ....................................................... 223
12.7.3 K3 and K4 ................................................................................ 223
12.7.4 K5 and K6 ................................................................................ 224
12.7.5 Effective Antenna Height Algorithm......................................... 224
12.7.6 Diffraction Algorithm................................................................. 224
12.7.7 Clutter Offset Calibration.......................................................... 225
12.8 Performing Auto Tuning with Modelcal .................................... 226
12.8.1 Tuning Model Parameters Automatically ................................. 227
12.8.2 Applying Tuned Parameters to a Propagation Model .............. 228
12.8.3 Viewing and Configuring a Model's Clutter Parameters........... 228
12.9 Extracting CW data from another Database ............................ 228
12.10 Generating Measurement-based pathloss files ....................... 231
12.11 Comparison of Model Performance ......................................... 232
12.12 Session Summary Checklist E............................................ 233
13 Generating Reports ............................................................... 234
13.1 Objectives of this session ........................................................ 234
13.2 Introduction .............................................................................. 234
13.3 Site Reporter............................................................................ 234
13.4 Frequency Plan Reporter......................................................... 235
8 (291) AIRCOM International

Contentsl

13.5 GSM Cell Info Report................................................................236
13.6 Delta Report..............................................................................238
13.7 Printing/Plotting.........................................................................239
13.7.1 Print Setup................................................................................240
13.7.2 Print Preview.............................................................................240
13.7.3 Print ..........................................................................................241
13.7.4 Print Area..................................................................................241
13.8 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................242
14 Planning GSM Data Services.................................................243
14.1 Objectives of this session .........................................................243
14.2 Introduction...............................................................................243
14.3 GPRS Overview........................................................................244
14.3.1 Defining the Targets of the GPRS Service ...............................244
14.3.2 Updating the Plan with Actual Network Data............................245
14.3.3 Defining Data Service Settings.................................................245
14.3.4 Cell Layers................................................................................250
14.3.5 Setting Cell Parameters............................................................250
14.4 Calculating and Analysing the GPRS Service Area..................252
14.5 Defining Terminal Types using Data Service............................252
14.6 Distributing Terminals and Creating Traffic Arrays...................255
14.6.1 Calculating the GPRS Data Rate, Average Data Rate
and Service Area Data Rate.....................................................259
14.6.2 Capturing Cell Traffic and Calculating the required
Capacity....................................................................................260
14.6.3 Complete the Radio Network Plan............................................262
14.7 Exercise: GPRS Planning ................................................263
14.8 EGPRS Overview.....................................................................264
14.8.1 Defining the EGPRS Service Targets.......................................264
14.8.2 Updating the Plan with actual Network Data ............................264
14.8.3 Defining Data Service Settings.................................................264
14.8.4 Cell Layers................................................................................268
14.8.5 Setting Cell Parameters............................................................270
14.8.6 Calculating and Analysing the EGPRS Service Area ...............271
14.8.7 Defining Terminal Types using Data Service............................272
14.8.8 Distributing Terminals and Creating Traffic Arrays...................275
14.8.9 Calculating the EGPRS Data Rate, Average Data Rate
and Service Area Data Rate.....................................................277
14.8.10 Capturing Cell Traffic and Calculating Required Capacity........278
14.8.11 Complete the Radio Network Plan............................................280
14.9 Session Summary Checklist E.............................................281




AIRCOM International

9 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Scope and Course Objectives
Scope
This document provides notes and supporting material for the ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User
Training Course. It is assumed that the software tool has been installed and the system administrator
has configured a suitable Oracle database.
Details of how to install the software tool and how to setup a new database source are covered by the
ENTERPRISE Administration Course.
Course Objectives
The ASSET3G V5.0.2 Course is designed for radio planners who are migrating from other planning
tools to ASSET3G. The course is equally beneficial to beginners in the field of Radio Planning.
It is advisable that course delegates have previously attended AIRCOMs technology courses on GSM
Radio Planning, UMTS technology or equivalent.
At the end of the course, delegates should gain knowledge to enable them to have a solid grasp of the
ASSET3G Tool. Delegates will also be able to complete the following objectives:

Successfully set up the Software Tool
Define new projects or use existing project data
Understand how to use the Geographic Information System (GIS)
Carry out coverage planning
Perform Neighbours Planning
Comprehend the planning of multi-layered networks
Complete traffic planning and analyse the carrier requirements
Generate coverage and interference analysis reports
Gain an understanding of the GPRS & EDGE functionality in ASSET3G

For detailed and precision handling of GSM & GPRS/EDGE networks, specially overlaid with UMTS,
AIRCOM has developed a Monte Carlo Simulation engine for GSM & GPRS/EDGE. This is an
additional module available with V5.0.2 and is specifically recommended for those operators with
large networks and technology covering: GSM, (E)GPRS, or GSM, GPRS/EDGE & UMTS.
This manual covers the use of ASSET3g without simulation; if this is required a separate document
will be provided in addition to this training material.
10 (291) AIRCOM International

Scope and Course Objectives

Sessions
This course is divided into the following sessions:

1. Introduction to ENTERPRISE
2. Setting up a New Project
3. Using the GIS and other Visual tools
4. Polygons and Vectors
5. Setting up a GSM Network
6. Fields, Filters & Visualisers
7. Traffic Planning on a GSM Network
8. Planning Neighbours
9. Interference and Frequency Planning
10. Candidate Planning
11. Dual Band Networks
12. Macrocell Model Tuning
13. Generating Reports
14. Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

11 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Course Timetable
Day 1 Day 2
Period Plan Period Plan
0930-1000 Introduction 0930-1000 Session 5 Setting up a GSM
Network
1000-1045 Session 1 Introduction to
ENTERPRISE
1000-1045 Session 6 Fields, Filters &
Visualisers
1045-1100 Break 1045-1100 Break
1100-1145 Session 2 Setting up a New
Project
1100-1145 Session 6 Fields, Filters &
Visualisers
1145-1230 Session 3 Using the GIS and
other Visual Tools
1145-1230 Session 7 Traffic Planning on a
GSM Network
1230-1330 Lunch 1230-1330 Lunch
1330-1415 Session 3 Using the GIS and
other Visual Tools
1330-1415 Session 7 Traffic Planning on a
GSM Network
1415-1500 Session 4 Polygons and
Vectors
1415-1500 Session 8 Planning Neighbours
1500-1515 Break 1500-1515 Break
1515-1600 Session 5 Setting up a GSM
Network
1515-1600 Session 8 Planning Neighbours
1600-1630 Session 5 Setting up a GSM
Network
1600-1630 Session 9 Interference and
Frequency Planning

Day 3 Day 3
Period Plan Period Plan
0930-1000 Session 9 Interference and
Frequency Planning
1330-1415 Session 12 Macrocell Model
Tuning
1000-1045 Session 9 Interference and
Frequency Planning
1415-1500 Session 13 Generating Reports
1045-1100 Break 1500-1515 Break
1100-1145 Session 10 Candidate Planning 1515-1600 Session 14 Planning GSM Data
Services
1145-1230 Session 11 Dual Band
Networks
1600-1630 Course Evaluation and Feedback
1230-1330 Lunch
12 (291) AIRCOM International

Introduction to ENTERPRISE

1 Introduction to ENTERPRISE
1.1 Objectives of this session
During this session you will learn about:

O The ENTERPRISE Tools Suite
O The ENTERPRISE Database and its contents
O The Two-Stage Commit concept
1.2 The ENTERPRISE Tools Suite
ENTERPRISE is the name given by AIRCOM for the collection of software applications which form
a powerful network systems management tool suite. The ENTERPRISE tools can share a common
Windows (2000 / XP) platform, Geographical Information System (GIS) and Relational Database
core.
Within ENTERPRISE V5.0.2 the following tools are available:

ASSET3g 2G & 2.5G Radio Network Planning for GSM, GPRS, EDGE AMPS and
TDMA. Radio Network Planning for UMTS FDD/TDD, and CDMA2000.
NEPTUNE GSM & GPRS Test Mobile Logging and Analysis
CONNECT Microwave Link Planning
DIRECT Transmission and Capacity Planning
OPTIMA Network Performance Monitoring and Management.
TARGET Data sharing and Consolidation Tool
ADVANTAGE Automatic Cell Planning and Network Optimisation
DATASAFE Network Data and Configuration Management.
RANOPT 3G Networks Post Processing and Analysis
QUALITA QoS Management Tool
WEBWIZARD Web-based GIS and Report distribution tool
UTILITIES A set of utility tools common to all members of the ENTERPRISE family.
This training course focuses on how to use the ASSET3g tool for GSM and GPRS/EDGE Network
planning.
AIRCOM International

13 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


ENTERPRISE can be run in a number of configurations:

In an office environment over a Local Area Network (LAN)
Between offices using a Wide Area Network (WAN)
Standalone on a laptop computer in the office or field.

The following diagram depicts the key functional elements of the system and their interrelationships:
Relational
Database
NT Workstations
LAN/WAN
Printer/Plotter

1.3 Support and Website information
1.3.1 Obtaining Help On-Screen

The ENTERPRISE Suite has an in-built system of on-screen Help which you can access in three ways:

1) From the Help menu, click Help Contents. Scroll through the table of contents and choose a
relevant topic to display.

2) To search for something particular, from the Help menu, click Help Contents and on the Index
tab, type in a word.

3) Context-sensitive help is available for most of the dialog boxes. Therefore, to get relevant
Help about using a dialog box, in the dialog box, press the F1 key.
14 (291) AIRCOM International

Introduction to ENTERPRISE

1.3.2 Printing Copies of the ENTERPRISE User Reference Manuals
If you prefer to read information in manual form, rather than online help, you can view the manuals
supplied as PDFs (Adobe portable document format) on the ENTERPRISE CD, or print out your own
copies of them on a postscript printer. You can choose to install the PDFs on your PC when installing.
You can also download these PDFs from the Customer Support area of the Aircom website.

Note: Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems, Incorporated.
1.3.3 Obtaining Support
If you have any difficulties that you cannot resolve yourself using the online Help, or you believe that
you have found a fault in the software, please contact the AIRCOM Product Support Group.

If you are in Email Phone Fax

North America support@aircominc.com +1 214 360 7240 +1 214 360 7241
South America support@aircom.com.br +55 12 3941 2199 +55 12 3911 3727
Singapore and Asia support@aircom.com.sg +65 372 0548 +65 372 0350
Middle East and Africa supportme@aircom.co.uk +971 4 391 2640 +971 4 391 8660
India supportindia@aircom.co.uk +91 124 5102445 +91 124 5102450
South Africa support@aircom.co.za +27 11 745 1475 +27 11 465 1517
Rest of World support@aircom.co.uk +44 1737 775777 +44 1737 775770
1.3.4 Linking to the AIRCOM Website
For additional information about AIRCOM International products and services, check the AIRCOM
International website at http://www.aircom.co.uk.
1.4 The ENTERPRISE Database
The ENTERPRISE Database is common to all the tools. ENTERPRISE 5.0.2 supports only Oracle
9i. The supported Windows platforms are either:
Windows 2000
Windows XP Pro
The database would typically reside on a dedicated server computer connected to your network. The
ENTERPRISE software would then be installed and run from client Windows 2000 or Windows XP
workstations connected to the same network. In an optional stand-alone configuration, it would be
necessary to install the Oracle database on the same PC as the ENTERPRISE client.
AIRCOM International

15 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

1.4.1 Database Contents
The ENTERPRISE database stores all of the parameters required to fully describe the network being
modelled. For ASSET3G this includes details of items such as (but not limited to):

Project definition settings (e.g. map projections, directory settings, etc.)
Switching Equipment
Physical Locations
Base Station Sites
Cells & Cell Layers
Carriers & Carrier Layers
Neighbours & Exceptions
Propagation Models
Antenna Radiation Patterns
Radio Equipment Details (e.g. Feeders, Mast Head Amplifiers, etc.)
The full list of items is too large to present here but can be found in the database table descriptions
included in the DATABASE Reference guide.
1.5 Two-Stage Commit
Data is stored in the database in two types of tables:

1. The COMMIT Tables, which contain the master set of data accessible to all users.
2. The DIFFERENCE (DIFF) Tables, which contain provisional changes to the master Committed
tables, for each individual user.
When a user makes a change to the database, the change is first APPLIED, which means that the
change is stored in that users DIFF tables and can only be seen by that user. When the user is
satisfied that the change is correct and that all users should be aware of the new network data, it can
then be COMMITTED to the master tables using the COMMIT or COMMIT ALL buttons.
The COMMIT button saves selected changes within an open window to the database, whereas the
COMMIT ALL button saves everything within that window to the database.
This two-stage process for storing data in the database enables users to experiment with new designs
without affecting other users, until satisfied with that particular change.
16 (291) AIRCOM International

Introduction to ENTERPRISE

Note: If a change has only been Applied to the database it is possible to use the RESTORE
button in the Site or Link Database window to revert back to the previous Committed state.
COMMIT
Tables
User 2
User 1
DIFF
Tables
APPLY COMMIT
Enterprise User 1
Enterprise User 2
Database

The changes committed to the database by one user will not be visible to another user until the project
is re-started (i.e. after logging off and on again).

AIRCOM International

17 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

1.6 Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

An overview of the ENTERPRISE tools suite F
Introduction to the ENTERPRISE database and its contents F
Comprehension of the Two-Stage Commit F

Additional Notes:


















18 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a New Project

2 Setting up a New Project
2.1 Objective of this session
In this session you will learn how to:

O Start the ENTERPRISE suite application.
O Login to the ENTERPRISE database.
O Create a new project.
O Set up the project with the appropriate co-ordinates and map data
directories.
2.2 Starting ENTERPRISE
Once your system administrator has set-up the ENTERPRISE database and created a user account for
you, it is then possible to start ENTERPRISE and create a new project ready for planning work.
To start ENTERPRISE go to the Windows Start Menu and look for:

Start Programs AIRCOM International Enterprise V5.0 AIRCOM Enterprise Suite
Once successfully started, the ENTERPRISE Toolbar will appear along the top of the screen, with tabs
corresponding to the different ENTERPRISE modules (the precise modules appearing will depend on
which modules have been licensed).

To proceed further, it is necessary to log in to the ENTERPRISE database.
AIRCOM International

19 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

This is done through the Database Login window, which appears as below:

Select the appropriate database, using the drop down menu, from the Data Source field and enter
your ENTERPRISE username and password, given to you by your Administrator.

Note: Your administrator generally creates the ENTERPRISE database, User Ids and Passwords.
The database, User Id and Password creation process is not covered on this course, but is covered in
detail on the ENTERPRISE Administration course.
Now click on the Login button, which will bring up the Start Project window:

In the example above, one project has already been created in the chosen database.
20 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a New Project

2.3 Creating a New Project
To add a new project you must first be logged in to the database as a user with Create Project
permissions if this is not the case the Add button in the Start Project window will be greyed-out.
Presuming that you have the correct permissions, click on the Add button. The Table Selection
window will then appear, only if a project has been created beforehand (as with our example):

Within the Table Selection window you can choose to create a completely new, standalone project or
to share existing network data from another project. Projects created using the New Project data
option have a unique set of data tables*, whereas projects created using the Share existing Project
data option will make use of the same data tables as the project selected to share with. Each project
has its own co-ordinate projection settings and directory paths where the mapping and user created
data are stored.
*Antennas are the exception to the rule. When a project is created using the New Project data
option, then the data is unique to that project. When importing new antenna patterns from the
manufacturers data files, it is possible to make the new antennas available to all projects in the
database. This means they dont have to be imported every time you set up a new project.
The question people often ask at this point is So why would I want to share project data between
projects, when I could just use one project? The reason for having this feature is for countries where
the radio network spans more than one co-ordinate projection system. For example, a network in
Australia could span seven different Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection zones, each
requiring different settings to obtain the correct co-ordinate conversion between spherical co-ordinates
(e.g. Lat/Long) and Cartesian co-ordinates (e.g. x/y grid). Nevertheless the user may wish to store all
of the network data in one set of data tables. In this case it would be possible to set up seven different
projects, one for each set of map data, all connected to the same set of data tables.
AIRCOM International

21 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

After selecting whether or not to share data from an
existing project, just click on the Continue button to
continue to the Modify Project window:


To set up the project you first need to give it a name and then complete the entries in each of the
tabbed sections of the window.
Note: The various directory paths that specify the location of the relevant project map data and
any user-created data (e.g. vectors, favourite views) are normally stored in the database. As a
consequence, these settings are available to all users logging into that project.
If a user wishes to temporarily alter these settings without affecting other users (e.g. trials with a
different set of map data), it is possible to specify a locally defined set of directories. This is done by
selecting the Override Database Directory Settings check box, consequently these settings will be
stored in the aienterprise.ini file, which is stored in the WINNT directory. The overridden settings
are not stored in the database and will not therefore affect other users.
2.3.1 Co-ordinate System
Within this tab we specify the map co-ordinate projection settings which correspond to the digital map
data we are going to use. The suppliers of the map data provide these settings. They specify how to
convert between spherical co-ordinates (e.g. Latitude and Longitude) as used on the real spherical
earth and those used on the flat, two-dimensional maps we use for planning.

22 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a New Project

Although ENTERPRISE supports most popular co-ordinate systems, those, which are unique to a
particular region, may not be supported. In these cases it is recommended that you contact AIRCOM
Product Support for a solution.
A full explanation of how to set up the Co-ordinate System, Map Projections, Ellipsoid and Datum
information is included in the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
2.3.2 Map data directories
In this tab the location of the available map data is specified.
Note: Not all of the data categories listed in this tab will be available for every project. If this is the
case leave the category field blank.
Use the browse button to locate the network directory where each type of data is stored and then click
on the OK button. The directory location will then automatically be entered.

Note: If you are accessing map data on a remote network computer it is best to enter the full
network path including computer name (e.g. \\computer\map_data\country\data_type), rather than the
path to a locally mapped network drive (e.g. F:\map_data\country\data_type). This will avoid
problems with different users having different mapped network drive letters. This can be achieved
using the Browse feature by navigating through the Network Neighbourhood item to the remote
computer and from there to the relevant data directory.
2.3.3 User data directories
All of these settings should be completed; the same Browse technique can be used as for the map
data settings.
AIRCOM International

23 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Depending on the policy decided upon by your administrator you may store some of these items in
shared directories or you may have your own local directories.
The directories relate to:
User preferences: Specifies a directory where favourite views can be stored and accessed.
Prediction Directory: Stores coverage predictions created within ENTERPRISE for later use.
Colour palette: Specifies which colour palette file to use in preference to the default
Windows colour palette. This is simply a text file containing a list of
RGB numbers in the order that the desired colours should appear in the
palette. If less than 256 colours are specified, the remaining palette
entries come from the default Windows palette.
Coverage Array Directory: This specifies the default location to store any coverage, traffic or
Interference arrays by the user(s).
User Line data: Stores user created vectors or polygons generated within the
ENTERPRISE suite.
Note: It is important that a unique directory is used to store the predictions for each project. The
predictions are stored using a numbering scheme based on the database key numbers relating to the
project, site and cell these numbers can be reused between projects. To ensure the predictions are
stored correctly they should be kept in separate directories.
2.3.4 Map Data Extents
Within this tab the maximum and minimum easting (x) and northing (y) values of the available map
data are displayed. These extents are required so when the map view is first opened the view is
targeted at the correct part of the world.
You can either enter these values manually or click on the Calculate button, which will instruct the
application to compute the correct values based on the map data in the directories you specified
previously.
24 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a New Project

2.3.5 Region Load
The Region Load tab enables the user to only load sites in a specified region. This is useful when you
have large numbers of sites and properties in a database but are only interested in some of them, for
example those in a particular region.
2.3.6 Info
The info tab allows the user to attach additional descriptions and comments against the project
definition.
2.3.7 Override Database Directory Settings
The various directory paths that specify the location of the relevant project map data and any user-
created data (e.g. vectors, favourite views) are normally stored in the database. As a consequence,
these settings are available to all users logging into that project.
If a user wishes to temporarily alter these path settings without affecting other users (e.g. trials with a
different set of map data), it is possible to specify a locally defined set of directories. This is done by
selecting the Override Database Directory Settings check box; consequently these settings will be
stored in the machines Registry. The overridden path settings are not stored in the database and will
not therefore affect other users.
These Override Settings will affect the following tabs: Map Data directories, User Data directories,
Map Data Extents and Region Load.
That completes the project set up. Click the OK button to save the set-up. The set-up can be modified
at a later stage if required, by returning to the Start Project window, highlighting the desired project
and then clicking on Info>>.

2.4 Starting the Project
Select the appropriate project and then click the Start button. ENTERPRISE will open the project
and all the buttons on the toolbar will become active. Select the ASSET3G tab.

The following table summarises the users of the icons in the toolbar both specific to ASSET3G and
general to the ENTERPRISE suite:
AIRCOM International

25 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Exit: Closes the current project (if open), logs out of the database and exits from
ENTERPRISE.

Login: Logs into an ENTERPRISE database.

Logout: Logs out of the current ENTERPRISE database.

Open Project: Brings up the Start Project window from which the required project can be
opened.

Close Project: Closes the current project, but remains logged into the current database.

2D Map View: Opens a new 2D Map View. The main way of displaying geographical data.

Site Database: Opens the site database window, in which all network elements and property
data is stored and displayed.

Predictor: Opens the Coverage Predictor window, in order to create prediction
calculations on the sites in your network.

Monte Carlo
Wizard:
Opens the Monte Carlo Wizard for UMTS, GSM or both.

Wastebasket: Opens the wastebasket, which is part of the two-stage delete feature. Deleted
items from both the site and link databases will be moved into the
wastebasket and can be restored until they are deleted from the wastebasket.
2.4.1 Viewing settings for the current project
Once a project is open, you can view its setting by clicking on File View Project Settings. You
cannot modify the settings from this window, to edit: close the current project by clicking on File
Close Project, click then on File Open Project and select Info>>. Edit as needed.

2.5 Message Log Window
The message log window opens automatically when a project is started and contains confirmation
Messages, Warnings and other types of messages,. Its very useful for troubleshooting purposes.

26 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a New Project

2.6 Exercise: Starting a Project
This exercise will enable you to set-up a new project prior to commencing Radio Planning.
To start, we suggest:
- Launch the ENTERPRISE suite from the Windows Start Menu.
- Select the correct data source, login to the database with the appropriate user name and password:
Data Source:
User Name:
Password:
- In the Start Project window click on the Add button.
- Select the New Project data option, in the Table selection window, before clicking the
continue button.
- Within the Modify Project window name your new project JerseyCom
- Under the Co-ordinate System tab, click the Change button and choose the following settings:
Group: Universal Transverse Mercator
System: Zone 30N (6W to 0W)
Datum: WGS84
Linear Unit: METERS
- Load all available mapping data into the under the Map data directories tab.
- Complete all settings within the user data directories tab.
- Click the calculate button within the Map Data Extents tab.
- Click the OK button in the Modify Project window.
- Highlight your newly created JerseyCom Project in the Start Project window and click on
Start.
AIRCOM International

27 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

2.7 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

How to successfully start the ENTERPRISE suite application F
Successfully log into the ENTERPRISE database F
Create a New Project F
Correctly configure a project prior to starting the planning process F

Additional Notes:











28 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

3 Using the GIS and other Visual tools
3.1 Objective of this session
In this session you will learn how to use the Geographic Information System (GIS) to capture and
display different types of mapping data. This session will also cover the use of other visual tools that
are available to the user for planning.
3.2 Introduction
The GIS is a fundamental part of the ENTERPRISE suite in which you can view the different data
available within ENTERPRISE including site data, connectivity and mapping data. The GIS is also
referred to as the Map View window and 2D View window.
The Map View window and Site Database window are fully synchronised so that changes made in one
window are reflected in the other. Similarly, when you click on a network element or property in the
2D View, an open Site Database window will update dynamically to display the selected item.
3.3 Opening the 2D View window
Once you have started a project you can open a new 2D View window (GIS/Map View window) by
clicking on the New 2D View button from the main toolbar, or by selecting View New 2D
View from the main menu. A new 2D View window will be displayed.
AIRCOM International

29 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


There are many buttons included in the 2D View, which are arranged into toolbars with different
functions. We will now look at each of these toolbars in turn and discuss their functions.
Note: It is possible to open multiple 2D-View windows (if you wish) to display different kinds of
data simultaneously.
3.4 Map View Toolbar
This toolbar is always shown on the 2D View (Map View) window, regardless of which products you
have installed with the ENTERPRISE suite. We will now discuss the button functions of the Map
View Toolbar.



30 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

3.4.1 Displaying Map Data
When a new 2D View window is opened it is initially blank. To see the available data types which can
be displayed, click on the Show Data Types button within the Map View Toolbar.
Note: an alternative method is to use the Key/Legend icon, explained in the following section. Both
methods work in harmony.
The different categories of data configured for use within ENTERPRISE will appear. For example, if
you want to display a coastline; Click the plus sign on the Standard Polygons category, to expand
it, and select the check box next to coastline.

Clicking the OK button will then display the selected item in the 2D View.
To change the display style of any data category simply double-click, using the left mouse button, over
the category name.
A display properties window will then appear allowing you to change the properties of the displayed
data. The different properties shown will depend on the item selected. Click on the OK button to save
the change, and then click OK & Redraw to see the display change.
AIRCOM International

31 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Once you have customised the colours and styles for each item these will be automatically saved for
future sessions.
Note: A word of caution regarding the display of rasterised data such as heights or clutter.
Before displaying these data types please make sure you are not zoomed out too far. This kind of data
can require a large amount of RAM to display the amount being simply a function of the area being
displayed divided by the area of a single pixel of the rasterised data (resolution). If the area you have
selected requires more physical RAM than your PC has available the drawing process will be VERY
slow. It is often best to draw some vector data first in order to navigate to the required view area (this
requires much less RAM) before displaying the heights or clutter data.
3.4.2 Key/Legend
Clicking the Key/Legend button launches the Map Information and Control window. This
window consists of three tabs, each having its own functionality:
Layer Order Tab:
This tab shows the currently selected data types in the
order they are displayed on the map, with the first item
in the list being the last one to be displayed on the map.
To move a data type up or down the order, select the
required layer and click on the up or down arrow buttons
as required. Click the Redraw button to automatically
update the Map View window with the changes.
To delete data layers, select the Layer you want to
delete, then click the Remove Selected button. You can
also click the Remove All button.
Double clicking, with the left mouse button, on a Layer
item will bring up the display properties window for that
item. You can then change how that item is displayed.


32 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

Legend Tab:
This tab shows information such as the display symbols, key strings, colours and values assigned
to the data types that are currently being displayed in the open 2D View window.
The Legend tab is purely for information only, as there is no editing functionality.
Data Types Tab:
This tab shows the different categories of data configured for use within ENTERPRISE. It has the
same functionality as the Show Data Types list, selected through the Main View Toolbar.
Having selected a category to display, clicking on the Redraw button will then draw the selected
item in the 2D View window.
Double clicking, with the left mouse button, over the category name will bring up the display
properties window, allowing you to change the properties of the displayed data. Click on the OK
button (in the display properties window) to save the change, and click the Redraw or Apply
button to see the display change in the 2D View window.
3.4.3 Selecting Items on the Map
This button is selected by default and is used to select items in the 2D View window. If you have
performed any of the repeatable functions (e.g. adding network elements or zoom/panning), you may
need to click on the select button to return to the select mode.
3.4.4 Selection Expert Toolbox

The various buttons contained within the Toolbox allows for easy selection of elements
to be placed into a Selection filter. The selected elements will then appear in the
Selection Expert where they then can be saved or exported as a filter.
Note: This functionality will be covered in the Session on Filters and Fields.
3.4.5 Zooming
Activate the Zoom tool by clicking on the Zoom button from the Map View Toolbar. Use the left
and right mouse buttons to increase and decrease the magnification level.
To zoom in, click the left mouse button on the image (2D Map View). The magnification
increases by one level each time you click the image, and the image centres where the Zoom
button was clicked.

To zoom out, click the right mouse button on the image (2D Map View). The magnification
decreases by one level with each click.
AIRCOM International

33 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Alternatively, the zoom can be adjusted interactively by depressing the left or right mouse and moving
the mouse back and forward.
3.4.6 Zoom Box
Selecting the Zoom Box button allows you to zoom into a desired location by defining the
required area with a resizable box.
3.4.7 Panning
Use the Pan button to reposition displayed data in the 2D View window. Having selected the
Pan button click and hold down the left mouse button and drag the displayed data to the required
location. The Pan button remains activated until another toolbar button (e.g. select button) is chosen,
allowing the user to continue to drag the displayed data to any desired position.
3.4.8 3D View
As well as the 2D View window, ENTERPRISE contains a 3D View window, which enables the user
to more easily view, the map data in 3 dimensions. The 3D View displays items that are shown in the
2D View window with the same colour selection.
Note: The 3D View has a black background so you may want to change the colour of anything you
have defined as black in the 2D View window, to make it possible to view in the 3D View.
Click on the 3D button , and the 3D View appears:



34 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

Note: The 3D View uses height factors, which can be set manually, to exaggerate the displayed
data. The default setting for these factors is 1.
Because the 3D View is intended as a quick way of viewing information you have displayed in the 2D
View window, only in three dimensions, you cannot change what data is being displayed. This would
have to be done in the 2D View window before re-opening the 3D View. However, when using the 3D
View you can use the various buttons on the toolbar:

3.4.9 Settings
To change how the data is displayed in the 3D View window, click on the Settings button .

Within the Display Settings tab there are 3 fields, which are described in detail below:
Clutter Height: Allows the use of user defined clutter heights or clutter heights as defined in a
propagation model to be used in the 3D Map View.
Height Factors: Height factors are entered to exaggerate the size of terrain, clutter and sites. These
should be changed to figures in the range 2-5.
Display: Choose to display an Axis.
Choose to display Fog or Blend to add visual enhancement to the 3D View.
The four options within the Fresnel Settings tab are only relevant to users of CONNECT , the
ENTERPRISEs Microwave Link Planning tool.
AIRCOM International

35 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

3.4.10 Zooming In and Out
The zoom in and zoom out buttons can be used to magnify or shrink the current display in
the 3D Map View window by a factor of two.
3.4.11 Solid View
Choose the Solid View button to display the 3D displayed data as solid colour, taking light into
account. This enables the user to view map data more clearly than in the Wireframe View, but takes
more time and memory to generate.

3.4.12 Wireframe View
This is the default display setting, which displays the data as a line sketch. The advantage of using the
Wireframe View is that it takes less time to generate. To revert from a Solid View to the Wireframe
View click on the Wireframe View button .

