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CHD Chapter 4

Q. Explain Armstrong method for frequency transmission. Ans. A crystal oscillator is used to provide the stable carrier frequency. A portion of the carrier voltage is fed to a suppressed carrier balanced modulator to which is also fed the pre-emphasized pre-distorted and amplified modulating signal. The modulating voltage amplitude is then proportional to Vm/fm, where Vm is the original modulating voltage amplitude and fm is its frequency. The resulting sideband components are shifted in phase by 90o and are then combined with the amplified carrier voltage in a combining amplifier, giving the desired frequency modulated voltage. Relative amplitudes of the modulating voltage and the carrier voltage are so adjusted that the phase deviation is small, to avoid excessive distortion. As a result, the frequency deviation fd is small. The frequency modulated voltage is fed to 6 frequency doblers. At this stage, the carrier frequency is sufficiently high but the frequency deviation is low. To increase frequency deviation further, the frequency modulated voltage is fed to a frequency changer which shifts the carrier frequency down to a low value. However, the frequency deviation remains unaltered. Subsequently, frequency multipliers raise the carrier frequency to a desired value and frequency deviation to a standard value. After power amplification, the output is fed to the transmitting antenna.

Carrier Amplifie r

Combini ng Amplifier

Six Double rs

Frequenc y Changer

Frequenc y Multiplier s

R.F. Power Amplifier To Antenna

90o Phase Shift

Buffer Amplifie r Balanced Modulato r

Crystal Oscillat or

Crystal Oscillat or

Pre emphas is

Pre distort er
Audio Amplifier

Modulating Voltage Basic Armstrong Demodulator

Frequency multipliers, Frequency changers and Power

Q. Give any 5 differences between pre-emphasis and de-emphasis. Ans.

1. It is improving the signal to noise ratio by increasing the magnitude of higher frequency signals with respect to lower frequency signals. 2. It is done at the transmitting end. 3. It enhances the message signal. 4. It is used in transmitter side to boosting the amplitude of higher modulating signal before modulator. 5. The pre-emphasis circuit is

1. It is improving the signal to noise ratio by decreasing the magnitude of higher frequency signals with respect to lower frequency signals. 2. It is done at the receiving end. 3. It compresses the message signal. 4. It is used in receiver side to reduce the signal & get their original signal. But it is used after demodulator circuit. 5. The de-emphasis circuit is

Q. Write a short note on slope detector. Ans.

The fig below shows the action of the above slope detector in converting a frequency modulated carrier voltage into corresponding amplitude modulated carrier voltage. Thus as the instantaneous carrier frequency

varies in accordance with the variation of instantaneous modulation voltage, the response of the tuned circuit varies correspondingly. The amplitude of the output voltage then varies in accordance with the variation of carrier frequency. This amplitude modulated voltage may then be rectified in diode detector to extract the modulation frequency voltage. If the response of the single tuned circuit is a straight line, then the modulation frequency voltage is identical with the original modulating voltage.

Q. What do you understand by limiters? Mention its types. Ans. The limiter removes from the carrier all amplitude variations which may be caused incidentally by changes in the transmission path, by man-made static or natural static. This suppression of amplitude variation is necessary because in FM receivers, a very large part of the improvement in signal to noise ratio results from this. In an ideal case, a limiter must remove from its output all variations in amplitude arising from variations from the amplitude of the input carrier voltage. The essential requirements of such an ideal limiter are as follows: - (i) it should function at all levels of input carrier and (ii) it should function at all rates of variation of carrier voltage. In the practical limiters, requirement (i) is not fully satisfied at low carrier levels while requirement (ii) is not met at very rapid or very slow rates of variation

of carrier input. Limiters used in FM receivers may use one or both of the following two electrical effects: (i) leak type bias and (ii) early (drain/collector) saturation. Fig. below shows an F.E.T. amplitude limiter using both the above mentioned electrical effects.

The two types of limiters are as follows: 1. Two stage amplitude limiter. 2. AGC in amplitude limiter.

