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INFANCY birth (one month to 12 months) Babies have internal clock to regulate sleeping, eating, elimination and perhaps

ps their moods. State of arousal Average 16 hours of sleep daily Wakes up every 2-3 hrs day and night Has 6-8 sleep periods which alternate between quiet and active sleep rapid eye movement (REM) within adults are associated with dreams account for 50 80% of newborns total sleep time. 3 months awake in the afternoon & early evening & sleeps through the night 6 months more than half their sleep occurs at night the amount of REM continuous to decline throughout life Quiet babies maintain their wieght better Activities like rocking, walking them, wrapping them snuggly, letting them hear rhythmic sounds, or sucking on a pacifier Babies exhibit behaviors while awake: 1. sucking 2. sticks tongue in and out 3. smile or rarely smiles 4. more active Parents respond to these behavior differences and babies respond to the way their caretakers treat them. The bidirectional influences have far reaching influences on what kind of person the baby will turn out to be. Thus, from the start babies affect their own lives by molding the environment on which they grow. Weight & Height Growth fastest at 5-6 double birth weight One year it is tripled. Tapers off in 2nd year ( will gain 5-6 lbs.) 3rd year 4-5 lbs. Height 10-12 by 1st yr. = 30 inches tall 2nd year up to 5 2 yrs. 3 ft. 3rd yr. 3-4 Growth occurs in spurts. Head becomes proportionately smaller until full adult height is reached. Becomes leaner Genes dictate height, built but interacts with environment ( Nutrition, living environment freedom from diseases) Breast milk Breast milk or Formula needed until 4-6 months Breast milk best food; up to 6 months complete source of nutrients more digestible than cows milk less likely to produce allergic reactions teeth & jaws tend to develop better compared to bottle fed. Varying degrees of protection from diarrhea, respiratory infection (bronchitis, pneumonia, Otitis media) Better visual acuity & neurological development Emotional & a physical act. Bonding so too with bottle fed. Important quality of relationship between mother & child. Not advisable when mother has AIDS which can be transmitted thru her milk Or with Silicone breast implant Or has infectious illness Or use of any drug harmful for the baby Encourage woman to breastfeed Government institutions feeding Nursery; onsite infant care Cows Milk and Solid food Cows milk lacks iron Can be formula fed at one year with supplementary foods should be whole milk

Teething 3-4 months First tooth arrives 5-9 months 2 years old 20 teeth Use of juice can be interfere with appetite for high calorie, more nutritious food.

EARLY SENSORY CAPACITIES: Touch and Pain Sensitivity Touch first seems to develop & most mature sensory system. Stroking on the mouth of baby when he is hungry rooting reflex By 32 weeks of gestation all parts of body are sensitive to touch Sense of Touch enables people to feel pain e.g. circumcision with anesthesia or pain relieves. Smell can distinguish odors vanilla from strawberry 6 day old baby prefers his mothers breast pad over that of another nursing mother but a 2 day baby will not Taste prefers sweet than sour or bitter. Human breast milk is quite sweet Hearing begins in the womb and is acute before birth. Fetus respond to sounds & even learn to recognize them. One month can discriminate between sounds as close as ba & pa Babies less than 3 day old can recognize the mothers voice from a strangers. Sucks the nipple more when hearing a voice that is recognizable. Known it when they were in their wombs. Hearing correlated with intelligence Sight least well developed Eyes are smaller retinal structures are incomplete optic nerves underdeveloped blinks at bright light Peripheral vision is narrow Ability to shift gaze develops at first 2 months, can tell red from green 3 months, can distinguish blue 4 months, can discriminate among red, green, blue & yellow. Prefers red & blue Neonate focus between from about one foot away mother infant bonding Vision is acute in the 1st year Binocular vision - using both eyes to focus which allows perception of depth & distance 4-5 months Haptic perception, ability to acquire information by handling them rather than by looking at them MOTOR DEVELOPMENT 4 months, begin to develop more deliberate Movements increasing control over body parts maturity of cerebral cortex Repeated practice Skills proceed from simple to complex A continuous, dynamic, multifactorial process of interaction between baby & environment. MILESTONE IN MOTOR DEVELOPMENT DDST ( Denver Development Screening Test) HAND CONTROL Born with a grasping reflex when palm is stroked, it closes tightly 3 months, can grasp an object with one hand and transfer it to the other and then hold but not pick up.

7-11 months, can pick up a tiny object with pincer motion 15 months, build a tower of 2 cubes 3rd birthday, can copy a circle fairly well LOCOMOTION 3 months, roll over purposelfully first from front to back then from back to front. Babies sit by raising themselves from a prone position ( facedown) or by plopping down from a standing position 2 years sit without help 6 months wriggle around on their bellies pull their bodies along with their arms dragging their feet behind. May hitch or scoot by moving along in a sitting position pushing forward with their arms & legs. Bear walk with hands & feet touching the ground. May crawl on hands & knees with their trunks raised, parallel to the floor. 9-10 months, better locomotion 7 months or so, can stand with help 11 months, stand alone 11 months, take their first unsided steps, tumble, go back to crawling & then try again walk toddlerhood climb stairs one at a time walking downstairs come later Baby gates needed COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AMONG INFANT & TODDLERS Intelligent behavior 1. goal oriented deliberate & conscious 2. adaptive adjusting to the circumstances & conditions of life. 4 Approaches to measure intelligent A. Behavioral approach studies the basic mechanics of learning. It is concerned with how behavior changes in response to experience. B. Human beings are born with the ability to learn from experience. Learn from what they hear, see, smell, taste & touch. C. Certain neurological & sensory & motor capacities must be developed before learning can occur.

