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Data Communication & Computer Networks MCA – II Semester III  This book has precise
Data Communication &
Computer Networks
MCA – II Semester III
 This book has precise contents.
 All topics are covered with some extra knowledge.
Mee Aahe

Data Communication & Computer Networks

Chapter 1. Introduction to Networking

A network is a set of equipments (often referred as data terminal equipment /

DTE, or simply terminals or nodes

can be either guided/unguided media. DTE equipment can be a computer, printer or

any device capable of sending and/or receiving data generated by other nodes on the network.

) connected by a communication channel, which

A

computer

computers.

network

is

an

interconnected

collection

of

autonomous

Why networking?

- Sharing of hardware Computer hardware resources, Disks, Printers

- Sharing of software Multiple single user licenses are more expensive than multi-user license. Easy maintenance of software

- Sharing of information Several individuals can interact with each other Working in groups can be formed

- Communication e-mail, internet telephony, audio conferencing, video conferencing

- Scalability Individual subsystems can be created and combine it into a main system to enhance the overall performance.

- Distributed systems In a networked environment computers can distribute the work load among themselves keeping transparency to the end user

The goals of a computer network include:

Resource sharing: programs (O.S., applications), data, equipment (printers, disks) are available to all users of the network regardless of location.

High reliability: By replicating files on different machines and having spare cpus, users are more immune from hardware/software failure.

Less cost: Small machines have about 1/10 the power of a mainframe but 1/1000

the cost. By using such machines with file server machine(s), a local area network

LAN can be cheaply installed. It is easy to increase the capacity by adding new machines.

Communications medium: Users have access to email and the Internet Data communications has an ancient history, as people have always had an interest in communicating with each other. Different methods have been used and

with each other. Different methods have been used and Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
with each other. Different methods have been used and Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

associated with each method are various advantages and disadvantages. A major problem with communications is ensuring that the receiver gets the message sent by the transmitter.

In every form of communication there are common elements:

1. transmitter (sender, source)

2. receiver (destination)

3. message to be communicated

4. medium (how message is carried)

Examples of medium:

Medium

Problem (Noise)

Smoke signals

Fog, Darkness

Tomtom drum

Thunder

Pony express

Bandits

Carrier pigeon

Hunter

Post

Strike, Loss

Telegraph

Broken wires

Telephone

Electrical

Computer

Cable Electrical

Anything that interferes with the message is technically called Noise.

Entire data communication system revolves around three fundamental concepts. :-

Destiny: The system should transmit the message to the correct intended destination. The destination can be another user or another computer.

Reliability: The system should deliver the data to the destiny faithfully. Any unwanted signals (noise) added along with the original data may play havoc!

Fast: The system should transmit the data as fast as possible within the technological constraints. In case of audio and video data they must be received in the same order as they are produced without adding any significant delays.

Hardware Architecture :

User: There will be a source that generates the message and a transducer that converts the message into an electrical signal. The source can be a person in front of a microphone or a computer itself sending a file. The user terminal is known as data terminal equipment (DTE).

Transmitter: Can be a radio frequency modulator combining the signal coming out of the data equipment terminal. Here the radio frequency is acting as the carrier for the data signal. Or in case of direct digital transmission the transmitter can be Manchester encoder transmitting digital signals directly.

can be Manchester encoder transmitting digital signals directly. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 3
can be Manchester encoder transmitting digital signals directly. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 3

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Communication channel: Can be guided media (twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber optic.,) or unguided media (air, water .,). In both the cases communication is in the form of electromagnetic waves. With guided media the electromagnetic waves are guided along a physical path. Unguided media also called wireless the transmitting electromagnetic waves are not guided along with a physical path. They are radiated through air/vacuum/water., etc.

Receiver: The receiver amplifies the received signals removes any unwanted signals (noise) introduced by the communication channel during propagation of the signal and feeds to the destiny.

Destiny: The user at the other end finally receives the message through the data terminal equipment stationed at the other side.

the data terminal equipment stationed at the other side. Fig (b) shows a typical dial-up network
the data terminal equipment stationed at the other side. Fig (b) shows a typical dial-up network

Fig (b) shows a typical dial-up network setup. The data communication equipment (DCE) at the transmitting end converts the digital signals into audio tones (modulation) so that the voice grade telephone lines can be used as guided media during transmission. At the far end the receiving audio tones, they are converted back to digital signals (Demodulation) by the data communication equipment (DCE) and fed to the far end data terminal equipment (DTE).

Types of communication :- Based on the requirements, the communications can be of different

types:

Simplex communication: In simplex communication, communication is possible only in one direction. There is one sender and one receiver; the sender and receiver cannot change roles.

Half-duplex communication: Half-duplex communication is possible in both directions between two entities (computers or persons), but one at a time. A walkie- talkie uses this approach. The person who wants to talk presses a talk button on his handset to start talking, and the other persons handset will be in receive mode. When the sender finishes, he terminates it with an over message. The other person

finishes, he terminates it with an over message. The other person Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
finishes, he terminates it with an over message. The other person Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

can press the talk button and start talking. These types of systems require limited channel bandwidth, so they are low cost systems.

Full-duplex communication: In a full-duplex communication system, the two parties the caller and the called can communicate simultaneously, as in a telephone system. However, note that the communication system allows simultaneous transmission of data, but when two persons talk simultaneously, there is no effective communication! The ability of the communication system to transport data in both directions defines the system as full duplex.

data in both directions defines the system as full duplex. Topologies : are connected and how

Topologies :

are

connected and how the data flows from one device to another. There are two conventions while representing the topologies. The physical topology defines how the devices are physically wired. The logical topology defines how the data flows from one device to another.

The

topology

defines

how

the

devices

(computers,

printers

etc)

Broadly categorized into I) Bus II) Ring III) Star IV) Mesh

Broadly categorized into I) Bus II) Ring III) Star IV) Mesh Bus topology: In a bus

Bus topology:

In a bus topology all devices are connected to the transmission medium as backbone. There must be a terminator at each end of the bus to avoid signal reflections, which may distort the original signal. Signal is sent in both directions, but some buses are unidirectional. Good for small networks.

but some buses are unidirectional. Good for small networks. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
but some buses are unidirectional. Good for small networks. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Data Communication & Computer Networks The main problem with the bus topology is failure of the

The main problem with the bus topology is failure of the medium will seriously affect the whole network. Any small break in the media the signal will reflect back and cause errors. The whole network must be shutdown and repaired. In such situations it is difficult to troubleshoot and locate where the break in the cable is or which machine is causing the fault; when one device fails the rest of the LAN fails.

Ring Topology :

Ring topology was in the beginning of LAN area. In a ring topology, each system is connected to the next as shown in the following picture.

is connected to the next as shown in the following picture. Each device has a transceiver

Each device has a transceiver which behaves like a repeater which moves the signal around the ring; ideal for token passing access methods. In this topology signal degeneration is low; only the device that holds the token can transmit which reduces collisions. If you see its negative aspect it is difficult to locate a problem cable segment; expensive hardware.

Star topology :

In a star topology each station is connected to a central node. The central node can be either a hub or a switch. The star topology does not have the problem as seen in bus topology. The failure of a media does not affect the entire network. Other stations can continue to operate until the damaged segment is repaired.

can continue to operate until the damaged segment is repaired. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
can continue to operate until the damaged segment is repaired. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
can continue to operate until the damaged segment is repaired. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

The advantages are cabling is inexpensive, easy to wire, more reliable and easier to manage because of the use of hubs which allow defective cable segments to be routed around; locating and repairing bad cables is easier because of the concentrators; network growth is easier.

The disadvantages are all nodes receive the same signal therefore dividing bandwidth; Maximum computers are 1,024 on a LAN. Maximum UTP (Un shielded twisted pair) length is 100 meters; distance between computers is 2.5 meters.

This topology is the dominant physical topology today.

Mesh topology :

A mesh physical topology is when every device on the network is connected

to every device on the network; most commonly used in WAN configurations Helps find the quickest route on the network; provides redundancy. Very expensive and not easy to set up.

Hybrid topology :

A hybrid topology is a combination of any two or more network topologies in

such a way that the resulting network does not have one of the standard forms. For example, a tree network connected to a tree network is still a tree network, but two star networks connected together exhibit hybrid network topologies. A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected.

Media :

Analog Transmission:

Dominated the last 100 years and is here for a while yet. Network designers made use of the existing telephone network which was aimed at voice transmission. This is actually very poor for computer networking. For example 2 computers connected by a direct cable can achieve a data rate of up to 100 Mbps with very low error rate. Using phone lines, 56 Kbps is the maximum transmission speed with a relatively high error rate. It is approximately 10 orders of magnitude worse: the cost of bus ticket to town versus a moon landing is same order of magnitude.

Modems :

Phone lines deal with frequencies of 300 to 3000 Hz. A computer outputs a serial stream of bits (1’s, 0’s). A modem is a device that accepts such a bit stream and converts it to an analog signal, using modulation. It also performs the inverse conversion. Thus two computers can be connected using two modems and phone line.

Using a modem, a continuous signal (tone) is sent in the range 1000 to 2000 Hz. To transmit information, this carrier signal is modulated. Its amplitude, frequency, phase or a combination can be modulated .

Digital Transmission :

phase or a combination can be modulated . Digital Transmission : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
phase or a combination can be modulated . Digital Transmission : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Digital transmission takes place in the form of pulses representing bits (1’s and 0’s). This is the type of communication used internally in computers. The high- speed trunks linking central phone exchanges use digital transmission. It has a lower error rate than analog transmission. The local loop (from phone to exchange) is still analog. This must be converted at the exchange to digital. A device called a Codec (coder/decoder) does this. It samples the analog signal 8000 times per second and encodes the signal digitally by representing each sample as a binary number. The technique used is called Pulse Coded Modulation or PCM.

Transmission Techniques :

Copper wire

- Twisted Pair

- Coaxial Cable

Fibre optic

Twisted Pairs :

They are used by telephones for the local loop (connection between your home phone and the local telephone exchange). They carry electrical signals. A tp consists of two insulated copper wires (1mm diameter) twisted to reduce electrical interference.

Capacity: dependent on the distances involved but can be up to several Mbps over a few Kms. For example ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines offer speeds from 64Kbps to over 1 Mbps and have been available to home users for Internet access, for several years. More recently (2003), DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and in particular ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) lines are available to home users with speeds of 1.5 to 6 Mbps.

ISDN and ADSL both use digital transmission and so must use a digital line unlike the standard analog telephone line where a modem is used. You must install an ISDN card or an ADSL card into your PC to use an ISDN or ADSL line.

or an ADSL card into your PC to use an ISDN or ADSL line. Twisted Pairs

Twisted Pairs may be shielded (stp) or unshielded (utp) with the shielded having extra insulation. However, it is the rate of twisting (number of twists per inch) that is the most important characteristic. They are also classified into Category-5

characteristic. They are also classified into Category-5 Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 8
characteristic. They are also classified into Category-5 Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 8

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

(CAT-5) and Category-6 (CAT-6). CAT-5 can carry 10 or 100 Mbps (10/100Mbps) over short distances e.g. up to 100 metres approx.

This is the type of cable that is often used in building to connect PCs to a LAN. Usually, the CAT-5 cable connects to a device know as a hub which is less than 100 metres from each PC. There may be a hub for each floor/laboratory in a building.

CAT-6 cable operates at 100/1000Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) and is typically used to interconnect hubs. It is more expensive than CAT-5 cable. Large organisations frequently have a so-called "backbone" network that interconnects separate LANs in different buildings/rooms as in the diagram below. Over short distances CAT-6 cable may be used but optic fibre is also often used as it can cover longer distances.

fibre is also often used as it can cover longer distances. Coaxial (Coax) Cable : Carry

Coaxial (Coax) Cable :

Carry electrical signals. It consists of a copper core surrounded by 3 outer layers of insulation. It has a high bandwidth and good noise immunity. The original Ethernet standard was based on 10 Mbps coaxial cable. Ethernet is the most popular LAN standard and was developed at Rank Xerox (who also developed the mouse, laser printer and Graphical User Interface (GUI) software. Ethernet LANs can be based on tp, coax or optic fibre.

software. Ethernet LANs can be based on tp, coax or optic fibre. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash
software. Ethernet LANs can be based on tp, coax or optic fibre. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash
software. Ethernet LANs can be based on tp, coax or optic fibre. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Capacity : 10 to 100 Mbps for distances of up to 1 km. Frequently used in LANs but is being replaced by utp/stp in most LANs.

Optic Fibre :

Uses light to carry data and has a huge bandwidth. Very thin glass fibres used. To date capacity of 1000 Mbps over 1 km is feasible.

used. To date capacity of 1000 Mbps over 1 km is feasible. It is used in

It is used in WANs, LANs for interconnecting hubs and also for linking telephone exchanges. Excellent noise immunity as it does not suffer from electrical interference and is therefore suitable for harsh environments such as factory floor.

Although computing technology is rapidly advancing, it is not gaining ground nearly as fast as communication technology is. Fiber optics is one of the advances that has propelled communication technology into the future at high speeds. Communication over fiber optics requires a source (of light), a line (transmission medium = fiber), and a destination (to detect the light). The light stays within the fiber line because of the angle at which the light hits the surface of the fiber line. Instead of passing through the fiber's surface (like a window), the light bounces off of it (like a mirror). The light propagates down the fiber line because it continually reflects off the surface from the inside; the light never escapes the fiber line until the receiver detects it.

Like copper, fiber optics suffers problems when transmitting over a distance. Attenuation (a weakening of the power of a signal) occurs, as well as dispersion (the spreading out of light waves over a distance). The discovery of solitons has helped wipe out the problem of dispersion, though. A fiber cable is heavily insulated like coax, but it has several differences. The core of the cable is a glass strand, which is surrounded by a thick glass covering, which is then covered by plastic.

When compared to copper for its overall purposes, fiber wins because it is lighter, higher bandwidth, easier to install, harder to tap, and the signal stays stronger longer than in copper. The only drawback to fiber at this point in time is the lack of familiarity among the engineering community with the fiber technology compared to the copper.

Wireless Transmission :

Line of Sight: Infrared and Microwave Physical cables have a major problem if you have to cross private or public property where it may be difficult or very expensive to get permission, in addition to the costs of laying the cable. Using line of sight transmitters avoids this problem.

the cable. Using line of sight transmitters avoids this problem. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
the cable. Using line of sight transmitters avoids this problem. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Lasers can be used for wireless communication. It is a relatively low cost way to connect two buildings' LANs, but it has drawbacks. The laser is difficult to target on the destination's receiver because the beam is so small. Laser light also diffuses easily in poor atmospheric conditions, such as rain, fog, or intense heat.

Infrared light is used for close-range communication, such as remote controls, because it does not pass through objects well. This is also a plus because infrared communications in one room do not interfere with the infrared communications in another room. Infrared communication is more secure than other options, such as radio, but it cannot be used outside due to interference by the Sun.

