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5o/utio lndebiti !

urldlcal relaLlon whlch ls creaLed when someLhlng ls recelved when Lhere ls no rlghL Lo demand lL and lL was
unduly deflned Lhrough mlsLake 1he requlslLes are
a) 1here ls no rlghL Lo recelve Lhe Lhlng dellvered and
b) 1he Lhlng was dellvered Lhrough mlsLake
aymenL of someLhlng noL owlng
We are obllged Lo reLurn anyLhlng dellvered by mlsLake or anyLhlng we have no rlghL Lo recelve
aymenL by mlsLake of an obllgaLlon whlch was noL due when pald
SoluLlo lndeblLl ls a quaslconLracL lL arlses when a person Lhrough mlsLake pays whaL ls noL due by hlm under any clvll or naLural
obllgaLlon elLher because Lhere was never an obllgaLlon or because lL was already exLlngulshed or because he pays LhaL whlch ls due
buL noL by hlm or because he pays LhaL whlch ls due buL noL Lo Lhe person who recelves lL 1he essenLlal condlLlons for Lhe exlsLence
of lndeblLl soluLlo are
a) Lhere musL be paymenL glven wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo fulflll an obllgaLlon whlch ls belleved Lo exlsL
b) Lhere musL be Lhe absence of a cause for paymenL
c) Lhe person musL have pald under Lhe mlsLaken bellef LhaL such debL was due by hlm
When one has erroneously glven or performed someLhlng Lo or for anoLher for whlch he was ln no wlse bound he may redemand
lL as lf he had only lenL lL 1he Lerm soluLlo lndeblLl ls here used ln a very wlde sense and lncludes also Lhe case where one
performed labor for anoLher or assumed Lo pay a debL for whlch he was noL bound or rellnqulshed a rlghL or released a debL under
Lhe lmpresslon LhaL he was legally bound Lo do so
xompleAtvlo oweJ loo tbe som of l1 00000 8y mlstoke Atvlo polJ l2 00000 loo bos tbe obllqotloo to tetoto tbe l1 00000
excess becoose tbete wos poymeot by mlstoke

Negot|orum Gest|o volunLary managemenL of Lhe properLy or affalrs of anoLher wlLhouL Lhe knowledge or consenL of Lhe
volunLary admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe affalr of anoLher whlch ls abandoned
volunLary admlnlsLraLlon of Lhe properLy buslness or affalrs of a Lhlrd person wlLhouL Lhe consenL or auLhorlLy of lLs owner
underLaklng formed wlLhouL agreemenL
or examp|e whlle you are Lravellng abroad a Lyphoon hlLs your home Lown and Lhe rooflng of your house ls ln danger 1o avold
Lhe caLasLrophlc slLuaLlon your nelghbor does someLhlng urgenLly necessary ?ou are Lhe prlnclpal and your nelghbor here ls Lhe
gesLor Lhe acL of whlch saved your house ls Lhe negoLlorum gesLlo
lrom LaLln negoLlor aLus Lo carry on buslness + gesLlo onls Lo manage
A clvll law Lerm meanlng managemenL of Lhe buslness of anoLher under Lhls prlnclple a parLy who volunLarlly Lakes care of Lhe
affalrs of anoLher person wlLhouL any express or lmplled auLhorlLy from LhaL person may clalm relmbursemenL of hls necessary and
useful expenses wheLher he has been successful or noL negoLlorum gesLlo ls Lherefore Lhe llkely orlgln of Lhe concepL of salvage
(lnfra) ln marlLlme law
Lxampe Ilctot o weoltby looJowoet soJJeoly left fot obtooJ leovloq bls llvestock fotm oootteoJeJ komoo o oelqbbot of Ilctot
moooqeJ tbe fotm tbeteby locottloq expeoses wbeo Ilctot tetotos be bos tbe obllqotloo to telmbotse komoo fot tbe expeoses
locotteJ by blm ooJ to poy blm fot bls setvlces lt ls boses oo tbe ptloclple tbot oo ooe sboll eotlcb blmself ot tbe expeose of oootbet

