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Fleming Valve: A Rectifying Vacuum Tube

In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming, an English physicist, devised the first practical electron tube known as the "Fleming

Valve.

In the early 1910s, he ameliorated the reception of these signals by building up his research on the "Edison Effect" (dark particles smudge the inside of glass light bulbs as current flows through one direction), Fleming attached a light bulb outfitted with two electrodes to a receiving system. In it, electrons flew from the negatively charged cathode to the positively charged anode. As the current within the tube was moving from negative to positive, the weak incoming signal were rectified into detectable direct current.

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

Source: http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/

Audion: An Amplifying Vacuum Tube


In 1906, Lee de Forest, an American scientist, added a third electrode (called a grid) to the electron tube, which is now called a triode. This is a network of small wires around the vacuum tube cathode . Thus, the amplifying vacuum tube, the most recent ancestor of the transistor, was born.

Although solid-state technology overwhelmingly dominates today's world of electronics, vacuum tubes are holding out in two small but vibrant areas. They do so for entirely different reasons. Microwave technology relies on tubes for their powerhandling capability at high frequencies ["Tubes: still vital after all these years," Robert S. Symons, IEEE Spectrum, April, 1998]. The other area--the creation and reproduction of music-is a more complicated and controversial story.
Sources: http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/ http://www.svetlana.com/docs/tubeworks.html

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

ENIAC: The First Computer


The University of Pennsylvania's ENIAC computer, due to its incorporation of thousands of vacuum tubes (18,000 vacuum tubes), filled several large rooms and consumed enough power to light ten homes. The vacuum tube's cathode required a good amount of heat in order to boil out electrons and often burned out. Also, the actual glass tube was fragile and bulky.

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

First Transistor

1947
1st transistor AT&T Bell Lab 1st commercially available TR Raytheon CK703, 1948

3 inventors (John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley) share Nobel prize 1st commercially successful TR Raytheon CK722, 1953 Ge-based pnp low power TR
Source: http://roiconnect.com/transistor.htm

Source: http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/ EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

First Integrated Circuit


Integrated Circuit (IC):
a large number of individual components (transistors, resistors, capacitors, etc.) fabricated side by side on a common substrate and wired together to perform a particular circuit function.

1958, Jack Kilby,


Texas Instrument

A part of news release: October 19, 1961


The aeronautical Systems Division, U.S. Air Force, and Texas Instruments Incorporated, Dallas, Texas, today demonstrated in operation a microminiature digital computer utilizing semiconductor networks. The advanced experimental equipment has a total volume of only 6.3 cubic inches and weighs only 10 ounces. It provides the identical electrical functions of a computer using conventional components which is 150 times its size and 48 times its weight and which also was demonstrated for purposes of comparison. It uses 587 digital circuits (Solid Circuit(tm) semiconductor networks) each formed within a minute bar of silicon material. The larger computer uses 8500 conventional components and has a volume of 1000 cubic inches and weight of 480 ounces. Application of semiconductor networks will give equipments higher reliability than can be achieved presently from conventional components. The improvement will be realized because the integrated structure of the networks minimizes connections and eliminates the individual packaging required for conventional components. In addition, the network is formed by relatively few process steps, allowing a high degree of control, and uses only very high purity material for its fabrication. EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/kilbyctr/jackbuilt.shtml

Moores law
Gordon Moore, a co-founder of Intel said in 1965 Component counts per unit area doubles every two years .
Feature size reduction enables the increase of complexity.

# of devices SSI (Small scale IC) MSI (Medium scale IC) LSI (Large scale IC) VLSI (Very Large scale IC) ULSI (Ultra Large scale IC) GSI (Giga scale integration) RLSI (Ridiculously Large scale IC) ? 1 ~ 100 102 ~ 103 103 ~ 105 105 ~ 106 106 ~ 109 109 ~ Next to GSI

Gordon Moores original graph


EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

Source: http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm

History of IC: Increase of complexity

Intel Quad-Core Itanium Tukwila 2 GHz

Transistor counts: over 2.046 billion transistors (65 nm technology node)