Radio waves are easy to generate and are omnidirectional, but have low transmission rates. Also, depending on their frequency, radio waves either cannot travel very far, or are absorbed by the earth. In some cases, though, High Frequency (HF) waves are reflected back to earth by the Ionosphere (a layer of the atmosphere).

Microwaves can be used over long distances e.g. A 100m tower can transmit data for distances over 100 km. Cheaper than digging a trench. Relatively high speeds of 10 Mbps upwards are possible.

Microwave transmission is popular for its ability to travel in straight lines. A source can be directly focused on its destination without interfering with neighbouring transmissions. Because they travel in straight lines, though, the curvature of the earth can interfere with the microwave transmitters; the solution to this is the addition of repeaters in between the source and destination to redirect the data path. Microwaves are used for long distance communication (Microwave Communications, Inc.=MCI), cellular phones, garage door openers, and much more.

Satellite: operate in same fashion as microwaves where the satellite operates as a ‘Big microwave repeater in the sky’!! Satellite communication has a high bandwidth giving up 50 Mbps speeds and a given satellite may be able to have many "channels" at this speed.

Wireless: Radio LANs or wireless (Wi-Fi) LANs are becoming common in offices, universities, hotels, restaurants and airports. A wireless LAN enables users to connect to the Internet from a laptop computer with a wireless network card. In UCD, Commerce students use such laptops with wireless cards to connect to the college network, for course work and email.

Switching :

A mechanism for communicating by sharing resources.

Switching is the generic method for establishing a path for point-to-point communication in a network. It involves the nodes in the network utilizing their direct communication lines to other nodes so that a path is established in a piecewise fashion. Each node has the capability to ‘switch’ to a neighbouring node (i.e., a node to which it is directly connected) to further stretch the path until it is completed.

connected) to further stretch the path until it is completed. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
connected) to further stretch the path until it is completed. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

One of the most important functions of the network layer is to employ the switching capability of the nodes in order to route messages across the network. There are two basic methods of switching: circuit switching and packet switching.

When information has to go over a switch in the communications system, there are several choices of how to switch the information. A circuit could be set up, causing no delay between switches, but causing setup time. Message switching could be used; it involves sending an entire message from one switch to the next before forwarding is possible. And then there is packet switching, in which a message is cut into several smaller fixed-sized packets, thus reducing the wait time at each switch when compared to message switching.

Circuit switching: A method of communicating after allocating a circuit before communication begins.

In circuit switching, two communicating stations are connected by a dedicated communication path which consists of intermediate nodes in the network and the links that connect these nodes. What is significant about circuit switching is that the communication path remains intact for the duration of the connection, engaging the nodes and the links involved in the path for that period. (However, these nodes and links are typically capable of supporting many channels, so only a portion of their capacity is taken away by the circuit.)

a portion of their capacity is taken away by the circuit.) Circuit switching relies on dedicated

Circuit switching relies on dedicated equipment especially built for the purpose, and is the dominant form of switching in telephone networks. Its main advantage lies in its predictable behaviour: because it uses a dedicated circuit, it can offer a constant throughput with no noticeable delay in transfer of data. This property is important in telephone networks, where even a short delay in voice traffic can have disruptive effects.

Circuit switching’s main weakness is its inflexibility in dealing with computer oriented data. A circuit uses a fixed amount of bandwidth, regardless of whether it is used or not. In case of voice traffic, the bandwidth is usually well used because most of the time one of the two parties in a telephone conversation is speaking. However, computers behave differently; they tend to go through long silent periods followed by

they tend to go through long silent periods followed by Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
they tend to go through long silent periods followed by Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

a sudden burst of data transfer. This leads to significant underutilization of circuit bandwidth.

Another disadvantage of circuit switching is that the network is only capable of supporting a limited number of simultaneous circuits. When this limit is reached, the network blocks further attempts for connection until some of the existing circuits are released.

Packet switching: A method of communicating by dividing data into packets. Nodes (switches) perform communication processing in terms of individual packets without determining the route before communication begins.

Packet switching was designed to address the shortcomings of circuit switching in dealing with data communication. Unlike circuit switching where communication is continuous along a dedicated circuit, in packet switching, communication is discrete in form of packets. Each packet is of a limited size and can hold up to a certain number of octets of user data. Larger messages are broken into smaller chunks so that they can be fitted into packets. In addition to user data, each packet carries additional information (in form of a header) to enable the network to route it to its final destination.

A packet is handed over from node to node across the network. Each

receiving node temporarily stores the packet, until the next node is ready to receive

it, and then passes it onto the next node. This technique is called store-and-forward

and overcomes one of the limitations of circuit switching. A packet-switched network has a much higher capacity for accepting further connections. Additional connections are usually not blocked but simply slow down existing connections, because they increase the overall number of packets in the network and hence increase the delivery time of each packet.

the network and hence increase the delivery time of each packet. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
the network and hence increase the delivery time of each packet. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
the network and hence increase the delivery time of each packet. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Chapter 2. Common Network Architecture

Connection oriented N/Ws & Connectionless N/Ws :

In general, transport protocols can be characterized as being either connection-oriented or connectionless. Connection-oriented services must first establish a connection with the desired service before passing any data. A connectionless service can send the data without any need to establish a connection first. In general, connection-oriented services provide some level of delivery guarantee, whereas connectionless services do not.

Connection oriented N/Ws :

Connection-Oriented means that when devices communicate, they perform handshaking to set up an end-to-end connection. The handshaking process may be as simple as synchronization such as in the transport layer protocol TCP, or as complex as negotiating communications parameters as with a modem.

Connection-Oriented systems can only work in bi-directional communications environments. To negotiate a connection, both sides must be able to communicate with each other. This will not work in a unidirectional environment.

Requires a session connection (analogous to a phone call) be established before any data can be sent. This method is often called a "reliable" network service. It can guarantee that data will arrive in the same order. Connection-oriented services set up virtual links between end systems through a network.

Connection-oriented service involves three phases:

- connection establishment

- data transfer

- connection termination.

During connection establishment, the end nodes may reserve resources for the connection. The end nodes also may negotiate and establish certain criteria for the transfer, such as a window size used in TCP connections. This resource reservation is one of the things exploited in some denial of service (DOS) attacks. An attacking system will send many requests for establishing a connection but then will never complete the connection. The attacked computer is then left with resources allocated for many never-completed connections. Then, when an end node tries to complete an actual connection, there are not enough resources for the valid connection.

The data transfer phase occurs when the actual data is transmitted over the connection. During data transfer, most connection-oriented services will monitor for lost packets and handle resending them. The protocol is generally also responsible for putting the packets in the right sequence before passing the data up the protocol stack.

right sequence before passing the data up the protocol stack. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
right sequence before passing the data up the protocol stack. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

When

the

transfer

of

data is

complete, the

end

nodes

terminate

the

connection and release resources reserved for the connection.

Connection-oriented network services have more overhead than connectionless ones. Connection-oriented services must negotiate a connection, transfer data, and tear down the connection, whereas a connectionless transfer can simply send the data without the added overhead of creating and tearing down a connection. Each has its place in internetworks.

Connection – oriented services is modelled after the telephone system. To talk to someone, you pick up the phone, dial the number, talk & then hang up. Similarly, to users the connection – oriented network service, the service, the service user first establishes aspects of a connection is that it acts like a tube : the sender pushes object in at one end, & the receiver takes them out at the other end. In the most cases the order is preserved so that the bits arrive in the order they were sent.

In some cases when a connection is established, the sender, receiver & subnet conduct a negotiation about parameters to be used, such as maximum message size, quality of service required & other issues. Typically, one side makes a proposal & the other side can accept it, reject it, or make counter proposal.

Connectionless N/Ws :

Connectionless means that no effort is made to set up a dedicated end-to- end connection.

Connectionless communication is usually achieved by transmitting information in one direction, from source to destination without checking to see if the destination is still there, or if it is prepared to receive the information.

When there is little interference, and plenty of speed available, these systems work fine. In environments where there is difficulty transmitting to the destination, information may have to be re-transmitted several times before the complete message is received.

Walkie-talkies or Citizens Band radios are a good examples of connectionless communication. You speak into the mike, and the radio transmitter sends out your signal. If the person receiving you doesn't understand you, there's nothing his radio can do to correct things, the receiver must send you a message back to repeat your last message.

IP, UDP,

ICMP, DNS,

protocols in use on the Internet.

TFTP & SNMP are example of connectionless

Does not require a session connection between sender and receiver. The sender simply starts sending packets (called datagrams) to the destination. This service does not have the reliability of the connection-oriented method, but it is useful for periodic burst transfers. Neither system must maintain state information for

transfers. Neither system must maintain state information for Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 15
transfers. Neither system must maintain state information for Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 15

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

the systems that they send transmission to or receive transmission from. A connectionless network provides minimal services.

Connectionless service is modelled after the postal system. Each message carries the full destination address & each one is routed through the system independent of all the others. It is possible that the first one sent be delayed so that the second one arrives first.

Each service can be characterized by a quality of service. Some services are reliable in the sense that they never lose data. Usually, a reliable service is implemented by having the receiver acknowledge the receipt of each message so the sender is sure that it arrived.

The acknowledgement process introduces overhead & delays, which are often worth it but are sometimes undesirable.

A typical situation in which a reliable connection – oriented service is appropriate is file transfer. The owner of the file wants to be sure that all the bits arrive correctly & in the same order they were sent.

Very few file transfer customers would prefer a service that occasionally scrambles or loses a few bits, even if it is much faster.

Reliable connection – oriented service has two minor variations : message sequence & byte streams. In the former variant, the message boundaries are preserved. When a user logs into a remote servers, a byte stream from the users computers to the servers is all that is needed. Message boundaries are not relevant.

The convenience of not having to establish a connection to send one short message is desired, but reliability is essential. The acknowledged datagram service can be provided for these applications.

It is like sending a registered letter & requesting a return receipt. When the receipt comes letter was delivered to the intended party & not host along the way.

Still another service is the request – reply service. In this service the sender transmits a single datagram containing a request; the reply contains the answer.

Service

Example

Reliable Message Stream

Sequence of pages

Reliable Byte Stream

Remote Login

Unreliable Connection

Digitized voice

Unreliable Datagram

Electronic junk mail

Acknowledged Datagram

Registered mail

Request – reply

Database query

Connection – oriented NetworkRegistered mail Request – reply Database query Connectionless Network Figure :- Table of Six different

Connectionless Network– reply Database query Connection – oriented Network Figure :- Table of Six different types of

Figure :- Table of Six different types of services

Network Figure :- Table of Six different types of services Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
Network Figure :- Table of Six different types of services Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Connection-oriented methods may be implemented in the data link layers of the protocol stack and/or in the transport layers of the protocol stack, depending on the physical connections in place and the services required by the systems that are communicating. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented transport protocol, while UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless network protocol. Both operate over IP.

The physical, data link, and network layer protocols have been used to implement guaranteed data delivery. For example, X.25 packet-switching networks perform extensive error checking and packet acknowledgment because the services were originally implemented on poor-quality telephone connections.

Today, networks are more reliable. It is generally believed that the underlying network should do what it does best, which is deliver data bits as quickly as possible. Therefore, connection-oriented services are now primarily handled in the transport layer by end systems, not the network. This allows lower-layer networks to be optimized for speed.

LANs operate as connectionless systems. A computer attached to a network can start transmitting frames as soon as it has access to the network. It does not need to set up a connection with the destination system ahead of time. However, a transport-level protocol such as TCP may set up a connection-oriented session when necessary.

The Internet is one big connectionless packet network in which all packet deliveries are handled by IP. However, TCP adds connection-oriented services on top of IP. TCP provides all the upper-level connection-oriented session requirements to ensure that data is delivered properly. MPLS is a relatively new connection- oriented networking scheme for IP networks that sets up fast label-switched paths across routed or layer 2 networks.

A WAN service that uses the connection-oriented model is frame relay. The service provider sets up PVCs (permanent virtual circuits) through the network as required or requested by the customer. ATM is another networking technology that uses the connection-oriented virtual circuit approach.

Example of N/Ws :

Since the beginning of the networking, a war has been going on between the people who support connectionless subnets & the people who supports connection – oriented subnets.

P2P :

Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to- peer network of nodes.

They are said to form a peer-to- peer network of nodes. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
They are said to form a peer-to- peer network of nodes. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

P2P networking has generated tremendous interest worldwide among both Internet surfers and computer networking professionals. P2P software systems like Kazaa and Napster rank amongst the most popular software applications ever. Numerous businesses and Web sites have promoted "peer to peer" technology as the future of Internet networking.

"A type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. This differs from client/server architectures, in which some computers are dedicated to serving the others."

This definition captures the traditional meaning of peer to peer networking. Computers in a peer to peer network are typically situated physically near to each other and run similar networking protocols and software. Before home networking became popular, only small businesses and schools built peer to peer networks.

Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client– server model where only servers supply, and clients consume.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking is a fairly popular concept. Networks such as BitTorrent and eMule make it easy for people to find what they want and share what they have. The concept of sharing seems benign enough. If I have something you want and you have something I want, why shouldn't we share?

In its simplest form, a peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer. A P2P network can be an ad hoc connection—a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files.

A P2P network also can be a permanent infrastructure that links a half-dozen computers in a small office over copper wires. Or a P2P network can be a network on a much grander scale in which special protocols and applications set up direct relationships among users over the Internet.

On a P2P network, when a user wants a file, installed P2P software locates any copies of the file within the P2P network. It then allows the user to create multiple connections with several sources that have all or part of the requested file.

As parts of the file are received, they are also uploaded to other users that are requesting that file. This protocol of matching several sources to a request makes for an efficient download scheme.

P2P technology is legal, but sharing copyrighted materials is not. Some websites that archive illegal P2P files have been targeted by organizations representing recording artists and the movie industry.

representing recording artists and the movie industry. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 18
representing recording artists and the movie industry. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 18

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

P2P is the peer to peer application where both parties get involved in the communication service. The communication can be carried out by any of the either party but for this it must be made sure that the peer must have similar characteristics in them and after that the communication or talk session among the peers would be considered a P2P.

The P2P model can also be compared with some other models such as the client server model but it that model there is a client who interacts with the server online. In that model one thing is real and the other being the virtual where in this P2P model both the parties are real rather than virtual.

The communication can be carried out by any of the person in fact it can be carried out on the basis of providing a certain node which serves as a communication purpose. It can also be carried out among different groups of users too at the same time. The node is made available to each of the two parties and the party who is in dire need of starting the conversation can begin with it.

In P2P networking, it can happen that the users can not only communicate with each other but they can also share and transfer files with each other. P2P transfer is faster because P2P does not need a server to share files and data. P2P is very popular for file sharing.

X.25 :

In the early 1970's there were many data communication networks (also known as Public Networks), which were owned by private companies, organizations and governments agencies. Since those public networks were quite different internally, and the interconnection of networks was growing very fast, there was a need for a common network interface protocol.