Cu|pa Contractua| negllgence ln Lhe performance of an obllgaLlon/conLracL

Neg||gence ls Lhe omlsslon Lo do someLhlng whlch a reasonable man gulded by Lhose conslderaLlons whlch ordlnarlly regulaLe Lhe
conducL of human affalrs would do or Lhe dolng of someLhlng whlch a prudenL and reasonable man would noL do
1he fallure Lo observe for Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe lnLeresL of anoLher person LhaL degree of care precauLlon and vlgllance whlch Lhe
clrcumsLances [usLly demand whereby such person suffers ln[ury

Cu|pa Aqu|||ana LorLs / CuasldellcL"
wrong commlLLed agalnsL a person lndependenL of conLracL wlLhouL crlmlnal lnLenL
negllgence as a source of obllgaLlon
lncludes noL only negllgence buL lnLernaLlonal crlmlnal acLs as well such as assaulL and baLLery false lmprlsonmenL and decelL

wblle ttyloq to poss eocb otbet oo o oottow btlJqe o posseoqet ttock ooJ ptlvote ootomoblle colllJeJ ooJ tbe plolotlff o posseoqet
lo tbe ttock wos lojoteJ
1be owoet of tbe posseoqet ttock wos moJe o JefeoJoot oltbooqb o Jtlvet wos Jtlvloq tbe ttock ooJ tbe owoet of tbe cot wos olso
moJe o JefeoJoot oltbooqb be wos oot lo tbe cot bot wblcb wos beloq Jtlveo by bls 18 yeot olJ soo ooJ lo wblcb membets of bls
fomlly wete tbeo tlJloq 1be coott foooJ botb Jtlvets oeqllqeot bosloq bosloq tbe lloblllty of tbe owoet of tbe ttock to tbe plolotlff oo
tbe coottoct of cottloqe wblle tbe lloblllty of tbe owoet of tbe cot wos boseJ oo OooslJellct of tbe clvll coJe As oqolost tbe owoet
of tbe ttock tbete wos colpo coottoctool wblle os oqolost tbe owoet of tbe cot tbete wos colpo Apolllooo

|st|nct|ons between Cr|mes and Cu|pa Aqu|||ana
Crlmes affecLed Lhe publlc lnLeresL
2 enal law punlshes/ correcLs Lhe crlmlnal acL
3 Cnly acLs covered by enal Law are punlshed (8arredo vs Carcla 73 hll 607 ! 8ocobo 0 1axl c lled wlLh CarreLela)
CullL proven beyond reasonable doubL
3 8eservaLlon Lo flle separaLe clvll acLlon no reservaLlon clvll acLlon ls lmplledly lnsLlLuLed ln Lhe crlmlnal acLlon
6 Lmployer's llablllLy ls subsldlary
Cu|pa Aqu|||ana
Cnly prlvaLe concern
2 8epalrs Lhe damage by lndemnlflcaLlon
3 Covers all acLs LhaL are faulLy or negllgenL
reponderance of evldence
3 no reservaLlon lL's lndependenL from crlme
6 Lmployer's llablllLy ls solldary (labre !r vs CA 23 SC8A 26)
Cu|pa Contractua|
(l) reexlsLlng obllgaLlon beLween Lhe parLles
(ll) laulL or negllgence ls lncldenLal Lo Lhe performance of Lhe obllgaLlon
(lll) uefense of havlng exerclsed dlllgence of a good faLher of a famlly ls noL avallable [usL llke ln crlmlnal acLlon Applled docLrlne of
8espondenL Superlor or MasLer and ServanL 8ule

uas| e||ct LorLs" when Lhey arlse from damage caused Lo anoLher Lhrough an acL or omlsslon Lhere belng faulL or
negllgence buL no conLracLual relaLlon exlsLs beLween Lhe parLles
acL or omlsslon by a person (LorL feasor) whlch causes damage Lo anoLher glvlng rlse Lo an obllgaLlon Lo pay for Lhe damage done
Lhere belng faulL or negllgence buL Lhere ls no preexlsLlng conLracLual relaLlon beLween Lhe parLles
legal wrong commlLLed Lhrough faulL or negllgence on a person or properLy lndependenL of conLracL and wlLhouL crlmlnal lnLenL
negllgenL acL or omlsslon whlch causes harm or damage Lo Lhe person or properLy of anoLher and Lhus exposes a person Lo clvll
llablllLy ln clvll law [urlsdlcLlons as lf Lhe acL or omlsslon was lnLenLlonal (a dellcL)
1he requlslLes of quasldellcL are Lhe followlng
(a) Lhere musL be an acL or omlsslon
(b) such acL or omlsslon causes damage Lo anoLher
(c) such acL or omlsslon ls caused by faulL or negllgence and
(d) Lhere ls no preexlsLlng conLracLual relaLlon beLween Lhe parLles