36 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

3.4.13 Printing the 3D Map View
You can print the data displayed in the 3D View window by clicking on the Print Display button
. After setting up the various print options, click on the Print button.
3.4.14 Searching the 2D View
You can search the 2D View for different items such as locations, Properties, Links or text; clicking
on the Search button does this , and the following window will appear:

Having chosen a method and entered the data you wish to search for, click on the Find button.
Note: In Site and Text searches, you can search by exact string, sub-string or regular expression.
If the item is found, the 2D Map View will zoom and centre on the midpoint of the item and display an
X to mark the spot.
3.4.15 Printing Maps
You can print the contents of the 2D View using the various print options, all to be found under then
File menu option at the top of the Map View.
These print options allow the user to:
+ Print the Map Data displayed in the 2D View window.
+ Preview the Map Data prior to printing.
+ Display and Print only a selected area in the 2D View window.
+ Specify the page orientation, size, source and margins for printing. Also an option to change
printer, define printer properties and set the number of copies can be done.
+ Enter a title, copyright statement and comments for the printed item. A default or customised logo
can also be chosen, plus the option to print to a defined or default scale is also available.
AIRCOM International

37 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

3.4.16 Export to MapInfo
You can export the contents of the 2D Map View window to MapInfo software by using the Export
to MapInfo option, found under then File menu option at the top of the Map View.
3.5 2D View Context menu
The Context menu is accessed by clicking, with the right mouse button, in the display area of the 2D
View window. The context menu is a versatile menu that contains some of the most useful display
control features, such as:
Redraw: Refreshes the screen after manipulating data. Also linked to the
key/legend window to update all listed data.
Mouse Zoom: Zooms into a desired location by defining the required areas with a
resizable box.
Menu Zoom:

In contrast to the above, this function zooms to:
A set multiplication factor (x_)
A set window size (_km)
The previous view (Last)
A defined home view (Home)
The current view will determine whether zooming in or out will occur.
Add to Favourites: Stores frequently used Map Views, this includes remembering both the
visual layers displayed as well as the exact region, zoom level and
resolution selected. To rapidly select between the different favourite
views, use the favourites pick-box on the Map View Toolbar:

These can be stored, and optionally shared amongst other users.
Organise Favourites: Offers a way of renaming or removing existing favourites.
Set Home: Sets the Home view and specifies the zoom level with which any
new 2D View window initially open.

38 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

3.5.1 Favourites
You can save a 2D View window as a favourite, meaning you can easily restore a predefined working
environment; this includes the screen position of the 2D View, the resolution of height data, building
height data, clutter data, display properties, coverage arrays, interference arrays and traffic arrays. You
can also store and share your favourites among other users.
To save a favourite 2D View, having set up the view exactly as you want it, simply click the right
mouse button in the display area of the 2D View window to bring up the context menu. From the
menu, select Favourites Save. The window below then appears:

Give the favourite a unique name, and add any comments you want. Select which display items to
store, and whether to preserve the layer ordering, along with the favourite view.
Note: If you do not select any of the optional attributes to store with the favourite view, then the
favourite will only store the view location, scale and size but not what was displayed. It is best to
always ensure you at least check the Display list (map layers) option.
Favourites are a very powerful and useful feature in ENTERPRISE and should be fully utilised at
every step in the planning process as a way to keep the 2D View information organised.
Creating detailed Favourite views of map data, network data, coverage, interference and traffic arrays,
etc. can help immensely in tracking and displaying the planning project progress.
The favourite is stored in the folder you have defined in the User Data Directories tab of the Modify
Project window.

AIRCOM International

39 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

To access a created favourite view through the 2D View window, select the name of the favourite
view from the pick-box on the Map View Toolbar:

You can quickly jump between different favourites by selecting the one you want from the above pick
box. This can be done within the same 2D View, but remember that it is also possible to open multiple
2D Views, each one displaying a different favourite view.
Note: Favourite Views DO NOT save the customised display settings such as colours, line
thickness, network element symbols, etc. These settings will always be the latest ones that the user has
chosen. However, the Favourite Views DO remember the exact combination of layers (network data
filters, map data, etc.) which are ticked in the list of Data Types at the time the Favourite is saved.
This makes these Favourite Views extremely useful, because they will always display the up-to-date
network situation in the selected region.
Once a favourite has been defined, it cannot be modified. If you want to change a favourite, you can
simply add a new one and overwrite the old one. To delete a favourite view, right-click on the 2D
View and select Organize, highlight the favourite before clicking delete. The Edit button is used
to rename a Favourite and change the description.



3.6 Map View Gadgets Window
The Map View Gadgets window will give you information about a particular pixel/point on the 2D
View. The Gadgets window can be either attached or detached to the bottom of the 2D View window
or detached from it.
40 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

Point to View and click Show Map View Gadgets at the top of the 2D View, and this will open the
Gadgets window.


The user can select the information displayed in the Gadgets window by clicking on the Edit Map
Information button .

The user can Add items as required (e.g. Location, Clutter, Nearest Cell, etc.), by highlighting the item
in the Available items pane and using the Add> button to move it to the Selected items pane. The
process to remove items is done in a similar manner, highlight the item from the Selected items pane,
and then click <Remove to deselect, thus returning item to the Available items pane once more.
Note: You can change how the location is displayed and the buildings heights are calculated by
double-clicking, with the left mouse button, on that item in the in window.
Initially the Gadgets window is attached to the bottom of the 2D View window when first opened. It
can be freed and moved to any required location by pointing to View and clicking Pin Map View
Gadgets. Clicking this option again will re-attach the window to the bottom of the 2D View.
Alternatively this option can be used to attach the Gadgets window to an alternative 2D View window,
if more than one is open.

AIRCOM International

41 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

3.7 Exercise: Using the 2D View and Favourites
This exercise will allow you display and capture different types of mapping data through the 2D View
window.
Using your project named JerseyCom open a 2D View window and display the following data
types, before saving each as a favourite.
O Display:
Coastline (Colour Black, Width - 1)
Main-roads (Colour - Grey)
Streets (Colour - Brown)
Save as a favourite and name it Main View
O Display:
Coastline (Colour Black, Width - 1)
Block Height data (Colour Green, Min 0, Interval 5, Resolution 50m, Zero Height
Colour White)
Save as a favourite and name it Height Block Data
O Display:
Coastline (Colour Red, Width - 1)
Map Backdrop/AirPhoto Backdrop (Display Coloured)
Use the Search button , to search for Easting (558579) Northing (5451026)
Use the Zoom facility to display the Airport Runway
Save as a favourite and name it Airport
O Display:
Coastline (Colour Black, Width 2)
Urban Clutter data (Colour Orange)
Water Clutter data (Colour Blue)
Text/Cities (Font Arial, Font Style Regular, Size 10, Colour Black)
Use the Search button to search for St. Helier
Use the Zoom facility to zoom around the harbour area of the capital (St. Helier)
Save as a favourite and name it Harbour and Urban Clutter
Now, go back and review the favourites that youve created and verify that they were saved correctly.
3.8 Master View Window
The Master View window is a small-scale map, which indicates the position of any currently opened
2D View window with a rectangle.
42 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

The Master View window is accessed through the Main menu or from the 2D View, by selecting View
Master View...

When first opened the Master View window appears blank. To choose what data is displayed within
the Master View window, click with the right mouse button and click on the Properties button:

From the menu that appears select the data you require, clicking on the Properties> button will allows
you to change the display properties of that data.


Click on the OK button to return to the Master View window.

AIRCOM International

43 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The position and size of the current open 2D View window is indicated with a small rectangle.
Note: You can use the Master View window to scroll your 2D View. By depressing the left mouse
button, and dragging the rectangle to the required position the 2D View will scroll to that location on
the release of the mouse button.
44 (291) AIRCOM International

Using the GIS and other Visual tools

3.9 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

Open a new GIS window F
Display different map data categories F
Using the Zoom and Panning functions F
Saving and editing favourites F
Using the Map Information window to view map data F

Additional Notes:









AIRCOM International

45 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

4 Polygons and Vectors
4.1 Objective of this session
In this session you will learn about:

O How to create and display a Polygon
O How to create and display a Vector
4.2 Overview
Polygons and Vectors are a very powerful feature available to the Radio Planner when using
ASSET3G. A user can create and display their own Polygons and Vectors, which are saved into the
project database.
The user has the flexibility of designing an area on the 2D View, consisting of a number of points. A
set of points is called a segment. A Vector consists of one or more segments, as does a Polygon.
However for a Polygon, at least one of the segments must be closed. An attribute belongs to a segment
within a Vector or Polygon. Attributes can be information such as salary or population data, which a
value can be assigned to.
4.3 Creating a user Polygon
Firstly, ensure you have a Map View (2D View) window open with the required area and data types
displayed. Click on the ENTERPRISE Utilities Tab and select Tools Vector to obtain the
Vector Editor window.

46 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors

To create a user polygon, highlight the User Polygon Data category by clicking on it with the left
mouse button, then click with the right mouse button to bring up the following options:




Select the Add Vector/Polygon option, by clicking on it with the left mouse button. You will now be
prompted to provide a name for the new user Polygon. Having entered a name click on the OK button
to continue.

Now highlight the new user Polygon in the tree-list, by clicking on it with the left mouse button, and
click on the Start button in the Vector Editor window.
AIRCOM International

47 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Now go to the Map View (2D View) and click,
with the left mouse button, on the Start point of
your User Polygon. Continue moving the mouse
around the 2D View, clicking with the left mouse
button on all subsequent points of the user
Polygon.
If you make a mistake, click on the Undo button
in the Vector Editor window to remove the last
point created.
Note: You dont have to link up the points at
the two ends of a Polygon as this is done
automatically when you click the Stop button in
the Vector Editor window.



When you are finished click the Stop button in the Vector Editor window, or alternatively, double
click the left mouse button in the 2D view, which will also link the remaining points together. This
now completes the creation of a Polygon with one segment.
The ability to move points after clicking the Stop button is available through the Move option. By
clicking on the Move Point button a point can be dragged to a new location.
When you have finished click on the Save button to store the new user polygon to the database.
Note: It is not possible to move points about the 2D View once the Polygon has been saved.
The new user Polygon will now become visible by
using the redraw option, available by clicking with
the right mouse in the 2D View window.


48 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors

You can change the display properties of your user Polygon by double clicking with the left mouse
button on the appropriate user Polygon in the Show Data Types tree list.


4.4 Adding Segments to a Polygon
You can add more segments to the Polygon by simply repeating some of the steps previously
discussed.
Highlight the user Polygon to be edited, by clicking on it with the left mouse button. Click on the Start
button in the Vector Editor window and in the Map View (2D View) window, click on the start point
and all subsequent points of the new segment.
If you make a mistake, click the Undo button in the Vector Editor window to remove the point.
Click the Stop button in the Vector Editor window, followed by the Save button to save the segment to
the database.
Note: You cannot delete individual segments from a polygon when you have added them. You can
only delete the whole Polygon.
AIRCOM International

49 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The picture below shows one Polygon that contains two segments:

4.5 Adding Attributes to a Polygon
Attributes, as previously described, can be information such as salary, quality of area, population data
etc. This value can then be assigned to segments within a Polygon.
Adding attributes to previously created Polygon segments is done through the Vector Editor window.
Having selected the required Polygon in the tree view; by clicking on it with the left mouse button,
select the Segment Attribute Editor tab in the Vector Editor window.
Open a Map View (2D View) window and display the
Polygon and click with the left mouse button on the
segment for which an attribute is going to be added.


50 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors

Within the Vector Editor window, under the Segment Attribute Editor tab, Click on the Add button;
the following window appears:

- Enter an Attribute Name, for example Urban Population
- Choose, using the drop menu, whether you want the value to be an Integer or Double
- Enter the Attribute Value (e.g. 30,000 to indicate the Urban Population in this segment)
Click on the OK button to add the information to the segment. Repeat the above steps for each
segment you wish to add attributes to. Note that if you wish to compare values between segments, the
same attribute name must be used in all segments.


AIRCOM International

51 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

4.6 Viewing Attributes
Having created attributes for Polygon segments, these can now be viewed in the Map View (2D View)
window. This is done within the Fill tab of the display properties window, which can be accessed by
double clicking with the left mouse button on the appropriate user Polygon in the Show Data Types
tree list.


Select the Draw Filled Polygon option and select the Attribute Name from the drop down menu.
Choose a starting colour from the palette, enter the Minimum value to be displayed and the step
Interval (e.g. if you typed 50, each colour in the palette, in descending order, will show an interval
jump of 50). Then click on the OK button.
Click, with the left mouse button, on the Map View (2D View) window and the Polygon segments will
be filled with the appropriate colour depicting the attribute value.
52 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors



Note: Attributes can also be used within Coverage Statistics analysis and Traffic Planning. How
attributes are used within both these areas will be covered later in the course.
4.7 Creating your own Vector
The steps involved in creating a user Vector are very similar to those used in creating a user Polygon.
Prior to Vector creation, ensure you have a Map View (2D View) window open with the required area
and data types displayed.
Click on the ENTERPRISE Utilities Tab and select Tools Vector to obtain the Vector Editor
window.


AIRCOM International

53 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

To create a user Vector, highlight the User Vector Data category by clicking on it with the left
mouse button, then click with the right mouse button to bring up the following options:



Select the Add Vector/Polygon option, by clicking on it with the left mouse button.
You will now be prompted to provide a name for the new user Vector. Having entered a name click on
the OK button to continue.

Now highlight the new user Vector in the tree-list, by clicking on it with the left mouse button, and
click on the Start button in the Vector Editor window.
54 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors

Now go to the Map View (2D View) and click, with
the left mouse button, on the Start point of your
User Vector. Continue moving the mouse around
the 2D View, clicking with the left mouse button on
all subsequent points of the user Vector.
If you make a mistake, click on the Undo button in
the Vector Editor window to remove the last point
created.
When you are finished click the Stop button in the
Vector Editor window. This now completes the
creation of a Vector with one segment.
The ability to move points after clicking the Stop
button is available through the Move option. By
clicking on the Move button a point can be dragged
to a new location.
When you have finished click on the Save button to
store the new user Vector to the database.
Note: It is not possible to move points about the
2D View once the Vector has been saved.

The new user Vector will now become visible by using the redraw option, available by clicking with
the right mouse in the 2D View window.

You can change the display properties of your user Vector by double clicking with the left mouse
button on the appropriate user Vector in the Show Data Types tree list.
AIRCOM International

55 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


4.8 Adding Segments to a Vector
You can add more segments to the Vector by simply repeating some of the steps previously discussed.
Highlight the user Vector to be edited, by clicking on it with the left mouse button. Click on the Start
button in the Vector Editor window and in the Map View (2D View) window, click on the start point
and all subsequent points of the new segment. If you make a mistake, click the Undo button in the
Vector Editor window to remove the point. Click the Stop button in the Vector Editor window,
followed by the Save button to save the segment to the database.
Note: You cannot delete individual segments from a vector when you have added them. You can
only delete the whole Vector.

56 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors

4.9 Importing Vector Data
Vector data such as building vectors can be imported from text or binary files into the database at any
time.
To import vector data:
In the Vector Editor click, with the right mouse
button, on the selected Vector, and from the menu
that appears, click Insert Vector File.


Browse to the text or binary file you want to import
and after highlighting the file, click on the Open
button.
All imported Vector files are converted into the new Vector binary format (*.vbf) and inserted into the
database.
AIRCOM International

57 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

4.10 Exercise: Creating Polygons and Vectors
Using the JerseyCom project, open the Show Data Types list and display the urban clutter
regions.
+ Launch the Vector Editor from the Utilities Tab Tools Vector
+ Within the Vector Editor window highlight the User Polygon Data category, using the left
mouse button. Click the Right mouse button and from the menu that appears select Add
Vector/Polygon
+ Create a user polygon (with two segments) called Urban Polygon using the Start, Stop and
Save buttons within the Vector Editor window. Draw one segment around each of the Urban
clutter regions.
+ Display the Urban Polygon in the 2D View by selecting the appropriate option in the Show Data
Types list under the heading of User Polygon. Choose a Red colour to display the Urban
Polygon.
+ Save the view as a Favourite and name it Urban Polygon

58 (291) AIRCOM International

Polygons and Vectors

4.11 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

Successfully use the Vector Editor to create a User Polygon F
Successfully use the Vector Editor to create a User Vector F

Additional Notes:











AIRCOM International

59 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5 Setting up a GSM Network
5.1 Objectives of this session
During this session you will learn about:
O Importing and committing Antennas into the database
O Setting up an appropriate Propagation Model
O Setting Site display characteristics
O How to define a site template
O Adding sites and cells in the 2D view
O Predicting Coverage
O Displaying and Analysing Coverage
O Displaying individual predictions
O Creating and Displaying a Coverage Array
O Coverage Schemas
O Service Areas
O Coverage statistics
O Cell Repeaters
O Antenna Slots
5.2 Setting Up
Before we can start planning new cell sites and their coverage we need to set up a few important items
such as:
- Details of the antennas we want to use.
- The propagation models we are going to use to calculate coverage.
- The range of nominal cell radii we want to use.
- The display characteristics of our sites in the 2D-view.
- A site template defining the default characteristics when a site is added.
60 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

5.2.1 Importing Antennas
The database stores detailed information regarding the antenna types you will use in your network. In
particular it stores the horizontal and vertical radiation patterns (or masks) used when calculating the
coverage from a particular cell.
The simplest way of entering this data into the tool is to import it from a file supplied by the antenna
manufacturer. The format supported by ENTERPRISE is a well-known and widely supported format
known as PlaNet format antenna files.
To import a new antenna into a project you need to go to the File menu and select Import Project
Data. Then select the PlaNet/EET format option.
A number of different data types can be imported, in this case we want to just use the Antennas format
so click on the Antennas tab and select the check-box at the top left to enable the import.

Next click the Add button and you will get an Explorer window where you must navigate to the
location where your PlaNet format antenna files are stored on the network. Select the antenna files you
want to import and click the Open button to add them to the import list.

If you want to add more then simply return to the Add button and select some more. When you have
completed the list of antennas you require click the Import button to begin importing these into the
database.
Note: If you check the Add to all Projects box then the antennas you import will be automatically
made available to all projects in the database without the need to import them all again.
AIRCOM International

61 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

When the import is complete you can view the new antennas from the Equipment Cellular
Antennas window. You can individually save antennas to the database by highlighting the antenna
and then clicking on the Commit button or alternatively, you can save all the antennas to the
database by clicking on the Commit All button.

Note: To avoid problems later in the process it is a good idea to COMMIT all of the antennas
after you have imported them.
5.2.2 Setting up a Propagation Model
To set up a new propagation model go to
Configuration Propagation Models

Click Add to create a new model from one of the available types. The available types will depend on
the version of the tool you are using but a small dialogue will be presented after clicking Add, which
allows you to select the form of model you require.
Propagation Models are mathematical attempts to model the real radio environment as closely as
possible. Most propagation models need to be tuned or calibrated by being compared to measured
propagation data; otherwise you will not be able to obtain accurate coverage predications.
62 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

For the purposes of this training course we will use the Standard Macrocell model, which is based
on the ETSI Hata model with a few additional features that enhance flexibility and accuracy (such as
the inclusion of clutter offsets/heights and the use of diffraction). The model is known to be valid for
frequencies in the range of 150 MHz to 2 GHz but can be extended beyond this range with careful
calibration.
Detailed documentation on each type of model is available in User Reference Guides, and further
Application Notes are available on request.
After adding a Standard Macrocell model we will configure it with suggested default parameters for
the appropriate frequency range (i.e. 900 MHz).
Note: To obtain accurate coverage predictions it is essential to calibrate the model by comparing
its results with measured propagation data for the frequency band you are using and the
terrain/clutter environments you want to model. This process is described in detail in the AIRCOM
Application Note P-TN-010-DO-003, which is available on request. Normally specialists in your
organisation will carry out the calibration process and provide you with the correct settings for the
model.

General Tab:
Give the model a new name, set the appropriate
frequency and the Effective Earth Radius to use
(suggested value is the standard 4/3 of the true earth
radius, i.e. 8493km). Enter a value for the Standard
Deviation of interference, the default value being
7.5.
Path Loss Tab:
We will now set the path loss values, which are
used in the Path Loss equation (shown at the bottom
of the window).
The equation for path loss is based on the Okumura-
Hata empirical path loss formula with some
enhancements.
This example shows the suggested default values
for a 900 MHz Macrocell Model.
AIRCOM International

63 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User



Eff. Ant. Height Tab:
Select the effective site antenna height algorithm
to be used (the suggested value being the Relative
calculation algorithm).

Diffraction Tab:
Select a Diffraction loss calculation method from
the available list. The suggested method is Epstein-
Peterson, which assumes that the total loss can be
evaluated as the sum of attenuation due to each
respective significant obstruction.
64 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network


Clutter Tab:
The clutter loss offsets are used to fine-tune the
accuracy of your model by allowing for the
different loss characteristics in different clutter
environments.
These will be determined during the calibration
process for your model (For training purposes we
will leave all values set at zero).
When finished click on the Apply button and then the Commit button to complete the process.
5.2.3 XML Imports
In addition to importing Antenna files using the PlaNet format, or setting up your Propagation models,
it is possible to import these, plus a wide variety of Project elements, Configuration settings and
Templates using the XML Import function. To import data from XML:

From the File menu select Import XML Click the Browse button to locate the *.xml file(s) that
you want to import.





AIRCOM International

65 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The easiest way to do this is to select the Index file and click Open





Once you do that, the XML import window appears again. Now, from each tab, select the items you
want to import. Select how you want conflicts to be handled during import. You can be prompted on
an individual basis, or can, for all conflicts, replace the data in the project with the imported data,
merge the data or leave the existing data as it is.

For example, if youre importing things like Carrier Layers, Cell Layers, Antennas, etc. youre current
project may already have some of these. In this case, you can choose Leave and it will only import
those items which you dont have.

Another case is when you have some sites already, and you want to import the same sites but with a
different configuration. In this case, select Replace, and the new settings will replace the old settings.

When prompted, click Import to begin importing. During import, if there are any comments or
problems, the message log will display them. Depending on the problem, youll get different choices
to make. After youve imported items using the XML import function, youll need to commit them
either using individual commits or via the Global Commit all function under the Database menu.
66 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network


5.2.4 Setting the Nominal Cell Radii
When adding new cell sites it is often useful to use nominal cell size hexagons as a guideline for the
inter-site spacing you require achieving good coverage. ASSET3G allows you to specify a range of
cell sizes and to display hexagons while adding sites graphically in the 2D View. Before starting to
add sites it is therefore a good idea to set your range of hexagons to an appropriate value. This is done
by selecting Database Hexagon Radii

AIRCOM International

67 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The way this feature works is by setting the Mid-hexagon radius. The tool then calculates a range of
larger and smaller radii based on this middle size and the split type selected. The choice between
corner and face simply refers to whether the radius refers to the distance from the centre of the
hexagon to one of its vertices or to the mid-point of one of its faces.
5.2.5 Setting the Display Characteristics
Finally, before we start adding sites to the network we need to decide how we want to display them, as
there are various options and styles. To set these display properties, go to the 2D View window, open
the Show Data Types list and find the All Filters option. Select the check-box next to this option
and then double-click, with the left mouse button over the All option, which will bring up the display
properties window for the selected filter (i.e. All filter).

Within the Display Properties Window, each element is displayed in hierarchical order along with a
Summary tab which shows some of the general display properties given to that element.

68 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

Within the Summary tab, various items can be changed quickly and previewed to ascertain if more
detailed changes will need to be made. The following items can be changed within the Summary tab:
Symbol Shape: Allows a symbols size, font type and shape to be chosen using the drop down
menus.
Symbol Line: Choose a Line colour, Line style and line thickness using the drop down menus.
Symbol Fill: Using the drop down menus choose a fill colour, fill style and percentage of
opacity. At 100% opacity the fill covers everything (solid); at 10% the fill is almost
transparent.
Background: A choice of No background (off), Solid background or Halo background is
available for selection, together with a choice of background colour. The choice of
Halo background enables automatic changing of the colour if the colour chosen
clashes with the same colour displayed in, for example a coverage array.
Label: Choose the label or labels you wish displayed on the map from Identity, Name 1 or
Name 2. The font type, font size and label colour can also be chosen using the drop
down arrows.
In addition to the Summary tab, more detailed changes can be made to elements which display the
button.
Clicking on the button will expand the selected network element to reveal the detailed change
options.




Note: The detailed change options available will vary depending on the element selected.
When making detailed changes, under the Symbol tab the following options are available:
Shape: An elements symbol size can be set to a fixed value or be based on a variable
parameter, chosen from a list of available attributes.
The symbol shape can also be chosen using the drop down menus.
Line: Allows the selection of a fixed colour or a variable parameter, from a list of available
attributes. If the line is based on a variable parameter extra settings and options
become available.
The line style and thickness is also selected using the drop down menus.
Fill: Selection of a fixed fill colour or a fill colour based on a variable parameter can be
chosen. The fill pattern along with the percentage of transparency can also be selected
using the drop down menus.
AIRCOM International

69 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Background: To change or customise an elements background the choices of Off, Solid or Halo
exist, together with a colour choice selected from using the drop down menu.
Selecting the Halo options allows the background colour to be automatically
changed should it clash with another colour being used within the 2D Map View
window (e.g. Coverage display).
Visibility: To dictate when the symbol will appear on the 2D Map view, three options are
available for selection. Always, View Zoom Range (allows the setting of minimum
and maximum height and width dimensions), and Print Scale Range (allows the
setting of minimum and maximum dimensions based on the current paper settings
within the Print Settings window).
Similar options are available within the other tabs, depending on the specific element chosen.
5.2.6 Defining a Site Template
When planning a network, it is very likely that many sites will have the same characteristics. Instead
configuring each network element individually, you can define site templates for each site type, then
select a template to use as a base for any new sites. This will save a lot of time during the planning
phase of your network.
Depending on the products you have installed, you can create templates for MSCs, BSCs, Sites,
Distribution Nodes, Repeaters, Neighbours, PLMNs, WMSCs, SGSNs, RNSs and NodeBs. Although
you can create as many templates as you want, only one template of each type can be active at any one
time.
To create a Site Template go to Database Templates, the following window will then appear:


In the Templates pane, click with the right mouse button in the white space below/next to the
existing default templates. From the menu that appears click on the type of template you want to add.
70 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network


Note: To edit the properties of an existing template, select the template in the Templates pane,
and configure the template using the various available tabs.
You will now be prompted to enter the name of the template (e.g. GSM 900 3 SECTOR SITE), having
done so click on the OK button.

Alternatively right-clicking on the Site level will prompt you to add a new template. You will then
be prompted to enter the name of the template (as described above); and having done so click the OK
button.
Your new template will now be visible
under the Site level.


AIRCOM International

71 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5.2.6.1 Adding Cells and Cell Layers to a Site Template
To configure templates for sites to include cells and cell layers, click with the right mouse button on
the site and from the menu that appears, click Add Cell:

Note: For a 3-sector site add one cell, configure it and then click on duplicate to create the
remaining two cells. Then simply edit the additional cells to their appropriate parameters. For an
Omni-directional site add one cell to the site by right clicking on the template name once only.
On the cell level the following parameters can be configured under each tab:
General Tab: Set the Propagation Model using the drop down menu. Enter the MNC,
MCC, NCC and BCC.
Status Tab: Set any previously created Fields to associate them with the site.
Cell Config Tab; Specify the Cell Configuration settings individually. Set the Cell equipment
details. Set the DTX state and voice activity factor. Choose an FCC
category (if applicable).
Antennas Tab: Configure Antenna slot details. Choose an antenna type for each cell, using
the drop down menu and set any correction factor. Choose a feeder type
and enter the feeder length. Set the antenna azimuth in degrees from north.
Enter any mechanical down tilt. Set the antenna height. Set a distributed
antenna location (if applicable).
BCF: Set the following cell parameters: Cell Type (0-9999), Segment ID (1-128)
a Segment name.
Note: a segment is a group of BTSs with the same BCCH.
Finally ensure the template selection check-box is selected for the new template you have added. This
will now be used when we add new sites.
72 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

5.3 Exercise: Setting up a GSM Network
Before actual site planning can commence a few important items must be set up. Configure the
following:

1. Antennas:
Using File Import Project Data PlaNet/EET import at least 1 antenna file: Commit these
antennas by accessing the Antenna configuration window: Equipment Cellular Antennas.
Alternatively, you can get Antennas by means of an XML import.
2. Propagation Model:
Under Configuration Propagation Models use the Add button to reveal the choice of propagation
models available.
Select the Standard Macrocell 3 Model by highlighting it and clicking on the Add button.
Configure the model in accordance with the suggested default parameters for your relevant frequency
found in the Help pages. Apply and Commit the Model.
3. Set the Site Display Characteristics:
Within the 2D View select the Show Data Types menu/list. Under the Filters option select the
All category. Using the left mouse button double-click on the All category and set appropriate
display characteristics for all relevant elements, such as Cell Site, GSM Cell, NodeB, UMTS Cell, etc.
4. Site Template
Open the Site Template window by going to Database Templates and create a new 3 sector site
template. To do this, follow the procedure outlined earlier on this section. Name this new template: 3
Sector Site
Ensure the new template is selected and then you are to start network planning.

AIRCOM International

73 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5.4 Adding Sites/Cells to a GSM Network
Now that we have defined all of the key parameters and set up a suitable template we are ready to start
planning using the 2D View.
First make sure you have some suitable map data displayed (e.g. roads, coastline, terrain etc.) and that
you have the All filter selected in the Show Data Types list.

5.4.1 Adding Network Elements from the 2D View
Selecting different network elements is simple. The left-hand side of the 2D View contains the Site
Design Toolbar, which has a number of selectable buttons. When you click on the menu arrow, a
toolbox appears. Each toolbox will contain elements that belong to a similar category or function.



74 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

For example, in order to begin building a GSM network the radio planner would need to add an MSC
network element. Once this has been done further network elements become accessible within the
toolbox prompting you to start constructing the remaining network infrastructure.
Add an MSC by clicking on the first button in the list. This will activate the Add Network Element
toolbox.
Click on the Add MSC button to the select the MSC network element and place it on the
appropriate location in your 2D view.
By adding an MSC, a further set of buttons becomes enabled, amongst which is the Add BSC
button. At this stage it is important to note that only functions applicable to a currently placed object
are available. Consequently, adding a BSC will enable you to start adding BTS sites to the view.
Now select the Add Site button and you should be able to add cell sites in the same manner as
MSCs/BSCs.
Note: You can choose to use the hexagon or cloverleaf symbols to display your Sites. This can
assist you in spacing the sites appropriately, as shown below:

When using the Add Network Element toolbox, within the 2D View, ENTERPRISE automatically
creates a new Property or adds it to an existing Property when the network element it is placed.
By definition A Property refers to a real estate location that is technology-independent. A Site is
parented on a Property and refers to the technology / equipment that is located at that location.
AIRCOM International

75 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

A Property can be displayed on the 2D View independently of the network elements, as shown below:

Each network element must sit on a Property but more than one element can be co-sited on a Property.
Moving network elements requires moving the Property (which automatically moves the network
elements on it) or moving the element between properties.
To adjust the location of the sites you have added click the Move Property button, select the object
to move by clicking on it and then click again on the new location.
Alternatively, this can be achieved through the Site Database by changing the Property co-ordinates.
To delete a network element clicks on the Delete button and then click on the element to be
deleted. The system will ask you to confirm your request before carrying out and deleting the chosen
item.
Once again it is possible to do through the Site Database. Deleting the element does not delete the
Property as well; to delete this you must use the Delete Property button.
Note: When you delete an item from the database it is sent to the Wastebasket and not permanently
deleted. If you have made a mistake you can go to the wastebasket and restore the deleted items. This
option can be found under Edit in the ENTERPRISE Main Menu. Until you empty the wastebasket an
item is not permanently deleted and its identity cannot be duplicated therefore if you want to reuse
an identity (e.g. a Site Id) you must permanently delete the item with that Id from the wastebasket first.
5.4.2 Creating cellular connections to provide network hierarchy

For GSM networks there is no need to create cellular connections for Network Hierarchy. Elements
are logically connected automatically according to the settings on File Preferences Network.
76 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

5.4.3 Locating elements in the 2D view or Site Database

Once you have placed elements on the 2D view, you may want to locate them on a quick and easy
way. ENTERPRISE provides a variety of ways to accomplish this. Some of them are:

From the Site Database to the 2D View

Right-click on a Site or Cell to open a Context Menu and select the option Locate in 2D view. If
the 2D view is open, the screen will centre to the selected Site/Cell.

