Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species (depending on which taxonomic system is used) of tall perennial grasses of the genus

Saccharum (familyPoaceae, tribe Andropogoneae). Native to warm temperate to tropical regions of Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six meters (six to 19 feet) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed, and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane products include table sugar, falernum, molasses, rum, cachaa (the national spirit of Brazil), bagasse and ethanol.

Vegetable fats and oils

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Vegetable oil" redirects here. For other uses, see Vegetable oil (disambiguation).

Plant oils

Olive oil


Vegetable fats





Drying oil - Oil paint

Cooking oil

Fuel - Biodiesel


Saturated fat

Monounsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fat

Trans fat

Vegetable fats and oils are lipid materials derived from plants. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides, as contrasted with waxes which lack glycerin in their structure. Although many plant parts may yield oil,[1] in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from seeds. The melting temperature distinction between oils and fats is imprecise, since definitions of room temperature vary, and typically natural oils have a melting range instead of a single melting point since natural oils are not chemically homogeneous. Although thought of as esters of glycerin and a varying blend of fatty acids, fats and oils also typically contain free fatty acids, monoglycerides and diglycerides, and unsaponifiable lipids. Vegetable fats and oils may or may not be edible. Examples of inedible vegetable fats and oils include processed linseed oil, tung oil, and castor oil used in lubricants, paints, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other industrial purpos

Tea is the agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and subvarieties

of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and cured using various methods. "Tea" also refers

to the aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot or boiling water,
[4] [5]


is the common name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavour which many enjoy.

The term herbal tea usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs containing no actual tea, such as rosehip tea or chamomile tea. Alternative terms for this aretisane or herbal infusion, both bearing an implied contrast with tea. This article is concerned exclusively with preparations and uses of the tea plant,Camellia sinensis, the Minnan word for which is the etymological origin of the English word tea.

Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark, slightly acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant, colloquially called coffee beans. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia,South Asia and Africa. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.

Coffee can have a stimulating effect on humans due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most[2]

consumed beverages in the world.

Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world.

The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of

[3] [4]

the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.

In East Africa and Yemen,

it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Churchbanned its secular consumption, a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons,

and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.

Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds or "beans", are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.