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Final Report Spring Semester 2007 by Ben Pilato Bryan Lake Nick San Pietro Waylon Cash Andy Keller Vahram Stepanyan

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado 80523

Abstract On August 14, 2003 a series of seemingly unrelated events conspired to produce a massive power blackout, affecting an enormous swath of the northeastern United States and Canada. Shops and businesses closed, public transportation ground to a halt, and the economy lost billions of dollars 1 . Blackouts are related to hidden vulnerabilities that exist in the power system but cannot be seen when everything is fully operational. These vulnerabilities are exposed during system disturbances. Through simulation analysis, disturbances can be modeled and accounted for to possibly prevent future power system failure.

The basic power-flow study starts with a known system state. A comparison will be made from this basic state. A predefined set of system disturbances are applied to the benchmark case, and violations are documented. This establishes a benchmark from which to compare. From this known state proposed system changes can be introduced. Again, the same system disturbances applied to the benchmark case are applied to the altered case. Violations that are a direct result of the system modifications are documented. These violations require a solution by the party requesting system modifications.

Basically, power-flow studies determine if system voltages remain within specified limits under various contingency conditions, and whether equipment such as transformers and conductors are overloaded. Power-flow studies are often used to identify the need for additional generation, capacitive, or inductive VAR support, or the placement of capacitors and/or reactors to maintain system voltages within specified limits.

The above procedures have been documented and explained in the CSU wind farm system impact study provided in the beginning of this report. The process of performing a power-flow study using the Siemens software tool PSS/E (Power System Simulator for Engineering) is also provided. Since power-flow studies require many steps and procedures, the process has been split into six, detail orientated, laboratories.

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Table of Contents

Title…………………………….…………….…………….…………….…………i

Abstract………… ……………

Table of Contents…….……….……………………………….………….……… 2 List of Figures… …………….……………………….……….…….…………….3 List of Tables … …………….……………………….…………….…………….3 Introduction……………….…………………………….…………… ……………4 Summary of Previous Work…………………………….…………… ……………5

1

……….………………….………….…………

Executive Summary ……………………………………………… …………6 Introduction………………………………………………………… …………7 Study Objectives………………………………………………….….…………8 Methodology……………………………………………………… ………… 8 Study Procedure………………………………………………….….………….8 Study Approach………………………………………………… ….………….9

Power Flow Results………………………… ……………………….…… 10 Cost for Upgrades……………………………………… ………….……… 11

Conclusion……………………………………………… ………….………

12

Results…………………………………………………… ………….……… 11

Appendix……………………………………………… …………….……… 17

Lab Work Created………… ….……………………….……………….…

30

One Line Diagram ………….….…………………………….……… ………45 Solving for Outages………….….………………………….……….….…… 59 Create ACCC Report………….….……………………….………………… 68 Multiple ACCC Report……….….……………………………………………79 Addition of Generation……….….………………………….……………… 91 Conclusions and Future Work……………………………………………………108 References………………………………………………………………… … 109

Introduction to PSS/E…… ….…………………………….……….………

…… 29

Appendix…………………………………………………………………………110

Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………… 111

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List of Figures

Figure 1

Existing transmission between CO and WY

7

Figure 2

Archer-Stegall Example from Table 1

11

Figure 3

Drawing 0

18

Figure 4

Drawing 1

19

Figure 5

Drawing 2

20

Figure 6

Drawing 3

21

Figure 7

Drawing 4

22

Figure 8

Drawing 5

23

Figure 9

Drawing 6

24

Figure 10

Drawing 7

25

Figure 11

Drawing 8

26

Figure 12

Drawing 9

27

Figure 13

Drawing 10

28

List of Tables

Table 1

ACCC Report

13

Table 2

Busses Utilized for N-1 Contingency Analysis

14

Table 3

Branches Monitored for Voltage Violations (System Intact & N-1) 15

Table 4

Itemized Cost for Plant Implementation

16

Table 5

One-Line Diagram Index

17

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Introduction

Our year long senior design project was based on the power industry. We worked with our industry advisor, Joe Liberatore, from Western Area Power Administration. At Western Area Power, a software tool made by Siemens is heavily utilized to perform system studies. The software is PSS/E (Power Systems Simulation for Engineering). In addition to Western, many other power companies use this software. The reason that so many companies rely on PSS/E is because of the many features and abilities that it has to offer.