xomples lf leJto Jtlves bls cot oeqllqeotly ooJ becoose of bls oeqllqeoce blts Iose wbo ls wolkloq oo tbe slJewolk of tbe stteet
lofllctloq opoo blm pbyslcol lojotles 1beo leJto becomes lloble fot Jomoqes boseJ oo pooslJellct

uas| Contract lmplleJlolow coottoct when Lhey arlse /[urldlcal relaLlon and unllaLeral acLs whlch are enforceable Lo Lhe end
LhaL no one shall be un[usLly enrlched or beneflLed aL Lhe expense of anoLher
coottocts ooJ pooslcoottocts JlstloqolsbeJ
lo o coottoct cooseot ls esseotlol tepoltemeot fot lts vollJlty wblle lo pooslcoottoct tbete ls oo cooseot os tbe some ls lmplleJ by
coottoct ls o clvll obllqotloo wblle pooslcoottoct ls o oototol obllqotloo
C 5olotlo loJebltl (loymeot by mlstoke) {Neqotlotom qestlo (moooqemeot of oootbets ptopetty)

u|es of erfect|on of Contract on the |ssue when the contract |s perfected
Genera| u|e ConLracLs (excepL real conLracLs) are perfecLed from Lhe momenL Lhere ls a manlfesLaLlon of concurrence beLween Lhe
offer and Lhe accepLance regardlng Lhe ob[ecL and Lhe cause
LxcepL AccepLance by leLLer or Lelegram whlch does noL blnd Lhe offerror excepL from Lhe Llme lL came Lo hls knowledge

erfect|on or b|rth of the contract Lakes place when Lhe parLles agree upon Lhe essenLlal elemenLs of Lhe
1he conLracL ls perfecLed when a person called Lhe seller obllgaLes hlmself for a prlce cerLaln Lo dellver and Lo Lransfer ownershlp
of a Lhlng or rlghL Lo anoLher called Lhe buyer over whlch Lhe laLLer agrees ArLlcle 38 of Lhe Clvll Code provldes
ArL 38 8y Lhe conLracL of sale one of Lhe conLracLlng parLles obllgaLes hlmself Lo Lransfer Lhe ownershlp of and Lo dellver a
deLermlnaLe Lhlng and Lhe oLher Lo pay Lherefor a prlce cerLaln ln money or lLs equlvalenL
ConLracLs are generally perfecLed by mere consenL whlch ls Lhe reason why Lhere's such a Lhlng as oral conLracLs lL's a meeLlng of
Lhe mlnds beLween Lhe parLles Lhere's a deflnlLe offer by one person and Lhere's an absoluLe accepLance by anoLher
xamp|es of Cb||gat|ons ar|s|ng from |aw
Art 11S8 Cb||gat|ons der|ved from |aw are not presumed Cn|y those express|y determ|ned |n th|s Code or |n spec|a| |aws are
demandab|e and sha|| be regu|ated by the precepts of the |aw wh|ch estab||shes them and as to what has not been foreseen by
the prov|s|ons of th|s 8ook
Suarez ow qovetoloq obllqotloos JetlveJ ftom low
CbllgaLlons derlved from law shall be governed by Lhe law whlch esLabllshes Lhem ln case of lnsufflency Lhe same shall be
supplemenLed by Lhe provlslons of Lhe clvll code
a) 1he obllgaLlon of husband and wlfe Lo supporL each oLher (ArL 3 lamlly Code)
b) 1he obllgaLlon of a Laxpayer Lo flle hls lncome Lax reLurn (1lLle ll SecLlon 23 nl8C)
c) 1he obllgaLlon of Lhe leglLlmaLe ascendanLs and descendanLs Lo supporL each oLher (ArL 3 lamlly code)
@orres 1he obllgaLlon of Lhe employer Lo pay deaLh beneflLs and funerals expense for hls employee's deaLh whlle ln Lhe course of
employmenL as sancLloned by secLlon 2 and 6 of Lhe Workmen's compensaLlon AcL ls one LhaL arlses from law
e Leon eqol Obllqotloos ot Obllqotloos otlsloq ftom ow
1hey are noL presumed because Lhey are consldered a burden upon Lhe obllgor 1hey are Lhe excepLlon noL Lhe rule 1o be
demandable Lhey musL be clearly seL forLh ln Lhe law le Lhe Clvll Code or Speclal Laws
1hus an employer has no obllgaLlons Lo furnlsh free legal asslsLance Lo hls employee may noL recover hls employees
because no law requlre Lhls and Lherefore an employee may noL recover hls employer Lhe amounL he may have pald a lawyer hlred
by hlm Lo recover damages caused Lo sald employee by a sLranger or sLrangers whlle ln Lhe performance of hls duLles 8uL a person
who wlns money ln gambllng has Lhe duLy Lo reLurn hls wlnnlngs Lo Lhe loser 1hls obllgaLlon ls provlded by law

