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nusayba Mohamed 12L

Adolf Hitler (Apr 2, 1889-April 3 1945)

O German dictator, obsessed with superiority oI the 'Aryan race.
O Hitler was born at Braunau am Inn, Austria.
O He rose in politics (despite a brieI time in prison during which he wrote Mein Kampf)
quickly as leader oI the Nazis, Ieeding on German anger over the economy and WWI
O He also Ianned violent anti-Semitism, which later resulted in millions oI Jewish deaths in
concentration camps.
O A German plebiscite vested sole executive power in Fhrer AdolI Hitler Aug 19, 1934.
O In seeking to increase German power, he started WWII in 1939.
O Facing certain deIeat by the Allied Forces, he shot himselI Apr 30, 1945, in a Berlin
bunker where he had been hiding Ior more than three months.

Paul Jon Hindenburg (October 2, 1847-August 2, 1934)
O erman fleld marshal and second presldenL (1923 34) of Lhe Welmar 8epubllc
O orn Lo an arlsLocraLlc famlly he reLlred from Lhe russlan army as a general ln 1911
O 8ecalled Lo duLy ln World War l he commanded erman forces ln LasL russla and became a
naLlonal hero afLer Lhe aLLle of 1annenberg (1914) WlLh Ludendorff as hls chlef alde he
nomlnally commanded all erman forces unLll Lhe end of Lhe war and Lhen reLlred agaln ln
O upporLed by conservaLlve groups he was elecLed presldenL of ermany ln 1923
O When Lhe reaL uepresslon led Lo a pollLlcal crlsls he was pressured Lo make Lhe governmenL
more lndependenL of parllamenLary conLrols
O ln 1930 he allowed Chancellor Pelnrlch runlng Lo dlssolve Lhe 8elchsLag and ln Lhe new
elecLlons Lhe nazl arLy emerged as Lhe second largesL parLy
O ln 1932 Plndenburg was reelecLed presldenL by opponenLs of Lhe nazls however hls advlsers
consldered Lhe nazls useful
O ln 1933 he was persuaded Lo appolnL Adolf PlLler chancellor

nusayba Mohamed 12L
rich Ludendorff (April 9 185-December 2 1937)
O erman general
O ln 1908 he [olned Lhe erman army general sLaff and worked under PelmuLh von MolLke ln
revlslng Lhe chlleffen lan
O ln World War l he was appolnLed chlef of sLaff Lo Plndenburg and Lhe Lwo won a specLacular
vlcLory aL Lhe aLLle of 1annenberg
O ln 1916 Lhe Lwo generals were glven supreme mlllLary conLrol

O 1hey Lrled Lo conducL a LoLal war by moblllzlng Lhe enLlre forces of Lhe home fronL and ln 1917
Ludendorff approved unresLrlcLed submarlne warfare agalnsL Lhe rlLlsh whlch led Lo Lhe u
enLry lnLo Lhe war
O ln 1918 afLer hls offenslve on Lhe WesLern lronL falled he demanded an armlsLlce buL Lhen he
lnslsLed Lhe war conLlnue when he reallzed Lhe severlLy of Lhe ArmlsLlce condlLlons
O ollLlcal leaders opposed hlm and he reslgned hls posL
O Ludendorff lnslsLed he had been beLrayed and for Lhe nexL 20 years he led a blzarre llfe
becomlng a leader of reacLlonary pollLlcal movemenLs and Laklng parL ln Lhe kapp uLsch (1920)
and eer Pall uLsch (1923)

rnst Rhm (Aovember 28 1887- died 1uly 1, 1934)
O erman leader of Lhe A
O Pe rose Lo Lhe rank of ma[or ln World War l oon LhereafLer he helped found Lhe nazl arLy A
supporLer of PlLler he offered PlLler Lhe use of hls prlvaLe sLrongarm force (laLer Lhe A)
O AfLer brlef lmprlsonmenL for hls parL ln Lhe eer Pall uLsch (1923)
O Pe wenL Lo ollvla as a mlllLary lnsLrucLor (1923 30) buL he was recalled by PlLler Lo
reorganlze and command Lhe A
O 8hms amblLlon LhaL Lhe A supplanL or absorb Lhe regular army came Lo be opposed by PlLler
and hls advlsers
O n Lhe preLexL LhaL he and Lhe A were preparlng Lo overLhrow PlLler 8hm was murdered
durlng Lhe nlghL of Lhe Long knlves

