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Formulae for Quantitative and Data Interpretation sections Algebra 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. (a + b)(a b) = a2 b2 (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (a b) = a + b 2ab (a + b + c + d)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + 2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) (a b)3 = a3 b3 3ab(a b) (a + b)(a + b - ab) = a + b
2 2 3 3 2 2 2

(a - b)(a2 + b2 + ab) = a3 - b3 (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ca) = a3 + b3 + c3 3abc when a + b + c = 0, a + b + c = 3abc (x + a)(x + b) (x + c) = x + (a + b + c) x + (ab + bc + ac)x + abc (x a)(x b) (x c) = x3 (a + b + c) x2 + (ab + bc + ac)x abc a + a b + b = (a + ab + b )( a ab + b ) a + b = (a 2ab + b )( a + 2ab + b )
4 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3

an + bn = (a + b) (a n-1 a n-2 b + a n-3 b2 a n-4 b3 +.. + bn-1) (valid only if n is odd) a b = (a b) (a


n n n-1

+a

n-2

b+ a

n-3

b +a

n-4

b + + b ) {were n N)

n-1

n(n + l)(2n + 1) is always divisible by 6. n(n2- 1) is always divisible by 6 n + n is always even n3 + 2n is always divisible by 3 Product of n consecutive numbers is always divisible by n!. If n is a positive integer and p is a prime, then np n is divisible by p. |x| = x if x 0 and |x| = x if x 0.
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Permutations & Combinations 1. nPr = n!/(n-r)! 2. nPn = n! n 3. Cr = n!/(n-r)!r! n 4. Cn = 1 5. nP0 = 1 6. nC0 = 1 n n 7. Cr = Cn-r
n n n n n 8. C0 + C1 + C2 +...+ Cn = 2

Arithmetic Progressions Tn = a + (n-1)d Sn = n/2[2a + (n-1)d] Geometric Progressions Tn = ar(n-1) Sn = a(r 1 )/ (r-1) S = a/(1-r) Sum of squares of first n natural numbers = n * n+1 / 2 Sum of squares of first n natural numbers = n (n+1)(2n+1) / 6 Sum of cubes of first n natural numbers = [n (n+1)/2] Factorials n! = 1*2*3*...*(n-1)! n! = n*(n-1)! LCM * HCF = Product of 2 numbers
2 n

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Time, Speed & Distance Speed = Distance/Time 1 km/hr = 5/18 m/s Average Speed = Total Distance/Total Time Relative Speed For trains Time = sum of the lengths of two trains / relative speeds of two trains For boats & streams Speed (downstream) = S boat + S stream Speed (upstream) = S boat S stream Set Theory n(A U B U C) = n(A) + n (B)+ n(C) n(A n B) n(A n C) n(B n C) + n(A n B n C) n(A U B) = n(A) + n (B) n(A n B) Alligations The ratio of the weights of the two items mixed will be inversely proportional to the deviation of attributes of these two items from the average attribute of the resultant mixture. Eg. Price as an attribute W1/W2 = ( X2 - X ) / ( X - X1 ) Ratio & Proportion If a:b and c:d are two ratio then a:b > c:d if ad > bc a:b < c:d if ad < bc a:b = c:d if ad = bc

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If a:b=c:d, then b:a = d:c (Invertendo) If a/b = c/d, then a/c = b/d or a:c = b:d (Alternendo) If a:b = c:d, then (a+b):b = (c+d):d (Componendo) If a:b = c:d then (a-b):b = (c-d):d (Dividendo) If a:b = c:d then a+b:a-b :: c+d:c-d (Componendo Dividendo) If a<b, then for x>=0 (a+x)/(b+x) > a/b and (a-x)/(b-x) < a/b If a<b, then for x>=0 (a+x)/(b+x) > a/b and (a-x)/(b-x) < a/b If a>b, then for x>=0 (a+x)/(b+x) < a/b and (a-x)/(b-x) > a/b Simple Interest SI = PRT / 100 Here P = principal, R = rate per annum, T = time in years Amount A = P + PRT/100 = P [1 + ( RT / 100 )] Compound interest = Principal * {1 + Rate/100} * Time Principal Amount = Principal * {1 + Rate/100 } * Time Profit = Selling Price Cost Price Loss = Cost Price Selling Price Percentage Profit = Profit/CP * 100 Percentage Loss = Loss/CP * 100 Discount = Marked Price Selling Price Discount Percentage = Discount/Marked Price * 100