In 1976 X.25 was recommended as the desired protocol by the International Consultative Committee for Telegraphy and Telephony (CCITT) called the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) since 1993. X.25 is a standard for WAN communications that defines how connections between user devices and network devices are established and maintained. X.25 is designed to operate effectively regardless of the type of systems connected to the network. It is typically used in the packet-switched networks (PSNs) of common carriers, such as the telephone companies. Subscribers are charged based on their use of the network.

X.25 network devices fall into three general categories: data terminal equipment (DTE), data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE), and packet-switching exchange (PSE).

Data terminal equipment (DTE) devices are end systems that communicate across the X.25 network. They are usually terminals, personal computers, or network hosts, and are located on the premises of individual subscribers.

and are located on the premises of individual subscribers. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
and are located on the premises of individual subscribers. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Data communication Equipments (DCEs) are communications devices, such as modems and packet switches that provide the interface between DTE devices and a PSE, and are generally located in the carrier's facilities.

and are generally located in the carrier's facilities. PSEs are switches that compose the bulk of

PSEs are switches that compose the bulk of the carrier's network. They transfer data from one DTE device to another through the X.25 PSN.

Packet Assembler/Disassembler :

The packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) is a device commonly found in X.25 networks. PADs are used when a DTE device, such as a character-mode terminal, is too simple to implement the full X.25 functionality. The PAD is located between a DTE device and a DCE device, and it performs three primary functions:

buffering (storing data until a device is ready to process it), packet assembly, and packet disassembly. The PAD buffers data sent to or from the DTE device. It also assembles outgoing data into packets and forwards them to the DCE device. (This includes adding an X.25 header.) Finally, the PAD disassembles incoming packets before forwarding the data to the DTE.

incoming packets before forwarding the data to the DTE. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
incoming packets before forwarding the data to the DTE. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
incoming packets before forwarding the data to the DTE. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

The X.25 protocol suite maps to the lowest three layers of the OSI reference

model.

Physical layer: Deals with the physical interface between an attached station and the link that attaches that station to the packet-switching node. o X.21 is the most commonly used physical layer standard.

Frame layer: Facilitates reliable transfer of data across the physical link by transmitting the data as a sequence of frames. Uses a subset of HDLC known as Link Access Protocol Balanced (LAPB), bit oriented protocol.

Packet layer: Responsible for end-to-end connection between two DTEs. Functions performed are:

- Establishing connection

- Transferring data

- Terminating a connection

- Error and flow control

- With the help of X.25 packet layer, data are transmitted in packets over external virtual circuits.

are transmitted in packets over external virtual circuits. Physical Layer : At the physical layer X.21

Physical Layer :

At the physical layer X.21 is specifically defined for X.25 by ITU-T. The X.21 interface operates over eight interchange circuits (i.e., signal ground, DTE common return, transmit, receive, control, indication, signal element timing and byte timing) their functions is defined in recommendation of X.24 and their electrical characteristics in recommendation of X.27. The recommendation specifies how the DTE can setup and clear calls by exchanging signals with the DCE.

The physical connector has 15 pins, but not all of them are used. The DTE uses the T and C circuits to transmit data and control information. The DCE uses the R and I circuits for data and control. The S circuit contains a signal stream emitted by the DCE to provide timing information so the DTE knows when each bit interval

timing information so the DTE knows when each bit interval Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
timing information so the DTE knows when each bit interval Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

starts and stops. The B circuit may also provide to group the bits into byte frames. If this option is not provided the DCE and DTE must begin every control sequence with at least two SYN characters to enable each other to deduce the implied frame boundary.

Link Layer

The link layer (also called level 2, or frame level) ensures reliable transfer of data between the DTE and the DCE, by transmitting the data as a sequence of frames (a frame is an individual data unit which contains address, control, information field etc.). The functions performed by the link level include: Transfer of data in an efficient and timely fashion. Synchronization of the link to ensure that the receiver is in step with the transmitter.

Detection of transmission errors and recovery from such errors Identification and reporting of procedural errors to higher levels, for recovery. The link level uses data link control procedures, which are compatible with the High Level Data Link (HDLC) standardized by ISO, and with the Advanced Data Communications Control Procedures (ADCCP) standardized by the U.S. American National Standards Institute (ANSI). There are several protocols, which can be used in the link level:

Link Access Protocol, Balanced (LAPB) is derived from HDLC and is the most commonly used. It enables to form a logical link connection besides all the other characteristics of HDLC.

Link Access Protocol (LAP) is an earlier version of LAPB and is seldom used today.

Link Access Procedure, D Channel (LAPD) is derived from LAPB and it is used for Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) i.e. it enables data transmission between DTEs through D channel, especially between a DTE and an ISDN node.

Logical Link Control (LLC) is an IEEE 802 Local Area Network (LAN) protocol, which enables X.25 packets to be transmitted through a LAN channel.

Now let us discuss the most commonly used link layer protocol, i.e. LAPB. LAPB is a bit-oriented protocol that ensures that frames are correctly ordered and error-free. There are three kinds of frames:

1. Information: This kind of frame contains the actual information being transferred and some control information. The control field in these frames contains the frame sequence number. I-frame functions include sequencing, flow control, and error detection and recovery. I-frames carry send- and receive-sequence numbers.

2. Supervisory: The supervisory frame (S-frame) carries control information. Sframe functions include requesting and suspending transmissions, reporting on status, and acknowledging the receipt of I-frames. S-frames carry only receivesequence numbers. There are various types of supervisory frames.

numbers. There are various types of supervisory frames. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 22
numbers. There are various types of supervisory frames. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 22

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

- RECEIVE READY-Acknowledgment frame indicating the next frame expected.

- REJECT-Negative acknowledgment frame used to indicate transmission error detection.

- RECEIVE NOT READY (RNR)-Just as RECEIVE READY but tells the sender to stop sending due to temporary problems.

3. Unnumbered: This kind of frames is used only for control purposes. U-frame functions include link setup and disconnection, as well as error reporting. U frames carry no sequence numbers.

Packet Level This level governs the end-to-end communications between the different DTE devices. Layer 3 is concerned with connection set-up and teardown and flow control between the DTE devices, as well as network routing functions and the multiplexing of simultaneous logical connections over a single physical connection. PLP is the network layer protocol of X.25.

Call setup mode is used to establish SVCs between DTE devices. A PLP uses the X.121 addressing scheme to set up the virtual circuit. The call setup mode is executed on a pervirtual- circuit basis, which means that one virtual circuit can be in call setup mode while another is in data transfer mode.

This mode is used only with SVCs, not with PVCs. To establish a connection on an SVC, the calling DTE sends a Call Request Packet, which includes the address of the remote DTE to be contacted. The destination DTE decides whether or not to accept the call (the Call Request packet includes the sender's DTE address, as well as other information that the called DTE can use to decide whether or not to accept the call).

A call is accepted by issuing a Call Accepted packet, or cleared by issuing a Clear Request packet. Once the originating DTE receives the Call Accepted packet, the virtual circuit is established and data transfer may take place.

Data transfer mode is used for transferring data between two DTE devices across a virtual circuit. In this mode, PLP handles segmentation and reassembly, bit padding, and error and flow control. This mode is executed on a per-virtual-circuit basis and is used with both PVCs and SVCs.

Idle mode is used when a virtual circuit is established but data transfer is not occurring. It is executed on a per-virtual-circuit basis and is used only with SVCs.

Call clearing mode is used to end communication sessions between DTE devices and to terminate SVCs. This mode is executed on a per-virtual-circuit basis and is used only with SVCs. When either DTE wishes to terminate the call, a Clear Request packet is sent to the remote DTE, which responds with a Clear Confirmation packet.

remote DTE, which responds with a Clear Confirmation packet. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
remote DTE, which responds with a Clear Confirmation packet. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Restarting mode is used to synchronize transmission between a DTE device and a locally connected DCE device. This mode is not executed on a per-virtualcircuit basis. It affects all the DTE device's established virtual circuits.

all the DTE device's established virtual circuits. Ethernet : Ethernet is a physical and data link

Ethernet :

Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was invented by engineer Robert Metcalfe.

When first widely deployed in the 1980s, Ethernet supported a maximum theoretical data rate of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). Later, so-called "Fast Ethernet" standards increased this maximum data rate to 100 Mbps. Today, Gigabit Ethernet technology further extends peak performance up to 1000 Mbps. Higher level network protocols like Internet Protocol (IP) use Ethernet as their transmission medium. Data travels over Ethernet inside protocol units called frames. The run length of individual Ethernet cables is limited to roughly 100 meters, but Ethernet networks can be easily extended to link entire schools or office buildings using network bridge devices.

Ethernet is the least expensive high speed LAN alternative. They transmit and receive data at speeds of 10 million bits per second through up to 300 feet of telephone wire to a "hub" device normally stacked in a wiring closet. Data is transferred between wiring closets using either a heavy coax cable ("Thicknet") or fiber optic cable.

Ethernet uses a protocol called CSMACD. This stands for "Carrier Sense, Multiple Access, Collision Detect". The "Multiple Access" part means that every station is connected to a single copper wire (or a set of wires that are connected together to form a single data path). The "Carrier Sense" part says that before

data path). The "Carrier Sense" part says that before Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
data path). The "Carrier Sense" part says that before Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

transmitting data, a station checks the wire to see if any other station is already sending something. If the LAN appears to be idle, then the station can begin to send data.

appears to be idle, then the station can begin to send data. Figure : Metcalfe’s original

Figure : Metcalfe’s original Ethernet Sketch

An Ethernet station sends data at a rate of 10 megabits per second. That bit allows 100 nanoseconds per bit. Light and electricity travel about one foot in a nanosecond. Therefore, after the electric signal for the first bit has traveled about 100 feet down the wire, the station has begun to send the second bit. However, an Ethernet cable can run for hundreds of feet. If two stations are located, say, 250 feet apart on the same cable, and both begin transmitting at the same time, then they will be in the middle of the third bit before the signal from each reaches the other station.

This explains the need for the "Collision Detect" part. Two stations can begin to send data at the same time, and their signals will "collide" nanoseconds later. When such a collision occurs, the two stations stop transmitting, "back off", and try again later after a randomly chosen delay period.

While an Ethernet can be built using one common signal wire, such an arrangement is not flexible enough to wire most buildings. Unlike an ordinary telephone circuit, Ethernet wire cannot be just spliced together, connecting one copper wire to another. Ethernet requires a repeater. A repeater is a simple station that is connected to two wires. Any data that it receives on one wire it repeats bit-for- bit on the other wire. When collisions occur, it repeats the collision as well.

In common practice, repeaters are used to convert the Ethernet signal from one type of wire to another. In particular, when the connection to the desktop uses ordinary telephone wire, the hub back in the telephone closet contains a repeater for every phone circuit. Any data coming down any phone line is copied onto the main Ethernet coax cable, and any data from the main cable is duplicated and transmitted

and any data from the main cable is duplicated and transmitted Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
and any data from the main cable is duplicated and transmitted Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

down every phone line. The repeaters in the hub electrically isolate each phone circuit, which is necessary if a 10 megabit signal is going to be carried 300 feet on ordinary wire.

Every set of rules is best understood by characterizing its worst case. The worst case for Ethernet starts when a PC at the extreme end of one wire begins sending data. The electric signal passes down the wire through repeaters, and just before it gets to the last station at the other end of the LAN, that station (hearing nothing and thinking that the LAN is idle) begins to transmit its own data. A collision occurs. The second station recognizes this immediately, but the first station will not detect it until the collision signal retraces the first path all the way back through the LAN to its starting point.

Any system based on collision detect must control the time required for the worst round trip through the LAN. As the term "Ethernet" is commonly defined, this round trip is limited to 50 microseconds (millionths of a second). At a signaling speed of 10 million bits per second, this is enough time to transmit 500 bits. At 8 bits per byte, this is slightly less than 64 bytes.

To make sure that the collision is recognized, Ethernet requires that a station must continue transmitting until the 50 microsecond period has ended. If the station has less than 64 bytes of data to send, then it must pad the data by adding zeros at the end.

In simpler days, when Ethernet was dominated by heavy duty coax cable, it was possible to translate the 50 millisecond limit and other electrical restrictions into rules about cable length, number of stations, and number of repeaters. However, by adding new media (such as Fiber Optic cable) and smarter electronics, it becomes difficult to state physical distance limits with precision. However those limits work out, they are ultimately reflections of the constraint on the worst case round trip.

It would be possible to define some other Ethernet-like collision system with a

40 microsecond or 60 microsecond period. Changing the period, the speed, and the

minimum message size simply require a new standard and some alternate equipment. AT&T, for example, once promoted a system called "Starlan" that

transmitted data a 1 megabit per second over older phone wire. Many such systems are possible, but the term "Ethernet" is generally reserved for a system that transmits

10 megabits per second with a round trip delay of 50 microseconds.

10Base2 :

10: 10Mbps; 2: under 185 (~200) meters cable length

Thin coaxial cable in a bus topology

Repeaters used to connect multiple segments

- Repeater repeats bits it hears on one interface to its other interfaces: physical layer device only!

interface to its other interfaces: physical layer device only! Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
interface to its other interfaces: physical layer device only! Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks 10BaseT and 100BaseT : • 10/100 Mbps rate • T stands

10BaseT and 100BaseT :

10/100 Mbps rate

T stands for Twisted Pair

Hub(s) connected by twisted pair facilitate “star topology”

Distance of any node to hub must be < 100M

– Distance of any node to hub must be < 100M • Most popular packet-switched LAN

Most popular packet-switched LAN technology

Bandwidths: 10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps

Max bus length: 2500m

500m segments with 4 repeaters

Bus and Star topologies are used to connect hosts

Hosts attach to network via Ethernet transceiver or hub or switch

Detects line state and sends/receives signals

Hubs are used to facilitate shared connections

All hosts on an Ethernet are competing for access to the medium

Switches break this model

Problem: Distributed algorithm that provides fair access

Ethernet by definition is a broadcast protocol

Any signal can be received by all hosts

Switching enables individual hosts to communicate

Network layer packets are transmitted over an Ethernet by encapsulating

layer packets are transmitted over an Ethernet by encapsulating Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
layer packets are transmitted over an Ethernet by encapsulating Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Wireless LANs :

Wireless LAN networking consists of the following components:

Stations

Wireless access points

Stations

A

station (STA) is a computing device that is equipped with a wireless LAN

network adapter. A personal computer equipped with a wireless LAN network

adapter is known as a wireless client. Wireless clients can communicate directly with each other or through a wireless access point.

Wireless clients can be mobile.

A

Windows wireless client is a wireless client that has a wireless network

adapter and driver installed and is running Windows Vista™, Windows XP, Windows Server Code Name “Longhorn,†or Windows Server 2003.

Wireless access points

A wireless access point (AP) is a networking device equipped with a wireless

LAN network adapter that acts as a bridge between STAs and a traditional wired network. An access point contains:

At least one interface that connects the wireless AP to an existing wired network (such as an Ethernet backbone).

Radio equipment with which it creates wireless connections with wireless clients.

IEEE 802.1D bridging software, so that it can act as a transparent bridge between wireless and wired LAN segments.

The wireless AP is similar to a cellular phone network's base station; wireless clients communicate with the wired network and other wireless clients through the wireless AP.