Source: http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

Moores second law

Its a race! Its all about the cost!!! Some semiconductor companies started to drop their effort to develop the next generation semi. technology because of extreme cost.
EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee Source: http://www.ndu.edu/inss/DefHor/DH30/DH_30.htm

History of IC: Decrease of feature size

Minimum feature size (design rule): Samsung 32 Gb NAND flash => 30 nm Intel Knights Corner implementing 50 Intel cores => 22 nm
Virus: ~ 100 nm

Gate oxide thickness is only 1.2 nm for the 65 nm technology node!!! (too easy to tunnel through!!!) This is truly one and only profit generating nanotechnology!!!
EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee
Source: http://www.mentorg.co.jp/N-V/99_3/gif/opc_1.jpg

The smaller feature size the better!


Early generation 16 Mb DRAM Later generation 16 Mb DRAM

80~100 mm

Early 1960s IC
4 TRs and several resistors

Paper clip and 16 Mb DRAM

180 nm lines in 64 Mb DRAM and human hair

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

The larger wafer the better !

2 dia.

12 dia.

18 dia. wafer

# of dies Wafer size


EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

Production cost Wafer size

ITRS

(International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors)

1997 DRAM (half-pitch) 0.25 MPU (gate length) DRAMs Samples 0.20

1999 0.18 0.14

2001 0.15 0.12 -------

2003 0.13 0.10 4-Gbit

2006 0.10 0.07 16-Gbit

2009 0.07 0.05 64-Gbit

2012 0.05 0.035 256-Gbit

256-Mbit 1-Gbit

Logic transistors/cm MPUs ASICs Voltage (V) Wafer size (mm) 3.7 M 8M 1.8-2.5 200 (8) 6.2 M 14 M 1.5-1.8 10 M 16 M 1.2-1.5 18 M 24 M 1.2-1.5 300 39 M 40 M 0.9-1.2 300 84 M 64 M 0.6-0.9 180 M 100 M 0.5-0.6

300 (12) 300

450 (18) 450

Source: http://public.itrs.net/files/1999_SIA_Roadmap/Home.htm EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

ITRS Roadmap: Beyond CMOS

Xe atoms individually placed on a Ni single crystal surface.


Beyond CMOS: Whats next? Quantum devices (QDs)??? Unfortunately, no body knows!!!! In fact, state-of-the-art semiconductor structures will soon be plagued by dopant fluctuation and particle noise problems as well as quantum mechanical effects such as state discretization and tunneling. Quantum dots are beyond the SIA roadmap, since it remains focused silicon scaling. However, QDs do offer near-term applications to far infrared detectors and sources in other material systems. In fact QDs have been developed since the late 80's and several implementations have already reached room temperature operation. Quantum dot device and circuit concepts utilize rather than fight the discreteness of the electron charge and they offer a possible breakthrough in device and circuit technology.
EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee Source: http://hpc.jpl.nasa.gov/PEP/gekco/nemo3D/SIA_roadmap_leap.html

Eelectronics and Nature


Nano manipulation

MEMS devices PCB m cm Diced chip mm

TR on IC Nanotube FET nm m

Grain of sand: ~ 1 mm Human: ~2m

Ant eye segment: ~ 5 m DNA: ~ nm Bacteria: ~ 0.1 m Atom: ~

Ant: ~ 5mm

Hair: ~ 100 m

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

Dollars & Sense


Electronics market

~ $ 1.2 trillion IC sales (annual worldwide)

approximately $ 300 billion (in 2007)

So, what does it mean to me?


Yeah, there are plenty of high salary jobs !!!! FYI: Avg. starting salary for EE graduates $ 52,899 (2006, IEEE Spectrum)

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee

Some fundamental questions


Why study Semiconductor Devices?

They are the backbone of todays cutting-edge technology.


Computers, Communication devices, Transportation (radars, dash board electronics), Scientific instruments, homes (radios, clocks, ) .. Solar cells, LEDs, lasers, CCD sensors, MEMS, ..

Why study the physical operation?

Hey, you are not electricians or technicians. You are engineers.


You need to DESIGN systems. You need to make NEW or IMPROVED devices.

What devices will we study?

Semiconductor devices

p-n junction diodes, Field effect transistors (FETs), and Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)

EE 3310 Electronic Devices, Dr. J.B. Lee