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Geometry Circle 1. The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord of the circle bisects the chord. In the figure below, O is the centre of the circle and OM perpendicular AB. Then, AM = MB. Equal chords are equidistant from the centre. Conversely, if two chords are equidistant from the centre of a circle, they are equal. In the following figure, two chords of a circle, AB and CD, intersect at point P. Then, AP * PB = CP * PD. The angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. In the above figure, a=2b. If 2 tangents are drawn to a circle from an exterior point, the length of two tangent segments are equal. Also, the line joining the exterior point to the centre of the circle bisects the angle between the tangents. The angle that a tangent to a circle makes with a chord drawn from the point of contact is equal to the angle subtended by that chord in the alternate segment of the circle. In the figure above, PA is the tangent at point A of the circle and AB is the chord at point A. Hence, angle BAP = angle ACB.
A C B P

2.

3.

4.

b a

5.

A P O

C B

6.

B C 0 0 A P

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Triangle
<900

900

>900

<900

<900

Right

Obtuse

Acute

7.

An exterior angle of a triangle is an angle that is a linear pair (and hence supplementary) to an interior angle. The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two interior angles that are not adjacent to it (exterior angle theorem). The sum of the measures of the three exterior angles (one for each vertex) of any triangle is 360 degrees. Triangle inequality: The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle always exceeds the length of the third side.

8. 9.

10. Two triangles that are under a correspondence are said to be similar if every angle of one triangle has the same measure as the corresponding angle in the other triangle and the corresponding sides have lengths that are in the same proportion. 11. In a right triangle, the acute angles of a right triangle are complementary. 12. If the legs of a right triangle have the same length, then the angles opposite those legs have the same measure. Since these angles are complementary, it follows that each measures 45 degrees. By the Pythagorean theorem, the length of the hypotenuse is the length of a leg times 2. 13. In a right triangle with acute angles measuring 30 and 60 degrees, the hypotenuse is twice the length of the shorter side, and the longer side is equal to the length of the shorter side times 3. where S is area, b is the length of the base of the triangle, and h is the height or altitude of the triangle. S = abc/(4R) = r*s where r = inradius, s = (a+b+c)/3 and R = circumradius
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14. Area of Triangle S = 1/2 x b x h

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Pythagoras Theorem: AC2 = AB2 + BC2

Points, lines and circles associated with a triangle Circumcenter: A perpendicular bisector of a triangle is a straight line passing through the midpoint of a side and being perpendicular to it, i.e. forming a right angle with it. The three perpendicular bisectors meet in a single point, the triangle's circumcenter; this point is the center of the circumcircle, the circle passing through all three vertices. If the circumcenter is located on one side of the triangle, then the opposite angle is a right one. More is true: if the circumcenter is located inside the triangle, then the triangle is acute; if the circumcenter is located outside the triangle, then the triangle is obtuse.

Orthocenter: An altitude of a triangle is a straight line through a vertex and perpendicular to (i.e. forming a right angle with) the opposite side. This opposite side is called the base of the altitude, and the point where the altitude intersects the base (or its extension) is called the foot of the altitude. The length of the altitude is the distance between the base and the vertex. The three altitudes intersect in a single point, called the orthocenter of the triangle. The orthocenter lies inside the triangle if and only if the triangle is acute.

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Incircle: An angle bisector of a triangle is a straight line through a vertex which cuts the corresponding angle in half. The three angle bisectors intersect in a single point, the incenter, the center of the triangle's incircle. The incircle is the circle which lies inside the triangle and touches all three sides.