Alfred Hugenberg (1une 19, 185-March 12, 1951)
O erman lndusLrlallsL and pollLlcal leader
nusayba Mohamed 12L
O Pe bullL a huge newspaper and fllm emplre and greaLly lnfluenced erman publlc oplnlon
durlng Lhe Welmar 8epubllc
O As head of Lhe conservaLlve erman naLlonal eoples arLy (from 1928) he conLrlbuLed Lo
PlLler's rlse Lo power
O ln 1931 he formed an alllance of naLlonallsL and conservaLlve elemenLs Lo Lopple Lhe Welmar
governmenL Lhough hls efforL falled large conLrlbuLlons from erman lndusLrlallsLs alded Lhe
nazl arLys growLh
O ln 1933 he brlefly served ln PlLlers cablneL buL hls parLy was dlssolved LhaL same year
Custav Stresemann (May 1, 1878- died October 3, 1929)
O erman chancellor and forelgn mlnlsLer of Lhe Welmar 8epubllc
O noLed as an experL on munlclpal affalrs and a wrlLer on economlcs he was elecLed Lo Lhe
8elchsLag ln 1907 as a member of Lhe naLlonal Llberal arLy
O ln 1918 he founded Lhe erman eoples arLy and soughL Lo form coallLlons wlLh oLher
democraLlc parLles
O As chancellor (1923) and forelgn mlnlsLer (1923 29) he worked Lo resLore ermanys
lnLernaLlonal sLaLus pursulng a conclllaLory pollcy wlLh Lhe Allled owers Pe negoLlaLed Lhe
acL of Locarno supporLed Lhe reparaLlons revlslons ln Lhe uawes and ?oung plans and secured
ermanys admlsslon Lo Lhe League of naLlons
O Pe shared Lhe 1926 nobel rlze for eace wlLh ArlsLlde rland

1osef Coebbel (29th October, 1897- 1
May 1945)
O German National Socialist Propagandist.
O Goebbels was less than five feet tall with a bad limp caused by a bone operation as a child and in
1914 was rejected by the Germany Army. t was later claimed that he spent the next two days
crying hysterically in his room.
O He joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) in 1926.
O Hitler admired Goebbels' abilities as a writer and speaker.
O n 1928, Goebbels was elected to the Reichstag, and when Hitler seized power in 1933 he made
Goebbels propaganda minister. This position gave him complete control over radio, press,
cinema, and theater; later he also regimented all German culture. Goebbels placed his
undeniable intelligence and his brilliant insight into mass psychology entirely at the service of his
party. His most virulent propaganda was against the Jews.

O As a hypnotic orator he was second only to Hitler, and in his staging of mass meetings and
parades he was unsurpassed.
O During WW, Goebbels played an important role in building up hatred for the allies.
O On 1st May, 1945, Joseph Goebbels, his wife and six children, committed suicide, while Berlin
was falling to Soviet troops

nusayba Mohamed 12L
Herman Coering (1893-1945)
O German National Socialist leader.
O n World War he was a hero of the German air force.
O An early member of the Nazi party, in 1923 he participated with Hitler in the Munich "beer-hall
putsch" and after its failure escaped eventually to Sweden, where he stayed until 1927. On his
return he reestablished contact with Hitler and was elected in 1928 to the Reichstag, of which he
became president in 1932.
O n 1933, Hitler made Goering air minister of Germany and prime minister and interior minister of
Prussia. Until 1936 Goering headed the Gestapo (the secret police), which he had founded.
O AmblLlous and loyal Lo PlLler he was enLrusLed wlLh ellmlnaLlng pollLlcal opposlLlon rebulldlng
Lhe alr force whlch was agalnsL Lhe 1reaLy of versallles and puLLlng Lhe economy on a warLlme
fooLlng ecause of hls success he was promoLed Lo Lhe speclal rank of 8elchsmarschall and
named PlLlers successor ln 1940
O Pe dldnL dellver on hls promlse Lo supply erman Lroops on Lhe 8usslan fronL whlch made hlm
lose PlLler's falLh ln hlm
O Pe surrendered Lo Lhe Allles on 8 May 1943 and 17 monLhs laLer he was convlcLed of war
crlmes aL nuremberg and senLenced Lo deaLh
O Pours before he was Lo be hanged he kllled hlmself wlLh by Laklng polson

Heinrich Himmler (7
October 19 -May 23, 1945)
O erman nazl pollce admlnlsLraLor who became Lhe second mosL powerful man ln Lhe 1hlrd
O ln 1923 he [olned Lhe nazl arLy ln 1923 and became head of PlLlers
O Pe Look charge of Lhe esLapo ln 1934 and esLabllshed Lhe 1hlrd 8elchs flrsL concenLraLlon
camp aL uachau
O Pe soon bullL Lhe lnLo a powerful neLwork of sLaLe Lerror and by 1936 he commanded all Lhe
8elchs pollce forces y WWll lL became so blg lL rlvaled Lhe army
O AfLer 1941 he organlzed Lhe deaLh camps ln LasLern Lurope
O Poplng Lo succeed PlLler he negoLlaLed wlLh Lhe Allles ln Lhe flnal monLhs of Lhe war over
ermanys surrender or lLs alllance wlLh Lhe WesLern Allles agalnsL Lhe ovleL unlon
O PlLler ordered hls arresL buL when he aLLempLed Lo escape he was capLured by Lhe rlLlsh and
commlLLed sulclde by Laklng polson

