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Ch 14: Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800


Portugal and Spain very wealthy late 1500s Later Dutch, England, and France Expansion factor in transition from agrarian economy to commercial and industrial capitalistic system

The Motives for Expansion Before contact with non-European nations was limited Literature encouraged travel when it described that other worlds had precious stones and Christian kingdoms Muslim control of Central Asia cut trade between Europe and the far east, Europeans hoped to find new places to trade and precious stones and more direct paths to the spice islands of the east During the time of the reformation, people also hoped to travel to convert previously unknown areas to their religion.

The Means for Expansion God, Glory, and Gold Portolani-charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians, didnt show curvature of earth: not helpful for long journeys. Ptolemys Geography-2nd century astronomer who created map of earth, miscalculated circumference of earth: led Columbus to think of travelling across Atlantic Ocean to get to India. Translated 15th cent., 3 land masses: 2 oceans Europe mastered the use of axial rudders and lateen sails and square rigs: allows to sail against wind Better understanding of wind patterns of Atlantic sea


Portugal first to begin exploration Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)-wanted to extend Christianity, find Christian kingdoms to combat Muslims, and find trade opportunities

The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire 1419- Prince Henry of Portugal creates school for navigators Portuguese ships explore southern Africa for gold

They find gold on southern coast of Africa; they trade (slaves, gold, and ivory) with them, lease land, and set up forts The Portuguese in India Bartholomeu Dias first to round Cape of Good Hope, but not to India Vasco da Gama- Round the Cape and made it to port of Calicut in India Portuguese returned to destroy Arabic ships and create monopoly in spice trade 1509- Portuguese create blockade in Red Sea to stop muslim traders Afonso de Albuquerque- set up port facilities in Goa (became headquarters for Portugal) and caused raids against Arabic ships

In Search of Spices Portuguese seized Malacca (a thriving port and major stopping point on spice trade) to destroy Arab spice trade and way station for Portuguese on their way to spice islands Portuguese went to China and spice islands and made an agreement for proprietary trade However, Portuguese didnt have the power, population, or desire to colonize these new Asian regions The reason they were able to keep back others from stopping them was their gradual change to more and more weaponry on their ships

Voyages to the New World Spanish try to get to spice trade by going west

Voyage of Columbus Cabot England Cabral Portugal Vespucci America Balboa Pacific Magellan circumnavigation Christopher Columbus- Italian who convinced Queen Isabella to finance his trip Three ships: Santa Maria, Nina, and Pinta Unknowingly found Americas

New Voyages Referred to as New World Treaty of Tordesillas- divided newly found areas into Spanish and Portuguese spheres of influence

The Spanish Empire in the New World

Privately financed Conquistadors - God, gold & glory had weapons, organizational skills, determination, and rivalries among natives Early civilizations in Mesoamerica were the Mayans in the Yucatan Peninsula sophisticated, Aztecs - Mexico had loose political control provinces

Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire Cortes brought disease & weapons to Aztecs, took it over, and controlled northern Mexico Pizarro took over Incas in Peru and also brought disease leads to civil war and new Spanish colony

*Administration of the Spanish Empire Policy Confusion, paternalism, exploitation Encomienda-tribute from natives Forced labor, starvation, & disease killed 30 - 40% Bartolome de Las Casas Encomienda system stopped Viceroy System Absolute Rights over church affairs Organized Catholicism Inquisition

New Rivals on the World Stage Portugal & Spain were 1st to explore in the 15th century 17th century Dutch, French & English (colonial empires) begin to explore which impact Africa, Asia, & Americas

*Africa: the Slave Trade Dutch took over Port. Forts Dutch East India Company Cape of Good Hope Boers Immediate impact Coastal Africans Thousands, millions slaves Americas & cane sugar Increase in slaves Brazil & Caribbean

Growth in the Slave Trade 275,000 16th century Over a million 17th century 6 million 18th century (West, Central & East Africa) 2 million 19th century (banned) 10 million to Americas (16th-19th) High numbers of slaves Death rate trip, diseases Demand increased Interior Africans Local rulers & African merchants

*Effects of the Slave Trade Economic Importing cheap manufactured goods Destroyed local industries, caused poverty, depopulated Africa Political More slaves led to more warfare & violence Civilizations, religious faith destroyed Criticism Quakers, French Rev., GB US continued trade

*The West in Southeast Asia Portugal to weak and small to keep Asian empire Spain Philippines-major base (silk & luxury goods Dutch & English Better financed Dutch drove out Portuguese spice trade Spice Islands (Indonesia)

*Dutch East India Company Coastal ports Mainland Southeast Asia Little impact from Europeans Strong monarchies (Burma, Thailand, & Vietnam) Cohesive & less profitable resources

*The French & British in India Mughal rule

Impact of the Western Powers GB & Dutch competing w/ Port. & then each other GB more trade French competed w/GB GB Dominance Robert Clive East India Company mo control over territory Collect taxes Forced French to leave (7 Years War)

*China Portugal in China 1st Ming dynasty great Replaced by Qing (Manchu) dynasty Declining, more European contact Great Britain Tea & silk East India Company Qing restricted trade Not satisfied w/ limitations

Japan Began opening to the West Portugal Jesuits Japanese use European goods Missionaries stopped & persecuted Merchants kicked out Dutch only (not religious)

*The Americas Portugal takes over Brazil Spanish owns South American empire Commercial power becomes less as silver declines Dutch, Great Britain, & French try to take control of The West Indies Tobacco, cotton, & sugar are in demand 1000s of slaves profitable are poorly treated North America Dutch New Netherlands British Jamestown Religious & economic interests Massachusetts

13 colonies North America British Colonies provided raw materials for mother country and colonies had to buy manufactured goods French Canada Run autocratically Economics Thinly populated Treaty of Utrecht give land to GB 7 years war give Canada to GB GB & French rivalry Spain & Portugal Spain tried to limit trade GB in Brazils trade French in Latin American market GB asiento slaves in Spanish lands

Toward a World Economy Economic Conditions in 16th Century Inflation happens across Europe Food becomes high in price Results in Wages falling, Aristocrats prospering Investment & growth of capitalism Governments begin to borrow heavily More taxes lead to more discontent and revolts Influx of precious metals and increase in population- more demand for land and food caused the inflation

The Growth of Commercial Capitalism 16th century- Med., Low countries & Baltic, and central Europe-biggest trade centers Overseas trade - Atlantic seaboard is important which integrates all of Europe in 1 market New forms of commercial organization like Joint-stock trading company which makes it easier to raise money New industries such as Shipbuilding, Mining & metallurgy, Banks tied to business & monarchies House of Fugger and other family banks - not as effective and begin to fall Bank of Amsterdam which is city owned Amsterdam Exchange is created - trading of stocks Most of European econ. remained agrarian and 80% worked land peasants no improvement, higher rents, fees & taxes


17th century-economic activity war (GB, French & Dutch) Nations prosperity- (bullion) gold & silver More exports than imports Mercantilism- Protect industries, encourage investments, bring in foreign experts, & improving transportation system High tariffs on foreign goods encourage buying Colonies produced raw materials Overseas Trade & Colonies: Movement Toward Globalization 17th century- Transatlantic brought value resources and the trade within Europe was strong, but there was a shift to overseas The Age of Exploration created a global economy and created worldwide European dominance and the spread of Western Civilization Led to a New World: New economy, New Ideas, New race of people, European colonies