Interior Angle Bisector Theorem: If AD is the angle bisector of A in triangle ABC, then AB/BD = AC/CD

Median: A median of a triangle is a straight line through a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side, and divides the triangle into two equal areas. The three medians intersect in a single point, the triangle's centroid. The centroid cuts every median in the ratio 2:1, i.e. the distance between a vertex and the centroid is twice the distance between the centroid and the midpoint of the opposite side.

Apollonius Theorem: In any triangle ABC, if AD is a median, then AB2 + AC2 = 2(AD2+DC2)

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Quadrilaterals Any four-aided closed figure is called a quadrilateral. By imposing certain conditions on the sides and/or angles of a quadrilateral, we can get the figures trapezium, parallelogram, rhombus, rectangle, and square. The sum of four angles of a quadrilateral is equal to 3600. If the four vertices of a quadrilateral lie on the circumference of a circle (i.e., if the quadrilateral can be inscribed in circle) it is called a cyclic quadrilateral. In a cyclic quadrilateral, sum of 0 opposite angles = 180 . Areas Trapezium = * (sum of parallel sides) * height Parallelogram = base * height Rhombus = * product of diagonals Rectangle = length * breadth Square = side = * diagonal
2 2

Diagonal of a rectangle = sqrt(length2 + breadth2) Diagonal of a square = 2 * side

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Commonly Misspelt Words Incorrect Absense Acommodate Adultary Agression Apparant Arguement Arithmatic Athiest Beleive Bell weather Bais Bouyant Buerau Burgler Cemetry Coleague Committment Commited Commitee Definate Defination Disasterous Extasy Embarassment Emminent Excede Correct Absence Accommodate Adultery Aggression Apparent Argument Arithmetic Atheist Believe Bellwether Bias Buoyant Bureau Burglar Cemetery Colleague Commitment Committed Committee Definite Definition Disastrous Ecstasy Embarrassment Eminent Exceed Incorrect Independant Innoculate Intrested Kindergarden Liason Leiutenent Maintainence Mathamatics Momento Mischievious Neice Occassion Occurance Ommission Perseverence Pnemonia Possesion Pottassium Preceed Preffered Presance Priviledge Pronounciation Questionairre Que Reciept Correct Independent Inoculate Interested Kindergarten Liaison Lieutenant Maintenance Mathematics Memento Mischievous Niece Occasion Occurrence Omission Perseverance Pneumonia Possession Potassium Precede Preferred Presence Privilege Pronunciation Questionnaire Queue Receipt
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Itenerary, Itinarary Itinerary

Amature, Amatuer Amateur

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Commonly Misspelt Words Incorrect Exellent Exhilerate Firey Flourescent Foriegn Grammer Gaurantee Guidence Heirarchy Hygeine Imaginery Correct Excellent Exhilarate Fiery Fluorescent Foreign Grammar Guarantee Guidance Hierarchy Hygiene Imaginary Incorrect Reffered Relieve Rennaisance Sieze Seperate Tommorow Untill Upholstry Vaccuum Villify Wierd Correct Referred Relieve Renaissance Seize Separate Tomorrow Until Upholstery Vacuum Vilify Weird

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Verbal Compendium Do not confuse adoptive with adopted: children are adopted, but parents are adoptive. adverse, 'unfavourable, bad', with averse, which means 'strongly disliking or opposed to', as in I am not averse to helping out. affect and effect: affect means 'make a difference to', whereas effect means 'a result' or 'bring about (a result)'. amoral with immoral: amoral means 'not concerned with morality', while immoral means 'not conforming to accepted standards of morality'. appraise with apprise: appraise means 'assess', while apprise means 'inform'. augur, 'be a sign of (a likely outcome)', with auger (a tool used for boring). calendar: a machine in which cloth, paper, or the like, is smoothed, glazed, etc., by pressing between rotating cylinders., whereas calendar a table or register with the days of each month and week in a year censure with censor: censure means 'express strong disapproval of', whereas censor means 'suppress unacceptable parts of (a book, film, etc.)'. climactic, 'forming a climax', while climatic, means 'relating to climate'. complacent, 'smug and self-satisfied', with complaisant, which means 'willing to please'. complement, 'a thing that enhances something by contributing extra features', with compliment, which means 'an expression of praise' or 'politely congratulate'. continuous and continual: continuous primarily means 'without interruption', and can refer to space as well as time, as in the cliffs form a continuous line along the coast; continual, on the other hand, typically