Wireless APs are not mobile and act as peripheral bridge devices to extend a wired network.

The logical connection between a wireless client and a wireless AP is a point- to-point bridged LAN segment, similar to an Ethernet-based network client connected to an Ethernet switch. All frames sent from a wireless client, whether unicast, multicast, or broadcast, are sent on the point-to-point LAN segment between the wireless client and the wireless AP. For frames sent by the wireless AP to wireless clients, unicast frames are sent on the point-to-point LAN segment and multicast and broadcast frames are sent to all connected wireless clients at the same time.

are sent to all connected wireless clients at the same time. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
are sent to all connected wireless clients at the same time. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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802.11 :

IEEE 802.11 is an industry standard for a shared access, wireless local area network (WLAN) that defines the Physical layer and media access control (MAC) sublayer for wireless communications.

802.11 Physical Layer

At the Physical layer, IEEE 802.11 defines both direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) transmission schemes. The original bit rates for IEEE 802.11 were 2 and 1 megabits per second (Mbps) using the S-Band 2.4-2.5 gigahertz (GHz) Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) frequency band. The maximum bit rate for IEEE 802.11b is 11 Mbps (using DSSS). The maximum bit rate for IEEE 802.11a is 54 Mbps using the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme and frequencies in the 5 GHz range, including the 5.725-5.875 gigahertz (GHz) C-Band ISM frequency band. The IEEE 802.11g standard uses OFDM, has a maximum bit rate of 54 Mbps, and uses the S-Band ISM.

802.11 MAC Sublayer

At the MAC sublayer, IEEE 802.11 uses the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) media access control (MAC) protocol, which works in the following way:

A wireless station with a frame to transmit first listens on the wireless channel to determine if another station is currently transmitting (carrier sense). If the medium is being used, the wireless station calculates a random backoff delay. Only after the random backoff delay can the wireless station again listen for a transmitting station. By instituting a random backoff delay, multiple stations that are waiting to transmit do not end up trying to transmit at the same time (collision avoidance).

The CSMA/CA scheme does not ensure that a collision never takes place and it is difficult for a transmitting node to detect that a collision is occurring. Additionally, depending on the placement of the wireless AP and the wireless clients, a radio frequency (RF) barrier can prevent a wireless client from sensing that another wireless node is transmitting. This is known as the hidden station problem.

To provide better detection of collisions and a solution to the hidden station problem, IEEE 802.11 also defines the use of an acknowledgment (ACK) frame to indicate that a wireless frame was successfully received and the use of Request to Send (RTS) and Clear to Send (CTS) messages. When a station wants to transmit a frame, it sends an RTS message indicating the amount of time it needs to send the frame. The wireless AP sends a CTS message to all stations, granting permission to the requesting station and informing all other stations that they are not allowed to transmit for the time reserved by the RTS message. The exchange of RTS and CTS messages eliminates collisions due to hidden stations.

and CTS messages eliminates collisions due to hidden stations. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
and CTS messages eliminates collisions due to hidden stations. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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802.11b

The major enhancement to IEEE 802.11 by IEEE 802.11b is the standardization of the Physical layer to support higher bit rates. IEEE 802.11b supports two additional speeds, 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps, using the S-Band ISM. IEEE 802.11b uses the DSSS transmission scheme to provide the higher data rates. The bit rate of 11 Mbps is achievable in ideal conditions. In less-than-ideal conditions, 802.11b uses the slower speeds of 5.5 Mbps, 2 Mbps, and 1 Mbps.

802.11a

IEEE 802.11a operates at a data transmission rate as high as 54 Mbps and uses the C-Band ISM. Instead of DSSS, 802.11a uses OFDM. OFDM allows data to be transmitted by subfrequencies in parallel. This provides greater resistance to interference and greater throughput. This higher speed technology allows wireless LAN networking to perform better for video and conferencing applications. Because they are not on the same frequencies as Bluetooth or microwave ovens, OFDM and IEEE 802.11a provides both a higher data rate and a cleaner signal. The bit rate of 54 Mbps is achievable in ideal conditions. In less-than-ideal conditions, 802.11a uses the slower speeds of 48 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 12 Mbps, and 6 Mbps.

802.11g

IEEE 802.11g, a relatively new standard, operates at a bit rate up to 54 Mbps, but uses the S-Band ISM and OFDM. 802.11g is also backward compatible with 802.11b and can operate at the 802.11b bit rates and use the DSSS transmission scheme. 802.11g wireless network adapters can connect to an 802.11b wireless AP, and 802.11b wireless network adapters can connect to an 802.11g wireless AP. Thus, 802.11g provides a migration path for 802.11b networks to a frequency- compatible standard technology with a higher bit rate. Existing 802.11b wireless network adapters cannot be upgraded to 802.11g by updating the firmware of the adapter and must be replaced. Unlike migrating from 802.11b to 802.11a (in which all the network adapters in both the wireless clients and the wireless APs must be replaced at the same time), migrating from 802.11b to 802.11g can be done incrementally.

Like 802.11a, 802.11g uses 54 Mbps in ideal conditions and the slower speeds of 48 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 12 Mbps, and 6 Mbps in less-than- ideal conditions.

IEEE 802.11 Operating Modes

IEEE 802.11 defines the following operating modes:

Ad hoc mode

Infrastructure mode

operating modes:  Ad hoc mode  Infrastructure mode Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
operating modes:  Ad hoc mode  Infrastructure mode Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Ad Hoc Mode

In ad hoc mode, wireless clients communicate directly with each other without

the use of a wireless AP or a wired network

Ad hoc mode is also called peer-to-peer mode. Wireless clients in ad hoc mode form an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS), which is two or more wireless clients who communicate directly without the use of a wireless AP.

Ad hoc mode is used to connect wireless clients together when there is no wireless AP present, when the wireless AP rejects an association due to failed authentication, or when the wireless client is explicitly configured to use ad hoc mode.

Infrastructure Mode

In infrastructure mode, there is at least one wireless AP and one wireless client. The wireless client uses the wireless AP to access the resources of a traditional wired network. The wired network can be an organization intranet or the Internet, depending on the placement of the wireless AP.

A single wireless AP supporting one or multiple wireless clients is known as a

Basic Service Set (BSS). A set of two or more wireless APs connected to the same wired network is known as an Extended Service Set (ESS). An ESS is a single logical network segment (also known as a subnet), and is identified by its SSID.

When a wireless adapter is turned on, it begins to scan across the wireless frequencies for wireless APs and other wireless clients. Scanning is a listening process in which the wireless adapter listens on all the channels for beacon frames sent by wireless APs and other wireless clients. After scanning, a wireless adapter chooses a wireless AP with which to associate. This selection is made automatically by using the Service Set Identifier (SSID) of the wireless network and the wireless AP with the best signal strength (the highest signal-to-noise ratio). Next, the wireless client switches to the assigned channel of the chosen wireless AP and negotiates the use of a logical wireless point-to-point connection. This is known as an association.

Whether the wireless client prefers to associate with wireless APs or individual wireless clients is determined by configuration settings of the wireless client. By default, a Windows wireless client prefers to associate with a wireless AP rather than another wireless client.

If the signal strength of the wireless AP is too low, the error rate too high, or if

instructed by the operating system (in the case of Windows, every 60 seconds), the wireless client scans for other wireless APs to determine whether a different wireless AP can provide a stronger signal to the same wireless network. If so, the wireless client switches to the channel of that wireless AP. This is known as reassociation.

the channel of that wireless AP. This is known as reassociation. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
the channel of that wireless AP. This is known as reassociation. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Reassociation with a different wireless AP can occur for many different reasons. The signal can weaken because the wireless client moves away from the wireless AP or the wireless AP becomes congested with too much other traffic or interference. The wireless client, by switching to another wireless AP, can distribute the load over other wireless APs, increasing the performance for other wireless clients. By placing wireless APs so that their coverage areas overlap slightly but their channels do not, wireless connectivity for large areas can be achieved. As a wireless client moves its physical location, it can associate and reassociate from one wireless AP to another, maintaining a continuous connection during physical relocation.

If the coverage areas of the wireless APs within an ESS overlap, then a wireless client can roam, or move from one location (with a wireless AP) to another (with a different wireless AP), while maintaining Network layer connectivity.

For example, for TCP/IP, a wireless client is assigned an IP address when it connects to the first wireless AP. When the wireless client roams within the ESS, it creates wireless connections with other wireless APs but keeps the same IP address because all the wireless APs are on the same logical subnet.

When the wireless client roams to a different ESS, the IP address configuration is no longer valid. For a Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 wireless client, a reassociation is interpreted as a media disconnect/connect event. This event causes Windows to perform a DHCP renewal for the TCP/IP protocol. Therefore, for reassociations within the ESS, the DHCP renewal refreshes the current IP address configuration. When the Windows wireless client reassociates with a wireless AP across an ESS boundary, the DHCP renewal process obtains a new IP address configuration that is relevant for the logical IP subnet of the new ESS.

IEEE 802.11 Wireless Security

For authentication, the original 802.11 standard defined open system and shared key authentication types. For data confidentiality (encryption), the original

802.11 standard defined Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).

The original 802.11 standard did not define or provide a WEP key management protocol that provides automatic WEP encryption key determination and renewal. This is a limitation to IEEE 802.11 security services; especially for infrastructure mode networks with a large number of wireless clients. The authentication and key management issues of the original 802.11 standard are solved by using the combination of IEEE 802.1X port-based network access control and either Wi-Fi Protected Accessâ„¢ (WPAâ„¢) or Wi-Fi Protected Access 2â„¢

(WPA2â„¢).

802.11 Authentication

The

original

authentication:

IEEE

802.11

standard

defined

the

following

types

of

IEEE 802.11 standard defined the following types of Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 32
IEEE 802.11 standard defined the following types of Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 32

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Open System Authentication

Shared Key Authentication

Open System Authentication

Open system authentication does not provide authentication, only identification using the wireless adapter's MAC address. Open system authentication is used when no authentication is required. Open system authentication is the default authentication algorithm that uses the following process:

1. The authentication-initiating wireless client sends an IEEE 802.11 authentication management frame that contains its identity.

2. The receiving wireless node checks the initiating station's identity and sends back an authentication verification frame.

With some wireless APs, you can configure the MAC addresses of allowed wireless clients using a feature known as MAC filtering. However, MAC filtering does not provide any security because the MAC address of a wireless client can be easily determined and spoofed.

By default, a Windows wireless client that is configured to perform open system authentication sends its MAC address as the identity.

Shared Key Authentication

Shared key authentication verifies that an authentication-initiating station has knowledge of a shared secret. According to the original 802.11 standard, the shared secret is delivered to the participating wireless clients by means of a secure channel that is independent of IEEE 802.11. In practice, the shared secret is manually configured on the wireless AP and the wireless client.

Shared key authentication uses the following process:

1. The authentication-initiating wireless client sends a frame consisting of an identity assertion and a request for authentication.

2. The authenticating wireless node responds to the authentication-initiating wireless node with challenge text.

3. The authentication-initiating wireless node replies to the authenticating wireless node with the challenge text that is encrypted using WEP and an encryption key that is derived from the shared key authentication secret.

4. The authentication result is positive if the authenticating wireless node determines that the decrypted challenge text matches the challenge text originally sent in the second frame. The authenticating wireless node sends the authentication result.

Because the shared key authentication secret must be manually distributed and typed, this method of authentication does not scale appropriately in large infrastructure network mode (for example, corporate campuses and public places).

mode (for example, corporate campuses and public places). Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 33
mode (for example, corporate campuses and public places). Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 33

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Additionally, shared key authentication is not secure and its use is strongly discouraged.

802.11x :

The IEEE 802.1X standard defines port-based, network access control used to provide authenticated network access for Ethernet networks. This port-based network access control uses the physical characteristics of the switched LAN infrastructure to authenticate devices attached to a LAN port. Access to the port can be denied if the authentication process fails. Although this standard was designed for wired Ethernet networks, it has been adapted for use on 802.11 wireless LANs.

IEEE 802.1X defines the following terms:

Port access entity

Authenticator

Supplicant

Authentication server

Port Access Entity

A LAN port, also known as port access entity (PAE), is the logical entity that supports the IEEE 802.1X protocol that associated with a port. A PAE can adopt the role of the authenticator, the supplicant, or both.

Authenticator

An authenticator is a LAN port that enforces authentication before allowing access to services accessible using that port. For wireless connections, the authenticator is the logical LAN port on a wireless AP through which wireless clients in infrastructure mode gain access to other wireless clients and the wired network.

Supplicant

The supplicant is a LAN port that requests access to services accessible using the authenticator. For wireless connections, the supplicant is the logical LAN port on a wireless LAN network adapter that requests access to the other wireless clients and the wired network by associating with and then authenticating itself to an authenticator.

Whether for wireless connections or wired Ethernet connections, the supplicant and authenticator are connected by a logical or physical point-to-point LAN segment.

Authentication server

an

authentication server. The authentication server checks the credentials of the

To

verify

the

credentials

of

the

supplicant,

the

authenticator

uses

verify the credentials of the supplicant, the authenticator uses Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
verify the credentials of the supplicant, the authenticator uses Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

supplicant on behalf of the authenticator, and then responds to the authenticator indicating whether or not the supplicant is authorized to access the authenticator's services. The authentication server may be:

A component of the access point In this case, the access point must be configured with the sets of user credentials corresponding to the wireless clients that will be attempting to connect. This is typically not implemented for wireless APs.

A separate entity In this case, the access point forwards the credentials of the wireless connection attempt to a separate authentication server. Typically, the wireless AP uses the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol to send the connection attempt parameters to a RADIUS server.

Controlled and Uncontrolled Ports

The authenticator's port-based, access control defines the following different types of logical ports that access the wired LAN via a single, physical LAN port:

Uncontrolled port The uncontrolled port allows an uncontrolled exchange between the authenticator (the wireless AP) and other networking devices on the wired network-regardless of any wireless client's authorization state. Frames sent by the wireless client are never sent using the uncontrolled port.

Controlled port The controlled port allows data to be sent between a wireless client and the wired network only if the wireless client is authorized by 802.1X. Before authentication, the switch is open and no frames are forwarded between the wireless client and the wired network. When the wireless client is successfully authenticated using IEEE 802.1X, the switch is closed and frames can be sent between the wireless client and nodes on the wired network.

On an authenticating Ethernet switch, the wired Ethernet client can send Ethernet frames to the wired network as soon as authentication is complete. The switch identifies the traffic of a specific wired Ethernet client using the physical port to which the Ethernet client is connected. Typically, only a single Ethernet client is connected to a physical port on the Ethernet switch.

Because multiple wireless clients contend for access to the same channel and send data using the same channel, an extension to the basic IEEE 802.1X protocol is required to allow a wireless AP to identify the secured traffic of a particular wireless client. This is done through the mutual determination of a per-client unicast session key by the wireless client and wireless AP. Only authenticated wireless clients have knowledge of their per-client unicast session key. Without a valid unicast session key tied to a successful authentication, a wireless AP discards the traffic sent from the wireless client.