The functionality and performance of PSS/E doesn’t come at a cheap price. The software costs roughly $90,000 per computer. Luckily, Siemens was kind enough to give us four free trial USB access keys and ENS was happy to install PSS/E on campus computers for our group to use. Each key was allotted 200 hours.

The hardest part of our senior design project was actually learning how to use PSS/E. We were fortunate enough to have Joe guide us in times of need. We spent numerous hours outside of PSS/E just reading the help files that in our opinion are some what difficult to apply to create a power-flow study. In fact, Joe has been working with PSS/E for three years and is still constantly learning new things. Since this software has barely any user tutorials, it was requested by Dr. Collins and Joe’s boss at Western to create a series of laboratories to guide students and entry level power engineers through a power-flow study.

In our first semester, we were introduced to PSS/E and power-flow studies. We learned how to use PSS/E to perform a mock power-flow study. Our study involved adding a wind farm to the existing power grid. We were able to draw several conclusions about the feasibility of this addition. The system impact study can be seen in its entirety in the following section of this report.

Our second semester project was very unique because we actually went back and documented the entire process on how we performed our first semester project. This was very challenging because we needed to bring a whole semester of work into a well written series of labs that could guide anyone through a power-flow study of their own. There are six lab manuals with questions that directly follow our last semester project in this report. The answers to the questions have been omitted and turned into a solution manual that will only be provided to Dr. Collins.

The labs are intended to be used in EE461 (Power Systems) at Colorado State University. Dr. Collins is working on getting PSS/E installed on campus computers for students to perform these labs. The reason that these labs are so critical is because if they are utilized at Colorado State, this will be one of the only schools in the nation that will introduce students to PSS/E. This will, in turn, give Colorado States electrical engineering students interested in working in the power industry a major advantage with their future job opportunities.

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Summary of Previous Work

CSU WIND FARM System Impact Study for Request 2010-G1

December 3, 2006

System Impact Study for Request 2010-G1 December 3, 2006 Studies Conducted by: Waylon Cash Andrew Keller

Studies Conducted by: Waylon Cash Andrew Keller Bryan Lake Ben Pilato Nick San Pietro Vahram Stepanyan

Bryan Lake Ben Pilato Nick San Pietro Vahram Stepanyan Colorado State University Power Corporation In Conjunction

Colorado State University Power Corporation

In Conjunction with the Western Area Power Administration

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Executive Summary

Colorado State University Power Corporation desires to add 150MW of wind generated power to the existing Western Area Power Administration network at the Colorado-Wyoming-Nebraska interface. The 150MW wind farm is intended to be used to meet the increasing demand for power in northern Colorado. Additional transmission capability must be explored to meet this request. By applying computer analysis, transmission system topology is modeled with planned infrastructure improvements and/or modifications to reflect system configurations relative to this new addition. Simulations were run and deficiencies revealed.

Simulations with current system topology show efforts to deliver new generation to the load further stresses the Colorado-Wyoming-Nebraska 230kV system, which is very close to its operating limits today. Reinforcing transmission capability with an additional 150MW, located in northern Colorado, will certainly assist in relieving system overloads in this area. However, additional measures will need to be taken to make sure that the transmission system can accommodate the generation upgrade.

In order to effectively deliver the new wind generated power to the surrounding areas, some existing equipment will need to be upgraded to relieve stresses due to the increased generation. The underlying fact is that during the N-1 contingencies, the addition of a 150MW wind generation plant further stresses the existing power grid. For an alternate course of action, this study has also explored the possibility of reducing the wind generation to 75MW.

In summary, additional generation in the northern Colorado region will require additional upgrades to the existing infrastructure. This study has included a detailed analysis of the desired 150MW wind generation, and has also proposed a more cost- effective solution with the option to reduce the generation capacity to 75MW.

This report does not take into consideration the geographical, environmental, financial, legal or contractual obligations which may exist and/or inhibit the ability to implement the proposed solution.

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I.

Introduction

This report will summarize the results of a transmission system study conducted by the Western Area Power Administration senior design project group at Colorado State University. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts associated with the addition of a 150MW wind turbine generation facility, as well as the optional 75MW facility, located in northern Colorado. The study will be conducted using Siemens PSS/E (Power System Simulator for Engineering) software to analyze the power flow and the overall impacts to the existing power grid with the addition of the wind generation. The study assumes an in service date of June 2010. The power flow analysis used will utilize a Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 2010 Heavy Summer (2010HS) base case. Steady state analysis will not be performed due to a lack of accurate wind turbine models. However, power flow and contingency analyses using a heavy summer base case were performed. A map of the major transmission lines near and around the area affected by the additional generation is included in figure1 below:

by the additional generation is included in figure1 below: Figure 1 – Existing transmission between CO

Figure 1 – Existing transmission between CO and WY

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II.