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means 'happening frequently, with intervals between', as in the bus service has been disrupted by continual breakdowns. council, an administrative or advisory body, with counsel, advice or guidance. definite ('certain, sure') with definitive, which means 'decisive and with authority'. discreet, 'careful not to attract attention or give offence', with discrete, which means 'separate, distinct'. egoism and egotism: it is egotism, not egoism, that means 'excessive conceit or self-absorption'; egoism is a less common and more technical word, for an ethical theory that treats self-interest as the foundation of morality. exceptionable ('open to objection; causing disapproval or offence') with exceptional ('not typical' or 'unusually good'). fawn with faun: a fawn is a young deer, and a light brown colour; a faun is a Roman deity that is part man, part goat. flaunt with flout; flaunt means 'display ostentatiously', while flout means 'openly disregard (a rule)'. forego and forgo: forego means 'precede', but is also a less common spelling for forgo, 'go without'. hoard with horde: a hoard is a store of something valuable; horde is a disparaging term for a large group of people. the possessive its (as in turn the camera on its side) with the contraction it's (short for either it is or it has, as in it's my fault; it's been a hot day). loath ('reluctant; unwilling') with loathe, 'dislike greatly'.

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loose with lose: as a verb loose means 'unfasten or set free', while lose means 'cease to have' or 'become unable to find'. militate, which is used in the form militate against to mean 'be an important factor in preventing', with mitigate, which means 'make (something bad) less severe'. naturism (nudism) and naturist (a nudist) with naturalism and naturalist: naturalism is an artistic or literary approach or style; a naturalist is an expert in natural history, or an exponent of naturalism. officious, 'asserting authority or interfering in an annoyingly domineering way', with official, which means 'relating to an authority or public body'. ordinance, 'an authoritative order', with ordnance, which means 'guns' or 'munitions'. perquisite and prerequisite: a perquisite is a special right or privilege enjoyed as a result of one's position; prerequisite is something that is required as a prior condition for something else; prerequisite can also be an adjective, meaning 'required as a prior condition'. perspicuous, 'expressing things clearly', with perspicacious, which means 'having a ready understanding of things'. principal, 'first in order of importance; main', with principle, which is a noun meaning chiefly 'a basis of a system of thought or belief'. proscribe with prescribe: proscribe is a rather formal word meaning 'condemn or forbid', whereas prescribe means either 'issue a medical prescription' or 'recommend with authority'. regretful, 'feeling or showing regret', with regrettable, which means 'giving rise to regret; undesirable'.

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stationary and stationery: stationary is an adjective with the sense 'not moving or changing', whereas stationery is a noun meaning 'paper and other writing materials'. titillate and titivate: titillate means 'excite', whereas titivate means 'adorn or smarten up'. tortuous, 'full of twists and turns' or 'excessively lengthy and complex', with torturous, which means 'characterized by pain or suffering'. turbid and turgid: turbid is generally used in reference to a liquid and means 'cloudy or opaque'; turgid tends to mean 'tediously pompous' or, in reference to a river, 'swollen, overflowing'. unsociable with unsocial and antisocial: unsociable means 'not enjoying the company of or engaging in activities with others'; unsocial usually means 'socially inconvenient' and typically refers to the hours of work of a job; antisocial means 'contrary to accepted social customs and therefore annoying'. venal ('susceptible to bribery; corruptible') with venial, which is used in Christian theology in reference to sin (a venial sin, unlike a mortal sin, is not regarded as depriving the soul of divine grace). who's with whose; who's is a contraction of who is or who has, while whose is used in questions such as whose is this? and whose turn is it? wreath and wreathe: wreath with no e at the end means 'arrangement of flowers', while wreathe with an e is a verb meaning 'envelop, surround, or encircle'.