Types of learning 1. Classical conditioning a person or animal learns to respond automatically to a stimulus that originally did not provoke the response. A person learns to anticipate an event before it happens. E.g. Babkin reflex stroke of forehead while at the same time given sweetened H2O Babkin babies open their mouth and turn their heads when hearing a tone & when arms are moved 2. Operant conditioning baby learns to make a certain response in order to produce a particular effect. (Reward) Infant Memory 2-6 months - can remember to perform an action that brought pleasure D. Piagetian Approach Representational Ability the ability to mentally represent objects & actions to memory largely through symbols such as words, numbers & mental pictures sixth substage 18 months to 2 years. Deferred imitation imitating actions they no longer see in front of them Object Permanence realization that an object or person continues to exist even when out of sight. Basis for childrens awareness that they exist apart from objects & other people. 3rd substage baby will look for something that he has dropped, but if they cant see a part of it, it no longer exists. 4th substage baby looks for the object in a place when he first saw it hidden even if he sees it moved to another place 5th substage he will search for an object in the last place he saw it being hidden, but will not search for in a place he did not see it being hidden. 6th substage look for an object even if he did not see where it is hidden. Inversible imitation imitation using parts of the babys body cant see like mouth develops at 9 months after visible imitation Purpose identity check

Intelligence Tests Habituation type of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus (sound or sight). Results in a reduced response to that stimulus. Allows people to conserve mental energy by remaining alert to things & events in the environment only as they seem to merit attention. New stimulus dishabituation Explanatory competence at 13 months a cognitive activity that seems to underlie the growing variance at that age in the sophistication of toddlers play their ability to sustain attention. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 4 - chuckles aloud Says ngooh & ngaah 7 months da or ga 11 months dada 14 months da for I want that points to everything asking what 2 is? 17 months points to right place where is your nose? Tongue? 21 months 50 words Tells you in his language what he likes & does not like Growth of language represents the interaction of all aspects of development physical, cognitive, emotional, social Early vocalization Crying only means of communication in NB Cry for food or cry of pain. Different pitches, patterns & intensities signal hunger, sleepiness or anger 6 weeks to 3 months cooing, squels, giggles & vowel sound like ahhh Babbling repeating consonant vowel strings such ma-ma-ma-ma (6-10 months) 9-10 months deliberately imitate sounds without understanding Research suggest that hearing the Mother Tongue before may pretune an infants ears to pick up linguistic sounds (& HR when rhyme is recited before birth) 6 months babies have learned the basic sounds of their native language. Gestures 9-12 months waving bye-bye, nodding his head means yes & shaking his head to mean no. 13 months hold an empty cup to his mouth or hold up his arms to show that he wanted to pick up. Symbolic gestures blowing to mean hot First Words 10-14 months first word, linguistic speech verbal expression that conveys meaning. Will show some understanding of grammar, pronunciation, intonation & rhythm. mama ; dada da means I want that or where is dad, a complete thought in a single Word holophrase. Its meaning depends on the content in which the child utters it. 9-10 months words that they understand are their own names 13 months children understand that a word stands for specific thing or event. 15 months 10 words Common early spoken words are names of things; bow mean for dog or specific name for dog. Toddler 50 words to 400 words. Toddlers put two words together to express an idea e.g. Dolly Fall 18-24 months. Telegraphic speech include only the essentials Ma sweep 20-30 months syntax the rule for putting sentences together in their language. Use articles (a, the) prepositions (in, on) 3 year old speech is fluent, longer & more complex Overextend word meanings (grandpa; all are grandpa with gray hair) Facility with language Nature vs. Nature Learn language by reinforcement smile, paying attention to child & talking to him operant conditioning (B.F. Skinner Learning Theory. Imitate & repeat sounds that are reinforced by parents. Nativism (by Chomsky) the child has innate brain functioning on language all in their own nature.