Study Objectives

A. Determine the feasibility of an additional 150MW of wind generation.

B. Determine the feasibility of the alternative 75MW of wind generation.

C. Determine system upgrades needed to accommodate the additional generation.

D. Perform power flow studies to determine overall system impact.

III. Methodology

A. Base Case:

The WECC 2010 heavy summer base case will be used in this study. The base case will be reviewed by all affected transmission providers in the area and will be adjusted for known additions, corrections, and modifications to the Rocky Mountain Region to ensure proper case topologies.

B. The study will take into consideration the increase delivery capability of the Colorado-Wyoming-Nebraska network.

C. The N-1 contingencies will be applied to considerations outlined in B (above).

IV. Study Procedure

A. Criteria

NERC/WECC Planning Standards will be followed.

System Intact (N-0):

1) Acceptable transmission line loading will be limited to 100% of thermal limits. 2) Bus voltages in the range of 0.95 to 1.05 per unit will be considered acceptable. 3) Acceptable transformer loading will be limited to 100% of thermal limits. 4) Power-flow solutions will allow all regulating items (i.e., transformer taps, phase shifting transformers, area interchange, switchable shunt devices) to adjust for the “system normal” configurations.

Single Contingency (N-1):

1) Acceptable line loading will be limited to 100% of thermal limits. 2) Acceptable transformer loading will be limited to not exceed the highest nameplate rating or appropriate owner’s maximum rating. 3) Transmission bus voltages will be maintained between 0.90 p.u. and 1.10 p.u. of nominal system voltage.

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V.

Study Approach

The power flow studies were conducted based on the 2010HS base case, which includes all the physical characteristics of each element contained within the Western Area Power Administration controlled network. Elements include; transmission lines, busses, transformers, and any other components that make-up the power grid. A pictorial representation of the grid was obtained by utilizing the drawing program included in the software to create a one-line diagram of the system.

After a one-line diagram of a small portion of the grid was constructed, contingency, monitoring, and subsystem files were created. The contingency file is programmed to remove one line at a time from service; this is referred to as a contingency. When the system is fully operational, it has no outages, and is referred to as system intact or (N- 0). When a single line is taken out of service, the case is then referred to as an (N-1) contingency. The monitoring files tell the power flow simulator which branches to be supervised during (N-1) contingencies. Finally, the subsystem file informs the power flow analysis to only look at a prescribed section, or zone, of the overall network. A sample of each file will now be given;

Contingency file:

TRACE

CONTINGENCY DAV_STE TRIP LINE FROM BUS 65420 TO BUS 73190 END CONTINGENCY BRU_B.C TRIP LINE FROM BUS 70005 TO BUS 73013 END

.

.

END

.

.

Trace starts the program. The next line names the (N-1) contingency. The third line describes which line will be removed. The next line ends the contingency. Then the process is repeated for all (N-1) contingencies that are desired.

Monitor file:

MONITOR BRANCHES IN SUBSYSTEM TOT3 MONITOR VOLTAGE RANGE SUBSYSTEM TOT3 0.90 1.10 MONITOR VOLTAGE DEVIATION SUBSYSTEM TOT3 0.5 0.5 MONITOR INTERFACE TOT3 RATING 1605 MW

73009

73011

73108

73012

73108

73193

73043

99200

73179

73150

73180

73143

END

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The first line informs which subsystem (zone) to monitor. The second line sets a per unit voltage range to monitor. The third line gives a +/- deviation from the prescribed values in line two. The fourth line indicates the power rating of the subsystem. The following six lines tell exactly which branches to monitor (from bus # to bus #). The final line ends that particular zone to be monitored. This is repeated for each additional zone that may be of interest.

Subsystem file:

SUBSYSTEM TOT3

BUS

70202

BUS

70209

BUS

70210

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

END

The first line names the subsystem and the following lines indicate which busses are to be included in the subsystem. The final line ends this file.

These three files are utilized by the AC Contingency Calculation (ACCC) to perform a power flow study of the zone in question. The ACCC produces an analysis of the power system, from which the data was compiled and shown in Table 1 of the Results section.

Each overload that occurred due to a contingency in Table 1, shown in the Results section, has been manually recreated and displayed in the one-line diagrams shown in the Appendix.