From the 2D View to the Site Database

Enable this feature on the File Preferences menu. From the General tab, and on the Ctrl Click
Opens pane, tick the option of Site Database. With this enabled, you can now hold the Ctrl key
and then right-click on a Site/Cell. This will then open the Site Database on the element you selected.

5.4.4 Viewing Property Information for a Network Element

You can view the Property information for any Network Element by right-clicking on it in the Site
Database and selecting View Property. The Property Information, with all its tabs, will be displayed.
The General tab provides information such as Property ID and Location, whilst the Address tab
displays the Address, Town, County, State and Post Code.


AIRCOM International

77 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5.4.5 Re-orienting antennas
You will see that the direction of any antenna is indicated by the sector appropriate to that cell. Each
follows the Site Template settings, but it is possible to alter its direction via the 2D View. To do this:
1- Click on the down arrow next to the Move Network Element button (immediately below the Add
Network Element button) and select the Re-orientate Antenna button.
2- Click on the sector whose antenna you wish to re-orientate and steer it as required. The current
angle is shown on the top-left corner of the 2D View. Click again to finish.

5.5 Predicting the Pathloss
To predict coverage, we first need to have the pathloss predictions for all the cells involved. To do
this, open the coverage predictor from either Tools Pathloss Predictor or from the button on the
Main Toolbar. You following window will then appear:
78 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network


There are three ways of selecting the list of sites you want to calculate predictions for. These are
selected with the radio buttons at the top-left of the window:
Individual site / cell: After selecting this option you can click on a site in the 2D
View in order to select just that site or cell for prediction.
Sites and cell in view: After selecting this option you can click in a specific 2D View
window and the tool will create a list of sites and cells for
prediction corresponding to those visible in the view.
Sites and cell in Filter: If you select this option you can select a group of sites and
cells defined by a Filter (we will come back to what Filters
are and how to define them later).
The default filter is All(All sites and cells).
When the list of sites and cells for prediction has been set, it is worth checking that a valid model type
has been identified on each site (the predictor will list the models found for each site).
If you see Unknown or the wrong model name against a site or cell this could indicate a mistake has
been made when assigning the model in the General tab of either the Site Template you are using
or for that specific cell in the Site Database.
Correct these before predicting by editing, using the Global Edit facility, in the Site Database.

With the list of sites and cells for prediction defined you must then set the following:
AIRCOM International

79 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Radius: This is the maximum range from the site that the calculation will be
performed to. The calculation radius is normally set on a site-by-site
basis (on the Predictions tab for each site in the Site Database).
If you want to override the site-defined radius you can do so here and
select a calculation radius from the drop down menu.
Resolution: The pixel resolution (in metres) that you want the calculation
performed at. The list of available resolutions corresponds to the
available height and clutter map data resolutions in your system. If
you only have one map data resolution then this box will default to
that value. Again this is normally set on a site-by-site basis (on the
Predictions tab for each site in the Site Database), but can be
overridden by selecting the check-box and using the drop down
menu to select a new Resolution.
Reprediction Rule: This option allows you to decide whether or not to force the tool to
recalculate all predictions in the list you have defined or whether just
to recalculate those that need to be recalculated.
The predictor will recall predictions from the Predictions folder
defined in the project setup for those sties/cells it believes to be up to
date and will calculate those where either they dont yet exist or
where parameters have changed on the site invalidating the old
prediction.
Note: Parameter changes, which require the recalculation of predications, include: antenna types,
azimuths, tilts, heights, site/cell locations, prediction model changes. Changes, which simply affect the
transmitted power of the cell, do not require re-prediction since the prediction is a pathloss
calculation rather than a received power calculation.
Now simply click the Start button to begin the prediction process. The predictor will estimate an
overall time requirement to carry out the calculations.
The first estimate may not be correct since it needs to learn how fast your PC is. Subsequent time
estimates should become more accurate.
As the predictions progress you will see a next to each site in the list as that calculation is
completed and stored to disk.
At any point during the prediction process the calculations may be terminated using the Stop button.
When all the predictions are completed the Stop button on the Predictor will revert back to being the
Start button and the progress bar will have reached 100%.
5.6 Displaying Coverage
Displaying coverage can be done in two ways:
80 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

1. Displaying Individual Predictions:
Individual predictions for sites or cells can be added to the 2D View display using the buttons at
the top right of the 2D View. Click on the appropriate button (single cell or single site coverage) and
then click on the cell/site you wish to display the prediction for in the 2D View. If a prediction exists it
will be added to the 2D View, otherwise you will be given a warning in the Message Log window. A
new display item will appear in the display tree list to allow you to remove these predictions from the
view when you are finished with them.

The limitation of this method is that multiple predictions are not combined to display the Best
coverage at each location but are simply overlaid on top of one another.
2. Creating and Displaying a Coverage Array:
With this method you first produce an Array which combines a number of predictions into a raster
which contains the best coverage value for each location and other information regarding the serving
cell. This Array can then be added to the 2D View by selecting the appropriate item in the display list
tree.
Before an array is created it is necessary to ensure that the appropriate parameters with which to do so
have been set up correctly.
The above is realised through the Array Settings dialogue found at the bottom of the Arrays menu.
AIRCOM International

81 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


There are various options and features with this window, which we will explore during the course. For
now we will accept the default settings when creating the Best Server type of array.
To create the Array click the Create Array button and after choosing Non Sim select Best
Server and click the OK button. You should receive a message in the Message Log window telling
you how many subcells were added to the array if the number is zero you have a problem!
Common reasons for getting a 0 of 0 subcells processed message are:
No predictions were found for the sites. Check your site configurations and look at the Misc. tab in
the Site Database to see if there are valid predictions for each site.
No cell and carrier layers are selected in the Array Settings window (if you have a fresh install of
the tool it should select all layers by default).
The site filter selected at the top of the Array creation window is not correct (default should be
All, in which case this should not be the problem).
Having successfully created the array you display it by selecting
the Coverage Best Server item from the Show Data Types
list:


82 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

5.6.1 Coverage Bands & Colours
Defining what coverage levels and colours are used to display coverage in the 2D-view requires the
following set up:
Select Configuration GSM Coverage Schemas from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu. You will then
get the following dialogue showing the available schemas (initially just the system default).
Within the Coverage Schemas window the coverage bands
are created and a colour for each band is chosen. However
the Levels are not defined in this window.


Firstly decide what type of schema you require. Within the Schema Type field there is two options,
System or User. Select System to produce a schema, which will be available to all users; Select
User to produce a schema for your own use only.
Next, in the System Schema field, click on the Add button to add a new schema.
When prompted, give the Coverage Schema an appropriate
name, clicking the OK button when finished:

Note: In the above example a User Schema has been created and given the name of the Planner
creating the Schema.
Now use the Add button within the Coverage Categories field to create your schema.
Having selected the Add button the Coverage Properties
window appears, from which the category is given a name and
suitable colour.


AIRCOM International

83 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

These categories, once created, can be changed or deleted using
the Modify or Remove buttons within the Coverage Schemas
window.


Having defined the schema we then need to specify the signal levels corresponding to each colour
band. This is done within the Cell Layer Configuration.
Select Configuration Layers Cell Layers, from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu, and then go to
the Coverage Thresholds tab.
Having selected your Schema from the drop down menu, double click (with the left mouse button) on
each category to bring up the Threshold Properties window.
The threshold value in dBm can now be entered for each category in turn.




Finally, when displaying a coverage array it is possible to change the coverage schema being used by
double clicking (with the left mouse button) on the Best Server category in the Show Data Types
list:
84 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network



5.6.2 Service Areas
An alternative way of viewing the coverage array you have just created is as a Service Area plot
showing the geographical areas where each cell is the dominant server rather than the signal strength
information.
To change the display from a Best Server to
Service Area go to the Show Data Types list
and de-select Best Server and select Service
Area.


AIRCOM International

85 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The 2D Map View will then re-display the coverage
as a service area plot with each cell area shown in a
different colour.


The colours used within the Service Area (Block) are chosen automatically by the tool. User
functionality is limited to changing the array from a Solid to transparent view and including the Cell
Identifiers in the Key Legend. These options can be selected by double-clicking the Service Area
(Block) category in the Show Data Types list.

5.7 Analysing Coverage
ASSET3G incorporates some statistical tools for analysing Coverage/Interference arrays. We will look
at interference later. For now lets see how we can examine the coverage of a network.
The Coverage Statistics tool can be opened through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting
Arrays Coverage/Interference Coverage Statistics or by clicking on the Coverage
Statistics button on the 2D Map View window toolbar. This tool allows you to perform analysis
on any of the different types of arrays, which you can create.
86 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

To analyse your coverage data click the button
on the 2D Map View window toolbar (selecting
Non Sim), or alternatively select Arrays
Coverage/Interference Coverage Statistics
and use the Next> button to move to the second
screen in the Wizard) to get the following
window:

In this case we want to analyse our Best Server array which we created earlier, so make sure the
relevant radio button is selected. Within the Coverage/Interference Category field select the level
for which you want to analyse the coverage. Use the drop down menu to select one of the Coverage
Categories defined in the Coverage Schema earlier.
Note: The Schema Coverage Categories available are the same ones used within the 2D Map View
for display purposes.
Finally, click the Finish button (if using the Wizard) or the OK button if you selected the
Coverage Statistics button on the 2D Map View window toolbar. Having carried out the analysis a
similar Excel report to the below will appear:

The analysis is broken down into three parts:
1. The first section shows the analysis parameters (i.e. coverage level selected and overall statistics
of the total area and area at target level or greater in km
2
and as a percentage of the total).
2. Area statistics broken down by Clutter Category so you can see if you are meeting your coverage
objectives in the important areas.
3. Statistics broken down on a cell-by-cell basis.
AIRCOM International

87 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5.7.1 Array Manager
The Array Manager has been developed to provide an ENTERPRISE Core Array Management
facility, which allows the user to perform memory management on multi-technology arrays and
simulations (ASSET/3g). In addition, the Array Manager provides the ability to retrieve archived
arrays, allowing for the benchmarking of statistical changes over time.
The Array Manager can be found under the Arrays Menu, and having opened the Array Manager
window you can view specific information about the array (i.e. owner, memory and resolution) within
the window:

You can control the amount of information shown in the window by selecting the information fields
you wish to view from the pop up menu. You can access this pop up menu by right-clicking your
mouse button on an information field header:

In addition to viewing information about an array you can also Load an array into memory, Delete an
array from memory or Save an array to a specified location using the buttons provided or by using the
right-click menu, as shown:


88 (291) AIRCOM International

Setting up a GSM Network

5.8 Exercise: Starting to Plan Coverage
In Exercise 4 a new Site Template was defined with all the key parameters. We are now ready to start
planning using the 2D View.
+ Adding Sites/Cells
- Under the Show Data Types tree select and display suitable map data (e.g. Coastline,
urbanised clutter regions, height (block) data) to assist in the construction of your network.
- Add an MSC on the 2D Map View.
- The Add BSC button has now become active and can be selected. Click and add a BSC
element to the 2D Map View.
- Now use the Add Site button to place and position sites (a maximum of twelve) covering the
urbanised clutter regions

Using the shortcut key or Tools Pathloss Predictor set up the Coverage Predictor to predict
All sites to a Radius of 10km with a Resolution of 50m.
- Display and Analyse the coverage using a Best Server Array, which can be created using
either Arrays Coverage/Interference Coverage/Interference Wizard or the Create
Arrays button (selecting Non Sim).
Note: Ensure the appropriate parameters have been set up correctly in the Array Settings
window, found at the bottom of the Tools drop down menu.

Attempt to achieve 80% coverage of urban clutter for the Suburban in Building schema
category using the Coverage Statistics (maximum of twelve sites).

Save as favourite Sites plus coverage array
AIRCOM International

89 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

5.9 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:
Import and Commit radio antennas into the equipment configuration database F
Successfully conduct XML Imports F
Successfully set-up a Propagation Model with given parameter values F
Setting Site Display Characteristics prior to planning F
Defining a new Site Template with suitable attributes F
Adding Network Elements to the 2D View F
Predicting, Displaying and analysing the Coverage of new cell sites F
Correctly modelling cell repeaters into a network F

Additional Notes:







90 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6 Fields, Filters & Visualisers
6.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn about:
O The purpose of Fields
O How to create and define Static and Dynamic Filters
O How to use the Selection Expert
O The various uses of Filters
O Understand the purpose of Visualisers
O Creating Visualisers
6.2 Status Fields
Fields are primarily used to enable the project managers to manage and oversee the progression of the
network from initial design to rollout phase.
Within the network, Status Fields can be defined to show, for example, whether a site or link is
Proposed, In-Build or Operational. In this case, a Field could be created as Rollout Phase, and the
mutually exclusive options within that Field could be Proposed, In-Build and Operational.
Fields may also be used to record the equipment used on a site or link, or its region, or perhaps the
name of the planner in charge.
While being defined, Fields must be associated with specific network element types.
Status Fields are defined within the ENTERPRISE Administrator module, so this is covered on a
separate course (the user can also refer to the Installation & Administration User Reference Guide).
It is generally advised that Fields be set up as early in the project as possible, so that they are available
for the planner to assign the correct option to the relevant network elements in the Site or Link
Database. These assignments can then provide a useful method in the process of creating dynamic
filters.
AIRCOM International

91 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Some examples of Fields that may be created are:
Field Options Associated element
Rollout Phase: unset, Planned, Acquired, In-Build, On-Air Site or Link
Vendor Equipment: unset, Nokia, Ericsson, Siemens Site or Link
Region: unset, North, South, East, West. Site or Property
Note: It is strongly recommended that the first option in each group is named unset, or similar,
so that this can be the default used when you have not set a particular field for a site or link.
6.2.1 Viewing Fields for Sites or Links
When the Fields have been created and saved to the database, you will see the defined Fields within
the Status tabs of the Site Database, against the relevant network element or Property, and in the case
of the Link Database, against each Link.
When the Fields have been defined and committed to the database, the created Fields and any Picklist
options will be seen under the Status tab of the Site Database, listed against each Network Element to
which they were associated.
6.2.1.1 Site Database

92 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6.2.1.2 Link Database

Where Fields were given the Picklist type, the options can be made to appear listed under a drop-down
menu, by double-clicking on the first Field Value. This allows the planner to assign one of the options
defined.
In this way, each property, network element or link can be flagged with an individual identity.
Any of the other Field Types (Integer, String, etc.) can also be set by the planner by clicking on the
Field Value.
This information can then be used by Administrators, Rollout Co-ordinators and other users to define
Dynamic Filters which might select, for example, Sites flagged as Planned, or using a particular
type of Equipment.
6.3 Filters
Filters provide a logical grouping of network elements according to their characteristics or functions.
They provide a method of allowing the sub-division of the network into more manageable sections for
analysis, diagnosis and display, and are therefore a highly important feature in ENTERPRISE.
Filter creation can be based on many different selection criteria, including element type, hierarchy,
Fields and polygons, as well as attributes such as antenna type, frequency band, etc.
AIRCOM International

93 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Filters can be defined as either Static or Dynamic:
Static Filters: These are static lists of objects specified by the user. These filters can only be
changed by the user adding or deleting objects from the list.
Dynamic Filters: The included objects in Dynamic Filters will constantly update as the network
evolves. These filters select network elements based on criteria such as:
Object type (e.g. BSC, Site, Cell, Link)
Status Flag assignment
Cell Layers assigned
Parenting
Geographical Location (e.g. within a polygon)
Such filters are termed Dynamic because the inclusion list will automatically
be updated whenever a change is made to any of the parameters forming the
filter definition criteria.
Selection Expert: There is also an Ad Hoc Memory Filter which can swiftly and powerfully
select items from the 2D View or Site/Link Database. This memory filter can
optionally be saved as a Static Filter for future use. The Trainer will be able to
demonstrate this versatile function during the course.
Note: In the Filters Database window, Static Filters always appear as RED, and Dynamic Filters
always appear as BLUE. This helps the user to quickly identify the filter type.
6.3.1 Filters can be used to:
- Limit the displayed lists of network elements in the Site Database window.
- Determine which combination of network elements appear in the Map View window.
- Vary the customised appearance of different filters in the Map View window.
- Specify, in all the wizards, which items will be included in the various operations.
- Limit which items will be included in any Global Edits in the Site Database.
- Limit which items to include in the various Reports.
Note: Created Filters are available only on their creators machine unless they are committed to
the database, in which case they will then be available for general use. The recommendation is to use
public and personal folders, and only commit filters which are essential to all users.
94 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6.4 Creating a Dynamic Filter using the Filter Wizard
To create a new Filter, select Database Filters:

The Filters Database window will then appear, displaying any existing Folders and Filters which have
already been set up. (Folders can be created by right clicking.)


Note: The Selection Filter is a default filter which is used by the Selection Expert, described in a
subsequent section.
Select the Folder where you want the new filter to reside and then click Add. This will launch the
Filter Wizard, which guides you through the creation process.
AIRCOM International

95 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Step 1 of the Filter Wizard prompts you to give the Filter a meaningful name (this can be modified
later if required):

If you wish, you may select Use an Existing Filter as a template (for both the Selection Criteria and
the Display settings) and then choose the existing filter from the drop-down menu. Click Next.
Step 2 of the Filter Wizard will now display a list of Available Attributes. Move each required
element type to the Selected Attributes pane by double-clicking, dragging, or using the right arrow
button. This will define which objects are to be considered in the filter.
For example, one method would be to expand one of the items in the Available Attributes pane to
reveal the selection of Fields already set up for the project in ENTERPRISE Administrator. The
required Field can then be selected as an attribute for the filtering criteria.
Polygons represent another way in which network elements can be filtered. All available polygons
can be displayed by opening up the Property element in the Available Attributes pane.
96 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

In the next example, Cell Site has been opened up, and the Rollout Phase Field has been selected
an attribute to be considered in the filtering process:

You can specify the Logical Operators by right clicking on them to toggle between the two types:
- If you choose OR: A value will be returned if any of the attributes are present.
- If you choose AND: A value will be returned only if all the attributes are present.
Tip: It is easy to modify these Operators on the next screen, and to dynamically preview the
resulting item selection.
In this particular example, this will make no difference, since there is only one attribute selected.
Note: It is possible to form sets of attributes into branches, each branch with its own logical
operator. The easiest way to do this is to drag and drop the attributes to be grouped into the desired
sets. The Selection Rules will be activated from TOP to BOTTOM, branching where specified. A
subsequent section includes advice on creating faster filters.
When you have all the element types and criteria that you want to filter on, click Next.
AIRCOM International

97 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Step 3 of the Filter Wizard prompts you to set the definitive rules and criteria for the Filter and
allows you to modify the logical operators using the associated radio buttons.

Define the exact rule for each element type or criterion by highlighting it in the Selected Attributes
pane, and:
Selecting a Rule definition (e.g. Equals). You can also reverse the rule definition (e.g. Not
Equal To) by selecting the Not checkbox.
Typing a value in the box or, if applicable, clicking the Values button to select the value(s)
that you are interested in (e.g. when selecting Field values).
In this example, click the Values button, and tick the ON AIR option:

You can click Preview to see a list of all the elements that are included in the filter according to your
latest definitions. This will help you to refine the filter further if necessary.
When satisfied with your criteria, click Next.
98 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

Step 4 of the wizard displays the list of elements currently included in your filter. The filter will be
Dynamic (unless you now decide to switch it to Static, but when creating a Static filter, it is easier to
carry out the steps in the following section.)

Notice that with this method of simply using the Field attribute, all items associated with the filtered
sites are also included in the filter, i.e. their parent objects, properties, cells, links.
Step 5 of the wizard allows you to set up the customised display settings for the items which are
included in your filter. If you selected the Use existing filter as template option in Step 1, this screen
will default to those settings. You can also easily modify these later in the Map View.
Step 6, the final step, allows you to modify the name of the filter, and also to establish which other
users, if any, will be enabled to modify this filter in the future (assuming it is committed and assuming
they have the appropriate permissions).
AIRCOM International

99 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


When satisfied, click on the Finish button to complete the Filter creation process.
The newly created filter will now appear in the Filters Window within the folder you highlighted at the
beginning of the process. As a Dynamic filter, it will appear with a BLUE symbol.

If you wish this Filter to be available for use by other users, Commit the filter. Otherwise, it will only
be available locally on your machine.
Note: Created Filters are available only on their creators machine unless they are committed to
the database, in which case they will then be available for general use. The recommendation is to use
public and personal folders, and only commit filters which are essential to all users.
Within the Filters Database Window, any of the filters may be committed, modified or removed, and
also moved or copied between folders.
100 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6.5 Creating a Static Filter using the Filter Wizard
The process to create Static Filters is exactly the same as for dynamic filters, except that you ignore
Steps 2 and 3 by clicking Next each time, and then Step 4 enables you to select the Static option.
You can now manually select whichever elements you require by using 4 methods:
1) Identifier: Exact matches or regular expressions
2) File list: Browse to a text file listing the Identifiers on separate lines
3) Filters: Combination of chosen filter and element types
4) Map View: Selected or All elements within a highlighted map view
6.6 Creating a Filter using the Selection Expert tool
6.6.1 The Selection Expert tool:
The Selection Expert tool allows users to create a memory filter (called Selection) which behaves
like a Static Filter. This is a powerful way of creating a filter because you can easily select any subset
of items by choosing items individually from the Site Database (Hierarchy) or from the Map View
(either individually, or by creating a polygonal, circular or rectangular region that surrounds the items
of interest). It also enables the user to easily re-parent groups of sites within the Site Database.
The Selection Expert includes an easy viewing window for all filters - you can quickly review all
filters (Static, Dynamic and Selection), and edit the Static Filters or Selection Filter.
6.6.2 The Selection Filter:
The Selection Filter is an Ad Hoc filter which is controlled by the Selection Expert tool.
Its functionality is summarised here:
It is an updatable static filter that exists only in memory and is not stored in the Database.
(it cannot be Applied or Committed, so any selections will be discarded on closing the project.)
It can optionally be saved by renaming it to become a normal Static Filter.
(this can then be Applied or Commited, and thus stored in the Database.)
AIRCOM International

101 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

6.6.2.1 Using the Selection Expert tool with the normal selection methods
The Selection Expert can be used in exactly the same way as already described in Static Filter creation
(within the Filter Wizard), by selecting the required elements using 4 methods:
1) Identifier: Exact matches or regular expressions
2) File list: Browse to a text file listing the Identifiers on separate lines
3) Filters: Combination of chosen filter and element types
4) Map View: Selected or All elements within a highlighted map view
6.6.2.2 Using the Selection Expert tool directly with Map View Window
To add items to the Selection Filter using the Map View window:
Note: this is a different method to the one described above. It is more flexible and powerful.
1. From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.
2. In an open Map View window, ensure you are displaying the area and elements from which
you will be selecting for the filter.
3. Click the small down arrow on the Selection Mode toolbox.

Note: You may also double-click on the same arrow to limit the selectable objects.
This will reveal several icons enabling you to select elements from the Map View as follows:
Single Selection
Use this to select individual network elements from the Map View.
Important: Hold down the Shift key each time you click a new network element. If you do not hold
down Shift, only the most recently selected network element will be included in the Selection filter,
and previous ones will be discarded. To deselect an item, just click it again.
Rectangular Area Selection
Use the mouse to specify the location and size of a rectangle (corner to corner) which will incorporate
the desired network elements on the Map View.

102 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

Circular Area Selection
Use the mouse to specify the location and size of a circle (radius outwards) which will incorporate the
desired network elements on the Map View.
Polygon Area Selection
Use the mouse to specify the location and shape of a polygon which will incorporate the desired
network elements on the Map View. Create the polygon with a series of clicked points. To close the
polygon, double click with the left mouse button anywhere in the polygon.
The selected elements appear in the left hand side of the Selection Expert.
You can remove the items within the Selection Expert by right clicking.
You can also Save the filter as a Static Filter or Export the filter, which produces a text file that you
can then import into another filter using the File List option.
6.6.2.3 Using Selection Expert directly with Site Database (Hierarchy tab)
You can use the Hierarchy tab of the Site Database to add to the Selection Filter. For example, you
might want to create a filter to contain all the items parented to the same Property.
To add to the Selection (or any Static) Filter using the Hierarchy tab of the Site Database:
1. In the Site database, select the element that you wish to add to the Selection Filter.
2. On the Hierarchy tab for that element, click Display or Refresh to show the items parented to it.
3. Select one or more of the network elements shown on the tab and click the Add button to add
them to the Selection (or any Static) Filter. You can use the Remove button in a similar way.
6.6.2.4 Using Selection Expert directly with Site or Link Database (Filters tab)
To add to the Selection (or any Static) Filter using the Filters tab of the Site or Link database:
1. In the Site or Link database, select the required object that you want to add to the Selection Filter.
2. On the Filters tab, click Add to reveal the current list of available Filters.
3. Select one or more of the Filters (only operates on Static Filters) where you wish the object to be
included, and click OK. The Selection (or any Static) Filter will then be automatically updated.
You can use the Remove button in a similar way.
After using either method, the selected elements appear in the left hand side of the Selection Expert.
You can remove the items within the Selection Expert by right clicking on them.
You can also Save the filter as a Static Filter or Export the filter, which produces a text file that you
can then import into another filter using the File List option.
AIRCOM International

103 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

6.6.2.5 Adding to the Selection Filter using other Filters (Static or Dynamic)
To add items from other filters to your Selection Filter:
1. From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.
2. Select the filter that contains the required network elements from the list of filters shown.
3. In the left pane, select the elements that you want to add to your Selection filter, then from the
Selection menu, click Add. Or to add all of the network elements in the filter, from the Selection
menu, click Add All. (Similarly, you can also remove some or all network elements in a filter by
using the Selection menu Remove or Remove All commands.)
If you now switch to the Selection Filter under the list of filters, you will see your selected items
appearing in the inclusion list. You can now edit this list as required, until you are satisfied with it.
Important Note: if you wish, you can commit any changes that you make to any of the Static Filters
(other than the Selection filter) while using the Selection Expert. To do this, from the Edit menu, click
Commit. Alternatively, this can of course be done within the Filter Wizard.
6.7 Editing Filters
To edit an existing filter:
1. From the Database menu, click Filters.
2. In the Filter Database window, select the appropriate filter and click Edit.
3. Use the Filter Wizard to modify the filter.
Tip: To easily rename a filter, just select the required filter in the Filter Database, then right click.
6.8 Deleting Filters
To delete an existing filter:
1. From the Database menu, click Filters.
2. In the Filter Database window, select the filter you want to delete.
3. Click the right mouse button, and from the menu that appears, click Delete.
The filter is now moved to the wastebasket, but is still available to other users.
4. To make this filter unavailable to other users, remove it from the Wastebasket.
104 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6.9 Exporting Filters using XML Export

You can export your filters to share them or to keep a backup of them by using the XML Export
function. From the File menu select Export XML Click the Browse button to select the
location to which you want to export the *.xml file(s).



Now, from the Filters tab, select the Filters that you want to export. Click Export to begin exporting.


AIRCOM International

105 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

6.10 Advice on how to create faster-running Filters
When creating dynamic filters, the sequence in which the rules are set (Rules will be activated from
TOP to BOTTOM) can affect how fast your filters run. These guidelines will help to achieve this:
Eliminating the largest number of unwanted objects first.
Using as few rules as possible - the number of evaluations affects the speed at which a filter runs.
Running the fastest rule first - some types of rule are faster than others.
(e.g. to test whether an object is a particular element, the Filter wizard compares two integers to check
if they are equal or not. But to test whether a Property resides within a Polygon involves a complex
algorithm comparing its location with every point of the Polygon.)
This table lists the rules from quickest to process to the slowest:

Weighting Rule Type
Fastest 1
5
8
5-15
Element
Hierarchy
Field
Attribute
Slowest 50-10000+ Polygon*
(* depends on how many points in the polygon)
For more detailed information on Filters, please refer to Filters, Fields and Polygons in the
ENTERPRISE USER REFERENCE GUIDE, available in pdf format from the Aircom website, or
see the Getting Started section of the On-screen Help, which is available while the planning
software is in use (the F1 context-sensitive key can also be employed).
In addition, these reference sources contain some very useful EXAMPLES of how to create different
types of FILTERS.




106 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6.11 Visualisers
The purpose of Visualisers within the Map View is to allow the user to display any items, whether
Map Layers or Network Elements, in a useful customised format, and to be able to swiftly switch
between different Visualisers.
These Visualisers always belong to any of the Filters which are set up as specified in the Filters
Session, and which appear under the list of Data Types on the Map View.
However, it is NOT necessary to create Filters in order to utilise Visualisers. They can be fully utilised
for DISPLAY PURPOSES in combination with the default All Filter, and can act as a quick and
easy way to customise the Map View.
Visualisers have two distinct characteristics from Filters:
1) They are never saved to the Database, and therefore have no impact on processing speed.
2) They do NOT affect any other user, so all users can have their own Display Settings.
6.12 Creating Visualisers
Within the Map View, reveal the list of Data Types as explained before. Right-Click on a Filter (in this
case, All, although any filter could be used for this).

The New Visualiser will now appear under the + sign, and it is good practice to now Right-Click on it
and give it a meaningful name: If, for example, we consider the example of Displaying Antenna
Types, we could rename the Visualiser to Antenna Type.
Assuming that the user has already customised the All Filter the easiest step is now to simply Copy
Properties (i.e. Display Settings) from the All Filter, by Right clicking on it, and then Paste
Properties onto the new Visualiser.
If you now tick the new Visualiser and untick the All Filter, and then click Redraw, you will notice
the Visualiser will now have its display settings based upon those of the All Filter.
The final step is to now customise the Visualiser.
AIRCOM International

107 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

6.13 Customising Visualisers
In this example, double click on the new Visualiser named Antenna Type. You will see this
window:



If you now Double-click on the appropriate network element, such as Cell (GSM) or Node B for
UMTS, and click on the Label option, you will see a window like the following:


Press the Add button, and then expand the same element used before and then expand Attributes.
Place a tick against the Antenna Type as in the example window:
108 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers




Now click OK. Click OK again at the next screen to confirm the change (you may set a different Font
Size or Colour if you wish). Finally, click Apply/Redraw, and you will now be able to visualise the
specified Display Settings on the Map View.

