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HALF WAVE DIPOLE ANTENNA GROUP MEMBERS: Amol Bhujbal (E-304) Priya Lotankar (E-321) Karan Parmar (E-352)

Hardik Varia (E-370) A dipole antenna, is an antenna with a center-fed driven element for transmitting or receiving radio frequency energy. These antennas are the simplest practical antennas from a theoretical point of view. DESIGN OF SIMPLE DIPOLE ANTENNA: It is very easy to create a simple 1/2 wave dipole, all you need is some lengths of wire such as the core of some mains flex or even a straightened out metal coat hanger, some co-ax cable and a connector for your scanners antenna input (usually BNC ). The formula to calculate the length of the antenna is 147/frequency in MHz, this give the total length of the dipole in centimetres. For example, to make a 900MHz dipole: 147/900 = 16.3cm so each element of the dipole should be 8.15cm. Connect one end of each cut wire to one side of a piece of choc block and to the other side connect the core and shield of a length of 75 ohm co-ax. Put a suitable connector for your scanner onto the other end of the co-ax and hang the antenna in a suitable position with the element that is connected to the center core of the co-ax pointing upwards. Coax is not symmetrical and thus not a balanced feeder. It is unbalanced, because the outer shield is connected to earth potential at the other end. The balanced 75 ohm impedance of a dipole should really be matched to the unbalanced impedance of the co-ax using a balun. The mismatch will degrade the performance a little as it will reduce the overall sensitivity and possibly allow the co-ax feeder to act as an antenna and pick up some noise generated from within the building.

CONNECTOR: The BNC connector is a type of RF connector used for terminating coaxial cable. USE: The BNC connector is used for RF signal connections, both for analog and Serial Digital Interface video signals and on nearly every piece of electronic test equipment. This connector is an alternative to the RCA connector when used for composite video on commercial video devices. BNC connectors were commonly used both on cable interconnections and network cards. SPECIFICATIONS: BNC connectors exist in 50 and 75 ohm versions. Originally all were 50 Ohm and were used with cables of other impedances, the small mismatch being negligible for lower frequencies. The 75 ohm types can be recognized by the reduced or absent dielectric in the mating ends. These connectors can be used in a variety of applications where true 75 performance is needed to insure low signal distortion. Typically, they are specified for use at frequencies up to 4 and 2 GHz, respectively. Reference: www.zorg.org www.wikipedia.org