VI. Power flow Results

Simulations were constructed and ran based on the monitored busses and branches that are shown in the Results section, in Tables 2 and 3 respectively. All of the busses and branches represent a small portion of the overall power grid that may be affected by the addition of a wind farm. Before the wind farm was added, a simulation of the original (base) system was performed to reveal any power flow problems that currently exist. This base case is shown in Table 1 in the Results section. Table 1 also shows the positive and negative influences that a 75MW or 150MW wind farm brings to the existing system.

The results of the addition of a wind farm are shown in the Results section, in Table 1. The monitored element is the branch that is overloaded when a disruption of service (or contingency) occurs. For example, when the line from Ault to Laramie is taken out of service, an overload on the Archer-to-Stegall (230kV) line occurs. The base case was overloaded, meaning above 100%, before the additions were made. It was operating at 103.3% of its rated capacity. Below the percentage shows the power level at the overload. With the addition of the wind farm, the operating levels for both the 75MW and 150MW increased to 103.7% and 104.7% respectively. This

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means that the owner of the wind farm will need to make the necessary upgrades to the Archer-Stegall line, to relieve the overloads, before the wind farm can be added. See example portion of Table 1 in Figure 2.

       

Wind

Wind Farm

Farm at

Base

at 50%

100 %

Monitored Element

 

Contingency

Case

(75MW)

(150MW)

73009

ARCHER

230

kV

 

103.3%

103.7%

104.7%

73190

STEGALL

230

kV

1

AULT_LARAMIE

418MVA

420MVA

424MVA

Figure 2 – Archer-Stegall example from Table 1.

If an overload occurs with the addition of a wind farm, but is less than the original overload within the base case, then the addition of the wind farm actually relieves the existing problem and the owner is not responsible for any upgrades.

VII. Cost for Upgrades

All of the projected costs for upgrades that will be given in this section are conceptual and can fluctuate by +/- 20%. In either case, for a 75MW or 150MW wind farm, there is an initial cost of roughly $2.8 million for the construction of a new substation to connect the wind generation to the existing grid. The costs that will now be given are strictly for upgrades to the limiting components of the overloaded branches and the addition of the required substation, they do not include the cost for the wind generation plant itself.

For the 150MW wind farm, four transmission lines, one transformer, and eighteen current transformers will need to be replaced, as well as the removal of one wave trap. The total cost for these upgrades is $7,860,100 and the total cost for the substation and the upgrades is about $10.6 million. Please refer to the detailed costs analysis of the upgrades in Table 4 of the Results section.

For the 75MW wind farm option, one transmission line, and one transformer will need to be replaced, as well as the removal of one wave trap. The total cost for these upgrades is $3,662,200 and the total cost for the substation and the upgrades is around $6.5 million. Please refer to the detailed costs analysis of the upgrades in Table 4 of the Results section.

Table 4 was constructed based on the overflows calculated in Table 1 by PSS/E. Each overload that occurred as a direct result of the addition of a wind farm was further inspected to determine the limiting component or components on that particular branch responsible for the overload. If the conductor was the limiting factor, the apparent power at the time of overload was obtained from Table 1, and the line-to-line voltage was found from our one-line diagrams. With these two pieces of

data, the line current was found using the following equation:

the required line current was obtained, a corresponding Aluminum Conductor Steel

3 ⋅
3 ⋅

V

ll

I

=

VA

. After

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Reinforced (ACSR) cable rated for greater than the required line current was found from a list of common ACSR conductors. The costs were then found by multiplying the length of the line in miles times the cost per mile of the conductor that was chosen.

Other limiting components that were found in this study were transformers, current transformers, and wave traps. Transformers and current transformers need to be

replaced by a new transformer with a rating that is greater than the apparent power at

the time of the overload.

transformers in the Western Area Power Administration database. Wave traps are no longer used in the industry. Therefore, if a wave trap was found to be the limiting factor, it will not be upgraded, but rather removed from service.

The prices were obtained based on a list of commonly used

The total expenditure for the required upgrades to the existing network is the sole responsibility of the owner of the wind farm.

VIII.

Conclusion

After performing a detailed analysis of the system impact power flow study, it has been shown that a wind generation plant can be added to the northern Colorado region with few negative impacts resulting to the existing system. The studies of the power flow models used in PSS/E have revealed that fewer stresses occur with the introduction of a 75MW wind farm, in comparison to 150MW. However, it has been requested by the owner of the wind farm to build a 150MW plant. If the owner of the wind farm decides to build a 75MW plant, it can be fully upgraded to 150MW at a later date. The substation required for a 75MW plant is suitable for upgrades to allow for a 150MW plant. Furthermore, all of the upgrades that are required for a 75MW plant would also be necessary upgrades for a 150MW plant. Therefore, if the upgrade costs were considered to be the primary issue, the owner could install a 75MW plant now to be fully operational by the expected in service date of June 2010 and the capacity could be expanded to 150MW at a later date with relative ease.