To provide a standard authentication mechanism for IEEE 802.1X, the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) was chosen. EAP is a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)-based authentication mechanism that was adapted for use on point- to-point LAN segments. EAP messages are normally sent as the payload of PPP

segments. EAP messages are normally sent as the payload of PPP Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
segments. EAP messages are normally sent as the payload of PPP Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

frames. To adapt EAP messages to be sent over Ethernet or wireless LAN segments, the IEEE 802.1X standard defines EAP over LAN (EAPOL), a standard way to encapsulate EAP messages.

Gigabit :

In data communications, a gigabit is one billion bits, or 1,000,000,000 (that is, 10 9 ) bits. It's commonly used for measuring the amount of data that is transferred in a second between two telecommunication points. For example, Gigabit Ethernet is a high-speed form of Ethernet (a local area network technology) that can provide data transfer rates of about 1 gigabit per second. Gigabits per second are usually shortened to Gbps.

Some sources define a gigabit to mean 1,073,741,824 (that is, 2 30 ) bits. Although the bit is a unit of the binary number system, bits in data communications are discrete signal pulses and have historically been counted using the decimal number system. For example, 28.8 kilobits per second (Kbps) is 28,800 bits per second. Because of computer architecture and memory address boundaries, bytes are always some multiple or exponent of two.

Gigabit Ethernet is an extension to the family of Ethernet computer networking and communication standards. The Gigabit Ethernet standard supports a theoretical maximum data rate of 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps).

At one time, it was believed that achieving Gigabit speeds with Ethernet required fiber optic or other special cables. However, Gigabit Ethernet can be implemented on ordinary twisted pair copper cable (specifically, the CAT5e and CAT6 cabling standards).

Migration of existing computer networks from 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet to Gigabit Ethernet is happening slowly. Much legacy Ethernet technology exists (in both 10 and 100 Mbps varieties), and these older technologies offers sufficient performance in many cases.

Today, Gigabit Ethernet can only be found mainly in research institutions. A decrease in cost, increase in demand, and improvements in other aspects of LAN technology will be required before Gigabit Ethernet surpasses other forms of wired networking in terms of adoption.

Also Known As: 1000 Mbps Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second (1,000,000,000 bits per second), as defined by the IEEE 802.3-2008 standard. It came into use beginning in 1999, gradually supplanting Fast Ethernet in wired local networks since it was ten times faster. The cables and equipment are very similar to previous standards, and as of 2011 are very common and economical.

standards, and as of 2011 are very common and economical. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
standards, and as of 2011 are very common and economical. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Half-duplex gigabit

links

connected

through hubs are

allowed

by

the

specification but in the marketplace full-duplex with switches is normal.

Gigabit Ethernet allows network transfers up to 1.000 Mbps using standard Cat 5 UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cabling. How can this be accomplished, since Cat 5 cables can run only up to 100 Mbps? We will explain this and also other very interesting issues regarding Gigabit Ethernet performance.

Ethernet Cat 5 cables have eight wires (four pairs), but under 10BaseT and 100BaseT standards (10 Mbps and 100 Mbps, respectively) only four (two pairs) of these wires are actually used. One pair is used for transmitting data and the other pair is used for receiving data.

Pin

Colour

Function

1

White with Green

+TD

2

Green

-TD

3

White with Orange

+RD

4

Blue

Not Used

5

White with Blue

Not Used

6

Orange

-RD

7

White with Brown

Not Used

8

Brown

Not Used

Ethernet standard uses a technique against electromagnetic noise called cancellation. As electrical current is applied to a wire, it generates an electromagnetic field around the wire. If this field is strong enough, it can create electrical interference on the wires right next to it, corrupting the data that were being transmitted there. This problem is called crosstalk.

What cancellation does is to transmit the same signal twice, with the second signal ”mirrored“ (inverted polarity) compared to the first one, as you can see in Figure 1. So when receiving the two signals, the receiving device can compare the two signals, which must be equal but ”mirrored“.

The difference between the two signals is noise, making it very simple to the receiving device to know what is noise and to discard it. ”+TD“ wire standards for ”Transmitting Data“ and ”+RD“ wire standards for ”Receiving Data“. ”-TD“ and ”-RD“ are the ”mirrored“ versions of the same signal being transmitted on ”+TD“ and ”+RD“, respectively.

1000BASE-X :

1000BASE-X is used in industry to refer to gigabit Ethernet transmission over fiber, where options include 1000BASE-CX, 1000BASE-LX, and 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX10, 1000BASE-BX10 or the non-standard -ZX implementations.

1000BASE-BX10 or the non-standard -ZX implementations. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 37
1000BASE-BX10 or the non-standard -ZX implementations. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 37

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

1000BASE-CX :

1000BASE-CX is an initial standard for gigabit Ethernet connections over twinaxial cabling with maximum distances of 25 meters using balanced shielded twisted pair and either DE-9 or 8P8C connector. The short segment length is due to very high signal transmission rate. Although, it is still used for specific applications where cabling is done by IT professionals, for instance the IBM BladeCenter uses 1000BASE-CX for the Ethernet connections between the blade servers and the switch modules, 1000BASE-T has succeeded it for general copper wiring use.

1000BASE-SX :

1000BASE-SX is a fiber optic gigabit Ethernet standard for operation over multi-mode fiber using a 770 to 860 nanometer, near infrared (NIR) light wavelength.

The standard specifies a distance capability between 220 metres (62.5/125 µm fiber with low modal bandwidth) and 550 metres (50/125 µm fiber with high modal bandwidth). In practice, with good quality fiber, optics, and terminations, 1000BASE-SX will usually work over significantly longer distances.

This standard is highly popular for intra-building links in large office buildings, co-location facilities and carrier neutral internet exchanges.

1000BASE-LX :

1000BASE-LX is a fiber optic gigabit Ethernet standard specified in IEEE 802.3 Clause 38 which uses a long wavelength laser (1,270–1,355 nm), and a maximum RMS spectral width of 4 nm.

1000BASE-LX is specified to work over a distance of up to 5 km over 10 µm single-mode fiber.

1000BASE-LX can also run over all common types of multi-mode fiber with a maximum segment length of 550 m. For link distances greater than 300 m, the use of a special launch conditioning patch cord may be required. This launches the laser at a precise offset from the center of the fiber which causes it to spread across the diameter of the fiber core, reducing the effect known as differential mode delay which occurs when the laser couples onto only a small number of available modes in multi- mode fiber.

1000BASE-LX10 :

1000BASE-LX10 was standardized six years after the initial gigabit fiber versions as part of the Ethernet in the First Mile task group. It is very similar to 1000BASE-LX, but achieves longer distances up to 10 km over a pair of single-mode fiber due to higher quality optics. Before it was standardized 1000BASE-LX10 was essentially already in widespread use by many vendors as a proprietary extension called either 1000BASE-LX/LH or 1000BASE-LH.

extension called either 1000BASE-LX/LH or 1000BASE-LH. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 38
extension called either 1000BASE-LX/LH or 1000BASE-LH. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 38

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

1000BASE-BX10 :

1000BASE-BX10 is capable of up to 10 km over a single strand of single- mode fiber, with a different wavelength going in each direction. The terminals on each side of the fibre are not equal, as the one transmitting downstream (from the center of the network to the outside) uses the 1,490 nm wavelength, and the one transmitting upstream uses the 1,310 nm wavelength.

1000BASE-ZX :

1000BASE-ZX is a non-standard but industry accepted term to refer to gigabit Ethernet transmission using 1,550 nm wavelength to achieve distances of at least 70 km over single-mode fiber.

1000BASE-T :

1000BASE-T (also known as IEEE 802.3ab) is a standard for gigabit Ethernet over copper wiring.

Each 1000BASE-T network segment can be a maximum length of 100 meters (328 feet), and must use Category 5 cable or better. Category 5e cable or Category 6 cable may also be used.

The data is transmitted over four copper pairs, eight bits at a time. First, eight bits of data are expanded into four 3-bit symbols through a non-trivial scrambling procedure based on a linear feedback shift register; this is similar to what is done in 100BASE-T2, but uses different parameters. The 3-bit symbols are then mapped to voltage levels which vary continuously during transmission. One example mapping is as follows:

Symbol

Line signal level

000

0

001

+1

010

+2

011

1

100

0

101

+1

110

2

111

1

100   0 101 +1 110 − 2 111 − 1 Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
100   0 101 +1 110 − 2 111 − 1 Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Chapter 3. The OSI Reference Model

Over the past couple of decades many of the networks that were built used different hardware and software implementations, as a result they were incompatible and it became difficult for networks using different specifications to communicate with each other.

To address the problem of networks being incompatible and unable to communicate with each other, the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) researched various network schemes.

The ISO recognised there was a need to create a NETWORK MODEL that would help vendors create interoperable network implementations.

The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) is an International standards organisation responsible for a wide range of standards, including many that are relevant to networking.

In 1984 in order to aid network interconnection without necessarily requiring complete redesign, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was approved as an international standard for communications architecture.

The model was developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) in 1984. It is now considered the primary Architectural model for inter-computer communications.

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is a descriptive network scheme. It ensures greater compatibility and interoperability between various types of network technologies.

The OSI model describes how information or data makes its way from application programmes (such as spreadsheets) through a network medium (such as wire) to another application programme located on another network.

The OSI reference model divides the problem of moving information between computers over a network medium into SEVEN smaller and more manageable problems.

This separation into smaller more manageable functions is known as layering.

Protocol Layering :

The OSI Reference Model is composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into layers reduces complexity. Each layer provides a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification.

a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Each layer communicates with the same layer’s software or hardware on other computers. The lower 4 layers (transport, network, data link and physical — Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1) are concerned with the flow of data from end to end through the network. The upper four layers of the OSI model (application, presentation and session—Layers 7, 6 and 5) are orientated more toward services to the applications. Data is Encapsulated with the necessary protocol information as it moves down the layers before network transit.

as it moves down the layers before network transit. LAYER 7: APPLICATION : • The application

LAYER 7: APPLICATION :

The application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user.

It provides network services to the user’s applications.

It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide services to any other

OSI layer, but rather, only to applications outside the OSI model.

Examples of such applications are spreadsheet programs, word processing

programs, and bank terminal programs.

The application layer establishes the availability of intended communication

partners, synchronizes and establishes agreement on procedures for error

recovery and control of data integrity.

LAYER 6: PRESENTATION :

The presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer

of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another

system.

out is readable by the application layer of another system. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
out is readable by the application layer of another system. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

If necessary, the presentation layer translates between multiple data formats by using a common format.

Provides encryption and compression of data. Examples :- JPEG, MPEG, ASCII, EBCDIC, HTML.

LAYER 5: SESSION :

The session layer defines how to start, control and end conversations (called sessions) between applications.

This includes the control and management of multiple bi-directional messages using dialogue control.

It also synchronizes dialogue between two hosts' presentation layers and manages their data exchange.

The session layer offers provisions for efficient data transfer. Examples :- SQL, ASP(AppleTalk Session Protocol).

LAYER 4: TRANSPORT :

The transport layer regulates information flow to ensure end-to-end connectivity between host applications reliably and accurately.

The transport layer segments data from the sending host's system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the receiving host's system.

The boundary between the transport layer and the session layer can be thought of as the boundary between application protocols and data-flow protocols. Whereas the application, presentation, and session layers are concerned with application issues, the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues.

Layer 4 protocols include TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 42
Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 42

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

LAYER 3: NETWORK :

Data Communication & Computer Networks LAYER 3: NETWORK : • Defines end-to-end delivery of packets. •

Defines end-to-end delivery of packets.

Defines logical addressing so that any endpoint can be identified.

Defines how routing works and how routes are learned so that the packets can be delivered.

The network layer also defines how to fragment a packet into smaller packets to accommodate different media.

Routers operate at Layer 3. Examples :- IP, IPX, AppleTalk. LAYER 2: DATA LINK :

3. Examples :- IP, IPX, AppleTalk. LAYER 2: DATA LINK : • The data link layer

The data link layer provides access to the networking media and physical transmission across the media and this enables the data to locate its intended destination on a network.

The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link by using the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses.

physical link by using the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
physical link by using the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

The data link layer uses the MAC address to define a hardware or data link

address in order for multiple stations to share the same medium and still

uniquely identify each other.

Concerned with network topology, network access, error notification, ordered

delivery of frames, and flow control.

Examples :- Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI.

and flow control. Examples :- Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI. LAYER 1: PHYSICAL : • The physical

LAYER 1: PHYSICAL :

Examples :- Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI. LAYER 1: PHYSICAL : • The physical layer deals with

The physical layer deals with the physical characteristics of the transmission

medium.

It defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications

for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end

systems.

Such characteristics as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical

data rates, maximum transmission distances, physical connectors, and other

similar attributes are defined by physical layer specifications.

Examples :- EIA/TIA-232, RJ45, NRZ.

layer specifications. Examples :- EIA/TIA-232, RJ45, NRZ. There was no standard for networks in the early

There was no standard for networks in the early days and as a result it was difficult for networks to communicate with each other. The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) recognised this. and researched various network schemes, and in 1984 introduced the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model.

the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 44
the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 44

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

The OSI reference model has standards which ensure vendors greater compatibility and interoperability between various types of network technologies. The OSI reference model organizes network functions into seven numbered layers. Each layer provides a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification and communicates with the same layer’s software or hardware on other computers. Layers 1-4 are concerned with the flow of data from end to end through the network and Layers 5-7 are concerned with services to the applications.

TCP/IP Model :

Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, also known as the Internet Protocol Suite. It was originally developed for the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) network, but it is now the basis for the Internet.

(DARPA) network, but it is now the basis for the Internet. As with the OSI model,

As with the OSI model, the TCP/IP suite uses a layered model. TCP/IP model has four or five - depending on who you talk to and which books you read!

Some people call it a four layer suite - Application, Transport, Internet and Network Access, others split the Network Access layer into its Physical and Datalink components.

Network access :

The combination of datalink and physical layers deals with pure hardware

(wires, satellite links, network interface cards, etc.)

Access methods such as CSMA/CD (carrier sensed multiple access with

collision detection)

(carrier sensed multiple access with collision detection) Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 45
(carrier sensed multiple access with collision detection) Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 45

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Ethernet exists at the network access layer - its hardware operates at the physical layer and its medium access control method (CSMA/CD) operates at the datalink layer.

Internet :

This layer is responsible for the routing and delivery of data across networks.

It allows communication across networks of the same and different types and carries out translations to deal with dissimilar data addressing schemes. IP (Internet Protocol) and ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) are both to be found at the Internet layer.

Transport :

The transport layer is similar to the OSI transport model, but with elements of the OSI session layer functionality.

The two protocols found at the transport layer are:

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): reliable, connection-oriented protocol that provides error checking and flow control through a virtual link that it establishes and finally terminates. Examples include FTP and Email

UDP (User Datagram Protocol): unreliable, connectionless protocol that not error check or offer any flow control. Examples include SNMP

Application :

This layer is broadly equivalent to the application, presentation and session layers of the OSI model.