ArL 3 Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe succeedlng arLlcles Lhe followlng are obllged Lo supporL each oLher Lo Lhe whole exLenL seL
forLh ln Lhe precedlng arLlcle
() 1he spouses
(2) LeglLlmaLe ascendanLs and descendanLs
(3) arenLs and Lhelr leglLlmaLe chlldren and Lhe leglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe chlldren of Lhe laLLer
() arenLs and Lhelr llleglLlmaLe chlldren and Lhe leglLlmaLe and llleglLlmaLe chlldren of Lhe laLLer and
(3) LeglLlmaLe broLhers and slsLers wheLher of full or halfblood (2a)

ArL 7 ln case of leglLlmaLe ascendanLs descendanLs wheLher leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe and broLhers and slsLers wheLher
leglLlmaLely or llleglLlmaLely relaLed only Lhe separaLe properLy of Lhe person obllged Lo glve supporL shall be answerable provlded
LhaL ln case Lhe obllgor has no separaLe properLy Lhe absoluLe communlLy or Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp lf flnanclally capable shall
advance Lhe supporL whlch shall be deducLed from Lhe share of Lhe spouse obllged upon Lhe llquldaLlon of Lhe absoluLe communlLy
or of Lhe con[ugal parLnershlp (n)

ArL 2 1he faLher and Lhe moLher shall [olnLly exerclse parenLal auLhorlLy over Lhe persons of Lhelr common chlldren ln case of
dlsagreemenL Lhe faLher's declslon shall prevall unless Lhere ls a [udlclal order Lo Lhe conLrary
Chlldren shall always observe respecL and reverence Lowards Lhelr parenLs and are obllged Lo obey Lhem as long as Lhe chlldren are
under parenLal auLhorlLy

ArL 720 lf Lhe owner should appear ln Llme he shall be obllged Lo pay as a reward Lo Lhe flnder oneLenLh of Lhe sum or of Lhe
prlce of Lhe Lhlng found(66a)

ArL 038 Any person lncapable of successlon who dlsregardlng Lhe prohlblLlon sLaLed ln Lhe precedlng arLlcles enLered lnLo Lhe
possesslon of Lhe heredlLary properLy shall be obllged Lo reLurn lL LogeLher lL lLs accesslons

ArL 0 1he husband and wlfe are obllged Lo llve LogeLher observe muLual respecL and fldellLy and render muLual help and

ArL 23 When Lhere ls danger LhaL a person obllged Lo glve supporL may lose hls or her forLune because of grave mlsmanagemenL
or on accounL of rloLous llvlng hls or her spouse lf any and a ma[orlLy of Lhose enLlLled Lo be supporLed by hlm or by her may
peLlLlon Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance for Lhe creaLlon of Lhe famlly home

ArL 283 ln any of Lhe followlng cases Lhe faLher ls obllged Lo recognlze Lhe chlld as hls naLural chlld
() ln cases of rape abducLlon or seducLlon when Lhe perlod of Lhe offense colncldes more or less wlLh LhaL of Lhe concepLlon
(2) When Lhe chlld ls ln conLlnuous possesslon of sLaLus of a chlld of Lhe alleged faLher by Lhe dlrecL acLs of Lhe laLLer or of hls famlly
(3) When Lhe chlld was concelved durlng Lhe Llme when Lhe moLher cohablLed wlLh Lhe supposed faLher
() When Lhe chlld has ln hls favor any evldence or proof LhaL Lhe defendanL ls hls faLher (n)