AIRCOM International

109 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User



In the above example, we have simply chosen the Visualiser to Match All selected Attributes.
However, while the user is accessing the Display Settings window, it is also possible to select on any
specific criteria, such as Antenna Type equal to a specified value or within a range of values.
Such criteria can be set on any Attribute relating to any Network Element, in order for users to
customise and store their exact visual requirements on the Map View, WITHOUT affecting other
users.
A wide variety of Visualisers can thus be created and stored, and they can also be easily removed
simply by Right-clicking.
Visualisers can also be included into Favourite Views in the normal way. This will greatly speed up
the process of displaying the Visualisers with the minimum of effort.
110 (291) AIRCOM International

Fields, Filters & Visualisers

6.14 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:
Understand the purpose of Fields within ENTERPRISE F
Demonstrate how to create and define Dynamic or Static Filters F
Understand how to use the Selection Expert and Selection Filter F
Understand the various Uses of Filters within the project F
Learn how to perform a Filter export using the XML export feature F
Understand the purpose of Visualisers F
Be able to Create Visualisers F

Additional Notes:










AIRCOM International

111 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

7 Traffic Planning on a GSM Network
7.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn how to:

O Define Terminal Types
O Create and Define a Traffic Density Raster
O Perform Traffic Analysis
O Apply System Carriers
O Define Carrier Layer Configurations
O Configure Cell Layers
7.2 Introduction
ASSET3G incorporates a set of sophisticated traffic modelling and analysis capabilities, which you
can use to model the performance of your network and to calculate new transceiver requirements.
These features are designed to work not just with simple single-layer networks but also with multi-
layered and multi-band/multi-mode networks.
In this introductory section we will focus on a simple single-band, single-layer network to start with.
Multi-layer/multi-band network planning is dealt with later in the course.
7.3 Terminal Types
ASSET3G models traffic demand by generating traffic density maps for different types of terminal.
These density maps define the amount of traffic (in Terminals or Erlangs) offered to the network by
each type of terminal on a pixel-by-pixel basis the pixel size corresponding to one of the available
clutter map data resolutions.

112 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

A 3G Terminal Type defines five key characteristics:
1. How much traffic will the Terminal Type generate in total?
2. How will the traffic be spread geographically?
3. What is the expected mobile speed distribution for this Terminal Type?
4. Which Service will the Terminal provide?
5. What are the mobile equipment characteristics?
To define a terminal type, from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Configuration Terminal
Types
The following window will then appear:

To configure a Terminal Type click Add and rename the default name to one which is more
appropriate for your network. Define the relevant Technology and if the terminal is a Master or a
Slave terminal. Click on the Apply button to save this change to the database.
Next go to the Clutter tab. This is where we start to define the traffic characteristics of this type of
terminal. There is a choice of two methods for assigning traffic within this tab:
1. Weight:
This method divides the Total Traffic Figure (assigned later) amongst the various clutter classes by
assigning a weight figure representative of the proportion of users for each category.
Note: Weight is measured as a numerical value and one way to think of the weight value is as the
number of subscribers you might expect in each of the clutter types, the weight being the relative
amount of traffic to be spread.
AIRCOM International

113 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User



2. Density:
The Density method is used if you know the traffic density required for each clutter type but do not
want to enter the estimated total traffic.
Whichever method is chosen (Weight or Traffic (E/km)), click on the value for each clutter type and
assign a figure.
Note: If the Weight method is chosen, having assigned all of the weights a Normalised Weight
will be assigned to provide a percentage figure.

114 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

Click on the Vector tab:


You have an option to spread additional traffic along vectors by linking pixels of the vector as a
separate clutter type. The vector can be measured by weight or by density, depending on the selection
made under the Clutter tab. For example, you may wish to assign a specific amount of traffic to a
major highway.
Click on the Polygons tab:

Within the Polygons tab additional traffic can be spread within a polygon, an option also exists in the
Traffic Raster Wizard to spread traffic within polygons by clutter type (which makes use of the
weights defined under the Clutter tab). For example, you could use a polygon to define a well known
traffic hot-spot (e.g. shopping centre or airport).
AIRCOM International

115 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Finally go to the Cell Layers tab to select the layers on which this type of terminal can operate.
Having highlighted the appropriate Cell Layer, click on the > button to move the Cell Layer to the
Selected pane.




>

As Cell Layers have not been configured prior to creating a Terminal Type the default Cell Layer
GSM-default is in the Available pane. This will need to be moved to the Selected pane for the
Terminal Type to run correctly.
Clicking on the Apply button will save the changes to the database and, if you want other users to see
or use your terminal type click on the Commit button.
7.4 Traffic Raster
After defining a Terminal Type we can then calculate the traffic density map for the geographical area
of our network. This is done using the Traffic Raster Wizard, found under the Tools Menu of the
ENTERPRISE Main Menu (Arrays Traffic Traffic Wizard):

116 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

Note: One of the options in the Traffic Raster Wizard allows you to spread the assigned terminal
traffic only to pixels where there is service from one of the cell sites. The user may want to do this if
he/she acquires the total carried traffic figures for the network (e.g. derived from the network
performance counters). If you want to use this option you MUST create a coverage array for your
network before running the traffic spread.
If you are trying to determine how much of the estimated available traffic is actually served by the
network then you would probably not want to limit the traffic spread to just the coverage area of the
network.
The first screen of the Traffic Raster Wizard allows you to spread your traffic by selecting a view
shown in the Map View window. This is achieved by clicking on the Select View button.
Alternatively you can manually enter the co-ordinates yourself or leave the default co-ordinates, which
are taken from the calculated Map Data extents.

When satisfied with the captured map view, click the Next> button to proceed on to the next page of
the wizard.
Ensure that the Terminal Type(s) that you want to model traffic for are selected by checking the
appropriate box to its left. If they are not selected they will not be included in the traffic analysis.
AIRCOM International

117 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Click on the Next> button to progress to the next screen of the Wizard:

Use the drop down menu to select the resolution you require for the traffic array (from the available
map data resolutions). Use the Memory Usage pane to check that the array size created is not too large
for your computer; otherwise it will be a slow process.
Click the Next> button to proceed:
118 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network


Within this screen the traffic spread can be limited to just those pixels where you have network
coverage by selecting the Restrict Traffic to Coverage option.
Note: If you do not have a Best Server array already created or you have not chosen the same
resolution (in the previous screen) as you used in the Predictor to create the coverage array, then
this option will be greyed out.
Click on the Next> button to progress to the next screen.
This screen prompts the user to enter the exact amount of traffic, for each Terminal Type selected, to
be spread in the traffic raster over the entire geographical area.

Using the left mouse button, click on the value under the Traffic column to change it.
Note: The value displayed in the Traffic column is the value that is used in the raster. When the
traffic is being spread by weight then a value is required. When the value is being spread by density
then a value is not required (Zero is classed as a valid value for all the traffic entries).
Click the Next> button to continue.
AIRCOM International

119 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

If you have attributes defined for polygons, the Attributes screen is displayed:

You can now create a separate polygon attribute traffic raster, which means the traffic is spread within
the polygon segment, or segments that make up the attribute.
Click on the Load Attributes button to:
Select the Attribute, using the drop down menu, which you want to create a raster for.
Select the Terminal Type you want to use.
Note: The attribute raster uses the total traffic values that belong to the attribute.
Click on the Next> button to move on to the last page of the wizard:

You are now given the option to save the raster to a file and enter any comments such as date, region
and level of traffic that was spread.
Click on the Finish button to enable you to analyse the traffic raster.
120 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

To display the resulting traffic density map go to the Show Data Types
list and under the Traffic category select the relevant Terminal Type:



The traffic is displayed as a colour coded density map:

It is possible to set the Display Properties, which include Start Value, Interval and colour by double
clicking with the left mouse button on the Terminal Type name.
AIRCOM International

121 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User



122 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

7.5 Exercise: Producing a Traffic Density Raster
To determine the carrier requirements for the cells in your JerseyCom network carry out a Traffic
Density Raster.
1. To create a new Terminal Type go to the ENTERPRISE Main Menu and select Configuration
Terminal Types.
(a) Click on the Add button in the Terminal Types window.
(b) Create a new Terminal Type with the following details:
General Tab:
Name: Voice Terminal (Day)
Technology: GSM Circuit Switched (CS)
Traffic
Association:
Master

Clutter Tab:
Select the Weight option and assign the following weights to each clutter category:
Urban 90 Open_Rural_Land 5
Suburban_Residential 60 Water 2
Industry 50 Sea 2
Village 30 Agricultural Land 1
Open_in_Urban 10 Woodland Forest 0
Isolated Dwellings_Outbuildings 10 Pylons 0
Airport 6 Unclassified 0
Park_Recreational 5 Sample 1,2,3 0

For the purpose of this exercise leave the Vector Weight as default and Polygon traffic as 0.

AIRCOM International

123 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Cell Layers Tab:
Move the GSM-Default (or any layer you want to use) Cell Layer from the Available pane to the
Selected pane using the button.

(c) To create a Traffic density map go to Arrays Traffic Traffic Wizard and follow through
the various screens of the wizard as instructed next:

Screen 1 (View) Keep the default co-ordinate values as calculated
in the Map Data Extents
Click the Next> button
Screen 2 (Terminal
Types)
Select the Terminal Type created earlier in the
Exercise Voice Terminal (Day)
Click the Next> button
Screen 3 (Resolution) Set the Resolution to 50m Click the Next> button
Screen 4 (Restrict to
Coverage)
If available do not select the Restrict Traffic to
Coverage option
Click the Next> button
Screen 5 (Traffic
Erlangs)
Click in the Traffic column and set the Total
Traffic figure to 150
Click the Next> button
Screen 6 (Attributes) Leave this screen blank Click the Next> button
Screen 7 (Save) Leave this screen as default (blank) Click the Finish
button
(d) Display the resulting density map by going to the Show Data Types list and select the Voice
Terminal (Day) option under the Traffic category.
(e) Save your colour coded Traffic density map as a Favourite and name it Day Voice Traffic
Density Raster
124 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

7.6 Traffic Analysis Process
7.6.1 Process
The traffic analysis process is described by
the flow chart on the right.
Before the process can get under way there
are several pre-requisites which must be
defined/created, these include:
A suitable traffic density raster
A corresponding Best Server array
A channel-to-carrier map for your system
Defined/assigned carriers and carrier layers
A GoS objective and traffic model selection
When these are in place the process is to first
Capture the traffic which involves
calculating how much of the traffic density
map each sub-cell can serve.
This traffic information must then be stored
to the database.
Next the tool calculates the number of traffic
timeslots required and corresponding carriers
based on the channel-to-carrier maps and
GoS algorithm selected.
The final step is to apply the carrier
requirements to the database. The tool
assigns the total carrier requirement per sub-
cell according to the carrier layer priorities
and max-carriers settings in the carrier layer
configurations.
If the above all sounds confusing and
complicated all will hopefully become clear
as we go through it step-by-step!
Traffic Raster
Created
Best Server
Array Created
Capture Traffic
per SubCell
Apply Traffic to
Database
Channel-to-
carrier Map
Defined
GoS and
Traffic Model
Parameters Set
Compute
Timeslot &
Carrier
Requirements
Apply Carrier
Requirements to
Database
Carriers &
Carrier Layers
Defined/
Assigned

AIRCOM International

125 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

7.6.2 Channel-to-Transceiver Maps
A Channel-to-Transceiver map in ASSET3G describes to the tool how to convert from a requirement
for a certain number of GSM air-interface timeslots to an equivalent number of Transceivers (and
therefore carriers).
This is necessary since not every carrier has the full 8 timeslots available for traffic some will be
reserved for control purposes.
To define the Channel-to-Transceiver map you want to use go to Configuration Lookup Tables
and Curves Channels to Transceivers to get this window:

You will find a number of pre-defined mappings already there for you to use but these will not match
with your own network requirements.
To create a new channel to carrier map, click on the Add Map button. You will then be prompted to
give the Map a name.

Having given the Map an appropriate name click on the OK button.
You will then be asked if you wish to specify dedicated GPRS channels;

Click the No button.
The next step is to define the map using the right-hand pane of the Channel to Transceiver Setup
window.
126 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network


Select your new map from the list in the left-hand pane and you should see a blank list in the right-
hand pane. There are two columns in the right-hand pane. The first indicates the number of carriers on
a cell and the second gives the equivalent number of available traffic timeslots (i.e. excludes any
control timeslots).
The Default Number of Channels Per Transceiver field indicates the number of timeslots that will
be added when the Add Transceiver button is pressed. Subsequent clicks on the Add Transceiver
button simply adds the current value in the Default Number of Channels Per Transceiver field, to
provide a cumulative sum of the number of traffic channels available for the number of carriers used.
To set the Default Number of Channels Per Transceiver enter a number in the respective box and
click the Apply button. The next Add Transceiver action will then use this new increment value.
To modify the map afterwards simply highlight the entry you wish to modify, enter a new figure in the
Max Chans field and click on the Apply button to change the values.
When you have finished creating a Channel to Transceiver Map click the Close button.
Note: It is important that you set the Default Number of Channels Per Transceiver value before
carrying out the traffic analysis. The reason for this is that if the number of timeslots required to
support your traffic levels exceeds the number available in the last line of your Channel-to-
Transceiver map then the tool assumes that any additional transceivers/carriers are available with the
Defaults value of traffic timeslots on each. A typical value would therefore be 7 or 8.
7.6.3 Frequency Bands
Frequency bands divide the mobile radio spectrum into different carrier sets (e.g. GSM900,
GSM1800, etc.) which are applied on a carrier layer basis.
The use of these bands is optional and set through the general settings of the tool, found under the
General tab of the Preferences window.

AIRCOM International

127 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

By considering carriers belonging to different bands, it is possible to restrict the allocation of these to
certain carrier layers. Furthermore, if you use the automatic frequency-planning algorithm it will be
able to consider the effects of inter-modulation interference on the network for the various carrier
assignments.
Every time a project is added, default bands are created automatically. You can access the Frequency
Bands window through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selection Configuration Carriers
Frequency Bands

Other bands may be added to the list to suit the carriers available for use in your network or to take
into account different technologies. This is done, by clicking the Add button.
Within the Frequency Conversion Formulae
window we specify the conversion formulas
that describe the way in which uplink and
downlink frequencies are extracted from their
respective carrier numbers (ARFCNs), added
in the Carriers dialogue.
In some circumstances it might be necessary to
have more than one conversion formulas per
band (e.g. AMPS networks). It is good practice
to start by providing the band with a more
descriptive name. In the bottom half of the
window, you then specify the appropriate
parameters for the conversion formula.
These are the starting frequency (A), the
frequency step between adjacent carriers (B),
the range of carriers for which the formula
applies to and finally the uplink and downlink
frequency separation.

7.6.4 Carrier Layers
We must now set up some carrier layers in our network, since before the traffic analysis tool can
assign the carrier requirements it generates to the sub-cells in the database, there must be some
available carrier layers for it to assign them to.
128 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

Carrier Layers are a logical grouping of carriers that perform common functions and are assigned to
different cell layers.
First we must specify which carriers we are allowed to use in our network.
This is done through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by
selecting Configuration Carriers GSM + GPRS:

Now populate the carrier list by entering either ranges of
carrier numbers (e.g. GSM carrier numbers) or single carrier
numbers and clicking on the Add button.


In our example we have added GSM carrier numbers 1 to 36. This was achieved by selecting the
Range option and entering the numbers 1 to 36 in the available boxes. Clicking the Add button
populates the carriers 1 to 36 in the left-hand pane.
Now click the OK button to finish.
AIRCOM International

129 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


We can define the logical division of our list of available carriers
through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting
Configuration Layers Carrier Layers:


A default carrier layer is produced automatically when the project is created. In this case it is called
GSM-Default.
Within the General Tab of the Cell Layer Configuration window the first step is to rename the
default layer. In the example below we have renamed the default layer to GSM900 BCCH.
Because this is intended as our control layer we need to select the
Control Layer box.

Having entered the new name and ticked the Control Layer box, click on the Apply button to save
the changes.
Next assign the specific carrier numbers to use on this layer.
130 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

This is done within the Carriers Tab:

For this example we will use carriers 1 to 12 for our GSM900 BCCH control layer.
Within the Carriers tab, highlight carriers 1 to 12 in the left hand pane.
This is done by clicking on carrier 1 with the left mouse
button, depressing the shift key on the keyboard, and then
clicking on carrier 12 again with the left mouse button.


AIRCOM International

131 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Click on the > button to assign the carriers.

Note: Using frequency bands on the carrier layers impedes any carrier assignments that do not
appear on the band that you have chosen to use. The tool will notify you of this fact.
Next we must set the Maximum Allocatable Carriers. This value is very important as it defines the
maximum number of carriers that can be assigned from this carrier layer on any one sub-cell.
In the case of BCCH layer we only want one carrier on any one cell so the value is set to 1. We will
return to the significance of these values later when we are applying the results of the traffic carrier
requirement analysis to the database.
Click on the Apply button to save the changes.
The final tab Groups allows you to define a particular reuse pattern
when conduction frequency planning of the carriers for this carrier layer.

By associating the reuse pattern with the layer it allows you to define
different reuse patterns for each carrier layer, for example BCCH and
TCH.



132 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

Now create a second Carrier Layer by clicking Add button at the
top of the window. Under the General tab rename this new layer
GSM900 TCH (i.e. traffic channel carrier layer).

Ensure the Control layer check box is not assigned since this is not
a control layer.


Under the Carriers tab assign the appropriate carriers. In this
example carriers 13 to 36 have been assigned to this layer and set
the Maximum allocatable carriers. In this example a figure of 3 is
used.

This means that on any one cell we can never allocate more than 1 BCCH carrier and 3 TCH carriers,
i.e. 4 TRUs in total.
Highlight each carrier layer in turn and click on the Apply button followed by the Commit button to
save the changes to the database.
Note: Both Carrier Layers must be applied and committed in order for the required carriers for
each subcell to be applied automatically by the tool once a traffic analysis has been completed.
AIRCOM International

133 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

7.6.5 Cell Layers
The next step in the configuration process is to ensure that the relational link is established between
Cell Layers and Carrier Layers.
Select this option through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu from
Configuration Layers Cell Layers


As with the carrier layers a cell layer is created automatically when the project is created, in this case it
is called GSM-Default.
Cell layers are used to define logical groups of transceivers on a cell. They are often referred to as
sub-cells when assigned to a cell, together with the other RF details.
For example, we might define different cell-layers for Macro and Micro or for Over-laid and Under-
laid we will return to the concept of cell-layers and how to use them later when we look at Dual-
band networks.
Under the General tab rename the default cell-layer. This may prove to be very useful, especially
later as the network expands. Representing different layers with different names will be easier to work
with when designing a dual band network for example.
In this example the default layer has been renamed to GSM900.


134 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

Click on the Apply button to save the change to the database.
Now go to the Coverage Type tab.
Within this tab you can set a C/I Threshold and choose a Channel to
Transceiver Map to be associated with the cell layer.


For this example these have been left as default values.
Moving on to the Carriers Layers tab. Inside this tab you can define and associate the GSM Carrier
Layers (BCCH/TCH layers) to the Cell Layer (GSM900 layer). This is where associations between
carrier-layers and cell layers are made.




>
In this case we will assign both GSM900 BCCH and GSM900 TCH to our GSM900 Cell-Layer. To do
this highlight each carrier-layer, in the Available pane, in turn and click the > button to move them
to the Allocated pane.
Note: The order in which carrier-layers that appear in the Allocated pane is crucial. They should
be sorted into the order in which you want carrier requirements to be assigned. For example if you
had one BCCH layer and 3 TCH layers and arranged them such that BCCH was at the top of the list
followed by TCH1, then TCH2 and TCH3. When you apply the carrier requirements from the traffic
AIRCOM International

135 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

analysis, the carrier layers are assigned in the order in which they appear in the list up to their
maximum allocable carriers value, until all requirements have been assigned. This process should
become clearer as we go through the traffic process.
In our example the GSM900 BCCH should be at the top. If this is not the case, highlight the
appropriate carrier layer and use the keys to reorder them. When satisfied with the changes
Apply them to the database.





The last tab, Coverage Thresholds, lets the user to define the coverage
colour schema to use when displaying coverage for this layer on the 2D-
view.




136 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

7.6.6 Allocating Cell & Carrier Layers using Global Editor
At this point the link between the Cells and the Cell/Carrier Layers in the database has not been
defined.
In the Site Database cells are expanded in the tree-list to show the Site Sub-Cell. The user can view the
available carrier layers by selecting the Carriers tab.

You can see the BCCH and TCH Carrier Layers but at this point the layers are not available for use by
the tool, this is indicated by the lack of an entry in the Use column for each Carrier Layer.
To make the Carrier Layers available for each Cell we must select the Allocated check-box and
Apply the change to every assignment.
This would be a long and tedious process, if this had to be done manually but fortunately we can use
the Global Edit Facility, within the Site Database, to carry out such a process for us.
To open the Global Edit Facility simply click on the Global Edit button, located in the bottom
right-hand corner of the Site Database window.
The Global Editor provides the capability to make configuration changes across a number of sites
simultaneously. The sites, which are affected by the changes, are dependent on the filter selection
chosen.
The different tabbed pages in the Global Editor provide editing options for the corresponding items in
the Site Database.
This is a very powerful and useful tool and it is advisable that you spend some time familiarising
yourself with its editing capabilities.
AIRCOM International

137 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

In this case we want to use the Global Editor to make BCCH and TCH Carrier Layers available for use
on all sites/cells. To do this:
Select the Carrier Layer tab.
Open the available Cell/Carrier Layer combinations by clicking on the + sign.
Select the GSM900 BCCH layer from the combo box and, from the Setting tab on the right-hand
pane, select the Allocate. (This specifies that the user wishes to Allocate this layer). You can also
De-allocate a Carrier Layer by selecting the relevant option.
Repeat this process for every Cell/Carrier Layer combinations that you want to Allocate or De-
Allocate.
Finally select the Carriers Required check-box and enter the Maximum allocatable carriers as
defined in the Carrier Layer Configuration window. In this example a figure of 1 was used.

Once completed click on the Apply button to carry out the global edits on the filter elements in the
network structure.

138 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

When the Global Editor is finished making the changes return to the Site Database and look at one of
the cells you have edited to confirm that the Carrier Layers are now available for use.

7.6.7 Capturing Traffic
The first step in ASSET3Gs Traffic Analysis process is to combine the information contained in the
Traffic Raster created earlier with the Best Server information.
Using these two pieces of information it is possible to calculate the total traffic captured by the
service area of each cell.
Using the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Tools
Static Traffic Analysis

AIRCOM International

139 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Select the filter you want to capture the traffic for (e.g. All), from the Select Filter combo-box.
The extent of the coverage for each of the cells is dependent upon parameters set-up earlier in the
Array Settings window. Under the Serving and Interfering Cells tab make sure the Use cell layers
when calculating a best server array check-box is selected and both carrier layers (BCCH & TCH)
are selected in the Serving signal pane.
Note: The Use cell layers when calculating a best server array checkbox should be selected to
indicate that you wish to take into account the cell-layer priorities and service areas when capturing
traffic. For instance, you might wish to know how much traffic the Overlay and Underlay layers are
capturing or the macro/micro layers. If you do not want to take the cell-layers into account then de-
select this check-box.

Once you have set the appropriate parameters as shown above, click the Capture Traffic button to
begin the analysis.
A warning message may appear if any cells included in the traffic analysis have not yet been
predicted. You can choose various options from the drop down menu including Auto-predict. Having
made your selection click on the OK button to continue.

You will now receive a report showing the traffic captured by each sub-cell. This report is generated in
Microsoft Excel and can be saved for future reference if required.

140 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network


The report shows each cell and each sub-cell together with the corresponding amount of CS Traffic
served. At the bottom of the report you will get a summary of the Total Captured CS Traffic.
If you notice that the total captured traffic figure is less than the figure you assigned to the terminal
type, this would indicate that not all of the traffic fell within the service area of the network.
To save these traffic values to the Site Database click on the Traffic button within the Apply on to
subcells field.
You can then view these figures, on the Cell
Layer level of the Site Database, under the
General tab.

7.6.8 Calculating Carrier Requirements
From the traffic per cell information it is now possible to calculate the number of carriers (i.e. TRUs)
required to provide a specified GoS.
AIRCOM International

141 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

This is accomplished using the bottom part of the Traffic Analysis window:

Set the Quality of Service objective you wish to design to and select a traffic model (Blocking - Erlang
B, or Queued - Erlang C). The Traffic per Customer figure represents an average subscriber talk time,
generally in the region of 90 seconds. From this value the tool can estimate the number of subscribers
for each sub-cell in the carrier requirements analysis.
Click on the Analyse button to calculate the carrier requirements. Another report is generated in
Microsoft Excel, which includes details of the cell, cell layer, the number of traffic channels required,
the number of carriers that you require to cope with the amount of traffic, the number of carriers
currently allocated and the actual level of blocking.

The TRX reqd Total column presents the number of carriers required using the Channel-to-Carri
map we defined earlier for this cell-layer. This has been calculated from the number of channels
er
required to service the cell to an appropriate quality of service using the Erlang B or Erlang C blocking
formulas (Erlang B in the above example).
142 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

The report also gives an approximation of the number of subscribers Customers served by the cell,
based upon the Traffic per Customer figure entered in the Traffic Analysis window (25 mE
example above).
in the
Carriers Required on SubCells button.
The final step in the Traffic Analysis process is to save the carrier requirements to the database. This
is done by clicking on the Apply

The tool will then take the total carrier requirement for each sub-cell and assign these to the carrier
layers on that sub-cell starting with the highest priority carrier layer and working down the list of
available carrier layers.
In our example we have two layers, BCCH and TCH with the max_allocatable_carriers parameter set
to 1 and 3 respectively. For a sub-cell with a total requirement of, say, 2 the tool will assign a
requirement of 1 to BCCH and then 1 to TCH.
If the requirement was 5 the tool would be unable to assign the requirements since we have limited the
BCCH to 1 and TCH to 3
These carri requirem
each sub-cell to provide the GoS that our network requires with the traffic requirements predicted.
h the Site
of
listic plan of the geographical distribution of carrier requirements.
max.
er ents will ensure that our frequency plan has the correct number of carriers on
Note: It is of course possible to simply manually assign the carrier requirements throug
Database window or Globally using the Global Editor. For example, you could set a requirement
1 BCCH and 2 TCH carriers for every cell using the Global Editor. However, the traffic planning
features should give a more rea

AIRCOM International

143 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

7.7 Exercise: Traffic+Carrier Requirement P n lan ing
concentrate on the next sta e in the process, which is defining and configuring the
TR s ecific t ffic loading. You can adjust these suggested parameters to your
particular settings as required.
+ Ma Menu lect Configuration GSM + GPRS to
-
Note: A GSM-Default Carrier Layer should

-

on window click on the Add button (top
ot
In Exercise 9 important phases in the network dimensioning process were completed. Exercise 10 will
g carrier
requirements for the subcells. The end goal of this process will be to define the correct number of
Xs needed under a p ra
From the ENTERPRISE in se Carriers
specify GSM carrier numbers.
Select GSM Carriers 1 24 for this exercise.
- Click on the Add button to populate the System Carriers pane with the chosen carriers.

+ From the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Configuration Layers Carrier Layers to
bring up the Carrier Layer Configuration window.
- Divide the available carriers logically by defining a GSM900 BCCH (control layer) and a
GSM900 TCH (traffic channel carrier layer).
already be present in the Carrier Layer Configuration
Window.
- Under the General tab, of the Cell Layer Configuration window rename (by highlighting) the
GSM-Default Carrier Layer to GSM900 BCCH. Also ensure the Control Layer box is ticked.
- Under the Carriers tab highlight carriers 1 15 in the Carriers Available pane then use the
button to move these carriers to the Carriers Assigned pane.
- Set the Maximum allocable carriers for the GSM900 BCCH Layer to 1
Apply and Commit these changes to the Database

We now need to configure the GSM900 TCH layer.
- Under the General tab, of the Cell Layer Configurati
right hand corner)
- Rename (by highlighting) Carrier Layer 1 to GSM900 TCH. As this is a Traffic layer do n

- e

-
-
tick the Control Layer.
Under the Carriers tab highlight carriers 16 24 in th Carriers Available pane then use the
button to move these carriers to the Carriers Assigned pane.
Set the Maximum allocable carriers for the GSM900 TCH Layer to 2
Apply and Commit these changes to the Database
144 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

Having configured the Carrier Layers a relational link has to be established by configuring the Ce
rs.
ll
laye
- Under the Coverage Type tab Interference Weights and Channel to Transceiver maps can be
Transceiver set to Standard_GSM
- Within the Carrier Layer tab highlight both GSM900 BCCH & GSM900 TCH in the
- Ensure that the GSM900 BCCH is at the top. If this is not the case, highlight the appropriate
he purpose of this exercise leave the
Schema set to System default.
- Apply and Commit these changes to the Database.
A link between the cells and the cell/carrier layers in the database now needs to be established.
+ cility within the Site Database.
- Fro h Menu lect Database Sites, to bring up the Site Database
window
- Global Edit base (bottom right of window)
- In the filter window use the drop down menu to select the All filter (if applicable)
-
0
2 in the Carriers Required box.

viewed by click on the Capture
Traffic button.
- A report appears, in Microsoft Excel, which can be examined.
+ This is done by selecting Configuration Layers Cell Layers from the ENTERPRISE Main
Menu.
- Under the General tab rename (by highlighting) the GSM-Default layer to GSM900
defined. For the purpose of this exercise leave Interference Weights as Default and Channel to
Available pane and use the button to move them into the Allocated pane.
carrier layer and use the keys to reorder them.
- The last tab, Coverage Thresholds, allows you to define the coverage colour schema to use
when displaying coverage for this layer on the 2D-view. For t
This is done using the Global Edit fa
m t e ENTERPRISE Main se
Click on the button within the Site Data
Under the Carrier Layer tab tick both the Layer Allocation and Allocate/Remove boxes,
tick the Carriers Required check-box and enter the figure 1 in the Carriers Required box.
- Within the Cell Layer/Carrier Layer pane using the drop down menu to choose the GSM90
TCH Layer.
- Tick both the Layer Allocation and Allocate/Remove boxes, tick the Carriers Required
check-box and enter the figure
- Apply and Commit these changes to the Database.
+ From the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Tools Static Traffic Analysis.
- So the traffic information created earlier can be analysed and
AIRCOM International

145 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

- Within the Traffic Analysis window store the Traffic demand values in the Database by clicking
the Traffic button, within the Apply on to subcells field.
No
+ Now calculate and analyse the number of carriers required providing a Grade of Service.
n the Traffic Analysis window, under the CS tab, set the following Quality Of Service
and Traffic per Customer figures:-
Acceptable Blocking - 2%
Traffic per Customer - 25 mE
- Select the Erlang B option
- Click the Analyse button to calculate the carrier requirements.
- Another report (in Microsoft Excel) will appear, giving details of timeslot and carrier requirements
- The final step in the process is to store the carrier requirements into the database, this is done by
under the Traffic category.
Save as a Favourite, and name it Traffic per SubCell
Note: If the TRX configuration being used does not fulfil traffic loading requirements a warning
essa ge log window. Analyse this information carefully in order to
perform under the criteria set.
te: The traffic values can now be viewed on each sub-cell within the site database.
- Withi
clicking on the Apply Carriers Required on SubCells button.
+ Display Traffic per SubCell by going to the Show Data Types list and select the relevant item
m ge will appear in the messa
ascertain which subcells will not
146 (291) AIRCOM International

Traffic Planning on a GSM Network

7.8 Session Summary Checklist E
This c t h ectives stated at the beginning of the
sessio
is

Defining Termina F
Creating and Defi g F
Performing Traffic Analysis F
Applying System Carriers F
D C F
Configuring Cell Layers F
hecklis as been provided as a self-assessment of the obj
n.
Please tick all objectives covered in th Session:
l Types
nin Traffic Density Rasters
efining arrier Layer Configurations

Additional Notes:








AIRCOM International

147 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

8 Planning Neighbours
8.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn how to:

O View Neighbours in the site database
O Use the Automatic Neighbour Generation Wizard
Creating and managing neighbour lists is an important part of the on-going engineering of any
conventional cellular network. ASSET3G stores neighbour lists (in the database) for each cell layer in
the network and also includes some automated Neighbour list generation tools.
8.3 Neighbours in the database
Neighbours are stored in the database against each Cell. The neighbour lists for each cell can be
viewed and modified through the relevant part of the Site Database window:
O Display Neighbours graphically
O Apply Neighbours to the site database
8.2 Introduction to Neighbours

148 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours

A neighbour is a handoff relationship from one cell to the neighbour cell. The relationship is
directional and if you want handoffs to be possible in both directions you must define the neighbour as
mutual.
To add a new neighbour using the Site Database window, go to the Neighbour tab on the Cell level
and click on the Add button.

