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# Cairo university Faculty of Engineering Irrigation and Hydraulics Dept.

## Fluid Mechanics Civil Engineering

Question 1: A uniform block of steel (SG=7.85) will float at a mercury-water interface as in the shown figure .What is the ratio of the distance a and b for this condition?

## Water a Steel block b Mercury:SG=13.56

Solution:

W FB1

\$ W = F B1 + F B2
* 3 W = s B 8 s , s = 7.85 t m Where:A = cross @ sectional area of the block ` a F B1 = hg B8 disp1 = 13.56 B b B A

F B2 = w B8 disp2 = 1 B a B A
` B` a ` a C ` a

+ # 7.85 B a + b B + = 13.56 B b B + + a B A A A

7.85 Ba + 7.85 B b = a + 13.56 Bb ` a ` a 6.85 Ba = 5.71 Bb af 5.71f f fff f fff ff # f= ffff 0.834 = b 6.85 # The ratio between a&b = 0.834
`

c b a

FB2

Question 2: a. Derive the expression for the piezometric head variation along the direction of movement (direction S) in a fluid that is accelerated at a rate as. Solution:
pf pf pf ff ff ff f ff ff f ff ff f = @ as , ff= @ a z , ff= 0 s z y dp =
f

Z Y S
g

pf pf pf ff ff ff f ff ff ff f ff ff ff f Bds + Bdz + B dy s z y
g f g f

dp = @ as ds @ a z dz p = @ as s @ a z z + c , @ s = 0&z = 0 [ P = P 0 P = @ as @ a z z + P 0

b.The tank of water in the figure is full and open to the atmosphere at appoint A [The tank opening exists only at A].For what acceleration ax in m/s2 will the pressure at point B be (a) atmospheric and (b) absolute? .Note that the atmospheric pressure is given as Pa=103421.4 N/m2. Solution: a. The acceleration ax that makes the pressure atmospheric @B is tan () =ax/g , from geometry ,=45 tan 45 = ax/9.81 ax=9.81(m/s2).

water

ax B

b. Take pressure @B will be zero absolute when ax= Patm=103421.4 (N/m2), h water equiv. =103421.4/9810=10.54 (m) = 86.92 o Tan = ax/9.81, ax= 182.18 (m/s2)

0.6m

0.6m

water

ax B
0.3m

10.24m

Question 3:
For the conditions shown in the opposite figure ,find the force F required to lift the concrete-block gate if the specific gravity of concrete is 2.4.

Solution:

2

N*m 3

## Fresh water Sea water

b c 0.6ff fff fff f 8 conc = B fffB0.3 = 0.085 m 3 4 ` a 23544f fffff ffff ffff W = fffff 0.085 = 1.997 KN B 1000

## Using general law:

b c 0.6ff fff fff f F1 = w B A B-1 ,A = B fff= 0.283 m 2 4` a F1 = 9.81 B0.283 B3 = 8.32 KN S ` a F 2 = sea B A B- 2 ,- 2 = 1.8 m
2

F F1

## F 2 = 10.057 B0.283 B 1.8 = 5.118 KN R \$ F y = zero, # F + F 2 = F1 + w [ F = F1 + W @ F 2 ` a # F = 8.321 + 1.997 @ 5.118 = 5.2 KN R

` a

W F2

Question 4:

a. Derive the general three-dimensional continuity equation and state its assumptions.

Solution:

Y

w +

X Z

@ mass flux
b c
out

mass flux

g f g

in

## vfdyf fff ff fff ff ff f v @ fff ff y 2 = rate of change of mass Q 1

uf fff fff fff ff Bd x d z d y Q 2 x fffffffffffff ffffffffffff ffffffffffff f@ direction infYffffffffff: vf fff fff fff ff Flux Y = @ Bd x d z d y Q 3 y fffffffffffff fffffffffffff ffffffffffff inffffffffffff Z @ direction: wf ffff ffff fff ff Flux Z = @ B dx d z d y Q 4 z f ff ff ff f rate of change of mass = B d x B d y Bd z Q 5 t from 2,3,4 and 5 in 1 uf vf wf f fff fff ffff ff fff fff ffff ff fff fff fff ff ff ff ff f + + = x y z t For steady incompressible flow uf vf wf ff ff fff ff ff ff ff ff ff f f f + + =0 x y z =@
4

Question 4:

b.In the figure, the diameter of the vertical pipe is 10 cm ,and that of the stream discharging into the air at E is 7 cm.Neglecting all losses of energy, what are the pressure heads at B,C and D?