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General Knowledge 1. 2. Julian Barnes has won the 2011 Man Booker Prize for his novel The Sense of an Ending. Grammy Awards 3. 4. Album of the year Arcade Fire, The Suburbs Record of the year Lady Antebellum, Need You Now Song of the year Need You Now (Lady Antebellum, performers) Best new artist Esperanza Spalding Best female pop vocal performance Lady Gaga, Bad Romance Best male pop vocal performance Bruno Mars, Just the Way You Are

Khel Ratna Award 2011: Gagan Narang Arjuna award Winners List 2011: Cricket - Zaheer Khan Archery - Rahul Bannerjee Athletics - Preeja Sreedharan Athletics - Vijas Gowda Gymnastics - Ashish Kumar Kabaddi - Rakesh Kumar, Tejaswini Bai Hockey - Rajpal Singh Volley ball - Sanjay kumar Football - Sunil Chhetri Weight lifting - Ravi Kumar Wrestling - Ravindra Singh Boxing - Suronjoy Singh

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5.

Batminton- Jwala Gutta Swimming - Virdhaval Khade Shooting - Tejaswini Sawant Wushu - Sandhya Rani Devi Tennis - Somdev Devvarman Disabled - Prashant Karmakar

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011 was awarded jointly to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman "For their Non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in Peace-building work".

6.

Nileema Mishra, who works with the poor villagers in Maharashtra and United States- trained Indian engineer Harish Hande, who revolutionised the use of solar lights, are among the five people who have been honoured with this year's prestigious Ramon Magsaysay Award.

7. 8. 9.

Olympic gold medallist Abhinav Bindra will be the new face to promote guns made by Walther. Nikolay Davydenko won the Shanghai Masters Tennis tournament organised recently. Javed Miandad holds the record for the longest ODI career spanning 20 years and 272 days.

10. China beat India in the final to win the Asia Cup Hockey Championship for Women in Bangkok recently. Subhadra Pradhan was declared the player of the tournament. 11. Switzerland won the 2009 FIFA Under-17 World Cup in Abuja, Nigeria recently. 12. Satellite Information Service Live was selected as the official broadcaster of 2010 Commonwealth Games.

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13. Sebastian Coe, well known former Olympic gold medallist is Chairman of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. 14. Entertainment and Sports Direct (ESD) has acquired the theatrical telecast rights for cricket matches of the Indian Premier League (IPL) 2010 and 2019 for Rs 330 crore. 15. Anirban Lahiri became the first Indian golfer to shoot a spectacular round of 12under 60 on home soil. Anirban Lahiri shot 12-under 60 at BILT Open Golf Championship. 16. Pakistani cricketers Salman Butt, Mohammad Asif & Mohammad Amir imprisoned along with their agent for spot fixing. 17. According to a UN study India is ranked 134 among a total of 187 countries in terms of Human Development Index. 18. Asha Bhosle, the legendary Bollywood playback singer entered the Guinness World Records for the most number of single studio recordings. 19. Ratan Tata was honoured with the Swiss Ambassador's award for exceptional leadership and his contribution to strengthening bilateral ties between India and Switzerland on 16th October 2011. 20. Former CWG Secretary General Kamlesh Sharma was again re appointed for the same post on 30th oct. 21. Sushil Kumar, from Bihar won Rs 5crore in KBC 5. 22. Table Tennis Federation of India appointed Poland's Leszek Kucharski as the Indian TT coach. 23. Pakistan on 2 November 2011 decided to grant India the most favoured nation for trade status. 24. Palestine won the membership of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation).
th

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25. British novelist Julian Barnes won the 2011 Man Booker prize for his novella, The Sense of an Ending. 26. Former Supreme Court Judge Markandey Katju was appointed as the new Chairman of Media regulator Press Council of India. 27. The World's cheapest computer and access device, Aakash is a part of the Indian Government's National Mission on Education's Sakshat Project. 28. China on 29 September 2011 successfully launched its first unmanned space laboratory Tiangong-1 from a site in the Gobi Desert. 29. IGNOU conferred the Rajiv Gandhi International Prize for Technology in Education and Development on the Azim Premji Foundation.

General Knowledge List of websites www.ibef.org www.generalknowledgetoday.com www.snapshot.scmhrd.edu

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