You will then be prompted to specify the destination Cell ID within the Neighbour Chooser window:

Choose a Filter (e.g. All Filter), using the drop down menu, and enter the Cell ID of the neighbour.
Choosing one the various options (i.e. Sub string, Reg exp, Exact or Match case) will effect how the
software reads the Cell ID entered.
Click on the Find button to see the Distance and Relative bearing of the Neighbour:
AIRCOM International

149 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Note: If no Cell ID is entered, on clicking the Find button all potential neighbours are listed
together with their respective distance and relative bearing.
A Neighbour relation can be made by selecting the appropriate check-box, which will subsequently be
saved to the database upon clicking the OK button:

Note: If the Check-box is left unselected the Neighbour relation is not stored in the Site Database.
You can now decide whether the selected Neighbours are to be Mutual or Outward only by
selecting the corresponding choice in the Neighbour type pane:
An Inward, and if applicable, an outward Handover Margin can also be set.
150 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours

Created Neighbour relations can be saved to the DIFF or User database tables by clicking on the
Apply button. Clicking on the Commit or Commit All button will save the changes to the
ight the neighbour

8.4 Graphical Neighbour Design
It is o hically since it is then possible to visualise the
network coverage, terrain and proximity of cells to one another.
bours
enu
r the Neighbours/Exception category, under the
Handover Neighbours option. You can then use your mouse pointer to hover over a cell; its
neighbour relationships will then automatically been shown in the 2D Map View window.
Alternatively you can select the Display Neighbours
Permanent database tables.
To change the Hysteresis (Handover) margin, set in the Site Database window, highl
by clicking on it with the left mouse button. Enter the new margin figure in the Set Margin box and
then click on the Set Margin button to update the value in the Site Database.
Note: The same procedure is used for changing the Handover Margin for both Outward and
Inward Neighbours within the Site Database.
ften much easier to design neighbour lists grap
8.4.1 Displaying Neigh
To view the currently defined neighbours for a specific cell: Select from the Show Data Types m
the option All Neighbours, which can be found unde
button which is within the Add Neighbour
Cell toolbox on Site Design Toolbar of the 2D Map View window. With the left mouse button click
on the cell whose neighbours you wish to see. This option produces a static display of neighbours for
the ce ed
The neighbour relationship will be
ll select .

displayed as a line between the cells.
To er cells simply repeat the process. display neighbour relationships for oth
AIRCOM International

151 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

ote: The display can quickly become very cluttered and difficult to read with several neighbou
tionships displayed; it is therefore possible to assign different colour

current Neighbour relations will be shown:
N r
rela s to each list to help
differentiate them.
To f the neighbour relationships go to the Show Data Types list or the Map
Information & Control window and open the Neighbours/Exceptions category. A list of the
change the colours o

As with any other display item, simply double-click on the item name to bring up the Display
Properties window.

Choose a colour and click on the OK button to cha y.
As before, double-click on the
nd
tab in the Neighbours Display
nge the displa
You can also display neighbours of neighbours (2
nd
order neighbours).
item in the Show Data Types list and select the 2 order
Properties window.
152 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours


Select a colour, Style and the Display 2
nd
Order check-box. Click on the OK button to change th
display.
Note: You may need to click Redraw within the 2D View context menu for the change to take
effect.
e
8.4.2 Adding Neighbours
To add Neighbours graphically click on the Add Neighbour cell button within the Add
Neighbour cell toolbox on the Site Design Toolbar of the 2D Map View window.
In the 2D Map View window click on the source cell, with the left mouse button, followed by the
destination cell.
You can continue to add more neighbours by clicking on the source cell then the destination cell.
Note: If you are not displaying the neighbours for a cell then you wont see newly added
neighbours on the screen as you add them they will be added to the database but wont be visible
until you display the neighbours for that cell.
hbour(s) you wish to delete from within the list of neighbours
emo
window shou eighbour(s) highlighted for deletion
to r
perfo
8.4.3 Deleting Neighbours
Deleting neighbours is carried out in the Site database window. To delete a neighbour relationship or
relationships, simply highlight the neig
and then click on the R
A Remove Neighbours
ve button.
ld now appear listing the n
together with an option
Clicking the OK will
emove Neighbour relationships that are Mutual or Outward Types.
rm the desired function.

AIRCOM International

153 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

8.5 Exercise: Manual Neighbour Planning
Using the Nominal Coverage design project JerseyCom we will now Manually allocate Neighbour
relationships.
+ Using the Site Database manually add new neighbours to four cells in your network. To do this:
tab click on the
hbour C
g on th
- From the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Database Sites to bring up the Site Database
window. Choose a Site and expand it to its Cell (or Cell Layer for GSM).
- Under the Neighbour
window.
Add button, which will launch the Neighbour Chooser
- Configure the Neig
cells, before clickin
hooser with appropriate settings in order to display potential neighbour
e Find button.
- Make four mutual neighbour connectio
Apply the changes to
ns in your network (using the steps described above) and
database.
ove neighbour configuration by selecting the Display Neighbo
the
- Graphically display the ab urs
button from the Site Desig Toolbar of the 2D Map View window.
the 2D
Save this view as a Favourite,
8.6 Automat eneration
a Wiz
coverage/cell service areas of
neighbours, which will then be exam
ulation is a
relationship depends on a wide variety of factors; some of these factors cannot be modelled in a
ubs ts, but these
tools can help to speed up the process).
To generate neighbours automatically you first need to create either a Best Server coverage array or
shall produce our neighbours
based on the former, as this has been created earlier.
T ENTERPRISE Main Menu: Tools Neighbours
N
ng window will then appear:
n
- Click on the cells in
the relationships.
Map View window, for which you have made neighbours, to display
and name it Manual Neighbours
ic Neighbour G
ASSET3G incorporates ard that automatically generates neighbour lists based on the predicted
your network. This tool is intended to provide a first-pass set of
ined by an experienced RF engineer prior to implementation.
Neighbour list calc very difficult task. What constitutes a good or bad neighbour
planning tool (there is no s titute for experience when it comes to defining neighbour lis
an Interference table for the area/sites required. For this example we
he Neighbour Wizard is selected through the
eighbour Wizard.
The followi
154 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours

The first screen allows the user to select a view, enter co-ordinates or use the default co-ordinates
(taken from the calculated Map Data Extents) for the wizard to use when calculating the neighbour
ish to vary the view in
anyway or select that of another GIS window, click the Select View button, followed by the
appropriate map view you wish to work with.
The wizard will now pick up a snapshot of the new view that will be used.
list.
By default, the wizard captures the view of the current map window. If you w

Click the Next > button to move on to the next screen of the Wizard.
In the second wizard screen you select the Filter to be used:

The next screen allows the user to choose the means by which neighbours will be created. Both
methods work on the same principle, which is to consider the amount of overlap between cells. You
also get a choice of the kind of Neighbour relationships to be created, such as GSM to GSM, GSM to
UMTS, UMTS to GSM, UMTS Intra-Frequency (within the same Carrier) and UMTS Inter-Frequency
(between Carriers).

AIRCOM International

155 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

When using the Best Server Ar rray. The
algorithm looks for overlapping adjacent
found that touch each othe w
Having chosen to calculate g
available to change by the user:
neighbouring cells:
Minimum number of
border squares:
Make co-site cells
neighbours:
Resolution for all plans:
Alternatively, neighbours may .
Using the appropriate pixel
pixels, from which neighbour relati ined. More on Interference tables later.
Having selected to use Overlapping areas
change:
ber of
cells:
the
Maximum number of able value to limit the neighbour list to the maximum
Neighbour plan margin: will base its neighbour creation. If
l
ray, neighbours are calculated using the Service Area A
pixels from two cell service areas and if sufficient pixels are
r ( hich is specified by the user), then a neighbour relation is created.
nei hbours using the Best Server Array, the following options are
Maximum number of Allows the list of neighbours generated by the algorithm to be limited to the
maximum value set by the user.
This sets the criteria for the generation of neighbours. The value entered
specifies the minimum number of boarding squares overlapping in order for a
Neighbour relation to be created.
If selected, co-site cells will automatically be added to the Neighbour list
regardless of matching the defined criteria.
Sets the Resolution (pixel) size of the area to be planned.
be created based on Overlapping Areas
resolution, the tool converts these areas into a number of overlapping
onships can be determ
to calculate the neighbours, the following options are
available to
Maximum num
neighbouring
Allows the list of neighbours generated by the algorithm to be limited to
maximum value set by the user.
Another user defin
covering cells: value set.
Sets the criteria on which the algorithm
the power difference between the serving cell and potential neighbour cel
falls within the set margin, then it is considered a neighbour.
156 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours


Override propagation
iation:
Allows a user definable Standard Deviation, overriding the Standard
h sub-cell in the Site Database.

l neighbour cells in order that they be
classed as a neighbour.
Minimum overlapping
area (km):
onal threshold value to limit the number of Neighbours calculated.
The value set considers the minimum area of overlap between the serving
d as a neighbour.
Make co-site cells If selected, co-site cells will automatically be added to the Neighbour list
Resolution for all plans: Sets the Resolution (pixel) size of the area to be planned.
The next screen in the Wizard allows a choice of
list as an XML file, which can be analysed at a
model standard dev deviation of interference value set in the Propagation Model, allocated to
eac
Minimum overlapping %: An optional threshold value to limit the number of Neighbours calculated.
The value set considers the minimum percentage of overlapping area
between the serving cell and potentia
An opti
cell and potential neighbour cells in order that they be classe
neighbours: regardless of matching the defined criteria.

Click on the Next > button to move on to the next page of the wizard.
analysing the neighbour list after it has been
planned or alternatively to save the neighbour
later date.
Now click the ext > button to get the final screen of the Wizard.
The final screen of the wizard estimates the memory required to per
N
form the task, if you have enough
memory to produce the neighbour plan click on the Finish button. Alternatively, use the <Back
utton in order to revise your plan settings to reduce the memory estimates. b
AIRCOM International

157 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


When the wizard has calculated the neighbour relations, a message similar to the one below will be
layed confirming th disp e neighbour relations created. To acknowledge the message click on the OK
button.

At this stage the new neighbours are not stored in the database, they are held in memory, which gives
you the opportunity to review the neighbour list before updating the database.
Having acknowledged the Neighbours Created message you are able to view and analyse the
neighbours:

158 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours

8.7 Analysing Neighbours
The N
following information for a selected cell:
Distance(km): Gives the distance in km or miles (depending on the Distance unit specified
ndow)
tatus: Shows the existence of the neighbour relationship:
ase on )
lan o ly)
o a neig bour, which is h th
ple:
Keep is displayed if the neighbour relationship exists in the database, but
was not picked up in the neighbour plan. However, the site was not
eighbour Analysis allows multi-technology neighbours to be displayed together with the
Identity: Displays the Neighbour Cell Id
in the Preferences wi
S
Only in the Database (column reads Datab ly
Only in the Neighbour Plan (column reads P n
In both the Database and Neighbour Plan (column reads Database/Plan)
In Memory, where a user entry was made (column reads In memory)
State: Displays the pending action f h related to bot e
neighbours status and actions applied by the user, for exam
included
ed in the automatic neighbour planner.
Delete is displayed if the neighbour relationship exists in the database, but
was not picked up within the neighbour plan. But, the site was
in the filter us

included in the
filter used in the automatic neighbour planner.
No change is displayed if the neighbour relationship is in the database and
was also picked up in the neighbour plan.
Create is displayed only if the neighbour relationship exists in the
neighbour plan.
Note: some of the above states can be changed manually by the user
irection: Inward, Outward or Mutual will be displayed for each relationship.
argin(dB): This is only applicable for GSM cells and displays the margin set for each
relationship within the Site Database or the global setting set in the automatic
neighbour planner.
nternal/External: Shows neighbour relations created within (Internal) or outside (External)
different PLMNs or Logical Networks.
Tech: States the technology (GSM, AMPS, TETRA, UMTS, IS95/CDMA2000).
Carrier: Displays the Carrier number for neighbour relations.
D
M
I
AIRCOM International

159 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Type Displays the type of handover (Soft, softer or Hard) dependent on the
technology in use.
:
Relative Bearing: Displays the relative bearing of the neighbour cell in relation to the serving
cell.
Overla Ar ns generated by the automatic neighbour
planner. Gives the area in km or miles (depending on the Distance unit
Is shown only for neighbour relations generated by the automatic neighbour
HO Region: ,Node B,
Inter/Intra-LAC: annotated as Intra-LAC
notated as Inter-LAC.
As well as being able Analysis after running the automatic neighbour planner,
you can also perform Neighbour Analysis independently of any automatic procedure. This provides
the user with all the neighbour functionality, currently available within the Site Database. The
Neighbour Analysis window can also be used for adding, removing, identifying and modifying
neighb
The Add All Mutual button at the top of the Analysis window, converts all neighbour relations

essage indicating that any neighbour relations that have a State setting of
delete will be deleted.
pping ea(km): Is shown only for neighbour relatio
specified in the Preferences window)
Overlapping %:
planner.
Will display the HO Region as either Inter/Intra (Site
BSC,RNC,MSC), as appropriate.
Neighbour relations with the same LAC will be
whilst those with different LACs will be an
to perform Neighbour
our relationships.
picked up in the neighbour plan into a two-way relationship, if they werent already so.
To store the new neighbour relations to the Site database click on the Update Database button, you
will be given a warning m
.
The neighbour relations with a State setting of keep will remain unchanged, whilst those with a
setting of create will be added as new neighbour relations to the Site Database.
The newly created neighbour relations for each specific cell can be viewed by clicking on the Display
Neighbours

button within the Add Neighbour Cell toolbox on Site Design Toolbar of the 2D
Map View window or alternatively can be analysed using the All Neighbours function activated
from within the Show Data Types list (as previously described).

160 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning Neighbours

8.8 Exercise: Automatic Neighbour Creation
bour Generation Tool (Wizard) to generate neighbour

Use the Automatic Neigh s.
The Wizard can be launched from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting Tools Neighbours
Neighbours Wizard.
- Move through the screens of the Wizard setting the following parameters, where appropriate:-
- Within the Step 3 of 5 screen select to use the Best Server Array, set the minimum number of
border squares required as 10, the Maximum number of relations for each cell to 16.
- Having clicked the Finish button, on the last wizard screen, after a while you will receive a
message box reporting the number of neighbour relationships created for the number of cells
processed. Click on the OK button to acknowledge the message.
View the new neighbours in the Neighbour Analysis window that appears.
Add All Mutual button at the top of the window, to convert all neighbours into a two-
way relationship.
- Click the Update Database button to store the new neighbours to the database.
- Graphically display the above neighbour configuration by selecting the Display Neighbours
Save as a Favourite, and name it Automatic Neighbours
- Click the
button on the Site Design Toolbar of the 2D Map View window. Click on each cell in your
network, in the 2D Map View window to display the neighbour relations.
AIRCOM International

161 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

8.9 Session Summary Checklist E
he
Manually adding neighbour relations using the Site Database window F
Manually creating neighbour relations using the 2D Map View window F
F

bour relations in the Site Database F
F
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of t
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

Creating Neighbours using the Wizard
Applying Neighbours to the Site Database F
Viewing Neigh
Displaying Neighbour relations graphically in the 2D Map View window

Additional Notes:








162 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

9 Interference and Frequency Planning
9.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn about:

O Using the Interference Table Wizard and interpreting its results
O Manual Frequency allocation using the Site Database
O Manual Frequency allocation using Frequency Re-use patterns
of interference in terms of both
a
9.2.1 Interference Table Wizard
The Interference Table Wizard generates its results from the network coverage information and
(optionally) from the traffic density raster. The table lists each cell in the network together with all
possible
O Analysing Interference and Carrier assignments
O Producing and viewing Interference Arrays
O Planning BSICs
9.2 Interference Tables
An Interference table details the effect of interference for every pair of sub-cell/carrier layer
combinations in the network whose predictions overlap. The results can then be analysed before
commencing the Frequency Planning process to identify the effects
rea and traffic affected.
interfering cells (i.e. all cells with predictions, which overlap that of the cell in question). The
larger your predictions the longer the list of possible interferers will be for each cell.
The table presumes that a co- or adjacent channel allocation has been made by the frequency planner
and as such contains details on the amount of interference by area and (optionally) by traffic.
AIRCOM International

163 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

To generate the Interference Table for your network you must first have a valid Best Server array
and a traffic density raster. With these in place go to the ENTERPRISE Main Menu and select Tools
Interference Tables Interference Table Wizard.

The Wizard has the same familiar first page requiring you to specify which 2D Map View window to
work with:

To proceed to the next page of the Wizard click on the Next> button.
of how to calculate the Interference
Probability.
Screen two of the wizard presents the user with a number of choices relating to site selection, method
of calculation, the optional use of traffic data and a choice
164 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

Se o
Sites considered in the calculations are selected through the use of Filters or alternatively, by
nts are
Best Server or Probable Best

For ch ution from all other subcells.

For each p h a probability value which
indicating their Best Sever potential. The algorithm will work out, for all potential Best Servers, the
C/I interf bution will be scaled down by
the probability value and the result is then summed.
Although the Probable Best Server option will give more accurate results, the processing time will
Whether traffic raster information is used?
understanding of the percentage and the degree to which
traffic could be affected by interference. This information is an additional input to the frequency
the traffic density experienced in
different areas. Normally, using traffic data produces better frequency plans since it is important to
protect high traffic areas (e.g. urban areas) from interference much more than low traffic areas (e.g.
agricultural land).
To pro traffic affected, it is necessary to have the
appropriate rasters available in memory. We must then instruct the interference table wizard to
Two methods exist for calculating the interference probability:
1. terf
lection f Sites?
capturing a specific view (on the first screen of the Wizard) in which the necessary site eleme
present.
Which Calculation Method to use?
You have a choice of Calculation Methods, either to use the
Server.
Best Server Method
ea Best Server the algorithm sums the C/I interference contrib
Probable Best Server Method
ixel all potential Best Servers are calculated, together wit
erence contribution from all other cells. However, this contri
be a lot slower than if the Best Server option is chosen.
In most situations it is essential to gain an
planner that imposes stricter levels of interference in relation to
duce interference figures based on the amount of
consider traffic density maps by checking the Use Traffic Data box before selecting a terminal type
or types from the list.
Which Interference Probability method should be used?
Use In erence Weights
The area/traffic affected by interference is calculated to be the area which is defined within the
interference weights table for a mean C/I. The interference table is defined on a cell layer basis and
only a single interference table can be assigned to a cell layer.
AIRCOM International

165 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The default interference weights table within ASSET3G is as follows:

This default interference weights table has been generated assuming that a co-channel C/I of 9dB is
sian
rve is produced from the default offset of -18dB set within the Array settings window.
2. Calculate Dynamically
his method takes a user definable C/I Threshold allocated on the Cell Layer which dictates where the
quality of a connection begins to be adversely affected. The C/I then follows a Gaussian distribution
bout a calculated mean, which is taken from the standard deviation of interference value set in the
Propagation Model assigned to each cell. The adjacent channel curve is produced from the C/A offset
C/I Threshold (Cell Layer) Standard deviation of interference (Propagation Model)
where the quality of a connection begins to be adversely affected, and that the C/I follows a Gaus
distribution about the calculated mean, which has a standard distribution of 7.8dB. The adjacent
channel cu
T
a
value set in the Array settings window (default setting is -18dB).

When you have set up these options click the Next> button to move on to the final page of the Wizard.
166 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

This page allows y a file (*.ait file) for future reference,
which can save time if you are regularly re-planning large networks.
ou to save the resulting Interference Table to

Note: You can load a saved interference table from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting
Tools Interference Tables Load Interference Table. Select the file you wish to reload and click
on the Open button.
Click on the Finish button to calculate the Interference Table.
9.2.2 Viewing the Interference Table
After creating the Interference Table it is possible to view it through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by
selecting Tools Interference Tables View Interference Table.

For each sub-cell, the window shows the coverage area and traffic captured together with a list of the
relevant co- and adjacent channel
interference, which would arise if frequency allocations of this kind were made to the cells in question.
This d .
ame
information but for possible adjacent channel allocations.
possible interfering cells. Clicking on an interferer brings up the
ata is shown to the right of the window
The Co-channel fields relate to the amount of interference, which would result from a co-channel
assignment on the serving cell and the selected interferer. The Adjacent Channel fields show the s
AIRCOM International

167 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

You can select how to order the list of interferers usin
the bottom. Sorting these by affected traffic, for exam
g the buttons in the Sort Interferers by field, at
ple, shows the possible interferer where a co-
channel allocation with the wanted cell would result in the largest amount of interfered traffic.
To view the interference figures for other cells, it is necessary to click on the relevant cell in the 2D
View or type in the Cell Id into the Cell box in the view window.
As you can see this what if? interference information is exactly what the automatic frequency
planning algorithm requires to be able to determine how good or how bad a particular frequency plan
option is. It can also prove very useful when manually frequency planning.
Unfortunately the nature of this table does not lend itself to graphical display and can only be viewed
using this viewing window. Once you have finished viewing the table click on the Close button.
9.3 Exercise: Creating Interference Tables
The Interference Table Wizard can be launched from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting
ToolsInterference TablesInterference Table Wizard
Within the Wizard set the following parameters:-
View: Select a view to determine the area for the Wizard to use <Next>
Select filter : All
Save: Store the new neighbours and any comments to file <Finish>
nalyse the Interference Table by selecting ToolsInterference TablesView Interference Table
om the ENTERPRISE Main Menu.
Note: Unfortunately the nature of this table does not lend itself to graphical display and can only
e analysed using this viewing window.
aving analysed/viewed the table click on the Close button.
Having created a valid Best Server array and Traffic density raster we can now generate the
Interference Table.
Use Traffic Data: E
Selected Terminals: Voice Terminal Day
Interference Probability: Use interference table

<Next>
A
fr

b
H
168 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

9.4 Frequency Planning
Frequency Planning is necessary to avoid the same frequency being used in nearby cells, which would
cause unwanted interference. The number of cells that use different frequencies is called the reuse
factor. Tighter reuse (lower reuse factor) means that more frequencies can be used in each cell, for a
given a larger interference between the cells.
Frequencies can be manually allocated to cells in the network through the Site Database window. On
number of total frequencies, but also means
9.4.1 Manual Frequency Planning
the Cell Layer Level, within the Carriers tab, the allocation of carriers can be made within the
Carriers pane.

First highlight the required Carrier Layer in the Carrier Layers pane, then choose a Carrier by
highlighting it in the Carriers pane and ticking the Alloc box to complete the carrier allocation
process.



AIRCOM International

169 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Note: Carriers can be de-allocated from a Carrier Layer by un-ticking the Alloc. Box.

9.4.2 Group Planning
Group Planning is one of the main techniques used by radio planners to help them allocate frequencies
to the network. This technique divides all the available frequencies between a number of frequency
groups, which you can then allocate manually. Using Frequency Groups enables you to quickly
generate structured frequency plans. However, for irregular or high-density networks, a best-fit
frequency plan may give better network performance rather than rigid re-use schemes.
9.4.3 Group Planning within ASSET3G
9.4.3.1 Defining Re
Before commencing Group P e-use patterns need to be defined. From the
ENTERPRSIE Main Menu select Configuration Layers Carrier Layers
Go to the Groups tab and select the Use Group Planning check-box.
-use patterns
lanning the Frequency R


170 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

Within the Frequency Re-Use Pattern field choose either 3x9, 4x12 a Custom pattern. The carriers
allocated to that layer will now automatically populate the pattern template.
or

To change the way the carriers appear in the template, using the left mouse button double-click on a
c .
The following Auto-Fill wind
arrier in the template
ow should then appear:

By entering a Carrier sequence in the Start and End boxes you can then select how that sequence
appears in the template by selecting a Fill Sequence (Left to Right/Right to Left and
Upwards/Downwards). Click on the OK button to re-order the Re-use pattern template.
Complete this process for all the Carrier Layers to be planned.
9.4.3.2 Allocating Frequencies
The manual allocation of Frequency Groups is done through the Site Database window. Access the
Site Database window through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting Database Sites
AIRCOM International

171 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

On the Cell Layer level click on the Carriers tab:

The Carriers pane within the Carriers tab of the Site database window has two view options:
List View Group View

Using the Group View option, individual carriers from groups can be assigned to each cell by firstly
highlighting the carrier and then selecting the Alloc check-box.
Do this for each cell and cell layer in the network, allocating a carrier from a different group to each
cell in the network. Having completed the manual allocation of Group Frequencies click on the
Apply button followed by the Commit or Commit All button to save the changes to the database.





172 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

9.5 Analysing the Frequency Plan
you to analyse the Frequency Plan.
9.5.1 Interference Arrays
Once a Frequency plan has been created and saved to the database it is then possible to view the
resulting interference graphically in the 2D Map View window. The Interference arrays are chosen
through the same Array Creation window used for creating the Best Server arrays.
Prior to using the Array Creation window, it is necessary to set up some initial parameters, such as
interference options and cell/carrier layer to examine. This is done through the Array Settings
window, which can be accessed through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting Arrays Array
Settings
nder the Interference tab, of the Array Settings window (shown below), we need to specify to the
tool whether we want to display co-channel, adjacent-channel or the sum of the two. To do this select
e appropriate option within the Channel selection pane of the Interference tab.
ASSET3G contains a number of different features, which allow
U
th

AIRCOM International

173 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Within the Interference o pane the following items are also available for selection:
Use Frequency
Hopping:
This option takes into account the partial use (loading) of carriers during
frequency hopping, automatically assigning an appropriate weighting
with respect to the number of carriers in use.
Use Frequency
Diversity:
Having selected Use Frequency Hopping in addition you can select to
consider Frequency Diversity within the creation of an array. This will
take into account that during Hopping different frequencies suffer from
different fading losses, and so a frequency diversity gain is obtained.
The gain is dependent on the number of hopping frequencies used, the
values of which are taken from the FH Diversity Gain table.
ptions

Use DTX: This option instructs the software to scale down the power of the
transmitter based on the activity factor of the terminal. Using DTX
o reduce interference between different cells and increases the
y of the system.
ation when creating
onverted to a number of channels using the
formula. The channels for a cell together with the
er of channels being used are taken and the proportion in use at
any time is worked out. The interference is then reduced by that amount.
Use Antenna Hopping: This option will take into account the diversity gain achieved when
multiple antennas are exposed to different multipath fading. Antenna
Hopping is a transmit diversity scheme in which consecutive bursts of
information are transmitted on different antennas.
Finally, before creating the array ensure that the correct Cell and Carrier Layers have been
selected/included to enable the interference analysis to be performed. This is done in the Interfering
signal pane of the Serving and Interfering Cells tab:
helps t
capacit

Use Traffic: This option uses any traffic per subcell inform
arrays. The traffic is c
selected Erlang
numb
174 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning


Note: The Interfering signal pane can also be used to just look at certain cells or cell layers
individually by selecting them from the list.
In the 2D Map View window and select the Create Arrays button ( ), and having chosen from
ENTERPRISE Main Toolbar, and having chosen Non Sim the Create Arrays window will appea
the
r:

There are several options for interference analysis within the window, and these are described below:
Worst/Average Connection: These arrays are used when you have frequency hopping cells in the
network and you want to model the interference. The Worst
Connection array calculates the equivalent interference of the worst
hopping group.
The Average Connection array calculates the equivalent
interference averaged over all hopping groups.

AIRCOM International

175 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Worst Interferer: This array is for Non-hopping networks and calculates the
interference between the serving carrier at that location (pixel) and
Total Interference: This array is also for Non-hopping networks and calculates the

OK button to perform the calculation.
he created array can be displayed in the normal way by going to the Show Data Types list in the
D Map View window and selecting the appropriate array within the Coverage category.
the strongest interfering carrier.
interference between the serving carrier at that location (pixel) and
the summed interference from all cells using the interfering carrier.
Having selected the appropriate interference array click on the
T
2

In the above example, a Worst Interferer array has been calculated.
y double-clicking, with the left mouse button, on the appropriate array the user can change the
isplay properties of that array:
B
d

176 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

The choice to Show good coverage or Show bad coverage refers to
Map View window. Good coverage will include all categories, wherea
the categories shown in the 2D
s Bad coverage ignores the first
category (i.e. 2%).
Note: The Category values (coverage colours, labels and levels) can be changed using the Modify
button.
As wi Coverage Statistics tool to compute area-based statistics on the
interference in your network. This can be accessed through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by
Coverage Statistics or by clickin on th Coverage
(
th other arrays you can use the
selecting Arrays Coverage/Interference g e
Statistics button ) from the 2D Map View Toolbar. Upon choosing the Non Sim option the
Coverage/Interfer ta
Within the Coverage/ e ray you have
created and the level you w he array from the list and
secondly clicking on the D can then
be chosen using the dr d
ence S tistics window will then appear.
Int rference Statistics window select the type of interference ar
ant to analyse to. This is done by firstly selecting t
efine button to give the respective array categories. The category
op own menu:

Note: You can also restrict the Statistics to an area within a Polygon by choosing the appropria
option in the Coverage area pane.
te
Continue through the various screens of the Wizard using the Next> button before clicking on the
OK button to get a report (in Microsoft Excel), which gives you statistics on the interference
performance:
AIRCOM International

177 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


9.5.2 Cell Info Reporter
This report can be accessed
Main Menu by selecting Re
Report

through the ENTERPRISE
ports GSM Cell Info




178 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

There
a) Searching for cells with Co- or Adjacent channels to the target cell.
Sea
Searching by Cell Identity m y pane and
i to search for
cells will be displayed in the lower pane of the
under the Cell Parameter tab.
are two facilities provided by the reporter:
b) rching for cells with specific carriers assigned.
9.5.2.1 Search by Cell Identity
akes it possible to enter a cell name in the Cell Identit
ndicate whether other cells with co-channel allocation or adjacent channels. Matching
window together with any cell parameters selected


The n e
limited through the use of
through the Filter tab using the drop-down menu.
umber of sites considered in the search may b
Filters. These are selected


9.5.2.2 Search by Carrier
With the second option it is possible to find all cells using specified carriers. A wildcard (*) can be
used to display all the carriers on the filter of cells selected:
AIRCOM International

179 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The resulting information can then be viewed or
stored to a text file

for future reference by
clicking on the Export button.
9.5.3 Frequency Re-use Display
Within the Cell Info category of the Show Data Types list there is an item called Freq. Re-Use.
This option allows the user to display cell service areas coloured
according to the carriers in use on that cell:


180 (291) AIRCOM International

Interference and Frequency Planning

By double-clicking on the Freq. Re-Use option its
respective display proper

ties window will appear. Within this
window you define the carriers you wish to display and the
colours to be used:

In the above example carriers 1 to 10 are chosen to b displayed wherever they are in use and the
colouring will start from the first colour chosen in the palette (i.e. Black) and will then proceed for
e
each sequential carrier:


AIRCOM International

181 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

9.6 Session Summary Checklist E
es covered in this Session:

Correctly use the Interference Table Wizard and Interpret the results F
Perform Manual Frequency allocation of carriers using the Site Database F
Perform Manual Frequency allocation using Frequency Re-use Patterns F
F
Produce and view an Interference Array and analyse its statistics F
Carry out BSIC Planning F

This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectiv
Analyse Carrier Assignments using the 2D Map View window
Additional Notes:










182 (291) AIRCOM International

Candidate Planning

10 Candidate Planning
10.1 Objectives
Within this lesson you will learn about:

O How Candidates are configured within ENTERPRISE
O The Configuration options available within ENTERPRISE
O Viewing Candidates in the 2D Map View window
O Assigning and De-assigning Candidates
10.2 Nominal and Candidate Functionality
ENTERPRISE uses the concept of nominal and candidate properties. A nominal property is a new
property placed in an approximate location, as a way of indicating that you need a site somewhere near
this location (lat/long).
By defining a search area for this nominal, you define the area (radius) in which the new property or
properties must exist. Within this search area, you can then place a number of other properties (called
Candidates) which are possible alternative locations for the new site.
Candidates can take on the same equipment and parameters as the nominal, except for MSCs and
BSCs, and one candidate can be marked (flagged) as preferred over the rest.
10.3 Nominal and Candidate Configuration
Configuration of Candidates is done in ENTERPRISE within the Preferences window.
AIRCOM International

183 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

This can be found by selecting File Preferences and then selecting the Candidate Options tab.