Solution:
Apply B.E between A&E b c vff ff f ef Z a = ffQ v e = 22.15 m + s 2g
3* 0.07ff ffff ffff ff Q = Av = Q B ffffB 22.15 = 0.085 m s 4 2 Qf ff ff f f 0.085 = v d B B0.1 Q v d = 10.82 m + s 4 2

5m B 10m

## Apply BA E between A&B

2 Vff Pff 10.8fff f f ff f f f f f f ffffff Pff ffffff fff f Z a = fbf+ fbf+ Z b [ 25 = 20 + fffffff fbf + f 2g 2 B 9.81 Pff ff ff ff b = @ 0.945 m Bbetween C&A 2 10.8fff f f f f ffffff Pff Pff ffffff fff f f 25 = 10 + fffffff fcf fcf= 9.055m + f[ f 2 B9.81

## C 10cm 7cm D E 10m 25cm

BA E btween A&D 2 10.8fff ff ff ffffff Pff Pff ffffff fff d d 25 = 0.25 + fffffff ff[ ff= 18.8m + ff ff 2 B9.81

Question 5:

1
Referring to the opposite figure, the diameter of the tube at B is 2.5cm.and the diameter of the water jet discharging into the air at C is 3.75cm. (a) If h=1.8m what are the values of the velocity and the pressure head at B? Assume the tube flows full. (b)What is the rate of discharge in m3/s? What would be if the tube were cut off at B?

h B C
d=2.5cm d=3.75cm

Solution:

a A Apply B between points 1&C Pff Vff Pff Vff ff f f ff f f f f ff ff c c 1 + Z1 + f1f= ff Zc + ff+ hlosses , where hlosses is neglected + 2g 2g v2 c ffffff ffffff ffffff 0 + 1.8 + 0 = 0 + 0 + fffffff 2 B 9.81 ww ww ww ww ww ww ww w # vc = q2gh = 5.943 m+ s \$ v b B A b = Vc B Ac continuity equation
2

0.025ff 0.0375ff fffff fffff fff ffffff ffffff ffff # v b = B fffff= 5.934 B B ffffff 4 4 # v b = 13.71 m+ s Apply BA E between points B&C:
2 2 Pff Vff Pff Vff ff ff f fff ff ff f ff c f ff ff ff b b + Zb + = + Zc + c + hlosses , where hlosses is neglected 2g 2g 2 2 Pff 12.371ff 5.943ff ff ff f ffffff ffffff ffff ffffff ffffff ffff b + 0 + fffffff 0 + 0 + fffffff = 2 B 9.81 2 B9.81 Pff ff f b # ff= @ 7.312 m = pressure head at B

3* 0.0375ff @3 ffffff ffffff ffff b A Q = Ac B vc = B ffffffB5.934 = 6.564 B10 m s 4 if the tube cut at B ww ww ww ww ww ww ww w # V b = q2gh = 5.934 m+ s 2

Question 6:
G as

Pg

Find the magnitude and location of the resultant force on the circular arc shown in the figure in each of the following two cases: a. Pg=120.11 KPa abs b. Pg=90.68 KPa abs The arc is 25m long (normal to the paper)

W a te r h=7m

Solution:
a A Pg = 120.11Kpa abs Pg = 120110 @ 1.013 B10 = 18810 Pa 18810f fffff fffff ffff ffff h= = 1.917 9810 ` a b ` ac F x = 0.5 B 9810 B 4 B 4 + 9801 B 7 + 1.917 B4
5

R =4m

Fy R

f

Fx

## F y = 9810 B25 B 12.917 B 4 @ B = 9589674.6 N R F r = 14375566 N

4ff ff ff f 4

passes at center of circle @an angle = 41.84 b A Pg = 90.68 Kpa abs Pg = @ 4500Pa Q h = @ 0.46m F x = 0.5 B 9810 B 4 B 4 B 25 ` a ` a + 7 @ 0.46 B 9810 B 4 B 25 = 8377740 N

4ff ff ff f F y = 9810 B 25 10.54 B4 @ B = 7257837.6 N 4 it willpasses by the center of the circle o but with an angle = 40.9 ,,F r = 11084346 N
` a

2g