nusayba Mohamed 12L
Heinrich Brning (2 Aovember 1885- 3 March 197)
O erman pollLlclan LlecLed Lo Lhe 8elchsLag ln 1924 he became noLed as a flnanclal experL
O Leader of Lhe CaLhollc CenLre arLy from 1929 he became chancellor of ermany ln 1930
O ln response Lo Lhe reaL uepresslon he lnsLlLuLed harsh ausLerlLy measures LhaL paralyzed Lhe
erman economy
O Pe lgnored Lhe 8elchsLag and governed by presldenLlal decree whlch hasLened Lhe drlfL Loward
rlghLlsL dlcLaLorshlp and PlLler's rlse Lo power
O lorced Lo reslgn ln 1932 he lefL ermany ln 1934 and evenLually moved Lo Lhe u where he
LaughL aL Parvard unlverslLy

Franz von Papen (October 29, 1879- died May 2, 19)
O erman pollLlclan
O A monarchlsL member of Lhe russlan LandLag (sLaLe parllamenL 1921 32)
O Pe was chosen chancellor ln 1932 buL he was soon ousLed by kurL von chlelcher ln revenge
he persuaded Plndenburg Lo appolnL PlLler as chancellor and hlmself as vlce chancellor
O Pe reslgned ln 1934 when he was unable Lo resLraln Lhe nazls push for power
O y 1936 he was banlshed as ambassador Lo AusLrla where he paved Lhe way for lLs evenLual
Lakeover by ermany lrom Aprll 1939 he served as ambassador Lo 1urkey
O ArresLed ln 1943 he was Lrled and acqulLLed aL Lhe nurnberg Lrlals senLenced Lo prlson by a
erman courL as a nazl he was released on appeal ln 1949

Kurt von Schleicher (April 7, 1882- died 1une 3, 1934
O erman army offlcer and lasL chancellor of Lhe Welmar 8epubllc
O A career army offlcer he rose Lo ma[or general by 1929 and became a key flgure ln Lhe Welmar
O Pls pollLlcal lnLrlgues helped secure for hlm Lhe posLs of defense mlnlsLer (1932) and chancellor
(1932 33) eeklng Lo keep Lhe nazls under Lhe armys conLrol he offered Lo parLlclpaLe ln a
governmenL wlLh PlLler buL PlLler refused hlm and LhereafLer regarded chlelcher as hls chlef
O ulsmlssed by Plndenburg ln favor of PlLler he was murdered durlng Lhe nlghL of Lhe Long

nusayba Mohamed 12L

Hjalmar Schacht (born 1an. 22, 1877- died 1une 4, 197)
O erman flnancler Pe served as vlce dlrecLor of Lhe uresdner ank and dlrecLor of Lhe erman
naLlonal ank before becomlng a commlssloner ln Lhe flnance mlnlsLry (1923) where he
developed a rlgorous moneLary program LhaL halLed erman lnflaLlon and sLablllzed Lhe mark
O Pe became presldenL of Lhe 8elchsbank (1923 30 1933 39) and mlnlsLer of economlcs (1934
37) buL he was dlsmlssed when he opposed PlLlers rearmamenL expendlLure
O ln 1944 he was lmprlsoned afLer Lhe !uly loL agalnsL PlLlers llfe he was laLer capLured by Lhe
Allles and acqulLLed aL Lhe nurnberg Lrlals
O Pe laLer founded a bank ln uusseldorf and served as an lnLernaLlonal flnanclal consulLanL

Albert Speer (March 19 195- died September 1 1981)

O erman nazl offlclal
O Pe became an archlLecL ln 1927 and an acLlve member of Lhe nazl arLy ln 1931
O Pe lmpressed PlLler wlLh hls efflclency and LalenL and was appolnLed chlef archlLecL of Lhe 1hlrd
8elch ln 1933
O Pe deslgned Lhe parade grounds and banners of Lhe nazl rallles held for Lhe parLy congresses
lncludlng Lhe 1934 nurnberg
O ln 1942 he became mlnlsLer for armamenLs and war producLlon and expanded Lhe sysLem of
conscrlpL and slave labour LhaL malnLalned ermanys warLlme producLlvlLy
O Pe confessed hls gullL aL Lhe nurnberg Lrlals and he served 20 years ln prlson

Horst Wessel (October 9, 197 - February 23, 193)
O A sLudenL who [olned Lhe nuA ln 1926 abandoned hls sLudles and worked for Lhe A
O n 14 !anuary 1930 he was aLLacked ln hls deparLmenL and dled slx weeks laLer of sepsls
O Pe was made a hero of naLlonal oclallsm A mlllLanL and anLlemlLlc song whlch he had
wrlLLen ('PorsLWesselLled') was made a naLlonal anLhem and sung afLer Lhe 'ueuLschlandlled'

nusayba Mohamed 12L