10.3.1 Candidate Functionality Field
It is necessary to select the Enable Candidate Functionality check box for full access to the various
tools used within Candidate planning.

10.3.2 Automate Field
Ca is option is selected, any property that is within the search area of a nominal
perty will automatically be given candidate status of that nominal.
ion has
e being
based on that of the nominal (e.g. Site1_A).
te Status
option has been selected. If selected, candidate status will be automatically
defined search area or
automatically change
any property that falls within it to a candidate, and visa versa.
The following options are available as automatic functions within the software: -
ndidate Status: If th
pro
Renaming: This option becomes available for selection when the Candidate Status opt
been selected. If selected the Candidate property will be renamed, the nam
Capturing candidates: This option also only becomes available for selection when the Candida
changed, depending on whether a property falls within the
not. This allows the resizing of the search area, which will
184 (291) AIRCOM International

Candidate Planning

10.3.3 Nominal Restrictions Field
Can Move: Gives any user permissions to move the Nominal Property.
Cannot Move: Permissions to move the Nominal Property are revoked.
10.3.4 Candidate Restrictions Field
the Candidate Propert ywh
ante ovem didate ropert
10.3.5 Candidates BTS Equipment Field
No new BTS equipment: On linking a Nominal Property to a Candidate Property
the BTS equipment configuration on the Nominal and
Candidate properties will remain unchanged.
emove candidates and copy nominals: On linking a Nominal Property to a Candidate Property
the BTS equipment configuration on the Nominal will
be copied across to the Candidate, replacing
Can move anywhere: Gives any user permissions to move y an ere
on the 2D View.
Move within search area: Only allows the movement of a Candidate Property within the
nominals search area.
Cannot move: No permissions are gr d for the m ent of Can P ies.
R
any
existing BTS equipment which may have been on the
Candidate.
Keep candidates and copy nominals: On linking a Nominal Property to a Candidate Property
the BTS equipment configuration on the Nominal will
be copied across to the Candidate, any existing BTS
equipment which may have been on the Candidate
remains also.
10.4 Site Database View
the Site Database window, elements (sites & properties) may be viewed in one of the following
ays: Logical Links, Physical Links, Location or Network View.
s nominals and candidates are created at the property level it is necessary to change the database
iew to either Physical Links or Location.
In
w
A
v
AIRCOM International

185 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

This is achieved by selecting the appropriate option from within the Vi
as shown below: -
ew menu of the site database,

T
optional,
he choice of using either Physical Links, Logical Links or Location View to y the Network is
however the information displayed is ver different in each: -
sical Links
displa
y
Phy Logical Links Location View

186 (291) AIRCOM International

Candidate Planning

10.5 2D View Functionality
planning: The 2D View window contains a number of icons/buttons, which are used in candidate

10.6 Assigning Candidates
As igning candidates is the linking of candidate properties to n s ominal properties. This indicates which
tion, placed by the Radio Planner.
E is done in the 2D View using the search area button and the
10.6.1 Using the search area button
ith the left mouse button click on the Search Area button
candidate could fulfil the need of the nominal loca
Assigning candidates in ENTERPRIS
make candidate button.
In the 2D View window locate a property, which you wish to make the nominal.
W and then click, with the left mouse
button, on the located property (to become a nominal) and drag the mouse until the search area is of
the required size.
AIRCOM International

187 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User



Note: This search area now defines the location/area of interest for the candidate property
ur turns to blue:
locations.
Within the site database the Property is now referred to/flagged as a Nominal Property, and the
roperty symbol colo P

The size of the search area created in the 2D View window is shown in the Site Database under the
Search Area tab. This radius can be changed in the Site Database by selecting the Override 2d-view
defined search area option and entering the new radius value, which is measured in meters.
188 (291) AIRCOM International

Candidate Planning


10.6.2 Using the Make Candidates button
Use the Add property button to add new properties into the search area.
Note: Any options selected inside the Automate field of the Candidate Options tab, within the
Prefer
ate button
ences window will now take effect.
If no Automate functions are selected, the assigning of candidates is done in the 2D View using the
Make candid .
Having selected the Make candidate button, by clicking on it with the left mouse button, click on the
relevant nominal property (with the left mouse button) and then click on the property to be made a
candidate (with the left mouse button). A message box will then appear asking you to confirm the
candidate selection:

Click on the Yes button to add the candidate to the selected nominal.
The nominal candidate relationship will then be shown in the site database
under the Search Area tab and the Candidate Property symbol (in the Site
Database) will turn to green.


AIRCOM International

189 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

10.6.3 Displaying Candidates
Displaying candidates of a nominal is done using the Display Candidates button in the 2D View.
Having selected this button click on the nominal property (with the left mouse button) and the
candidates for that nominal will be displayed with a line.
A nominal may have any number of candidates assigned. The following screenshot shows the
appearance of a nominal with two assigned candidates.

10.6.4 De-Assigning Candidates
De-assigning candidates is also carried out within the 2D View window using the Break Candidate
button . Having selected the Break Candidate button click, with the left mouse button, on the
to be de-assigned. A message box will then appear asking whether you want the
candidate to be removed or not:
candidate property

Clicking the Yes button will de-assign the candidate from the nominal.
Note: If you have the Capturing candidates option selected in the Automate field under the
Candidate Options tab in the Preferences window you can de-assign candidate status from a Property
by resizing a search area to exclude a candidate.
190 (291) AIRCOM International

Candidate Planning

10.7 Exercise: Candidate Planning
Continuing with the JerseyCom project, set the Candidate Planning options through the Candidate
O f the Prefe heck-box
is selected (to enable candidate functionality) and secondly that the automatic Candidate functions are
n
ptions tab o rences window. Ensure firstly that the Candidate Functionality c
ot selected.
Within your current netw
ential C
ork choose a Site to be your potential Nominal Property.
1. Add Pot andidate properties:
button place 3 potential Candidate properties around your chosen
).
ate:
Using the Add Property
Nominal Property (Site
2. Create a Candid
Within the 2D Map View
Candidate button from t lbar. Select the Nominal Property followed by the
Candidate Property. A link between these Properties should now be displayed.
Within the Site Database window select the Candidate Property and check the Candidate Status Flag
ange to the database.
3. Display Candidates for a Nominal in ENTERPRISE:
window ensure that you have properties displayed then select the Make
he Site Design Too
setting. This has changed from Not Used to Candidate
Click on the Apply and Commit buttons to save this ch

the 2D Map View window select the Show Candidates button then select the Nominal Property.
ll the Candidate Properties will now be displayed.
ou can change this display so that each Nominal Property has its own candidates displayed as a
different colour. Selecting the Nominal from the Candidates category of the Show Data Types list
a Candi
In
A
Y
does this. By double-clicking on the Nominal its display properties can be changed.
4. Break date:
From the Site Design T
Select the Candidate yo sign, clicking on the Yes option, in the window that appears,
to confirm the action.
Select the Candidate Pr
button.
Note: The Candidate Status Flag has changed from Candidate back to Not Used.
oolbar of the 2D Map View window select the Break Candidate button.
u wish to de-as
operty from within the Site Database window and click on the Commit
AIRCOM International

191 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

10.8 Sess E
This checklist has been
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

List the different configuration options available within the software F
Demonstrate how Candidates are viewed within the Site Database and 2D Map View window
to Assign and De-assign Candidates F

ion Summary Checklist
provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
State where Candidates are configured within ENTERPRISE F
F
Show how
Additional Notes:











192 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

11
In this session you will learn (with the help of a practical exercise) two key methods for modelling
dual-band networks within ASSET3G.
11.2 Introduction
Initially GSM was designed to work in the 900 MHz band (the primary band). However, over time
additional bands have been added. The table below shows the frequency bands used for GSM Base
Station Systems:

Dual Band Networks
11.1 Objective of this session
TX: RX:
P-GSM900 935 MHz to 960 MHz 890 MHz to 915 MHz
DCS1800 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz 1710 MHz to 1785 MHz
E-GSM900 925 MHz to 960 MHz 880 MHz to 915 MHz
R-GSM900 921 MHz to 960 MHz 876 MHz to 915 MHz
GSM 450 460.4 MHz to 467.6 MHz 450.4 MHz to 457.6 MHz
GSM 480 488.8 MHz to 496 MHz 478.8 MHz to 486 MHz
GSM 850 and MXM 850 869 MHz to 894 MHz 824 MHz to 849 MHz
PCS 1900 and MXM 1900 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz 1850 MHz to 1910 MHz
(ETSI, GSM 11.21 version 8.3.0 Release 1999, www)



AIRCOM International

193 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

11.3 Overview
There are two key methods for modelling dual-band networks with ASSET3G, these are:
1) By defining 2 cells, one with a GSM900 sub-cell and one with a GSM1800 sub-cell
2) By defining a single cell with 2 sub-cells (i.e. GSM900 & GSM1800)
The choice of which method to employ will be dependent on the equipment configuration you are
planning for (e.g. for networks employing purpose built dual band equipment method two should be
used).
The following session will take you through, step by step, how to set-up a dual-band network using
both methods.
11.4 Pre-requisites
Importing Antennas, either Single-band or Dual-band
Setting up Propagation Models for both frequency bands
Allocating Carriers for both frequency bands
Defining the two Carrier Layers
Defining the two Cell Layers

or details on how to setup these items, please refer to the Sections on Coverage and Traffic planning
ment.

Before setting up for either method, a number of important items need to be in place before the
configuration process begins. These items include:

F
within this docu
194 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

11.5 Dual-band Configuration
11.5.1 Sharing Antennas

nas is their patterns, you can share the antenna. The sector could be represented as
rt
or
ared ID would be the same.

By sharing antennas for different technology types, you can make changes to the parameters for an
antenna and they are reflected in all technology types sharing this antenna. This reduces the time
needed to make the changes for many antennas for all the different technology types on the same
Property.

Note : If you are sharing antennas, you cannot select to use a connected repeater.

To share an antenna and make it available for multi-technology sites and cells on the same Property
you first have to set any Antenna-sharing preferences on the FilePreferencesShared Antennas
tab as shown below:

If you are using antennas that are dual band, such as 900 and 1800 MHz, where the only difference
between the anten
two cells. For example, a site has a sector at an azimuth of 180. If you configure the sector to suppo
an antenna of a different bandwidth, all parameters such as height, azimuth, tilt, correction fact
pattern and sh



AIRCOM International

195 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

You then:

1. Select the relevant cell in the Site Database.

2. On the Antennas tab, select the Shared Antenna checkbox.

3. Choose the antenna pattern you require.

4. In the Antenna Identity box, type a number to identify the antenna in the database:



Important: The number must be positive.

5.
nu
Repeat this process for the second antenna you want to share, ensuring you use the same positive
mber in the Antenna Identity box.

6. Click Apply. You are then prompted to:

Syn t enna with the same identity.

Update the associated shared - make the associated shared antenna's settings the same as the local
Break relationships - break the relationship between the shared antennas.
To configure a Dual-band system, either the Site Database or Site Template can be used, depending on
-configure an
existing site, whereas the Site Template would be used at the beginning of a project or when a new
ndow. The configuration process is very
s training purposes the Site Template will be
u
11.5.3 Defining Two Cells (Method one)
It will be very likely that many sites within our network will have the same Dual-band
characteristics. Instead configuring each network element individually, which can be done using the
Site Database, you can define a site template to use as a base for any new sites. This will save a lot of
time during the planning phase of your network.
c with an enna shares - use the settings of the ant
antenna.

11.5.2 Configuring a Dual Band system
the planning situation at the time of planning. You would use the Site Database to re
Dual-Band Site is to be planned using the 2D Map View wi
imilar for both the Site Database and Site Template. For
sed to show the configuration process.
196 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

11.5.3.1 Define a Site Template
To create a Dual-band Site Template go to Database Templates, the following window will
then appear:


In the Templates pane, click with the right mouse button in the white space below/next to the
existing default templates. From the menu that appears click on the type of template you want to add.

Note: To edit the properties of an existing template, select the template in the Templates pane,
and configure the template using the various available tabs.
You will now be prompted to enter the name of the templa Sector), having done so
click on the OK button.
te (e.g. Dual Band 3
AIRCOM International

197 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Your new template will now appe ong the list es. To edit the properties of this
template, select the template in t plates mplate using the various
available tabs.
(Method 1) site, click
and from the menu that
ar am of existing templat
he Tem pane, and configure the te
11.5.3.2 Adding Cells and Cell Layers to a Site Template
To configure the template for a Dual-band
with the right mouse button on the site
appears, click Add Cell six times:

By default the new cells , since this was the
original project default layer.
ure the Site for Dual-band three of the GSM900 layers must be deleted and be replaced
with GSM1800 layers. Clicking with the right mouse button on the text of the sub-cell (e.g. GSM900)
at appears does this:
will have the GSM900 Cell Layer assigned to them
To config
and selecting Delete Cell Layer from the menu th

N
D
ow continue by clicking with the right mouse again on the text of the Cell Id (e.g. GSM 3 Sector
ual Band Site) selecting Add Cell Layer GSM1800, from the menu that appears:
198 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks


On the cell level the following parameters can now be configured under each tab:
General Tab: Set the Propagation Model (GSM900 or GSM1800) using the drop down
menu and, if applicable, enter the MNC, MCC,NCC and BCC.
Status Tab: Set any previously created Fields to associate them with the site.
Cell Config Tab: Choose to inherit Cell Configuration settings from ARCHITECT or to
specify them individually. Set the Cell equipment details. Set the DTX state
and voice activity factor. Choose an FCC category (if applicable).
Antennas Tab: Choose a suitable antenna type for each cell (i.e. 900MHz Antenna for
GSM900 Cells and 1800MHz Antenna for GSM1800 Cells), using the drop
down menu and set any correction factor. Choose a feeder type and enter
the feeder length. Set the antenna azimuth in degrees from north. Enter any
mechanical down tilt. Set the antenna height. Set a distributed antenna
location (if applicable).
BCF: Set the following cell parameters: Cell Type (0-9999), Segment ID (1-128)
a Segment name.
Note: a segment is a group of BTSs with the same BCCH.
Note: Ensure that the Propagation Model is set under the General tab of the Cell and not the
Sub-Cell. Although this would be an alternative way of setting the model of each cell, it is only really
used when considering multiple cell layers on each cell.




AIRCOM International

199 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Finally re the sub-cells with the following parameters: configu
General tab: Set the Cell Layer Signal Threshold.
This value is the minimum signal strength that you want that layer to pick
traffic up at.
Layer so that the traffic will be forced
onto the GSM1800 layer (the higher priority layer). The traffic will be served
Threshold value set, then the traffic will go to the GSM900 layer.
75dBm and the GSM900
Antenna/TRX tab: n tput for each sub-cell (e.g. 35 dBm).
Note: This value can be changed at a later stage, having viewed the
results of the Coverage Prediction (Best Server).
ith Two SubCells (Method Two)
in an earlier session.
11.5.4.1
Create a
Main M
Set the Signal Threshold on each Cell
by the GSM1800 layer until the received level is better than the Signal
For example, the GSM1800 Layer could be set to
Layer set to 102dBm.
E ter the Antenna Power ou
11.5.4 Define a Single Cell w
Method two differs from Method one in the configuration process within the Site Template (or Site
Database. Method two uses Antenna Slots which have been previously covered
Site Template
Dual-band Site Template by selecting Database Templates, from the ENTERPRISE
enu:

In the Templates pane, click with the right mouse button in the white space below/next to the
existing default templates. From the menu that appears click on the type of template you want to add.
200 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

You will now be prompted to enter the name of the template (e.g. Dual Band 3 Sector_2), having done
o click on the OK button. s

Your new template will now appear among the list of existing templates. To edit the properties of this
template, select the template in the Templates pane, and configure the template using the various
To config
site and f
available tabs.
11.5.4.2 Adding Cells and Cell Layers to a Site Template
ure the template for a Dual-band (Method 2) site, click with the right mouse button on the
rom the menu that appears, click Add Cell three times:

By default the new cells will have the GSM900 Cell Layer assigned to them, since this was the
original project default layer.
AIRCOM International

201 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Now a king with the right mouse button on each cell,
and choosing Add Cell Layer GSM1800, from the menu that appears:
dd a GSM1800 Cell Layer. This is done by clic

Under the General tab of the Cell Layer set the respective propagation model (i.e. GSM900
rride model check-box and using the drop-down menu to select the
appropriate model.
Propagation Model to the GSM900 Cell Layer, GSM1800 Propagation Model to the GSM1800 Cell
Layer), by selecting the Ove



202 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

Set
modelli t to 102dBm, GSM1800 Cell Layer set to
75dBm)
the Signal Threshold value for each layer, this value is the minimum threshold used to fulfil traffic
ng requirements (e.g. GSM900 Cell Layer se
:

The creation of a Dual Band Site using Method two uses two different antenna slots, each referring to
a different band.
Each slot must be configured separately on the Cell level of the Site Template, within the Antenna
Config tab :

Add button to add Slot 2 (e.g. Slot 1 working on 900MHz, Slot 2 working on

Click on the
1800MHz).
Highlig na ht Slot 1 and choose a 900MHz antenna type, using the drop down menu. Set the anten
Azimuth, Downtilt, Height and Correction Factor (if appropriate) for each Sector.
AIRCOM International

203 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Now highlight Slot 2 and choose an appropriate GSM 1800MHz antenna type, using the drop down
menu:

Set the antenna Azimuth, Downtilt, Height and Antenna Correction Factor (if applicable) for each
Sector.
Within the Antenna/TRX tab, of each sub-cell, configure the Antenna Slots by assigning the
appropriate slot to each cell layer (i.e. Slot 1 GSM900, Slot 2 GSM1800). Selecting the
appropriate Antenna Slot for each Cell layer does this:


Finally enter the correct Antenna PA Output for each Antenna Slot on each Cell Layer.
Click on the Apply button to save the changes to the database.

204 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

11.6 Dual-Band Coverage
es.
Having run the coverage predictor from the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting Tools Pathloss
Predicto
Note: Re
through the A the Cell Layers.
Having a
You should
GSM900 c
below a Filter was used to display the S
single site:
Having placed your newly created Dual-Band Site on the 2D Map View window, you may want to
look at the predicted coverage of the Sit
r, and display the coverage as a Best Server array.
member to select both the GSM900 and GSM1800 Cell layers for inclusion in the array
rray settings window, otherwise you will not see the interaction of
cre ted and viewed a Best Server array display the Service Area (Block) plot.
be able to see the different Service Areas of the
ells and the GSM1800 cells. In the example
ervice Area for a


















AIRCOM International

205 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

11.7 xercise: Dual-Band Planning E
Create a Dual-Band template using Method Two and configure the template using the information
given:
1800 MHz Propagation M
This exercise will allow you to model your JerseyCom network for dual-band working.

odel:
Model Name GSM1800MHz
Frequency 1800MHz
Earth Radius 8491km
Mobile Height 1.5m
K1 160
K2 40
K3 -2.55
K4 0
K5 -13.82
K6 -6.55
K7 0.8
Heff Relative
Diff Epstein Peterson
Clutter No clutter offsets/heights
- Use a suitable 1800 MHz antenna
- Set the antenna azimuth, antenna downtilt (max. 4 degrees including electrical and mechanical),
antenna height (max. 20 m)
- Signal Threshold set to 75 dBm
- PA output set to a maximum value of 33 dBm
Re-run the predictions for your network and create a Best Server coverage array.
Display the Service Area plot and save as Favourite Dual band network
206 (291) AIRCOM International

Dual Band Networks

11.8
This che
session.
Please tick all Session:
Successfully model a Dual-Band network within ASSET3G F
F
Display a Service Area plot of both GSM900 and GSM1800 Layers F
Session Summary Checklist E
cklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
objectives covered in this

List the significant steps prior to creating a new Dual-Band prediction

Additional Notes:













AIRCOM International

207 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

12 M del Tuning
12.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn about:

O The ENTERPRISE Standard Macrocell Model
O Required Map and CW data for Model Tuning
O The Calibration Process
O The Auto Tune utility
12.2 Introduction

s:
Manually, using the CW Measurement Analysis functionality. This can be a very time-
12.3 The Standard Macrocell Model
The standard macrocell model in ASSET3G is based upon the Okumura-Hata empirical model with a
number of additional features to enhance its flexibility. The model is known to be valid for frequencies
in the range of 150MHz to 2GHz.
The Standard Macrocell model in ASSET3G has a large number of parameters and options which may
be selected or calibrated by the user in order to obtain a close representation to measured propagation
data.
acrocell Mo
The Standard Macrocell models that are supplied with ENTERPRISE are based on empirical
techniques. In order to obtain accurate pathloss predictions, you must tune (calibrate) their parameters
against measured pathloss data. You can either do thi

consuming task and with so many parameters to optimise, finding the best combination
manually may not be possible.

Automatically, using the automatic calibration utility (Modelcal) for the Standard Macrocell
models. This simplifies the process and optimises the parameters of your model to obtain an
accurate match between survey data and predictions. The utilitys objective is to minimise the
standard deviation of the error between the propagation model and the Carrier Wave survey
data while keeping the mean error close to zero.
208 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

The basic equation used in the pathloss calculation is given as follows:

Lp(d) = K1 + K2.log(d) + K3.Hms + K4.log(Hms) + K5.log(Heff) + K6.log(Heff).log(d) + K7.Ldiff + Lclutter

Where:

Lp, Ldiff and Lclutter are in dB and d, Hms and Heff are in m.

An optional second intercept and slope (K1 and K2) is available for the creation of two-piece models
with the slope changing at a specified breakpoint distance.
In addition to the basic pathloss calculation the following refinements are available within the model:
Four different algorithms for calculating the Effective Height of the base station (H
eff
).
Four different algorithms for calculating the total diffraction loss (L
diff
) due to multiple knife-
edges along a profile from base station to mobile.
The facility to set end-point clutter loss offsets for each clutter type.
Mapping data is an integral component in the prediction calculations and thus accurate data is essential
for any prediction model to function correctly. Recommendations are given in this section as to the
type of mapping data required to yield a sufficiently accurate model. Naturally these should only be
taken as guidelines and may not be applicable in every situation.
It is important that the mapping data supplied is as up-to-date as possible so that it reflects any recent
changes in land use. Ideally, it should be derived from source material less than two years old
It is recommended that the following mapping data be acquired in order to obtain a model of sufficient
accuracy:
A countrywide dataset for macrocell modelling in rural and semi-rural locations
More detailed datasets for macrocell modelling in towns and cities
Because ASSET3G can handle mixed resolution mapping, it is recommended that you use the datasets
in combination, that is, you do not need to define a different project for each mapping data resolution.
It is therefore important that the clutter datasets all use common classifications even if some are not
used in the less detailed sets.
The facility to set clutter and/or mobile heights for each clutter type which are then added to
the terrain height (and hence influence the diffraction calculations) when calculating the
propagation from base station to mobile.
12.4 Required Mapping Data
AIRCOM International

209 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

12.4.1 Countrywide Dataset
A countrywide dataset is required when macrocell modelling in rural and semi-rural locations. It
should typically comprise of:
50m digital terrain model (DTM) layer (Z accuracy of 10m).
50m clutter type layer at least 10 types of land usage should be classified.
he mapping data listed below, although not essential for propagation modelling, provides extremely
ss:
Vector (line) information to include at least highways, roads, railways, coastline, rivers and
boundaries.
Text information to include at least city and town names
Scanned maps and/or satellite images
12.4.2 Urban Datasets
More detailed datasets are required when producing a model for use in towns and cities. A typical
dataset should comprise of:
20m digital terrain model (DTM) layer (Z accuracy of 10m)
20m clutter type layer categorised with the same land usage codes as the countrywide
dataset but with additional clutter classifications to permit more accurate urban modelling. e.g.
open in urban, parks in urban, isolated high rise and so on
12.5 Recommended CW Data
In order to calibrate the propagation model a comparison is carried out between the predicted
propagation and actual measured data. This me ured data is collected by way of a series of
Continuous Wave (CW) propagation surveys in which a calibrated test transmitter is set up at a base
ation location and received signal strength measurements made with location on a predetermined

ccuracy the use of Differential GPS (DGPS) is recommended, especially


microcell model. In particularly dense urban areas this may
need to be augmented with dead-reakoning to cope with urban canyons where satellite lock is
lost for long periods.
T
valuable information during the radio planning proce
as
st
drive route.
The accuracy of the model is directly related to the validity and accuracy of the CW data:
Test sites measured should be representative of typical BTS sites, considering issues such as
the general environment and antenna height, surrounding clutter characteristics etc.
To ensure positional a
when collecting data to calibrate a
210 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

por ount of data. The more data available the
more accurately a model can be calibrated.
RF propaga
There is no escribed here is widely
used. The only certainty in model calibration is that it is a time consuming, highly iterative process
requirin
During calib
accuracy. A ain an accurate match between the
CW survey data and predictions.
n analysis using the CW Measurement Tool in ASSET3g to quantify the error
between predicted and actual (the tool uses two inputs to carry out the analysis the CW
rticular parameter.
3. Alter the model parameter in question and re-analyse against the measured data.
4. Quantify the effect of the change.
5. If the change was beneficial (i.e. it has reduced the standard deviation between the
propagation model and the CW data) then keep it and move on to another part of the
model. If not, make another adjustment to the model (possibly some prior filtering to the
CW data may be required).
6. Repeat the above steps until the Standard Deviation cannot be reduced any further.
It is recommended that all changes are documented and that only one
It is im tant to collect a statistically significant am
The data should be evenly distributed with respect to distance from the transmitter.
There should be sufficient data collected within each clutter category to ensure accurate
modelling. Typically a minimum of 300 to 400 data points are required for each clutter
category.
12.6 The Calibration Process
tion is based on numerous factors resulting in a very complex process to attempt to model.
single correct method of calibrating a model but the process d
g care in the preparation and definition of procedures.
ration, data from CW surveys is used to calibrate the propagation models to improve their
SSET3g allows model parameters to be adjusted to obt
The overall objective is to minimise the error between the propagation model and the Carrier Wave
survey data. The metrics used to quantify the error are the mean, rms and standard deviation of the
error.
Note: It is important to keep in mind that a calibrated model is only as good as the data used to
calibrate it. To obtain a good model it is essential to invest the time and resources in obtaining high-
quality measurements.
The generic iterative calibration process can be described as follows:
1. Perform a
data and the prediction model).
2. Perform appropriate filtering on the survey data in order to concentrate on those data bins
relevant to setting a pa
parameter adjustment be made
per iteration.
AIRCOM International

211 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The following flow chart illustrates this process:

Change Model
Parameter
Error
Satisfactorily
Low?
Analyse Results
No
Goto Next
Parameter
Document
Change
Yes
Perform
Appropriate
Filtering
CW Data
Prediction
Model
Is Filtering
Necessary?
Yes
No
Use 'CW
Measurements...'
Analysis Tools

212 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.6.1 Loading Survey Data
With a propagation model on the tool, we can now load in the measured data to use for the calibration
process. To load a survey file:
1. From the Tools menu, click CW Measurements.
2. Click Add and browse for the survey file(s) you wish to analyse. If you have multiple
measurement files then these should all be loaded and used collectively for the calibration
in order to improve the statistical validity of the model.
3. In the dialog box that appears, if you wish to conduct bin averaging for your analysis,
click Yes. The Bin Averaging option enables you to average the measurements into bins
corresponding to the map data pixels, reducing the overall number of measurements and
computation time when performing survey data analysis. The Averaging process is based
on mean signal strength in each pixel.

You will get now the main CW Measurements window with all the loaded measurements. You can
view information about loaded survey data by selecting the required Site ID and clicking the Info
button. This dialog box displays important information about the survey files such as power,
frequency, antenna height and type. To perform a valid analysis you need to ensure the radio
parameters are correctly defined.


Note: If you load a Nemo Outdoor v4.x file, any missing BTS information is listed in the Message
Log. To add the missing information, click Info and type the required values on each tab.
AIRCOM International

213 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


12.6.2 Setting the Options for CW Measurement Data
After must set the map resolution. If you are analysing or
tuning a m odel. You can also set various filtering options.
Note: If you are using bin averaging to analyse your survey data, it is recommended that you start
your analysis with a low resolution. If you choose a high resolution and wish to reduce it during
analysis, you will have to reload your survey measurement file.

4. Choose the prediction model that you want to compare in the analysis.
you have loaded CW measurement data, you
odel, you must also select a prediction m

1. Ensure you have loaded the survey file.
2. In the CW Measurements dialog box, click the Options button.
3. On the Model tab, choose the mapping resolution at which you want to use the
propagation model. Bin averaging, if chosen when you loaded the CW data, will be
performed at the chosen resolution.

214 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning


Note: If you are setting options for generating measurement-based pathloss files, the selection of a
prediction model is not relevant at this stage.





of Sight data.
Finally, choose whether to exclude bins outside the horizontal beamwidth.
7. Click OK.

You are now ready to perform an analysis, or generate measurement-based pathloss files.