Importance of social interaction how adults talk with ah infant or toddler and how often is crucial to language acquisition. Language is a social set which needs practice. By talking to babies, adults show how to use new words, structure phrases and carry on a conversation. language requisition is anchored on the nature nurture relationship. 1 year baby has some sense of intentional conversation Socioeconomic status seems to affect the amount and quality of verbal interaction between parents and children with their long range language and cognitive development. Psychosocial development in the first 3 years docility in infancy are transferred into strong-willed often times ill-tempered, creatures with minds of their own. Terrible 2; resistance at 3 transition from dependency to independence Personality development is intertwined with social relationships. Emotional reactions to events to people which are tied to cognitive perceptions, are a basic development of personality. Facial expressions varied emotions joy, sadness, fear. Highlights of Infants & Toddlers Psychosocial Development Birth to 36 months (Table 5-1) Approximate Age in Months 0-3 3-6 Characteristics Infants are open to stimulation. They begin to show interest & curiosity, & they smile readily at people. Infants can anticipate what is about to happen & experience disappointment when it does not. This is a time of social awakening and early reciprocal exchanges between the baby & the caregiver. Infants play social games & try to get responses from people. They talk to, touch, & cajole other babies to get them to respond. They express more differentiated emotions, showing joy, fear anger & surprise. Infants are intensely preoccupied with their principal caregiver, may become afraid of strangers, & act subdued in new situations. By 1 year, they communicate emotions more clearly, showing moods, ambivalence & gradations of feeling. Toddlers explore their environment, using the people they are most attached to as a secure base. As they master the environment, they become more confident & more eager to assert themselves. Toddlers sometimes become anxious because they now realize how much they are separating from their caregiver. They work out their awareness of their limitations in fantasy & in play & by identifying with adults.


9 - 12

12 -18

18 - 36

Timetable of Emotional Development (Table 5-2) Emotion Interest Distress (in response to pain) Disgust (in response to unpleasant taste or smell) Anger, surprise, joy, fear, sadness, shyness Empathy, jealousy, embarassment Shame, guilt, pride Approximate Age of Emergence Present at birth soon after First 6 months 18-24 months 30-36 months

EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Soon after birth, babies show signs of distress & disgust & interest. Differentiate into joy, anger, surprise anger, shyness & fear. Seemed to be governed by a biological clock of the brains maturationnecessary for survival. Abused infants show fear several months before other babies. How do infants show their emotions? Newborns show when they are unhappy. They let out piercing cries, flail their arms & legs & stiffen their bodies.

Quiet when hearing a human voice or when picked up, smile when hands are moved together to play pat-a-cake. As time goes by, responds more to people, smiling, cooing, reaching out & finally going to them. When babies need something they cry, when they feel sociable, they smile or laugh. Their sense of control grow over the world grows as they see that their cries bring help & comfort & that their smiles & laughter elicit smiles & laughter in return. Crying the most powerful & they only way infants communicate their need.

4 Patterns of cry: 1. Hunger cry (rythmic cry) 2. Angry cry excess air is forced through the vocal cords 3. Pain cry sudden onset of loud cry without preliminary warning meaning sometimes followed by holding breath. 4. Frustration cry 2 or 3 drawn out cries with no prolonged breathholding. Babies in distress cry louder, longer & more irregularly than hungry babies. At the end of one year less cry especially if mother has been responding to the different patterns of crying. Smiling & laughing a happy cheerful baby who rewards caregiving efforts with smiles & gurgles are likely to form better relationships than one who smile less often. NB faint smile as a result of brain activity appears while infant is sleeping. 2nd week smiles drowsily after feeding. One month smiles become more frequent & more social. Smile when their hands are clapped together. 2nd month as visual recognition develops, babies smile more at people. 3 months smiles are broader & longer lasting 4 months laugh out loud as he is being kissed on the stomach 4-6 months giggles in response to sounds & touch 7-9 months laughs in a game of peek-a-boo Temperament even in the womb, fetuses show unique personalities 8 weeks show differences in emotional response Largely inborn At 2 months old who cries in outrage when given a shot will likely become just as infuriated at 19 months. When a playmate takes away a toy. Easy Child Has moods of mild to moderate intensity, usually positive Responds well to novelty & change Takes to new foods easily Smiles at strangers Adapts easily to new situations Accepts most frustrations w/ little fuss Adapts quickly to new routines & rules of new games Difficult Child Displays intense & frequently negative moods; cries often & loudly; also laughs loudly Responds poorly to novelty & change Accepts new foods slowly Is suspicious of strangers Adapts slowly to new situations Reacts frustration w/ tantrums Adjust slowly to new routines Slow-to-Warm-up Child Has mildly intense reactions, both positive & negative Responds slowly to novelty & change Shows mildly negative initial response to new stimuli (like a first encounter with new person, place, or situation) Gradually develops liking for new stimuli after repeated unpressured exposures

Influences on temperament 1. Heredity 2. Environment parental treatment good marriage, parents are psychologically healthy, high self esteem have good relationship with their babies. Role of parents especially mothers feelings about her role.

Key to healthy adjustment is a good fit between a child & the environmental demands & constraints parents or caregivers set up. Goodness fit between parent & child is a key role in the childs adjustment. The Child in the Family Study the family as a whole 1. How old are the parents? 2. Are they healthy? 3. What is their financial status? 4. How many people live at home? 5. Relationship of the couple with the baby? 6. How does living in a single-parent hold, in a stepfamily, or with grandparents or other relatives? Mothers role; Fathers role in baby care Parenting shaping of Gender Girls are given a wide range of emotions Boys given more attention Girls encouraged to smile; both in integrity emotional expressions Gender typing - the process by which children learn the behavior that their culture considers appropriate for each sex. Boys sets appropriately aggressive behaviors.

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