Q. What are the essential design requirements for Foster Seeley discriminator? Ans. The discriminator must be carefully designed. Some of the significant factors are discussed below: 1. Centre Tap The centre tap on the secondary must be situated at the true electrical centre of the circuit. If the secondary is in the form of a single continuous winding, this electrical centre may be at an appreciable distance from the physical centre. 2. Elimination of Capacity Coupling In practice, a small amount of capacitive coupling always takes place between the winding. This distorts the discriminator characteristic. For better result, it is necessary to place between the primary and secondary windings, an electrostatic screen in the form of either flat spiral of wire earthed at one end or a mesh of parallel wires. 3. Balancing of Loads The loads of the two diodes must be accurately balanced under dynamic as well as static conditions. Failing this, this signal to noise ratio deteriorates. This balanced load condition requires that the load resistances R3 and R4 be equal and so also the capacitors C3 and C4.

4. Inequality of DC and AC Loads Another source of distortion is the inequality of the D.C. load and A.C. load of the detector. Thus, here the highest depth of modulation that may be handled without distortion is equal to R1/(R1 + Rl), where Rl is the D.C. load resistance, output across which is coupled by a coupling capacitor Cc to another resistance R1. 5. Distortion due to de-emphasis circuit To avoid this distortion, the deemphasis circuit must have impedance large as compared with the diode load impedance. Q. Draw the circuit diagram of capacitive RC reactance FET modulator and find expression for capacitive reactance of modulator circuit. Ans. The circuit diagram of the capacitive RC reactance FET modulator is as drawn below: -

The circuit equivalent to capacitance FET is as drawn below: -

The above circuit shows that 1/gm is in series with the capacitance gmCR. Thus, Zo = 1/gm + 1/jw gmCR = 1/ gm [1-jXc/R] If Xc >> R, the above equation reduces to the following form: Zo = -jXc/ gmR Thus the impedance offered by FET is the capacitive reactance of a capacitor Cc given by Cc = gmCR From the above equation, we find that: 1. The equivalent capacitance Cc depends on the device transconductance gm and may be varied with bias voltage. 2. The Cc may originally be adjusted to any suitable desired value by varying the components R and C. 3. The term gmCR has the dimensions of capacitance. In practice, gate-to-drain impedance is made 5 to 10 times the gate-tosource impedance. Thus for the capacitive RC reactance FET, let Xc = nR at the carrier frequency. Then, Xc = 1/wC = nR or, C = 1/wnR = 1/2fnR ---- (1)

Substituting this value of C in eqn.(1) we get, Cc = gmCR = gmR/2fnR = gm/2fn i.e. Cc = gm/2fn.

Q. Explain frequency drift and stabilization technique using any example. Ans. One of the frequency drift and stabilization techniques is used in the Reactance Modulator FM Transmitter using AFC Frequency Stabilization. The figure below shows the basic arrangement. Here, the stability of the crystal oscillator is maintained through the use of automatic frequency control (AFC) system. Here the crystal oscillator frequency differs from the centre carrier frequency of the master oscillator by a fixed value say 500 kHz. Thus in the transmitter of the fig. below, the master oscillator centre carrier frequency is 4 MHz, while crystal oscillator frequency is 3.5 MHz, the difference being 500

kHz. This difference frequency is amplified in an I.F. amplifier and then fed to a discriminator designed for operation at 500 kHz. This discriminator gives at its output a d.c. voltage which is positive or negative depending upon whether actual input frequency is greater or less than the prescribed frequency (500 kHz in this case) and the magnitude of this d.c. voltage depends upon the shift f of the incoming frequency from the prescribed value. This output voltage of the discriminator is fed to the base of the reactance BJT in such polarity that the resulting change in the oscillator frequency tends to cancel the frequency drift and thus provide correct prescribed frequency voltage to the discriminator resulting in zero d.c. control voltage at its output. Any incidental frequency drift is thus considerably reduced.

Modulating Voltage
Reactan ce Modulat or

fc = 4 MHz fd = 9.12 Master Oscillat or Buffer Amplifi er Limi ter

Frequen cy Multiplie r

RF Power Amplifi er FM output to antenna

DC control voltage
Discrimin ator


I.F. Amplifie r fc fo = 500 kHz

Frequen cy Mixer

Crystal Oscillato r fo = 3.5 MHz