5. On the Filter tab, choose which clutter types to exclude, and leave unselected those types
you want to concentrate on to begin with. At first no clutter categories should be
excluded, the radius and signal thresholds should be set so that no valid data is excluded,
and both LOS and NLOS should be selected.
6. For the types that you have not excluded, set a radius and signal threshold that you want to
consider, and choose whether to include Line of Sight and/or Non-Line
AIRCOM International

215 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

12.6.3 Displaying Survey Data
Once a survey files have been loaded the following items can be selected for display on the 2D-view:
Measurement Route
Carrier Wave Route Tags
Carrier Wave Signal
Carrier Wave Signal Error
To display these:
Ensure you have loaded a survey file.
In the 2D View window, click the Display Properties button and in the Data Types
list, under CW Measurements, select the items you want to display.
Click with the right mouse button on the map and select Redraw.


216 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.6.4 Analysing CW Data
Wh form a statistical analysis to compare how
accurate ptions parameters now set, you can select to
Ana ck on Analyse.
en you are tuning a propagation model you can per
your model is with real world data. With the O
lyse the data. From the CW Measurements dialog, cli

All the real world data in the loaded surveys are compared with your propagation model using the CW
PRISE User
Reference Guide. A report is produced as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, or Notepad if you do not
ave Microsoft Excel. An example is shown below.

Analysis Correlation Coefficient algorithm. For more information on this, see the ENTER
h

AIRCOM International

217 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Some idea of the limitations of typical survey data can be seen from the next figures. The first figure
shows the distribution of measurement points, and the second figure the distribution of signal strength
ith log(d).
Bot
case of istribution is that there are very few measurement
points close to the test site and far away. In this example most of the data points lie between 400m and
4km alid between 400m and 4km
but not outside this range. It is therefore essential when planning the survey routes to design them such
that as even a spread of measurements as possible is obtained with distance from the site to avoid this
proble also.
w
h distributions show a pronounced peak in the distribution. This is particularly problematic in the
the first figure. The implication of this d
of the site. Any model calibrated from this data will therefore be v
m. This process should also help to improve the spread of points in the second figure
Distribution of Measurements with Distance
5000

0
0
.
5
0
.
9
1
.
3
.
7
.
1
2
.
5
2
.
9
3
.
3
3
.
7
4
.
1
.
5
500
1000
1500
4500
1 2 4
Log(d(m))
2000
2500
B
i
n
s
3000
3500
4000

Distribution of Measurements with Level
0
-
1
5
-
2
0
-
2
5
-
3
0
-
3
5
-
4
0
-
4
5
-
5
0
-
5
5
-
6
0
-
6
5
-
7
0
-
7
5
-
8
0
-
8
5
-
9
0
-
9
5
-
1
0
0
-
1
0
5
500
3000
-
1
1
0
-
1
1
5
-
1
2
0
Measured Signal (dBm)
1500
2000
2500
B
i
n
s
1000

218 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

Finally, the data needs to be analysed in order to identify weaknesses in the statistical representation of
the clutter types. In order to obtain a statistically valid model it is usually necessary to collect a
minimum of around 300-400 measurement bins in each clutter class. A graph similar to the one below
can be useful in order to identify clutter classes with insufficient data points.
In this example, it can be seen that there are insufficient data points in the Parks clutter class and
therefore these measurements should be excluded from the any further analysis. This can be done via
the Options Filter menu.
Distribution of Measurements with Clutter Type
2838
4152
37
4956
1581
5008
2838
2461
365
0
m
a
j
o
r
r
o
a
d
s
o
p
e
n
p
a
r
k
s
r
e
s
i
d
e
n
t
i
a
l
n
i
n
u
r
b
a
n
e
a
n
u
r
b
a
n
n
s
e
u
r
b
a
n
i
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
b
n
g
s
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
o
p
e
m
d
e
b
l
o
c
k
u
i
l
d
i
Clutter Type
B
i
n
s

12.6.5 CW Measurement Graphs
You can produce a set of Graphs from the CW Measurement Data. To do this: From the CW
Measurements dialog, click on Graph. A dialog box will appear providing the option to generate
graphs on either Received Level vs. log (distance), Error vs. log (distance), or both.



Some examples of these graphs are presented next:
AIRCOM International

219 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User




220 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.7 Manual Calibration of the Std Macrocell Model

Having performed the initial recommended steps, you can proceed to perform a rough calibration of
the Standard Macrocell model by tweaking the K parameters of the model. Next, we present some
guidelines on how to do this:
The first
and what
dual-slope will be determ
ecays linearly with log(d) then a straightforward single-piece slope can be used. If however the plot
med in one of two ways:
egression straight line fit through the measured data.
2. Exporting the data and analysing in a spreadsheet application. This is a very flexible
method, allowing the user to manipulate and visualise the data in many ways. Using this
method it is possible to set the slope and intercept values manually, and consequently this
is the method to use when creating a dual slope model.
has already been demonstrated that the example survey data does not have an even distribution of
surements with distance, meaning that an accurate slope value can be very difficult to determine.
addition, because there is not enough data close to the site tuning a dual slope model is not possible.
In this instance Method 2 was used to determine the slope and intercept values.
The next figure shows a spreadsheet scatter chart of the received signal level with respect to distance,
rough which have been drawn two slopes. The orange slope was determined using the regression
straight line fit (Common Slope Algorithm) in MS Excel and also ASSET3G. This produces a very
w slope value of 26.48 dB/dec. This is a good example of why the results of a straight-line fit should
not be taken and used without further thought. In this example the few data points close to and far
om the site have biased the straight-line fit algorithm and resulted in a much shallower slope than the
bulk of data exhibits.
The second (pink) line was determined using a manual iterative process of visually setting a K1 and
2 value to place a line through the data in Excel and then using the CW Measurement analysis
function in ASSET3G to assess the resulting error. In this way a best fit slope (K2) of 38dB/dec (a
uch more normal slope value).
12.7.1 K1 and K2 (Intercept and Slope)
step in the process is to determine whether the model should be single or dual slope model
the intercept and slope values should be to describe the slope(s). The choice of single or
ined by the distribution of measured levels with log(d). If the signal level
d
shows a pronounced discontinuity with distance it may be appropriate to fit a two-piece straight line to
the data. Single-piece models are much simpler to calibrate than two-piece for the simple reason that
there are fewer parameters to set.
The first step in analysing the data can be perfor
1. Graphing the data using the ASSET3G Graph feature within the CW Measurements tool.
The advantage of this method is that it is quick and simple. The graph will show the
single-piece r
It
mea
In
th
lo
fr
K
m
AIRCOM International

221 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


The figure below shows a graph for the same survey data produced by ASSET3G. The different
coloured data points represent different clutter types as set in the 2D View.


With the K2 value now set, another analysis should be performed in order to calculate the mean error.
222 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

Mean Error Standard Deviation

In this example the mean error is 0.8, therefore the K1 value needs to be adjusted by the same
amount in order to lower the mean error to 0. This will also have an effect on the standard deviation.
hen the analysis report shows a positive mean error, it means the prediction model is pessimistic
hen compared to the CW data. Where a negative value is reported, the opposite applies. Therefore, at
is stage, K1=135.8. The analysis should now be run again to check that the mean error is 0. Adjust
gain if necessary.
12.7.2 K7 (Diffraction Parameter)
Diffraction effects occur only where there is no line of sight (LOS) from the site to the mobile.
Therefore, in order to determine the K7 parameter the survey data needs to be filtered to exclude the
LOS data. To achieve this, de-select the LOS checkbox in the Options Filter window.
Re-run the analysis and take note of the mean error figure, the K1 value should then be adjusted until
this figure is 0 before assessing whether the adjustment to K7 was successful or not.
12.7.3 K3 and K4
K3 and K4 relate to the mobile height and how it affects the pathloss. Since the MS height is normally
fixed (eg 1.5m) these two terms in the equation become constants. They only require calibration if you
employ a variable mobile height.
W
w
th
a
AIRCOM International

223 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

12.7.4 K5 and K6
K5 and K6 are very important parameters since they relate to the effective base station antenna height,
and how this affects the pathloss. These values are difficult to calibrate without gathering data at a
wide variety of base station heights. The default Hata values are K5=-13.82 and K6=-6.55. If
suffici h ne at a time) by an iterative process of
increm of the error is minimised.
nna Height Algorithm
There are four Effective Antenna Height Algorithms within ASSET3G, namely: Absolute, Average,
Relati d to different terrain and network characteristics. Each of the
algori SET3G Technical Reference.

lat or gently rolling terrain.
The Relative method works well in rolling-hilly terrain where the base station is normally
above the mobile.
n hilly and severely hilly areas where the other algorithms
consistently over-estimate the Heff.
hich the model is being tuned and if a low
e other algorithms to determine which gives
ss figure is calculated when multiple
knife-edges are detected along the terrain profile from base station to mobile.
thod is an iterative process. Select each in turn until the lowest error is
achieved.
If you find (by examining the path profiles using the profiling tool) that multiple knife-edges are being
predicted on the same hilltop and that this is resulting in excessive diffraction loss then setting a
Merge Knife Edges value can help to reduce this problem. Determine the merge distance by
examining the typical spacing of such knife edges with the path profiler.
ent data as been gathered then these can be calibrated (o
ental changes and reanalysis until the standard deviation
12.7.5 Effective Ante
ve and Slope methods. Each is suite
thms is described in detail in the AS
The Absolute method is not widely used in cellular networks but is in certain broadcast
systems.
The Average method works well in f
The Slope method works well i
Select the method best suited to the particular terrain for w
error cannot be obtained then experiment with each of th
best results.
12.7.6 Diffraction Algorithm
The diffraction algorithm determines how a total diffraction lo
Again, finding out the best me
224 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.7.7 Clutter Offset Calibration
The final step in the calibration process is to define clutter loss offsets to further improve the
correlation with the survey data. The Standard Macrocell model uses end-point clutter meaning that
the prediction calculates the pathloss from base station to mobile position and then adds a fixed clutter
loss offset to the result.
ASSET3Gs CW Analysis feature provides a clutter by clutter breakdown of the mean error of the
model against the survey data. These values relate directly to the required clutter loss offsets when
clutter and mobile heights are not used.
To calculate the clutter offsets analyse the data and take note of the Clutter summary section. The
mean error given for each clutter type should be entered in the models clutter offset window with the
opposite sign. When the analysis report shows a positive mean error, it means the prediction model is
pessimistic when compared to the CW data, therefore a negative value should be entered. Where a
negati
If clutter offsets alone do not produce sufficiently accurate prediction results it is possible to further
refine the model by introducing clutter and mobile heights which are then added to the terrain based
d much more
notice a performance reduction on the speed of
should only be used if necessary to obtain
ta.
ore there is no analytical method for calculating the clutter and mobile heights required a
rocess of experimentation must be adopted.
ve value is reported, the opposite applies.
on the clutter type. When these are applied the model must use a different (an
computationally intensive) algorithm and you will
predictions. For this reason clutter/mobile heights
sufficiently accurate results against the measured da
Furtherm
p

AIRCOM International

225 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

If you ey handle through-clutter loss and through-loss
distan ll model 1. Each clutter category may be given
an associated through-clutter loss (dB/km). The total through-clutter loss for a prediction point, is
lying within a distance d
through
from the mobile station contribute to the total through-clutter loss
ss distance). This diagram shows d
th ugh
:
re using Standard Macrocell models 2 and 3, th
ce differently as compared to Standard Macroce
calculated by examining the clutter lying between the base station and the mobile station. Only points
(where d
through
is referred to as the through-lo

ro



When calculating the total through-clutter loss, the individual through-clutter losses are weighted so
that the clutter nearest the mobile station has the highest effect. The weighting is linear with a
maximum weight of 1 (at the mobile station) and a minimum weight of zero (for clutter at distances
>= d
through
).


12.8 Performing Auto Tuning with Modelcal

ASSET 3G has an automatic tuning utility called Modelcal. In order to tune your model parameters
automatically, follow the next recommendations:
odel parameters. Do no
d the Asset3G user reference guide.
2. Archive your data before proceeding, if you have made changes to a standard Macrocell
model and wish to retain these changes before tuning model parameters.
calibration.

1. Start the process with some sensible defaults for the m
parameters at zero. For some recommended values, rea
t leave all the K
The following sections describe the functions that you can perform when using automatic
226 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.8.1 Tuning Model Parameters Automatically

To auto tune model parameters with Modelcal:

1. Ensure you have set up the model as appropriate.
2. From the Tools menu, click CW Measurements.
3. Select your survey data, then specify the model which you want to compare against and the
map data resolution you want to use.
4. Click Autotune. A CW analysis is performed and finally Modelcal, the automatic calibration
utility, appears.
5. In the Optimiser Parameters pane, select the criteria that defines when the optimisation will
r a value in
the Max Iterations box.
ndard deviation is no longer improving by a
certain amount between iterations, enter a value in the Conv Accuracy box.

ns is met, whichever occurs first.
rs
you do not want to tune.
7. From the Tools menu, click Auto Tune. The optimisation runs. When finished, the resulting
tuned parameters and performance statistics are displayed. If you are satisfied with your model
roceed and apply the tuned parameters to your propagation

ctions, you can:
Make a parameter change manually and view its effect on the model performance. To do this,
Reset your analysis reloading all the propagation model data and clearing model configuration
set Analysis.
stop:
To end your calibration after a set number of optimisation iterations, ente
To end your calibration when the sta
The optimisation will end when either of these conditio

6. If you only want to tune certain parameters, select the Fix check boxes next to the paramete
parameter corrections you can p
model in ASSET3g.
If you are not satisfied with your model parameter corre
Re-tune by repeating steps 3 to 5.
enter the new parameter value and from the Modelcal Tools menu, click Apply Deltas.
values. To do this, from the File menu, click Re
AIRCOM International

227 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

12.8.2 Applying Tuned Parameters to a Propagation Model

To apply tuned parameters to a propagation model in ASSET3g:

2. In Modelcal, from the Tools menu click Apply New Parameters.


You can view and configure the parameters to further optimise your propagation
model
View initial mean values: In Modelcal, from the Clutter menu click View Initial Mean Errors. This
set
t
meters: In Modelcal, from the Clutter menu click View/Set Through Clutter
Params. This shows through-clutter parameters after optimisation.
To re-tune using only certain parameters, select the Fix check boxes next to the parameters
you do not want to tune.

12.9 Extracting CW data from another Database

Extrac further enhances your ability to produce accurate propagation
models by adding live drive test signal strength data to the measurement analysis process. Using this
featur E drive test data can be extracted from a data source and
loaded le. The following sections describe the functions that you
To
dialog box, click on Extract>
On the Measurement Extraction dialog, enter the relevant Data Source

1. Ensure you are satisfied with the standard deviation of the error between the propagation
model and the Carrier Wave survey data.
12.8.3 Viewing and Configuring a Model's Clutter Parameters
models clutter
s accuracy. You can choose to:
displays the mean clutter errors for each clutter class, measured from the initial model parameters
before auto-tuning.
Clutter offsets: In Modelcal, from the Clutter menu click View Clutter Offsets. This shows endpoin
clutter offsets after auto-tuning.
Through clutter para
Note:
ting signal strength survey data
e, both GSM and UMTS scanner or U
directly into the CW analysis modu
can perform when extracting signal strength survey data.
You can extract CW data from an ENTERPRISEs RANOPT database or from any other database.
do this, from the Tools CW Measurements
first tab of the RANOPT CW
as well as User Id and Password to connect to it. If the ODBC connection is not already setup, you can
define one by clicking on Setup>> and following the ODBC connection wizard.
228 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning



SQL extraction as well as
notepad following the
guidelines outlined on the Asset3g Users Guide. A sample query is shown here:

On the Script tab you need to specify the start and end datetime of your
the script date format. The Script is an SQL query that has been saved into a

Once you save a similar query on a notepad, you need to point enterprise to it on the Script pane.
You need also to specify the technology of the CW data. At the bottom of the dialog box, you need to
specify the Output Directory where the files generated by the script will be stored.
AIRCOM International

229 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The last step consists on selecting Cells for extraction. By selecting cells for CW measurement data
extraction, you can configure the measurement extraction process to identify cells present and active
along
On this tab you basically have 3 options. You can:
by selecting a filter present in your project.
Select cells present in a filter and displayed in the Map view window, by clicking on the 2D
view.
In the Maxim from a drive test bin that cells
the drive test route.
Select a single cell for analysis, by enetering the cell Id.
Select cells present in a filter for analysis,
um Cell Range box, enter the maximum distance away
will be considered for CW measurement extraction.


Finally, click on Generate, and CW files with measurements corresponding to the selected cells and
configured script data will be generated and are ready to be analysed.


230 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.1 Generating Measurement-based path 0 loss files

Asset3g enables you to load your own drive test data and use this data to generate measurement-based
pathlo
1. h when generating
measurement-based pathloss files, the selection of a prediction model is not relevant.
lick the Generate button. This will generate a set of measurement-based pathloss files,
which contain the co-ordinates of the measurement-based pathloss data and the
measurement-based pathloss values. These files are automatically saved into the directories
already designated for the project's normal pathloss prediction files.

You can use the generated measurement-based files to influence the normal pathloss predictions that
entage weightings that
Settings - CW
Measurements on the Asset3g Users Guide.
hese weightings will be invoked when you use the Pathloss Prediction Manager (or one of the
ed methods) to create pathloss predictions. For more information, see Creating Coverage







ss files. To do this:
Load the files in the normal way, as explained earlier, althoug
2. C
you create in Asset3g. The amount of influence they have depends on the perc
you specify in the Array Settings dialog box. For more information on this, see Array
T
associat
(Pathloss) Predictions.






AIRCOM International

231 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

12.11 Comparison of Model Performance

The performance of the example model calibrated on this manual can be seen from the following
table. In addition, the non-calibrated model has been included as a benchmark.

Model Mean Error RMS Error Standard Deviation
Calibrated 0 8.4 8.4
Non-calibrated -0.6 10.8 10.8

Another important indicator of the model performance is the error distribution; the following
histogram shows this for the calibrated and non-calibrated models.
Model Error Distribution
-1000

0
1000
-48-44-40-36-32-28-24-20-1
20
3000
4000
5000
6000
6-12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Error (dB)
N
u

o
f

B
i
n
s
00
m
b
e
r
Calibrated Non-Calibrated

the non-calibrated model was over-predicting (ie biased to the
negative error values) when compared to the measured data. The new calibrated model is much more
centrally positioned with the peak very close to the ideal zero error. The curve of the new model is
also ta ow on average.
It can be seen from the graph that
ller, narr er and more symetrical showing that the errors are smaller

232 (291) AIRCOM International

Macrocell Model Tuning

12.12 ession Summary Check S list E
essment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
this Session:
TERPRISE Standard Macrocell model F
A review of the map and CW data requirem model tuning F
F
F
This checklist has been provided as a self-ass
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in
Introduction to the EN
ents for
The Calibration Process
Introduction to the Auto Tune utility
Additional Notes:














AIRCOM International

233 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

13 Generating Reports
13.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn how to generate various reports with ASSET3G and how to export
project a
1 .
number of report generation tools (some of which we have already seen earlier
acilities we have
t
The S e range
of dat text file
dat to a printer or plotter.
3 2 Introduction
ASSET3G includes a
in the course) as well as printing/plotting facilities. This section covers the reporting f
no yet examined and the printing facilities.
13.3 Site Reporter
ite Reporter allows the user to select a wid
a fields from the Site Database and create a

report on these fields. To launch the Site Reporter, from
the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Reports
Site/Node Report
234 (291) AIRCOM International

Generating Reports

S in the report by selecting the relevant check-boxes.
As with most features in ASSET3G it is possible to generate a report for a specific group of sites by
specifying a Filter from the list-box at the top of the window.
Finally choose either the hierarchy or flat option before clicking on the Generate button to create
and view the resulting report:
Hierarchy Flat
imply choose the fields you want included
13.4 Frequency Plan Reporter
T ncy Pla quency plan.
T is facil
Menu and select
F e

he Freque n Report will generate a report based on the current fre
o access th ity go to the ENTERPRISE Main
Tools
requency Pan R

Frequency Planning
porter

AIRCOM International

235 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

As with the Site Reporter simply select the fields you want included in the report by clicking on the
relevant check-boxes. Again it is possible to generate a report for a specific group of sites by
specifying a Filter from the combo-box at the top of the window.
Click on the Generate to view the resulting report.
13.5 GSM Cell Info Report
The GSM Cell Info report is different in operation to the Site and Frequency Plan Report generators.
This report feature can be accessed from the
ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting Reports
GSM Cell Info Report

The set up for this feature is the same as that for the Cell Info display feature. There are two facilities
pro
1. Searching for cells with Co- or Adjacent channels to the target cell.
2. Searching for cells with specific carriers assigned.
Search by Cell Identity:
Searching by Cell Identity makes it possible to enter a Cell name in the Cell Identity field and
indicate whether to search for other cells with co-channel allocations or adjacent channels.
Cells matching these criteria will be displayed in the lower pane of the window together with any cell
parameters selected under the Cell Parameter tab.
For example, here we have carried out a search for all cells with adjacent channels to those assigned to
Site0A (channels 84and 21 are assigned to Site0A).
vided by this feature:
236 (291) AIRCOM International

Generating Reports


In this example we also have selected BSIC and LAC for

display from the Cell Parameters tab by entering an asterisk
* in the appropriate box, e.g.:

The number of sites considered in the search may be limited through the use of filters.
Simply move to the Filter tab and select the appropriate
filter from the drop down list.


AIRCOM International

237 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Search by Carrier:
With the Search by Carrier option, it is possible to find all cells using specified carriers.
e
arrier number can be entered.
Clicking on the Find button retrieves the information
from the database and displays it in the bottom pane.

A wildcard asterisk * can be used to display all the carriers on the filter of cells selected or as in th
example below a single c
Note: Multiple carriers can be entered separated by a comma.

The resulting information can be saved to a te
button.
xt file for future reference by clicking on the Export
d.
ting
Database Delta Report.
A warning may appear if there are a large number of differences with choices available to continue or
halt the report generation process.
A message may also appear if there are no differences.
13.6 Delta Report
The Delta Report lists all changes which you have applied to the database, but not yet committe
These changes are therefore not visible to other users.
This is a useful feature which can be accessed through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selec


238 (291) AIRCOM International

Generating Reports

Once the Diff database tables have been successfully nalysed the report will appear, as shown below: a

The left pane displays the item ID, together with its Type and Record State(Update, Insertion,
formation relating to the fields associated with the element selected.
ASSET3G makes use of the standard Windows printer and plotter drivers and as such printing and
plotting is very much like any other Windows application.
By default the print function will print all of the items currently shown in the 2D View with the same
colours and other properties (i.e. What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get). At present though all plots are
square, and if the view you are plotting is not square then the print will print the extra area required to
make the plot square.
Deletion). The window can be expanded (as shown above) by clicking on the Click>> button to
reveal additional in
13.7 Printing/Plotting
AIRCOM International

239 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The printing options can be accessed through the 2D Map View window File
Menu:


13.7.1 Print Setup
13.7.1.1 Printer and Page Layout
The Page Set-up button provides access to the Windows printer selection and paper layout set-ups.
Here you can specify the page orientation, size, source and margins. These settings default to those
assigned by the Windows printer driver.
13.7.1.2 Legend and Title
Having activated the Print Title and Logo window, enter the various pieces of text information that
you want to appear within the Title and Comments fields. You can specify a custom logo by
clicking the Select button and then specifying a Windows Bitmap (.bmp) file containing the logo
image.

If you need to plot to a specified scale (e.g. if you are plotting on transparency in order to overlay
le
display the map grid in the 2D View and plot this as well in order
to simplify registration of a transparency overlay with the paper map.
Provides an on screen preview of what the final plot will look like.
coverage information onto paper maps) then select the Print to Scale check-box and enter the sca
you require. It can often be useful to
13.7.2 Print Preview
240 (291) AIRCOM International

Generating Reports

AIRCOM International

241 (291)

13.7.3 Print
Allows the printer, its properties, and the number of copies to be set. Once satisfied with the settings,
printing can commence with the currently defined print legend and options.
13.7.4 Print Area
Used to select an area in the 2D View for printing, by enclosing the required area in a user-definable
box. The print preview window is immediately launched after its selection.


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

13.8 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:

Successfully generate a Site Report for a specific group of sites F
Effectively use the search functionality of the Cell Info reporter F
Use the Delta report facility to view non-committed changes to the database F
Know the location of the buttons used for printing and plotting in ASSET3G F

session.
Additional Notes:










242 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

14 Planning GSM Data Services
14.1 Objectives of this session
In this session you will learn about the planning functionality within ASSET3G for GSM Data
Services.
14.2 Introduction
The evolution of GSM towards 3G Systems is described in the diagram below:


The main driving force behind this evolution is the requirement for increased data rates. The 2.5
Generation technologies covered within this session are:
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
EGPRS: Extended General Packet Radio Service (using EDGE technology)

AIRCOM International

243 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

14.3 GPRS Overview
GPRS, General Packet Radio Services, is an extension to GSM that allows more efficient packet data
transfer compared to traditional GSM data services. The principle is that a user can be constantly
connected to the network without occupying any radio resources (frequency, time slots) until a data
packet has to be transferred.
When a packet is to be transferred, a temporary channel is assigned to the user; after completed
transfer, the channel is quickly released again.
GPRS allows many users to share the same timeslot, and also allows a single user to use more than
one time slot. It uses an error detection and retransmission scheme to ensure that data packets are
correctly delivered to the receiver.
Within this session we will look at the stages in the GPRS Capacity process. The following diagram
gives an overview of the GPRS Planning process: -

14.3.1 Defining the Targets of the GPRS Service
The aim of this phase is to identify the existing sites and new sites where GPRS is to be enabled and
get some idea of the required modifications that you need to make to the existing network before you
can implement the desired GPRS Service.
244 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

In a dimensioning tool, decide:
- What kind of data services will be provided?
- Where the service is required?
14.3.2 Updating the Plan with Actual Network Data
The information from the current frequency plan is needed when planning for GPRS networks.
Therefore, before you continue, you must update the plan to meet the actual networks site/cell
structure, element identity, neighbours and frequency information.
14.3.3 Defining Data Service Settings
To initialise the GPRS service, you need to:
a) Set GPRS Channel Coding Schemes
b) Define the timeslot distribution
c) Set Occupancy Table
14.3.3.1 Set GPRS Channel Coding Schemes
From the Configuration menu, point to Lookup Tables and Curves and click GPRS CCS
To set GPRS Channel Coding Schemes:





AIRCOM International

245 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

The following window will then appear: -

By default the table is populated with values, which can be edited by highlighting and re-typing.
-or-
In the C/I(dB) column, define the C/I, for example between 0 and 30 dB and in the coding scheme
(throughput) column define the x axis values, for example between 0 and 15 kb/s.
Note: The C/I versus data rate values are dependent on the nature of the network, for example, how
fast the mobiles are expected to move, whether RF hopping is used in the GPRS cells, and so on.
Tune the suggested default values based on that network information.
You can then:
Click the Show Graph button to see a plot of C/I against data rate per timeslot.
Edit a value by clicking it and changing it.
Click the Remove All button to delete all the values in the columns.
Note: If you select a row with data in it, except the last row, you can then click the Add Row button
to add another row.
Click the Commit button to save the scheme to the permanent database tables.
Repeat the above steps to add a further coding scheme up to a maximum of four.
Coding schemes are optimised, that is, the best one is chosen. The data contained within these tables
can be scaled for any number of timeslots, that is, the data rate for three timeslots is three times the
data rate for one timeslot for a given C/I.
246 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

14.3.3.2 Defining Timeslot Distribution
Use the Channel to Transceiver mapping tables to define timeslot distribution. These mapping tables
enable ed to provide a required number of traffic channels.
You n nd Packet Switched control channels as well as the
amount of dedicated GPRS traffic channels.
ivers
e name for the map. Click the OK button to continue.
The following message will now appear: -

you to specify how many carriers are need
eed to set the amount of Circuit Switched a
To set up a channel to transceiver map for GPRS, from the Configuration menu, go to Lookup
Tables and Curves and click on Channels to Transce
Within the Channel to Transceiver Setup window, click on the Add Map button and enter an
appropriat

As this map will be for GPRS, click on the Yes button.
The following window will now appear:

Within the blank GPRS Channel to Transceiver Setup window enter the number of traffic channels
that can be supported per carrier (e.g. 8), in the box labelled Default Number of Channels Per
Click on the Add Transceiver button, which will populate your blank setup window with default
figures.
To change the information in the table, select the row, and click the Edit Map button.
Transceiver and click on the Apply button.
AIRCOM International

247 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


The columns within the Channel to Transceiver Set-up window refer to the following information:
TRX: Number of available carriers
No: Total number of available channels for both control and traffic
NGPRSCT s dedicated only
D: Maximum number of channels that may be used by HSCSD
NCS: Number of circuit switched traffic channels
Having entered the relevant figures, click the OK button to close the GPRS Map Editor window.
Click on the Apply button in the Channel to Transceiver Set-up window to save your changes.
14.3.3.3 Set the Occupancy Table
Channel Occupancy is used to estimate the efficiency with which GPRS data packets can be packed
into the available timeslots. This is most useful in GPRS when you come close to using full network
capacity. The greater the number of available timeslots means the better the efficiency with which
GPRS data packets can be packed.
he Occupancy Table, from the Configuration menu point to Lookup Tables and Curves and
then select Timeslot Occupancy
NGPRS: Number of channels dedicated only for GPRS traffic
NCTRL: Number of control channels shared for GSM and GPRS use
RL: Number of channel for GPRS control
NHSCS
To set t
248 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services


Populate the columns with default values by clicking on the Set to Defaults button.
Note: If you want to populate columns with your own values, click the Remove Graph button to
remove the default values and then click on the Add Graph button to add an empty column. Manuall
add values, using between 0 and 100 in the Occupancy column, where 100 means full capacity.
i dd Row button and add another row.
C e values, clicking on the Commit button to save the
inform
Occupancy table with default values Occupancy Graph of default values
y
You can edit any value by clicking on it and then changing it. When you have selected a row with data
n it, except the last row, you can click on the A
lick on the Show Graph button to see a plot of th
ation to the database.



AIRCOM International

249 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

14.3.4 Cell Layers
In the Cell Layer window we can either define a different cell layer for GPRS or we can use the
existing GSM cell layer. For the purpose of this training course we will keep the existing GSM cell
layer. Under the Configuration tab select Layers Cell Layers...
In the Cell Layer Configuration er. Under the Coverage
T hannel to Transceiver Map created earlier.
Click on the Apply button followed by the Commit button.
window highlight the relevant GSM cell lay
ype tab, using the drop down menu, select the GPRS C

14.3.5 Setting Cell Parameters
In ENTERPRISE, GPRS information is stored on the Cell Layer level. The subcell is considered to
RS tab.
Click on the (E)GPRS tab.
Select the Enable GPRS check box and choose at least one supported Channel Coding
Scheme and set the Total GPRS + EGPRS Traffic in Kbit/s.
provide GPRS service when you have selected the Enable GPRS check box on the (E)GP
To do this:
Select the required GSM cell layer (subcell) in the Site Database window.