It gives an application access to the communication environment.

Examples:

Telnet

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

Transfer Protocol)  SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 46
Transfer Protocol)  SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 46

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

OSI vs. TCP/IP :

The OSI & TCP/IP reference models have much in common. Both are based on the concept of a stack of independent protocols. The functionality of the layer is roughly similar.

Despite these fundamental similarities, the two models have many

differences-

- Services

- Interfaces

- Protocols

 

Contents

OSI

TCP/IP

1

Similarities

* Based on a stack of independent protocols

Easier to blend use what works best

-

* Layers have roughly same functionality

- Model is general

- Model only describe TCP/IP

-

knowing which model

- Number of layer 7

- Number of Layer 4

to use for your context

Real world vs. conceptual

-

2

Connectionless vs connection oriented

- Network Layer

- Network Layer supports only connectionless

supports both

What do you need for your situation?

-

- Transport layer supports only connection oriented

- Transport layer supports both

3

Flaws-

- Bad timing

- Already well established in academia.

-

knowing which model

to use for your context

- Bad technology

- Too specific

- Bad implementation

- No distinction between physical and data link layer

Model is too specific, not specific enough

-

link layer Model is too specific, not specific enough - Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
link layer Model is too specific, not specific enough - Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Chapter 4. Local Area Networks

A LAN is a high-speed data network that covers a relatively small geographic area. It typically connects workstations, personal computers, printers, servers, and other devices. LANs offer computer users many advantages, including shared access to devices and applications, file exchange between connected users, and communication between users via electronic mail and other applications.

between users via electronic mail and other applications. LAN is made up of hardware as well

LAN is made up of hardware as well as software components. Hardware consists of interface cards in all the machines and cables that tie them together. The software includes the drivers for all peripherals and network Operating System that manages the network.

The internal network, and therefore the LAN, exists to link all of the PCs, laptops, servers, printers, and anything else that might be useful for a computer to talk to. Most LANs have a cable running from every computer to a wall jack. The wall jack is connected to a very similar type of cable that runs to a patch panel in a wiring closet. Local area networks (LAN) are usually fairly modern and very fast and make up a great portion of the internal network. However these are almost always connected to an internet connection that is significantly slower.

to an internet connection that is significantly slower. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 48
to an internet connection that is significantly slower. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 48

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Components & Technology :

The various components of LAN :

Data Terminal Equipments (DTEs) - - Server - Workstation - Terminal : C Printer/Plotter/Fax/Scanner
Data Terminal
Equipments (DTEs) -
- Server
- Workstation
- Terminal :
C
Printer/Plotter/Fax/Scanner
Laptop/Notebook/PDA
O
M
- Modem
P
- Hub
Data Communication
Equipments (DCEs) -
- Bridge
O
- Router
- Switch
- Repeater
N
E
- Wired :
N
- Copper Cable :
Transmission
T
Media -
- Twisted Pair
- Coaxial Cable
- Fiber Optics
S
- Wireless :
- Radio wave
- Laser
- Infrared
- Microwave
- Satellite

Figure :-Representation of Various Components of LANS

Server : One interesting new feature that has emerged today is that a LAN can give more than one file server. One of these servers can be used as backup. Which means it will store copies of every file on the other servers and can become the primary server in case the actual primary server fails. This is known as apparent redundancy.

The future servers are going to be much more powerful than today's file servers. In fact, they have; already emerged. One of them is called the Communication Server . A communications server is an extraordinary powerful product. Any PC attached to this server can communicate directly to any large computer like a minicomputer or a mainframe which is outside the LAN.

like a minicomputer or a mainframe which is outside the LAN. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
like a minicomputer or a mainframe which is outside the LAN. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

In fact, it will work exactly as a terminal attached to that computer. The results of the work performed using this PC can be used in the same manner as would use any PC's output.

Another powerful server that has arrived is called the Database Server. This allows our PC to access the superior database processing capabilities of large computers. Both the communications server and the database server can work hand in hand with the LAN software at the same time.

WorkStation : A workstation has its own local Operating system depending on Machine Type; workstations can be DOS-based PCs, Application-Mac's running system. A workstation's main Job is to execute Program Files retrieved from networks. With advent of network based client - server computer the role of server has changed. In this distributed processing environment, processing burden is shared by server and workstation.

A repeater is a physical layer device used to interconnect the media segments of an extended network. A repeater essentially enables a series of cable segments to be treated as a single cable. Repeaters receive signals from one network segment and amplify, retime, and retransmit those signals to another network segment.

These actions prevent signal deterioration caused by long cable lengths and large numbers of connected devices. Repeaters are incapable of performing complex filtering and other traffic processing. In addition, all electrical signals, including electrical disturbances and other errors, are repeated and amplified. The total number of repeaters and network segments that can be connected is limited due to timing and other issues.

A hub is a physical-layer device that connects multiple user stations, each via a dedicated cable. Electrical interconnections are established inside the hub. Hubs are used to create a physical star network while maintaining the logical bus or ring configuration of the LAN. In some respects, a hub functions as a multiport repeater.

Bridges analyze incoming frames, make forwarding decisions based on information contained in the frames, and forward the frames toward the destination. In some cases, such as source-route bridging, the entire path to the destination is contained in each frame. In other cases, such as transparent bridging, frames are forwarded one hop at a time toward the destination

Switches are data link layer devices that, like bridges, enable multiple physical LAN segments to be interconnected into a single larger network. Similar to bridges, switches forward and flood traffic based on MAC addresses. Because switching is performed in hardware instead of in software, however, it is significantly faster. Switches use either store-and-forward switching or cut-through switching when forwarding traffic. Many types of switches exist, including ATM switches, LAN switches, and various types of WAN switches.

ATM switches, LAN switches, and various types of WAN switches. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
ATM switches, LAN switches, and various types of WAN switches. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Routers perform two basic activities: determining optimal routing paths and transporting information groups (typically called packets) through an internetwork. In the context of the routing process, the latter of these is referred to as switching. Although switching is relatively straightforward, path determination can be very complex.

Topologies :

are

connected and how the data flows from one device to another. There are two conventions while representing the topologies. The physical topology defines how the devices are physically wired. The logical topology defines how the data flows from one device to another.

The

topology

defines

how

the

devices

(computers,

printers

etc)

Broadly categorized into I) Bus II) Ring III) Star IV) Mesh

Broadly categorized into I) Bus II) Ring III) Star IV) Mesh Bus topology: In a bus

Bus topology:

In a bus topology all devices are connected to the transmission medium as backbone. There must be a terminator at each end of the bus to avoid signal reflections, which may distort the original signal. Signal is sent in both directions, but some buses are unidirectional. Good for small networks.

but some buses are unidirectional. Good for small networks. The main problem with the bus topology

The main problem with the bus topology is failure of the medium will seriously affect the whole network. Any small break in the media the signal will reflect back and cause errors. The whole network must be shutdown and repaired. In such situations it is difficult to troubleshoot and locate where the break in the cable is or which machine is causing the fault; when one device fails the rest of the LAN fails.

Ring Topology :

Ring topology was in the beginning of LAN area. In a ring topology, each system is connected to the next as shown in the following picture.

is connected to the next as shown in the following picture. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
is connected to the next as shown in the following picture. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Data Communication & Computer Networks Each device has a transceiver which behaves like a repeater which

Each device has a transceiver which behaves like a repeater which moves the signal around the ring; ideal for token passing access methods. In this topology signal degeneration is low; only the device that holds the token can transmit which reduces collisions. If you see its negative aspect it is difficult to locate a problem cable segment; expensive hardware.

Star topology :

In a star topology each station is connected to a central node. The central node can be either a hub or a switch. The star topology does not have the problem as seen in bus topology. The failure of a media does not affect the entire network. Other stations can continue to operate until the damaged segment is repaired.

continue to operate until the damaged segment is repaired. The advantages are cabling is inexpensive, easy

The advantages are cabling is inexpensive, easy to wire, more reliable and easier to manage because of the use of hubs which allow defective cable segments to be routed around; locating and repairing bad cables is easier because of the concentrators; network growth is easier.

The disadvantages are all nodes receive the same signal therefore dividing bandwidth; Maximum computers are 1,024 on a LAN. Maximum UTP (Un shielded twisted pair) length is 100 meters; distance between computers is 2.5 meters.

This topology is the dominant physical topology today.

Mesh topology :

A mesh physical topology is when every device on the network is connected to every device on the network; most commonly used in WAN configurations Helps find the quickest route on the network; provides redundancy. Very expensive and not easy to set up.

provides redundancy. Very expensive and not easy to set up. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
provides redundancy. Very expensive and not easy to set up. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Hybrid topology :

A hybrid topology is a combination of any two or more network topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not have one of the standard forms. For example, a tree network connected to a tree network is still a tree network, but two star networks connected together exhibit hybrid network topologies. A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected.

when two different basic network topologies are connected. Ethernet - Ethernet is a 10Mbps LAN that
Ethernet - Ethernet is a 10Mbps LAN that uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with

Ethernet - Ethernet is a 10Mbps LAN that uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol to control access network. When an endstation (network device) transmits data, every endstation on the LAN receives it. Each endstation checks the data packet to see whether the destination address matches its own address. If the addresses match, the endstation accepts and

processes the packet.

the destination address matches its own address. If the addresses match, the endstation accepts and processes
If they do not match, it disregards the packet. If two endstations transmit data simultaneously,

If they do not match, it disregards the packet. If two endstations transmit data simultaneously, a collision occurs and the result is a composite, garbled message. All endstations on the network, including the transmitting endstations, detect the collision and ignore the message. Each endstation that wants to transmit waits a random amount of time and then attempts to transmit again. This method is usually

used for traditional Ethernet LAN.

a random amount of time and then attempts to transmit again. This method is usually used
This method is usually used for traditional Ethernet LAN. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
This method is usually used for traditional Ethernet LAN. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
This method is usually used for traditional Ethernet LAN. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

TDMA ( time division multiple access ) was originally devised for digital microwave and satellite communications systems. It is still used with many such systems as well as with some fiber optic systems. Fixed time slots are made available, regardless of whether they are actually used.

The complete end to end bit sequences within each time slots are usually called a serial packet, each of which comprises: source and destination address, data bits, control and status bits. The system is accessed through terminal stations and repeaters. Transmission is into an empty packet or packets and reception occurs via packet address recognition. A monitor station monitors the integrity of the system during normal operation and places framing bits around packets in the initializing process.

FDDI ( Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect ) - FDDI provides data speed at 100Mbps which

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interconnect) - FDDI provides data speed at 100Mbps which is faster than Token Ring and Ethernet LANs . FDDI comprise two independent, counter-rotating rings : a primary ring and a secondary ring. Data flows in opposite directions on the rings. The counter-rotating ring architecture prevents data loss in the event of a link failure, a node failure, or the failure of both the primary and secondary links between any two nodes. This technology is usually implemented

for a backbone network.

both the primary and secondary links between any two nodes. This technology is usually implemented for
is usually implemented for a backbone network. Access Techniques : All computers attached to the Ethernet

Access Techniques :

All computers attached to the Ethernet use CSMA/CD to co-ordinate their activities. A computer wishing to transmit checks for electrical activity on the cable, informally called a carrier. If there is no carrier, the computer can transmit. If a carrier is present, the computer waits for the sender to finish before proceeding.

However, it is possible for two or more computers to detect the lack of carrier and start transmission simultaneously. The signals travel at approximately 70% of the speed of light and interfere with one another. This interference is called a collision. A sending computer monitors the signal on the cable and if it differs from

computer monitors the signal on the cable and if it differs from Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash
computer monitors the signal on the cable and if it differs from Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

the signal it is sending, then a collision has occurred and the computer stops transmitting.

Following a collision, a computer waits for the cable to become idle before retransmitting. However, if the computers start transmitting as soon as the cable becomes free, another collision will occur. Ethernet requires each computer to delay after a collision. The standard specifies a maximum delay, d, and requires each computer to choose a random delay less than d. In this case, the computer choosing the shortest delay will transmit first.

If subsequent collisions still occur, the computers double the maximum delay

(2d, 4d,

and transmit without a collision. This technique is calledbinary exponential backoff.

) until the range is large enough for one computer to choose a short delay

Media contention occurs when two or more network devices have data to send at the same time. Because multiple devices cannot talk on the network simultaneously, some type of method must be used to allow one device access to the network media at a time. This is done in two main ways: carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) and token passing.

In networks using CSMA/CD technology such as Ethernet, network devices contend for the network media. When a device has data to send, it first listens to see if any other device is currently using the network. If not, it starts sending its data. After finishing its transmission, it listens again to see if a collision occurred. A collision occurs when two devices send data simultaneously.

When a collision happens, each device waits a random length of time before resending its data. In most cases, a collision will not occur again between the two devices. Because of this type of network contention, the busier a network becomes, the more collisions occur. This is why performance of Ethernet degrades rapidly as the number of devices on a single network increases.

In token-passing networks such as Token Ring and FDDI, a special network frame called a token is passed around the network from device to device. When a device has data to send, it must wait until it has the token and then sends its data. When the data transmission is complete, the token is released so that other devices may use the network media.

The main advantage of token-passing networks is that they are deterministic. In other words, it is easy to calculate the maximum time that will pass before a device has the opportunity to send data. This explains the popularity of token- passing networks in some real-time environments such as factories, where machinery must be capable of communicating at a determinable interval.

must be capable of communicating at a determinable interval. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
must be capable of communicating at a determinable interval. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

For CSMA/CD networks, switches segment the network into multiple collision domains. This reduces the number of devices per network segment that must contend for the media. By creating smaller collision domains, the performance of a network can be increased significantly without requiring addressing changes.

Normally CSMA/CD networks are half-duplex, meaning that while a device sends information, it cannot receive at the time. While that device is talking, it is incapable of also listening for other traffic. This is much like a walkie-talkie. When one person wants to talk, he presses the transmit button and begins speaking. While he is talking, no one else on the same frequency can talk. When the sending person is finished, he releases the transmit button and the frequency is available to others.

When switches are introduced, full-duplex operation is possible. Full-duplex works much like a telephone-you can listen as well as talk at the same time. When a network device is attached directly to the port of a network switch, the two devices may be capable of operating in full-duplex mode. In full-duplex mode, performance can be increased, but not quite as much as some like to claim.

A 100-Mbps Ethernet segment is capable of transmitting 200 Mbps of data, but only 100 Mbps can travel in one direction at a time. Because most data connections are asymmetric (with more data traveling in one direction than the other), the gain is not as great as many claim. However, full-duplex operation does increase the throughput of most applications because the network media is no longer shared. Two devices on a full-duplex connection can send data as soon as it is ready.

Token-passing networks such as Token Ring can also benefit from network switches. In large networks, the delay between turns to transmit may be significant because the token is passed around the network.

Transmission Protocol:

Standards and protocols are required to govern the physical and logical connections between terminals, computers and other equipment. They are vital for data communications and computer networking.