250 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services


Note: One Coding Scheme must always be selected, so if you want to change to another Coding
Scheme, select it then deselect the first check box.
If the unchecked the tool ignores NGPRSCTRL in the channel map.
n be
Dedicated PBCCH check box is
This means that the time slots that have been reserved for GPRS control will become available for
circuit switched traffic.
Note: If all cells within one filter support the same coding schemes the above configuration ca
done using the Global Edit facility.

AIRCOM International

251 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

14.4 Calculating and Analysing the GPRS Service Area
The definition of cell-specific GPRS service areas follows the normal coverage planning process, that
is:
From the Tools menu, point to Pathloss Predictor which will run the prediction tool to calculate
Coverage Predictions.
Choose to calculate the Best Server (GPRS/EGPRS) array to visualise on the map the service areas of
the cells where GPRS is enabled.
Display the array in the Map View Window.
14.5 Defining Terminal Types using Data Service
For the Traffic and Capacity planning process, and estimate of the GPRS te inal distribution is
required as well as an idea of the services and data rate demand of the term als.
rm
in
To define the GPRS Terminal Types, from the Configuration menu, click Terminal Types

In the Terminal Types dialogue box, click on the Add button to create a new terminal type. Select th
newly created Te
e
rminal Type and change its name, under the General tab.
252 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services


Select the switching type from Circuit Switched (default setting) to GPRS.
On the Clutter, Vectors and Polygons tabs, define how the terminal type is distributed over the Map
View.

Click on the Cell Layers tab and move the appropriate cell layer from the Available column to the
Selected column.
AIRCOM International

253 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


On the GPRS/EGPRS tab choose the mean busy hour capacity (kb/s) of the terminal.

Note: This figure should include any overhead related to the characteristics of the device, for
example average packet size, TCP/IP protocol and so on, up to a limit of 9999.999. This is an estimate
of the traffic going through in a busy hour, per terminal type.
Also enter the maximum number of timeslots supported by the terminal (dependent on the class of
handset - theoretically up to 8 but realistically up to 4).
254 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

Click on the Apply button, followed by the Commit button for other users to see your newly created
GPRS Terminal Type.

14.6 Distributing Terminals and Creating Traffic Arrays
Open a Map View (2D View) window showing the sired area. From the Array
Traffic Traffic Array Wizard
To distribute the desired terminal type:
de s Menu, point to

Within the first screen of the Traffic Array Wizard choose the desired view for the traffic raster
wizard to use.

Either leave the default figures, which were calculated on initial project creation (Map data extents), or
click the Select View button, which will calculate the co-ordinates of the current view. Click the
Next> button to continue.
The second screen of the wizard allows you to select one or more terminal types from the list. For each
terminal type selected, a separate traffic array is created.
AIRCOM International

255 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


Note: If you wish to spread traffic to polygons and use the clutter weights you will define, ensure
the check box at the bottom of the window is selected.
Click the Next> button to continue.
raster is shown.
Choose the required resolution for the raster. The memory required to create the selected resolution of

Note: If you wish to restrict the traffic spread to GPRS Best Server coverage then the resolution
must be set the same.
area with either CS Circuit Switched or GPRS -
ate box(s).
Click the Next> button to continue.
Choose whether to restrict the traffic spread over an
Packet Switched coverage by selecting the appropri
256 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services


Note: If this option is unavailable, either the resolution selected for the traffic raster is different
from that used in the coverage prediction, or there is no coverage array in memory.
Click the Next> button to continue.
Specify the expected Circuit Switched traffic in Erlangs, HSCSD Traffic in Erlangs and expected
GPRS Traffic in number of GPRS Terminals.

Click the Next> button to continue.
If Polygon Attributes are going to be used for spreading the traffic, select the terminal type and
appropriate polygon attribute.

AIRCOM International

257 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

Click the Next> button to
The last screen of the Traffic Raster wizard allows you to store the Traffic Raster as a file for future
reloading.
continue.

Click on the Finish button.
The Traffic Raster can now be viewed within the 2D Map View window by selecting the Terminal
Type name from the Traffic category of the Show Data Types list:


Note: The display properties of the Traffic Raster can be changed by double clicking with the left
mouse button on the Terminal Type name.
258 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

14.6.1 Calculating the GPRS Data Rate, Average Data Rate and Service
Area Data Rate
The GPRS data rate is calculated as the date rate per one timeslot for each pixel. This calculation is
capacity independent.
To produce a GPRS Data Rate array, from the Arrays Menu, point to Coverage/Interference
Coverage/Interference Wizard or click on the Create arrays button in the Map View (2D
View) window, then select Non Sim.

In the Create Coverage/Interference window select the GPRS Data rate array option, clicking on the
OK button to produce the array.

When D by
select ouse
button on the GPRS Data Rate category, the display properties can be modified.
the GPRS ata Rate array has been created you can choose to display it on the 2D View
ing GPRS Data Rate from the Show Data Types list. By double clicking with the left m
AIRCOM International

259 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User



The average data rates per timeslot and service area data rate can also be visualised by selecting the
categories in the Show Data Types menu. The Map Information bar can also be used to aid the
visualisation of GPRS associated information.
When you calculate the data rate array, the average data rate for each subcell array is simultaneously
calculated.
14.6.2 Capturing Cell Traffic and Calculating the required Capacity
Note: Because Traffic Analysis uses the average data rate values, you must calculate the GPRS
ata rate array before performing Traffic analysis. The average data rate for each subcell is
RS Capacity Planning, from the Tools menu, point to Static Traffic Analysis

d
calculated at the same time.
To start GP

Once traffic arrays have been created, click Capture Traffic to collect the traffic information per map
pixel in the cells service area.
260 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services


A report showing the Captured GPRS traffic is produced:

If the traffic amount is acceptable, apply it on to the subcells by clicking on the Traffic button.
The Capacity Estimation Algorithm requires GoS criteria for each service type. Set the Quality of
ervice Acceptable blocking probability to speech, and the minimum data rate requirement for GPRS.
lick the Analyse button, which also produces a report.
As a result of the capacity calculation, the report th is produced shows statistics of the current TRX
configuration, QoS level and the required TRX am
S
C
at
ount.

AIRCOM International

261 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

If you are satisfied with the results click on the Apply Carriers Required on SubCells button.
hat is, frequency planning and analysis and plan tuning. Coding schemes 1 and 2 provide
relative low data rates and are not considered ng non-GPRS
planning, you may want to check the requirements
and tune the e areas.
14.6.3 Complete the Radio Network Plan
After capacity planning, the GPRS planning process follows the normal radio network planning
process, t
to cause extra interference to neighbouri
cells. As planning is an iterative process, for GPRS
plan again if there appears to be too much interference in som
262 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

14.7 Exercise: GP
An Exercise appropriate to the specific needs of the delegates will be provided.



RS Planning
AIRCOM International

263 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

14.8 EGPRS Overview
E , an llows for higher bitrates by employing EDGE technology at the
air interface. This is accomplished by using an enhanced modulation technique (8 Phase Shift Keying
i of G m Shift Keying).
T ges anning process are very similar to those within the GPRS
Process.
14.8.1 Defining the EGPRS Service Targets
The first phase of planning the existing sites and new sites where EGPRS is enabled to
g e id fications needed before implementing the desired EGPRS service.
In a dimen following questions should be answered:
at k ovided?
re
14.8.2 Updating the Plan with actual Network Data
The information from Plan is needed when planning for EGPRS Networks.
Therefore, before you continue, you must update the plan to meet the actual networks site/cell
structure, element identity, frequency and neighbour information. This is also important for the
EGPRS plan implementation back to the network.
To do this, use the appropriate File Import option in ENTERPRISE.
14.8.3 Defining Data Service Settings
To initialise the EGPRS service, you need to:
- Set EGPRS Channel Coding Schemes
- Define the timeslot distribution
- Set the Occupancy Table
14.8.3.1 Set EGPRS Modulation/Coding Schemes
The EGPRS Calculation algorithm is an extension of the GPRS algorithm. As in GPRS the user has to
specify the available Link adaptation families, and therefore MCS codes, that the base station
GPRS extension to GPRS that a
nstead SMs Gaussian Minimu
he sta involved in the EGPRS Pl
is to identify
ea of the required modi et som
sioning tool, the
Wh ind of data services will be pr
Whe will the service be required?
the current Frequency
264 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

supports. The MCS codes are organised in Link adaptation families and one or more of these can be
selected. Individual MCS codes cannot be included.
ASSET3G supports three link adaptation families (A, B and C) and a user can select one of them, two
of them or all of th families can be assigned to different subcells.
T t EGPRS Mo ng the ENTERPRSISE Main Menu select
Configuration Lookup Tables and Curves EGPRS MCS
em. A different set of
o se dulation/Coding Schemes usi

Within the EGPR dow you can
populate the tables efaults button.
EGPR EGPRS Default Figure displayed as a graph
S Average Data Throughput per TS vs Average Connection C/I win
with default values by clicking on the Set to D
S Default Figures


: Having po
wish.
-
I ) colu
d the x axis va
If the default value based on your networks information.
Note pulated the tables with default values you can then edit these values should you
or-
n the C/I(dB mn, define the C/I, for example between 0 and 30 dB and in the MCS code column
efine lues.
s have been chosen, tune these figures
AIRCOM International

265 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

B king on the hroughput(Kb/s) can be viewed.
T ues within t he value and to save the Scheme
t atabase clic
14.8.3.2 De
Use the Channel to
through the ENTER tion Lookup Tables and Curves
Channels to Transceivers
Within the Channel to Transceiver Setup window click on the Add Map button. You will then be
p d to give th
y clic
he val
Show Graph button a Plot of C/I(dB) against T
he columns can be edited by simply clicking on t
o the d k on the Commit button.
fining Timeslot Distribution
Transceiver mapping tables to define timeslot distribution. These can be accessed
PRISE Main Menu by selecting Configura
rompte e Channel to Transceiver Map a name:

Having given the M
ill now be a
dedicated GPRS channels. As this map is for a
Switched s
ap a suitable name (as shown above), click on the OK button.
You w sked if you wish to specify

ystem (EGPRS), select Yes. Packet
You should now be faced with a blank Channel to Transceiver Setup window:

These mapping tables enable you to specify how may carriers are needed to provide a required number
of traffic channels. tched and Packet Switched control
channels as well as the amount of dedicated Packet (GPRS) traffic channels.
You need to set the amount of Circuit Swi
266 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

I box labelled
c ls that can b
Select the Add T
ank set-up w res:
n the
hanne
Default Number of Channels per Transceiver enter the default number of traffic
e supported per carrier (e.g. 8) and click on the Apply button.
ransceiver button to populate
the bl indow with default figu

To change the info
You can then spec
ap Edit
rmation contained in the table, select a row and click on the Edit Map button.
ify the following information in the

GPRS M or window:
Click on the OK b PRS Map Editor window and within the Channel to
Transceiver Setup e Apply button to save the changes to the database.
14.8.3.3 Set the Occupancy Table
Channel Occupancy is used to estimate the efficiency with which data packets can be packed into the
a le timeslots se to using full network capacity.
T r the num
packed.
The Occupancy Ta
Configuration L Curves Timeslot Occupancy
A h previous ta ulate the columns with default values by clicking on the Set to
Defaults button. Clicking on the Show Graph button will allow you to see a plot of the values, as
s
utton to close the G
window click on th
vailab . This is very useful when you come clo
he greate ber of available timeslots the better the efficiency with which data packets can be
ble can be found through the ENTERPRISE Main Menu by selecting
ookup Tables and
s wit bles, you can pop
hown:
AIRCOM International

267 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User


If you want to populate th button to
r ve the default on the Add Graph button to add an blank column. You can
then manually add values ( 0) into the Occupancy column, where 100 denotes full
occupancy.
O nished click ave the information to the database.
.8.4
Within the Cell Layer Configuration window we can either define a different cell layer for EGPRS or
we can use the exis
through the ENTER Configuration Layers Cell Layers
Within the Cell Lay ow, highlight an existing Cell Layer, or click on the Add
button to add a specific cell layer for EGPRS.
e columns with your own values, click on the Remove Graph
emo values and then click
between 0 and 10
on the Commit button to s nce fi
14 Cell Layers
ting GSM Cell Layer. The Cell Layer Configuration window can be accessed
PRISE Main Menu by selecting
er Configuration wind
268 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

Under the Gener
be given an appropriate name:
al tab this Cell Layer can then

Within the Coverage Type tab of the Cell Layer Configuration window use the drop down menu to
select the Channel ated: to Transceiver Map previously cre

W the Carrier Layer and define the
Coverage Schema Threshold values under the Coverage Thresholds tab. Click on the Apply button
followed by the C the database.
ithin Layers tab select the carrier layers to be used on the Cell
ommit button to save the changes to
AIRCOM International

269 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

14.8.5
I ERPRISE, subcell is considered to
provide an EGPRS able GPRS and the Enable EGPRS
c oxes within e window:
Setting Cell Parameters
n ENT EGPRS information is stored on the Cell Layer Level. The
service when you have selected the En
the (E)GPRS tab of the Site Databas heck-b

above check-boxes the following options are available for selection w Having selected the ithin the

Dedicated PBCCH hould be selected to instruct the software that
box is unselected the tool ignores NGPRSCTL in the
eslots have been
reserved for GPRS control so these timeslots are
available for CS traffic.
4): Choose at least one supported Channel Coding Scheme.
Ada
(A,B,C):
Total value of the Packet Switched Traffic (Kbit/s)
served by subcell. This value can be set manually for
each subcell or set automatically during the Traffic
fic - % of (E) S
ic that is using 8PSK modulation, and therefore the
.
Note: If all cells within one filter support the same coding schemes the above configuration can be
done using the Global Edit facility.
(E)GPRS tab:
: This box s
another BCCH timeslot for Packet Data control is being
used.
If this
channel map this means that no tim
GPRS Coding Schemes (CCS 1,2,3,
EGPRS Link ptation Families At least one Link Adaptation Family should be selected.
Traffic Total GPRS + EGPRS:
Analysis process.
Traf GPRS 8-PSK: This value is an estimate of the percentage of EGPR
traff
lower power output
270 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services


tion scheme puts new requirements on the The EDGE modula linearity of the power amplifier: as
apposed to GMSK,
Network Operators it in a base station cabinet
designed for standard transceivers and al ance is acceptable in terms
of both transmit sp ssipation.
T ve the abo
a transmit po
(APD) could be between 2 and 5 dB.
T3G the APD value can be entered on the
ayer Level
tab:

8-PSK does not have a constant envelope.
have stipulated that EDGE-capable transceivers must f
so that EDGE transceiver perform
ectrum and heat di
o achie
verage
ve requirements a typical high-power EDGE transceiver might need to reduce its
wer when transmitting 8-PSK. Compared to GMSK, the average power decrease
Within ASSE
Cell L of each subcell under the Antenna/TRX
all cells al Edit
facility, under the
14.8.6 Calculating and Analysing the EGPRS Service Area
The definition of cell-specific EGPRS service areas
Note: If within one filter have the same APD value it can be set using the Glob
2.5G tab.
follows the normal coverage planning process.
AIRCOM International

271 (291)


ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

To calculate Cove
ENTERPRISE M
Pathloss Predictor or click on the Predictor
rage Predictions, from the
ain Menu select Tools

button ( ) from the ENTERPRISE Toolbar.

Having run the Predictor tool go to the ENTERPRISE Main Menu and select Arrays Coverage/
I ence Co r select the Create Coverage array button ( nterfer verage/Interference Wizard o )
f ENTERPR S is
enabled; remember
This is done by sele erver (GPRS/EGPRS) option:
rom the ISE Toolbar, to visualise on the map the service areas of the cells where EGPR
ing to select the Non Sim option when prompted.
cting the Best S

You can then display the array in the 2D Map View window.
14.8.7 Defining Terminal Types using Data Service
For the Traffic and Capacity Planning process, an estimate of the EGPRS terminal distribution is
required as well as an idea of the services and data rate demand of the terminals.
To define an EGPRS Terminal Type go to the ENTERPRISE Main Menu and select Configuration
Terminal Types
272 (291) AIRCOM International

Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

273 (291)

Within the Terminal Types window, click on the Add button. Within the General tab of this
window change the terminal type name so something more appropriate:

Also within the General tab ensure that the Packet Switched (GPRS) option is selected and the
EGPRS check-box is ticked.
Within the Clutter, Vectors and Polygon tabs, define how the terminal type is to be distributed over the
2D Map View (i.e. Weight or Density with associated values per Clutter category).

Within the Cell Layer tab link the Terminal type to one or more layers by moving the chosen Cell
Layer from the Available pane to the Selected pane using the > button.

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

274 (291) AIRCOM International




>
Within the GPRS/EGPRS tab, enter the Mean busy hour capacity (kb/s) of the terminal (e.g. 2
kb/s). This figure being an estimate of the traffic going through in a busy hour, per terminal type.
Also enter the maximum number of timeslots supported by the terminal (theoretically up to 8 but
realistically up to 4).

Click on the Apply button followed by the Commit button to save the terminal type to the database.
Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

275 (291)

14.8.8 Distributing Terminals and Creating Traffic Arrays
Having opened a 2D Map View window display the desired area together with sites and suitable map
data.
From the ENTERPRISE Main Menu select Tools Traffic Traffic Array Wizard
Within the First screen of the Traffic Raster wizard select the appropriate 2D Map View window
and/or view. Click on the Next> button to progress.
In the Second wizard screen choose one or more Terminal Types from the list. For each Terminal
Type you select, a separate traffic array is created:

Note: If you wish to spread traffic that you have applied to polygons by clutter type, ensure this
check-box is selected E.
Click the Next> to continue through the wizard.
Within the next screen of the wizard a desired resolution is chosen, using the drop down menu. The
memory required to create the resolution chosen is shown. Generally speaking, the less pixels used,
the faster the process will be. Click on the Next> button.
You can have the opportunity to spread traffic
just over the area with coverage, by selecting the
appropriate check-box:


Note: If this option is not available one reason would be that the resolution chosen in the previous
screen is not the same resolution used for the Coverage Prediction.

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

276 (291) AIRCOM International

Click on the Next> button to progress through the wizard.
In the Traffic Terminals screen specify the expected packet traffic in number of Terminals:

Progress to the last screen using the Next> button. On the Final wizard screen click on the Finish
button to create the Traffic Raster.
The Traffic Raster can then be viewed in the 2D Map
View window, by selecting the Terminal Type from
the Show Data Types list under the Traffic category:


By double clicking on the Terminal Type name, within the Show Data Types list, its display
properties can be altered:


Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

277 (291)

14.8.9 Calculating the EGPRS Data Rate, Average Data Rate and
Service Area Data Rate
The EGPRS data rate is data rate per one timeslot per one pixel and it is capacity independent.
The EGPRS Data Rate array can be created by going to the ENTERPRISE Main Menu and selecting
Arrays Coverage/ Interference Coverage/Interference Wizard or alternatively, by selecting
the Create Arrays button ( ) from the ENTERPRISE Toolbar. After selecting Non Sim the
appropriate box can then be selected within the Create Coverage/Interference window:

When you have created the EGPRS data rate array, you can choose to display it on the 2D Map View
window by selecting the EGPRS Data rate option within the Coverage category of the Show Data
Types list:

Having calculated the data rate array, the average data rate for each timeslot array is simultaneously
calculated.

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

278 (291) AIRCOM International


Service Area EGPRS Data Rate shows a data rate for the current number of allocated TRXs. A Low
value indicates to the radio planner that more than enough TRXs have been allocated and a Big value
would indicate an insufficient number of TRXs.
14.8.10 Capturing Cell Traffic and Calculating Required Capacity
Note: Because Traffic Analysis uses the average data rate values, you must calculate the EGPRS
Data rate array before performing Traffic Analysis. The Average data rate for each subcell is
calculated at the same time.
To commence Capacity Planning go to the ENTERPRISE Main Menu and select Tools Static
Traffic Analysis
Within the Traffic Analysis window click on the Capture button within the Traffic pane of the
window:

This will collect the traffic information per map pixel in the cell service area and produce a report in
Microsoft Excel:
Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

279 (291)


If the traffic amount is acceptable, apply it to the subcells cells by clicking on the Traffic button
within the Apply on to subcells pane of the window:


The traffic figures (shown in the report) can now be viewed on the subcells within the Site Database
window:

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

280 (291) AIRCOM International


The Capacity Estimation Algorithm requires GoS criteria for each service type. Set blocking
probability to speech (Erlang B) as well as the traffic per customer figure.
Click on the Analyse button to produce a report (in Microsoft Excel) presenting statistics of the
current TRX configuration, QoS level and the required TRX amount.
If you are satisfied with the results click on the Apply Carriers Required on Subcells button.
14.8.11 Complete the Radio Network Plan
After capacity planning, the EGPRS planning process follows the normal radio network planning
process, that is, frequency planning and analysis and planned tuning.



Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

281 (291)

14.9 Session Summary Checklist E
This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the beginning of the
session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:
Gain an overall understanding of the 2.5G GSM Data Services F
Understand the terms HSCSD, ECSD, GPRS, EGPRS F
Appreciate the functionality within ASSET3G to plan the following GSM Data Services:

HSCD Planning F
ECSD Planning F
GPRS Planning F
EGPRS Planning F

Correctly configure ASSET3G to plan a Network employing GPRS F

U Additional Notes:









ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

282 (291) AIRCOM International

Glossary of GSM Related Terms

UThe GSM Architecture


A GSM network is made up of three subsystems:

1. The Mobile Station (MS)
2. The Base Station Sub-system (BSS) comprising of a BSC and several BTSs
3. The Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS) comprising of an MSC and associated registers

Several interfaces are defined between different parts of the system:

A interface between MSC and BSC
Abis interface between BSC and BTS
UM air interface between the BTS (antenna) and the MS


Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

283 (291)

UGSM Abbreviations:

MSC Mobile Switching Centre
BSS Base Station Sub-system
BSC Base Station Controller
BTS Base Transceiver Station
HLR Home Location Register
VLR Visitor Location Register
TRX Transceiver
AuC Authentication Centre
MS Mobile Station
EIR Equipment Identity Register
OMC Operations and Maintenance Centre
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network



U

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

284 (291) AIRCOM International

General Glossary:
A3 Authentication algorithm
A5 Ciphering algorithm
A8 Ciphering key computation
A Interface between MSC and BSC
Abis Interface between BSC and BTS
ACK Acknowledgement protocol
ADM Adaptive delta modulation
ADPCM Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A technique for dramatically increasing the data
rates available on copper wiring
AMPS Analogue Mobile Phone System. The US analogue cellular standard
ARFCN Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
ARQ Automatic Repeat re-Quest
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AuC Authentication Centre. The part of the GSM system responsible for authenticating the
mobiles and providing ciphering keys
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel. A GSM logical control channel providing information to
the mobile as to the channel configuration in the cell
BER Bit error rate
BP Burst Period. The duration of a single burst, when one mobile transmits, within the
GSM framing structure
BS Base Station. The part of the radio system which transmits the signal to the mobile
BSC Base Station Controller. The part of the GSM system responsible for controlling the
base stations.
BSS Base Station Sub-system. The combination of the BTS and BSC.
BSSMAP BSS Management Part. The protocol used for BSS management on the Abis interface
BT Bandwidth-Time product. A means of measuring the amount of filtering applied to the
pulse during the modulation process
Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

285 (291)

BTS Base Transceiver Station. Another name for BS
CAI Common air interface as in CT2 standard
CC Call Control. The protocol layer within GSM responsible for overall control of the call
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access. The use of different codes to allow users to access the
same frequency spectrum at the same time
CELP Code-excited linear prediction, vocoder
CEPT European Committee for Post and Telecommunications. The European body
responsible for radio spectrum management
COST Co-operation in Science and Technology programme (Europe)
COST231 COST committee dealing with future mobile system
CT-0 the original analogue VHF/LF cordless phone technology as used in UK, France and
elsewhere
CT-1 Cordless Telephone Generation One 900MHz analogue FM cordless technology
standardised by CEPT.
CT-2 Cordless Telephone Generation 2. An early UK digital cordless standard
CT-3 early Swedish (Ericsson) digital cordless standard
CTM cordless terminal mobility an application concept and an ETSI project

DCS Digital cellular system (e.g. DCS1800).

DECT Digital European Cordless Telephone. The European cordless telephone standard
Downlink transmission path from radio fixed part to portable part
Duplex simultaneous two-way conversation
DTAP Direct Transfer Application Part. The protocol used on the Abis interface to
distinguish between messages for mobiles and for BTSs.
DTX Discontinuous transmission
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. Method of increasing data
rates in GSM by using 8PSK modulation
8PSK Eight Phase Shift Keying. Modulation techniques encoding 3 bits to each symbol

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

286 (291) AIRCOM International

EIR Equipment Identity Register. Part of the GSM system responsible for
keeping details of the mobile units and their status
ETR ETSI technical report
ETS ETSI technical standard
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel. A logical channel used for sending emergency
information to the mobile by suppressing traffic information.
FCCH Frequency Control Channel. A logical control channel within GSM used to allow the
mobile to lock onto the transmitted signal
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access. The division of the radio frequency into narrow
slots, each one being given to a different user
FEC forward error correction
FH Frequency Hopping. Changing rapidly from frequency to frequency to avoid
problematic propagation effects.
FPLMTS Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications Service. The US name
for third generation radio systems
FSK frequency-shift keying
FT fixed termination
GAP generic access profile of DECT
GFSK Gaussian-filtered FSK modulation
GIP GSM inter-working profile of DECT
G-MSC Gateway Mobile Switching Centre. The part of the GSM system providing the link
into the PSTN
GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying. The modulation technique used in GSM, a form of
phase modulation
GoS grade of service
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile communications (Group Special Mobile)
Handoff procedure whereby communications between a mobile handset and a base station
is automatically routed via an alternative base station when necessary to maintain
Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

287 (291)

or improve communications
Handover another term for handoff
HLR Home Location Register. The part of the GSM system responsible for holding
records about mobiles and for keeping track of the MSC area in which they are
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data. 2.5 G enhancement to GSM giving higher
data rates
IAP ISDN access profile for DECT
ISI Inter-Symbol Interference. A radio propagation effect whereby echoes of received
signals cause previous symbols transmitted to interference with current symbols
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity. The GSM number given to each mobile
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity. The phone numbering system used
within GSM
IMT2000 International Mobile Telecommunications system for the year 2000
IN Intelligent Network
IP Internet Protocol, a layer 3 network protocol
IS54 US digital AMPS standard
IS95 US CDMA digital cellular standard
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network. A protocol for sending digital information
over copper landlines
ITU International Telecommunications Union. The international body responsible for
spectrum management
IWP inter-working profile
IWU inter-working unit
LA Location Area
LAC Location Area Code
LAI Location Area Identity
LAPD Link Access Protocol on interface D. Part of the ISDN protocol stack also used in
GSM
LEO Low Earth Orbiting satellites. (e.g. the Iridium system a communications network
based on up to 66 satellites providing world wide coverage)

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

288 (291) AIRCOM International

LLME Lower layer management entity (DECT)
LNA low noise amplifier
LOS Line-Of-Sight
LPC Linear Predictive Coding
MAC Medium Access Control. The means whereby mobiles access radio channels
which are not permanently reserved for their own particular use
MAP Mobile Application Part. Part of the SS7 protocol dealing with mobile services
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Centre. The part of the GSM system responsible for switching
calls
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Number. The numbering system
used to contact GSM mobiles from other networks
MSK minimum shift keying modulation
MTP Message Transfer Part. Part of the SS7 protocol stack
NADC North American Digital Cellular
NCC National Colour Code
NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone system. The Nordic analogue cellular standard
O&M operations and maintenance
OAM operations, administration and maintenance
OMC Operations and Maintenance Centre. The part of the GSM system responsible for
monitoring network functionality
PABX private automatic branch exchange
PAGCH Paging and Access Grant Channel. A GSM logical control channel providing
paging information and allowing mobiles to make access attempts
PBX same as PABX
PCM Pulse Code Modulation. A simple form of speech coding
PCN personal communications network
PCS1900 Personal Communications System at 1900 MHz. A variant of GSM working at
Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

289 (291)

1900MHz designed for the US.
PDC Personal Digital Cellular. The Japanese cellular standard
PHL physical layer lowest protocol layer
PHS Personal Handiphone System. The Japanese cordless telephone standard
PLMN Public land mobile network.
PMR Private Mobile Radio. A radio system owned by the users, typically large
companies
POTS plain old telephone service
PP portable part
PSK phase shift keying modulation
PSTN public switched telephone network
PT portable termination
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. A form of modulation whereby orthogonal
carriers are used to gain the maximum information from the channel
Quantisation process of representing samples of an analogue waveform by the nearest whole
number of predefined voltage steps
RACH Random Access Channel. A GSM logical control channel used for making uplink
access attempts
RAP radio access profile for DECT
RAN Radio Access Network
RFP radio fixed part
RIL Radio Interface Layer. The protocol within GSM responsible for maintenance of
the radio interface
RLAN radio local area network
RLL radio local loop
RPE-LTP regular pulse excitation long term predictor speech coder user in GSM
RR Radio Resource. The protocol layer within GSM responsible for providing a
service over the air interface
RSSI received signal strength indication

ASSET3G for GSM-GPRS Tool User

290 (291) AIRCOM International

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel. A logical channel used alongside a traffic
channel to send signalling information to and from the mobile
SCCH Synchronisation Control Channel. A GSM logical control channel providing
synchronisation to the mobile
SCCP Signalling Control and Connection Part. Part of the SS7 protocol stack
SID Silence Descriptor
SIM Subscriber Identity Module. A small card within GSM mobiles which contains the
subscriber identity
Simplex one-way communication
SMS Short Message Service. A feature within GSM whereby messages of up to 160
characters can be transmitted to mobiles
SMS-SC SMS Service Centre. The part of the GSM system which handles short messages
SRES Signed Result . Produced by authentication algorithm
TA Timing Advance
TACS Total Access Communications System. The UK (and other European countries)
analogue cellular standard
TBR technical basis for regulation ETSI standards
TCH Traffic Channel. The channel used in GSM to send subscriber information
TCAP Transaction Capability Application Part. Part of the SS7 protocol stack
TDD time division duplex
TDM time division multiplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access. A system where users access all the frequency
but only for a limited time
TETRA Trans-European Trunked Radio. The European digital PMR standard
TMN Telecommunications Management Network. The concept of managing the
network from a single point using a networked operations and maintenance
system
TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. A GSM number given to the mobile
during an encrypted call to prevent eavesdroppers being able to located the mobile
TRAU Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit
TRX Transmit/Receiver module. The GSM term for a single carrier card within a BTS
Planning GSM Data Services

AIRCOM International

291 (291)

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service. One name for the third generation
mobile radio system
Uplink communications path from portable part to fixed part
UPT Universal Personal Telecommunications. The fixed network equivalent of third
generation systems.
VAD Voice Activity Detection
VLR Visitors Location Register. The part of the GSM system responsible for keeping
track of a mobiles position to the nearest location area
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal. A satellite communication system based on dishes
around 1m across
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WLL Wireless Local Loop. The use of radio to replace copper wiring as a means of
connecting the home to the PSTN
WPABX wireless PABX
WPBX wireless PBX
WRC World Radio Conference. The bi-annual international conferences to determine
the use of the radio spectrum
WRS wireless relay station