Typically standards fall into two groups: official standards (from national standards bodies) and de facto standards established by common usage.

Standards for LANs (local area networks) were proposed by the American Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), an influential organisation.

and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ), an influential organisation. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ), an influential organisation. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

A recommendation for standards called X-25 for access to and transmission methods for packet switched data networks (PSDNs) were proposed by the CCITT (now it known as ITU-T).

The existence of different standards bodies regulating data communications is obviously a handicap for global standardisation. In addition, manufacturers have developed their own standards to maintain their market position e.g. Digital’s Decnet standards. (The Digital corporation was taken over by Compaq which in turn has been taken over by Hewlett-Packard).

to

develop universal data communication standards to unite standards bodies, computer and telecommunications manufacturers and users.

The

International

Standards

Organisation

(ISO)

took

an

initiative

The ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI ) reference model was put forward as a framework to develop standards for data communication products. An open system is one that is prepared to communicate with any other open system by using agreed rules or protocols on how the communication should take place.

It used a network protocol called IP (Internet Protocol) to handle the interconnection of WANs to LANs. It used a transport protocol call TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) to govern transmission of data. The two are often referred to as TCP/IP and the major protocols of the Internet. It also provided protocols for file transfer (FTP), remote login (TELNET) and e-mail (SMTP). These three protocols are still very important and widely used protocols

Internetworking is the term used for the connection of two networks. The growth of internetworking between LANs and WANs and WANs and WANs led to what is now referred to as the Internet. A computer that provides for the interconnection of two different networks is called a gateway.

interconnection of two different networks is called a gateway . Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
interconnection of two different networks is called a gateway . Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
interconnection of two different networks is called a gateway . Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Transmission Media :

Analog Transmission:

Dominated the last 100 years and is here for a while yet. Network designers made use of the existing telephone network which was aimed at voice transmission. This is actually very poor for computer networking. For example 2 computers connected by a direct cable can achieve a data rate of up to 100 Mbps with very low error rate. Using phone lines, 56 Kbps is the maximum transmission speed with a

relatively high error rate. It is approximately 10 orders of magnitude worse: the cost

of bus ticket to town versus a moon landing is same order of magnitude.

Modems :

Phone lines deal with frequencies of 300 to 3000 Hz. A computer outputs a serial stream of bits (1’s, 0’s). A modem is a device that accepts such a bit stream and converts it to an analog signal, using modulation. It also performs the inverse conversion. Thus two computers can be connected using two modems and phone line.

Using a modem, a continuous signal (tone) is sent in the range 1000 to 2000 Hz. To transmit information, this carrier signal is modulated. Its amplitude, frequency, phase or a combination can be modulated .

Digital Transmission :

Digital transmission takes place in the form of pulses representing bits (1’s and 0’s). This is the type of communication used internally in computers. The high- speed trunks linking central phone exchanges use digital transmission. It has a lower error rate than analog transmission. The local loop (from phone to exchange) is still analog. This must be converted at the exchange to digital. A device called a Codec (coder/decoder) does this. It samples the analog signal 8000 times per second and encodes the signal digitally by representing each sample as a binary number. The technique used is called Pulse Coded Modulation or PCM.

1. Wireed Transmission :

Twisted Pairs :

They are used by telephones for the local loop (connection between your home phone and the local telephone exchange). They carry electrical signals. A tp consists of two insulated copper wires (1mm diameter) twisted to reduce electrical interference.

Capacity: dependent on the distances involved but can be up to several Mbps over

a few Kms. For example ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines offer

speeds from 64Kbps to over 1 Mbps and have been available to home users for Internet access, for several years. More recently (2003), DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and in particular ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) lines are available to home users with speeds of 1.5 to 6 Mbps.

lines are available to home users with speeds of 1.5 to 6 Mbps. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya
lines are available to home users with speeds of 1.5 to 6 Mbps. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

ISDN and ADSL both use digital transmission and so must use a digital line unlike the standard analog telephone line where a modem is used. You must install an ISDN card or an ADSL card into your PC to use an ISDN or ADSL line.

or an ADSL card into your PC to use an ISDN or ADSL line. Twisted Pairs

Twisted Pairs may be shielded (stp) or unshielded (utp) with the shielded having extra insulation. However, it is the rate of twisting (number of twists per inch) that is the most important characteristic. They are also classified into Category-5 (CAT-5) and Category-6 (CAT-6). CAT-5 can carry 10 or 100 Mbps (10/100Mbps) over short distances e.g. up to 100 metres approx.

This is the type of cable that is often used in building to connect PCs to a LAN. Usually, the CAT-5 cable connects to a device know as a hub which is less than 100 metres from each PC. There may be a hub for each floor/laboratory in a building.

CAT-6 cable operates at 100/1000Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) and is typically used to interconnect hubs. It is more expensive than CAT-5 cable. Large organisations frequently have a so-called "backbone" network that interconnects separate LANs in different buildings/rooms as in the diagram below. Over short distances CAT-6 cable may be used but optic fibre is also often used as it can cover longer distances.

fibre is also often used as it can cover longer distances. Coaxial (Coax) Cable : Carry

Coaxial (Coax) Cable :

Carry electrical signals. It consists of a copper core surrounded by 3 outer layers of insulation. It has a high bandwidth and good noise immunity. The original Ethernet standard was based on 10 Mbps coaxial cable. Ethernet is the most popular LAN standard and was developed at Rank Xerox (who also developed the

standard and was developed at Rank Xerox (who also developed the Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
standard and was developed at Rank Xerox (who also developed the Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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mouse, laser printer and Graphical User Interface (GUI) software. Ethernet LANs can be based on tp, coax or optic fibre.

Ethernet LANs can be based on tp, coax or optic fibre. Capacity : 10 to 100

Capacity : 10 to 100 Mbps for distances of up to 1 km. Frequently used in LANs but is being replaced by utp/stp in most LANs.

Optic Fibre :

Uses light to carry data and has a huge bandwidth. Very thin glass fibres used. To date capacity of 1000 Mbps over 1 km is feasible.

used. To date capacity of 1000 Mbps over 1 km is feasible. It is used in

It is used in WANs, LANs for interconnecting hubs and also for linking telephone exchanges. Excellent noise immunity as it does not suffer from electrical interference and is therefore suitable for harsh environments such as factory floor.

Although computing technology is rapidly advancing, it is not gaining ground nearly as fast as communication technology is. Fiber optics is one of the advances that has propelled communication technology into the future at high speeds. Communication over fiber optics requires a source (of light), a line (transmission medium = fiber), and a destination (to detect the light). The light stays within the fiber line because of the angle at which the light hits the surface of the fiber line. Instead of passing through the fiber's surface (like a window), the light bounces off of it (like a mirror). The light propagates down the fiber line because it continually reflects off the surface from the inside; the light never escapes the fiber line until the receiver detects it.

Like copper, fiber optics suffers problems when transmitting over a distance. Attenuation (a weakening of the power of a signal) occurs, as well as dispersion (the spreading out of light waves over a distance). The discovery of solitons has helped wipe out the problem of dispersion, though. A fiber cable is heavily insulated like coax, but it has several differences. The core of the cable is a glass strand, which is surrounded by a thick glass covering, which is then covered by plastic.

When compared to copper for its overall purposes, fiber wins because it is lighter, higher bandwidth, easier to install, harder to tap, and the signal stays stronger longer than in copper. The only drawback to fiber at this point in time is the lack of familiarity among the engineering community with the fiber technology compared to the copper.

community with the fiber technology compared to the copper. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
community with the fiber technology compared to the copper. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

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2. Wireless Transmission :

Line of Sight: Infrared and Microwave Physical cables have a major problem if you have to cross private or public property where it may be difficult or very expensive to get permission, in addition to the costs of laying the cable. Using line of sight transmitters avoids this problem.

Lasers can be used for wireless communication. It is a relatively low cost way to connect two buildings' LANs, but it has drawbacks. The laser is difficult to target on the destination's receiver because the beam is so small. Laser light also diffuses easily in poor atmospheric conditions, such as rain, fog, or intense heat.

Infrared light is used for close-range communication, such as remote controls, because it does not pass through objects well. This is also a plus because infrared communications in one room do not interfere with the infrared communications in another room. Infrared communication is more secure than other options, such as radio, but it cannot be used outside due to interference by the Sun.

Radio waves are easy to generate and are omnidirectional, but have low transmission rates. Also, depending on their frequency, radio waves either cannot travel very far, or are absorbed by the earth. In some cases, though, High Frequency (HF) waves are reflected back to earth by the Ionosphere (a layer of the atmosphere).

Microwaves can be used over long distances e.g. A 100m tower can transmit data for distances over 100 km. Cheaper than digging a trench. Relatively high speeds of 10 Mbps upwards are possible.

Microwave transmission is popular for its ability to travel in straight lines. A source can be directly focused on its destination without interfering with neighboring transmissions. Because they travel in straight lines, though, the curvature of the earth can interfere with the microwave transmitters; the solution to this is the addition of repeaters in between the source and destination to redirect the data path. Microwaves are used for long distance communication (Microwave Communications, Inc.=MCI), cellular phones, garage door openers, and much more.

Satellite: operate in same fashion as microwaves where the satellite operates as a ‘Big microwave repeater in the sky’!! Satellite communication has a high bandwidth giving up 50 Mbps speeds and a given satellite may be able to have many "channels" at this speed.

Wireless: Radio LANs or wireless (Wi-Fi) LANs are becoming common in offices, universities, hotels, restaurants and airports. A wireless LAN enables users to connect to the Internet from a laptop computer with a wireless network card. In UCD, Commerce students use such laptops with wireless cards to connect to the college network, for course work and email.

to connect to the college network, for course work and email. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
to connect to the college network, for course work and email. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks

& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62
& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62
& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62
& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62
& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62
& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62
& Computer Networks Chapter 5. Broad Band Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 62

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Integrated Service Digital Networks (ISDN) :

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a digital communications technology that enables a small business or an individual to connect directly to both the Internet and other sites/users (e.g.: for videoconferencing). ISDN provides a standard interface for voice, fax, video, graphics, and data all on a single telephone line.

Integrated Services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver two simultaneous connections, in any combination of voice, fax,, data, and video, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, and used as needed.

Digital

refers to the fact that it is a purely digital transmission, as opposed to

the analog transmission method used by conventional telephone lines.

Network refers to the fact that ISDN is not simply a point-to-point connection like a leased telephone line ISDN networks extend from the local telephone exchange to the remote user, and include all the switching equipment in between. If your ISDN equipment includes analog capabilities, you can also connect to telephones, fax machines, and analog modems even though they may be connected to standard analog telephone lines.

ISDN service is provided by the same companies that provide telephone service you get much faster, more dependable connections for voice, fax, data, and video all through a single connection.

While not new (ISDN has been around for over 15 years), the advent of international standards has made ISDN viable as telephone companies around the world have upgraded their equipment to these ISDN standards. It is now commonly available in Europe, Japan, Australia, and from most major North American telephone companies AT&T, MCI, and Sprint can provide long-distance ISDN lines for global connections.

One of the reasons for its widespread use is that it works on the ordinary copper wire already in place in the telephone system.

One advantage of ISDN over other digital communications technologies is its ability to handle all types of information such as voice, computer data, studio-quality sound, and video. In addition, up to eight devices (such as telephones, computers, and fax machines) can be connected to one ISDN line. These can all be separate telephone numbers or multiples of the same number allowing one to still ring through while another is busy.

The simplest ISDN connection (called Basic Rate or BRI) consists of two 64 Kbps (kilobits-per-second) data channels (called B-channels) plus a 16 Kbps control

channel (called the D-channel). This is sometimes referred to as

2B+D.

On the other end of the spectrum is Primary Rate ISDN (called PRI) with 23

B-channels plus a D-channel (i.e.:

23B+D

).

(called PRI) with 23 B-channels plus a D-channel (i.e.: 23B+D ). Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,
(called PRI) with 23 B-channels plus a D-channel (i.e.: 23B+D ). Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA,

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks Broad Band ISDN : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

Broad Band ISDN :

Data Communication & Computer Networks Broad Band ISDN : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
Data Communication & Computer Networks Broad Band ISDN : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
Data Communication & Computer Networks Broad Band ISDN : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page
Data Communication & Computer Networks Broad Band ISDN : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page

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ATM Traffic Mgmt :

In the latest generation of IP networks, with the growing implementation of Voice over IP (VoIP) and multimedia applications, the addition of voice and video traffic to the traditional IP data network has become increasingly common. Voice, video, and data traffic types have different transmission characteristics and service- level requirements.

The ATM technology is well-suited to transport mixed traffic because of its built-in ability to negotiate and guarantee a certain level of quality of service (QoS) from the source to the end device. This makes ATM a desirable transport method for mixed traffic through an IP network over a WAN.

Traffic Characteristics :

Voice, video, and data traffic are differentiated by the following transmission characteristics:

• Voice—Traffic flows with a regular pattern at a constant rate that is sensitive to

delay and delay variation. When compression techniques are in use, voice traffic is

more sensitive to error than uncompressed voice.

• Video—Real-time video traffic has similar transmission characteristics to voice

traffic, but also requires high bandwidth. When compression techniques are in use, video traffic is more sensitive to error than uncompressed video.

• Data—Traffic flows with an irregular pattern that is often called bursty because of

its variability in rate and amount of traffic. Data traffic is not sensitive to delay or delay variation, but it is sensitive to error.

Traffic management is vital to the performance and overall health of the ATM network. ATM uniquely satisfies the different transmission requirements of mixed traffic on a common network through its multiple service categories and QoS implementation.

Traffic Contract

An ATM WAN is frequently a public network owned and managed by a service provider who supports multiple customers. These customers agree upon and pay for a certain level of bandwidth and performance from the service provider over that WAN. This agreement becomes the basis of the traffic contract, which defines the traffic parameters and the QoS that is negotiated for each virtual connection for that user on the network.

References to the traffic contract in an ATM network represent a couple of things. First, the traffic contract represents an actual service agreement between the user and the service provider for the expected network-level support. Second, the traffic contract refers to the specific traffic parameters and QoS values negotiated for

to the specific traffic parameters and QoS values negotiated for Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
to the specific traffic parameters and QoS values negotiated for Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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an ATM virtual connection at call setup, which are implemented during data flow to support that service agreement.

The traffic contract also establishes the criteria for policing of ATM virtual connections on the network to ensure that violations of the agreed-upon service levels do not occur.

ATM Traffic Parameters

The following traffic parameters are used to qualify the different ATM service categories:

Minimum Cell Rate (MCR)—Cell rate (cells per second) at which the edge device is always allowed to transmit.

For UBR+, the MCR is the minimum cell rate requested by the edge device as a guaranteed service-level for the SVC.

Peak Cell Rate (PCR)—Cell rate (cells per second) that the edge device cannot

exceed. Some service categories have a limit on the number of cells that can be sent

at the PCR without penalty for violation of the traffic contract.

Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT)—Allowable deviation in cell times for a

PVC that is transmitting above the PCR. For a given cell interarrival time expected

by the ATM switch, CDVT allows for some variance in the transmission rate. It allows

a certain number of cells to arrive faster than the expected cell interarrival time without penalty for violation of the traffic contract.

Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR)—Upper boundary for the average rate at which the edge device can transmit cells without loss.

Maximum Burst Size (MBS)—Number of cells that the edge device can transmit

up to the PCR for a limited period of time without penalty for violation of the traffic

contract.

ATM QoS Parameters

The ATM Forum specifications define specific QoS parameters that are used to manage cell delay and cell loss over the ATM network for each of the different ATM service categories. Some of these QoS parameters are considered negotiable and some are not.

For SVCs, ATM switches evaluate the requested traffic parameters and QoS parameters using the Connection Admission Control (CAC) algorithm. CAC ensures that the requested QoS can be served throughout the duration of the connection over the network, from the source to the destination, without impacting other connections.

source to the destination, without impacting other connections. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 70
source to the destination, without impacting other connections. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 70

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Negotiable QoS Parameters

The following cell delay and cell loss parameters are considered negotiable because the information is exchanged through signaling between the UNI edge device and the network-to-network interface (NNI) switch while an ATM connection is being established.

Cell Delay Parameters

The ATM Forum specifications support two negotiable parameters for cell

delay:

Maximum cell transfer delay (maxCTD)—Maximum length of time allowed for

the network to transmit a cell from the source UNI device to the destination UNI device.

Peak-to-peak cell delay variation (peak-to-peak CDV)—Maximum variation

allowed from the fixed CTD for each cell transmitted from the source UNI device to the destination UNI device. Represents the allowable jitter, or distortion, between cell interarrival times over the network.

Cell Loss Parameters

The ATM Forum specifications support the following negotiable parameter for cell loss:

Cell loss ratio (CLR)—Allowable percentage of cells (lost cells divided by total number of cells transmitted) that the network can discard due to congestion.

Non-Negotiable QoS Parameters

The following QoS parameters are not exchanged during connection setup on the ATM network:

Cell error ratio (CER)—Allowable percentage of cells (errored cells divided by the total number of all transmitted cells) that can be in error.

Severely errored cell block ratio (SECBR)—Allowable percentage of cell

blocks (severely errored cell blocks divided by the total number of transmitted cell blocks) that can be severely in error. A cell block is a number of consecutively transmitted cells on a particular connection. A cell block is considered severely errored when more than a maximum numbe of errored cells, lost cells, or misinserted cells occur within that cell block.

Cell misinsertion rate (CMR)—Allowable rate of misinserted cells (misinserted

cells divided by the time period during which misinserted cells were collected). This rate does not include severely errored cell blocks. Misinserted cells are cells that are received with an incorrect VPI/VCI value.

are cells that are received with an incorrect VPI/VCI value. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
are cells that are received with an incorrect VPI/VCI value. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Congestion on an ATM Network

Well-behaved traffic that conforms to the agreed-upon service levels is critical to the performance of the public ATM WAN. Without the proper controls and management in place, there is the potential for certain customers to consume bandwidth above the agreed-upon rate. This can cause congestion, which not only prevents other user traffic from its right to access that bandwidth, but can cause significant degradation to the performance on the network.

The cost of congestion to ATM network performance is better understood when you consider what happens if one or more cells are marked and dropped during transmission of a packet. Consider an AAL5 PDU. It is important to recall that the cells are reassembled and the CRC of a packet is checked at the destination.

This means that regardless of when or how many cells are dropped during transmission, all of the remaining cells associated with the packet are still transmitted across the ATM network. Then, when the destination receives the last cell with the end-of-message bit turned on, it reassembles the cells. When an application [such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)] detects an error in the packet due to the lost cells, it requests that the source resend the entire packet.

This results in more traffic being sent across the ATM network, creating even more congestion, which makes the problem worse. The congestion problem can grow exponentially out of control.

When congestion occurs, packets are marked and dropped, which causes retransmissions. A disruptive phenomenon called global synchronization can occur network wide, particularly with TCP applications. During a global synchronization event, the queues fill and retransmissions occur. If the backoff period (or window) for retransmissions is too close, then when the cells are retransmitted onto the network, the queues again quickly fill and the cells are dropped again.

Even with an ATM network that has been traffic engineered, congestion on the network can occur. The ATM public network also must be configured properly to manage all of the flows from the UNIs and NNIs that it supports. However, effective management of traffic on the ATM network begins with well-managed ATM traffic at the edge devices, such as the Cisco 7200 series router.

Therefore, the primary goal of ATM traffic management is congestion prevention at the UNI interface. If the UNI device can present cells to the public ATM network in a predictable way, then the ATM network can be more efficient and effectively managed.

Traffic Control Functions in ATM Traffic Management

Two of the most important aspects of ATM traffic management are the traffic control functions of shaping and policing. The Cisco 7200 series routers support both of these traffic control functions for ATM.

routers support both of these traffic control functions for ATM. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
routers support both of these traffic control functions for ATM. Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Traffic Shaping

Traffic shaping at the edge device of an ATM network is considered a preventive measure for the control of network congestion. Traffic shaping controls the flow of traffic onto the network to smoothe out peaks of traffic.

The concept of traffic shaping is particularly relevant for data transfer, which is characterized by variable bursts of traffic onto the network. These bursts create peaks of traffic, and can cause periodic violations to the traffic contract by exceeding the allowable rate of transfer. Bursty traffic patterns also make inefficient use of the network bandwidth.

Traffic Shaping on the Cisco 7200 Series Router

The Cisco 7200 series router is normally an edge device located on the UNI

side of the ATM network. It is very important to configure traffic shaping on the Cisco

7200 series router to effectively control the traffic going onto the ATM network to

conform to the traffic contract—but it is only one aspect of the flow.

When you implement traffic shaping, cells are sent onto the network in consistent patterns of cells with fixed, minimum intercell gaps. This rate is based on the traffic shaping parameters that you configure for that PVC or SVC.

However, by shaping the traffic, and with the likely support of multiple service categories with competing transmission characteristics, you effectively create congestion on the router itself—this is where queueing comes in, and also the availability of certain Cisco IOS QoS software features to manage the performance of the queues.

You begin with traffic shaping to configure the performance levels that you want to support on the ATM network. From there, because traffic shaping produces congestion, you need to optimize the applicable hardware and software queues to increase overall performance of the flow of traffic through the router.

Port Adapter Support for Traffic Shaping on the Cisco 7200 Series Router

It is very important to understand that each ATM port adapter on the Cisco

7200 series routers supports different ATM service categories and also implements

traffic shaping functions uniquely.

All ATM port adapters support traffic shaping on the Cisco 7200 series routers except the PA-A1 ATM port adapter. Although the PA-A1 does support the UBR service category, this is a best-effort service and technically does not perform the function of shaping the traffic over the PVC.

The PA-A3 ATM port adapter and PA-A6 ATM port adapter provides enhanced functionality to the PA-A1 port adapter, and are highly recommended for

to the PA-A1 port adapter, and are highly recommended for Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
to the PA-A1 port adapter, and are highly recommended for Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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ATM traffic shaping. The PA-A6 ATM port adapter is an enhanced version of the PA- A3 ATM port adapter and supports twice as many virtual circuits.

Design Objectives for ATM Traffic Management

The result of successful ATM traffic management is the efficient transport of traffic through the network with minimization of congestion, while providing fair and sufficient bandwidth access for all service categories when needed.

To efficiently transport mixed traffic through an ATM network, the challenge lies in meeting the following design objectives over the network:

• Prevent congestion on the network by creating a more consistent flow of traffic at the edge device—this is known as traffic shaping.

• Control cell delay and cell loss while satisfying the transmission requirements of the different traffic types—this is the basis of QoS for ATM.

• Maximize the use of network bandwidth to fulfill the traffic contract, but prevent a particular application or location from monopolizing the bandwidth—this is part of queue management on the Cisco 7200 edge device; and, on the ATM network, the enforcement of bandwidth usage is known as traffic policing.

Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) :

policing . Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
policing . Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
policing . Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
policing . Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
policing . Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
policing . Introduction to Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) : Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti) Page 75
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Chapter 6. IP Adressing & Routing

IP addresses :

Chapter 6. IP Adressing & Routing IP addresses : Internet Protocols : Internet Architecture and Philosophy

Internet Protocols :

Internet Architecture and Philosophy

A TCP/IP internet provides three sets of services as shown in the following figure:

three sets of services as shown in the following figure: Connectionless Delivery System  The most

Connectionless Delivery System

The most fundamental internet service consists of a packet deliver system, which is

unreliable, best-effort, and connectionless.

Unreliable: packets may be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of order.

Connectionless: each packet is treated independently from all others.

Best-effort: the Internet software makes an earnest attempt to deliver packets.

Purpose of the Internet Protocol

The IP protocol defines the basic unit of data transfer (IP datagram)

IP software performs the routing function

IP includes a set of rules that embody the idea of unreliable packet delivery:

How hosts and routers should process packets

How and when error messages should be generated

packets  How and when error messages should be generated Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
packets  How and when error messages should be generated Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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The conditions under which packets can be discarded.

IP Datagram Encapsulation

IP Datagram Encapsulation for Ethernet

Encapsulation IP Datagram Encapsulation for Ethernet IP Header :  IP Header Format  VERS: current

IP Header :

IP Header Format

Encapsulation for Ethernet IP Header :  IP Header Format  VERS: current version is 4,

VERS: current version is 4, I.e. IPv4

- proposal for IPv6, which will have a different header

HLEN: header length in # 32-bit words

- Normally = 5, i.e. 20 octet IP headers

- Max 60 bytes

- Header can be variable length (IP option)

TYPE OF SERVICE 3-bit precedence field (unused), 4 TOS bits, 1 unused bit set to 0

precedence field (unused), 4 TOS bits, 1 unused bit set to 0 Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash
precedence field (unused), 4 TOS bits, 1 unused bit set to 0 Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

- TOS bit 1 (min delay), 2 (max throughput), 3 (max reliability), 4 (min cost): only one can be set

- typically all are zero, for best-effort service

- DiffServ proposes to use TOS for IP QOS

TOTAL LENGTH: of datagram, in bytes

- Max size is 65535 bytes (64K – 1)

IDENT, FLAGS, FRAGMENT OFFSET:

- Used for fragmentation and reassembly, will talk about this later

TTL (Time To Live): upper limit on # routers that a datagram may pass through

- Initialized by sender, and decremented by each router. When zero, discard datagram. This can stop routing loops

- Example: ping –t TTL IP allows us to specify the TTL field

- Question: normal users are not supposed to be able to modify the TTL field, how does ping do that? (the SetUID concept)

- Question: How to implement traceroute? i.e., how to find the routers to a destination (without using IP options)?

TYPE: IP needs to know to what protocol it should hand the received IP datagram

- In essence, it specifies the format of the DATA area

- Demultiplexes incoming IP datagrams into either UDP, TCP, ICMP…

HEADER CHECKSUM

- 16-bit 1’s complement checksum

- Calculated only over header

- Recomputed at each hop

An example of IP datagram

- Header length: 20 octet

- TYPE: 01 (ICMP)

- Source IP: 128.10.2.3

- Destination IP: 128.10.2.8

IP OPTIONS

- IP OPTIONS field is not required in every datagram

- Options are included primarily for network testing or debugging.

- The length of IP OPTIONS field varies depending on which options are selected.

Record Route Option

- The sender allocates enough space in the option to hold IP addresses of the routers (i.e., an

- empty list is included in the option field)

- Each router records its IP address to the record route list

- If the list is full, router will stop adding to the list

list - If the list is full, router will stop adding to the list Prof. Jadhav
list - If the list is full, router will stop adding to the list Prof. Jadhav

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

Timestamp Option

- Works like the record route option

- Each router along the path fills in a 32-bit integer timestamp

Source Routing

- It provides a way for the sender to dictate a path through the Internet.

- Strict Source Routing

o

The list of addresses specifies the exact path the datagram must follow to reach its destination

o

An error results if a router cannot follow a strict source route

-

Loose Source Routing

o

The list of addresses specifies that the datagram must follow the sequence of IP addresses, but allows multiple network hops between successive addresses on the list

-

Question: how are these two types of source routing implemented?

IP Fragmentation :

Why do we need fragmentation?

- MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit

- An IP datagram can contain up to 65535 total octets (including header)

- Network hardware limits maximum size of frame (e.g., Ethernet limited to 1500 octets, i.e.,

- MTU=1500; FDDI limited to approximately 4470 octets/frame)

Illustration of When Fragmentation is Needed :

octets/frame) Illustration of When Fragmentation is Needed :  IP fragmentation - Routers divide an IP

IP fragmentation

- Routers divide an IP datagram into several smaller fragments based on MTU

- Fragment uses same header format as datagram

- Each fragment is routed independently

How is an IP datagram fragmented?

is routed independently  How is an IP datagram fragmented? Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
is routed independently  How is an IP datagram fragmented? Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

- IDENT: unique number to identify an IP datagram; fragments with the same identifier

- belong to the same IP datagram

- FRAGMENT OFFSET:

 

o

Specifies where data belongs in the original datagram

o

Multiple of 8 octets

FLAGS:

- bit 0: reserved

- bit 1: do not fragment

- bit 2: more fragments. This bit is turned off in the last fragment (Q:

why do we need this bit? A: the TOTAL LENGTH field in each fragment refers to the size of the fragment and not to the size of the original datagram, so without this bit, the destination does not know the size of the IP datagram)

An Example of IP Fragmentation :

size of the IP datagram) An Example of IP Fragmentation :  Example: Header + 400

Example: Header + 400 + 400 + 400

- Header 1: FLAGS=001 and OFFSET = 0

- Header 2: FLAGS=001 and OFFSET = 400/8 = 50

- Header 2: FLAGS=000 and OFFSET = 800/8 = 100

How are IP fragments reassembled?

- All the IP fragments of a datagram will be assembled before the datagram is delivered to

- the layers above.

- Where should they be assembled? At routers or the destination?

o They are assembled at the destination.

- IP reassembly uses a timer. If timer expires and there are still missing fragments, all the fragments will be discarded.

Question: if you are implementing the IP fragmentation, what (malicious) situations do you need to consider? Malicious situations are

) situations do you need to consider? Malicious situations are Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)
) situations do you need to consider? Malicious situations are Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

Prof. Jadhav Dattatraya Subhash (SICS-MCA, Korti)

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Data Communication & Computer Networks

those that are intentionally created by adversaries, rather than occurring naturally.

- What do you do if you never get the last missing piece?

- What do you do if you get overlapping fragments?

- What do you do if the last byte of a fragment would go over the maximum size of an IP packet, i.e., if the size of all reassembled fragments is larger than the maximum size of an IP packet?

IP Spoofing :

Spoofing:

- Any host can send packets pretending to be from any IP address

- Replies will be routed to the appropriate subnet.

Egress (outgoing) Filtering

- Remove packets that couldn't be coming from your network; however it doesn't benefit you directly, so few people do it.

Ingress (incoming) Filtering: remove packets from invalid (e.g. local) addresses.