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IX.

Results

 

TableTableTableTable 1111

 
 

ACCC Report

 
       

Wind

Wind Farm

Farm at

at 50%

100 %

Monitored Element

 

Contingency

Base Case

(75MW)

(150MW)

   

102.4%

   

70470

WELD PS

115

kV

154MVA

70471

WELD PS

230

kV

2

WELD_WELD

(1x)

   

103.3%

103.7%

104.7%

73009

ARCHER

230

kV

418MVA

420MVA

424MVA

73190

STEGALL

230

kV

1

AULT_LARAMIE

(1x)

(1x)

(1x)

     

103.0%

107.2%

73020

BEAVERCK

115

kV

115MVA

120MVA

73464

ADENA

115

kV

1

BEAVERCK_BRUSH

(1x)

(1x)

       

169.4%

73059

FLEMING

115

kV

141MVA

73478

GALIEN

115

kV

1

HAXTUN_CSU

(3x)

       

112.4%

73059

FLEMING

115

kV

146MVA

99000

CSU_WIND

115

kV

1

HAXTUN_CSU

(2x)

       

107.1%

73063

FRENCHCK

115

kV

137MVA

73080

HAXTUN

115

kV

1

FLEMING_CSU

(3x)

       

144.6%

73063

FRENCHCK

115

kV

122MVA

73210

WAUNETA

115

kV

1

FLEMING_CSU

(3x)

       

112.5%

73080

HAXTUN

115

kV

150MVA

99000

CSU_WIND

115

kV

1

FLEMING_CSU

(3x)

   

113.7%

105.6%

 

73179

SIDNEY

115

kV

190MVA

176MVA

73180

SIDNEY

230

kV

1

N.YUMA_SIDNEY

(1x)

(1x)

       

161.3%

73191

STERLING

115

kV

134MVA

73478

GALIEN

115

kV

1

HAXTUN_CSU

(3x)

     

129.3%

128.0%

73211

WELD LM

115

kV

194MVA

192MVA

73212

WELD LM

230

kV

1

WELD_WELD

(1x)

(1x)

   

130.9%

   

73211

WELD LM

115

kV

196MVA

73212

WELD LM

230

kV

1

WELD_WELD

(1x)

- 13 -

TableTableTableTable 2222

Busses Utilized for N-1 Contingency Analysis

Bus #

Bus Name

kV

Bus #

Bus Name

kV

400

FLEMLOW

34.5

73140

MYERS TP

115

450

CSU_LOW

34.5

73142

N.YUMA

115

70202

GODFRETP

115

73143

N.YUMA

230

70209

GREELEY

115

73147

ORCHARD

115

70210

GREELEY1

46

73150

PEETZ

115

70240

JOHNSTN

115

73152

PINEBLUF

115

70290

MONFORT

115

73158

PROSPEC

115

70311

PAWNEE

230

73165

RAWHIDE

230

70368

ROSEDALE

115

73166

REDWILLW

115

70469

WELD

46

73179

SIDNEY

115

70470

WELD PS

115

73180

SIDNEY

230

70471

WELD PS

230

73183

SKYLINE

115

70474

WINDSOR

230

73190

STEGALL

230

73003

AKRON

115

73191

STERLING

115

73005

ALVIN

115

73192

STORY

230

73008

ARCHER

115

73193

STORY

345

73009

ARCHER

230

73199

TIMBERLN

230

73011

AULT

230

73208

WAGES

115

73012

AULT

345

73210

WAUNETA

115

73013

B.CK PS

115

73211

WELD LM

115

73014

B.CK PS

230

73212

WELD LM

230

73015

B.CK TRI

115

73213

WIGGINS

115

73016

B.CK TRI

230

73224

WRAY

230

73020

BEAVERCK

115

73305

EFMORGTP

115

73023

BIJOUTAP

115

73309

BARLOW

115

73031

BRUSHTAP

115

73311

FMS

115

73037

BUSHNELL

115

73355

KIMBALLC

115

73038

BUSHNLTP

115

73370

LOSTCKTP

115

73043

CHEYENNE

115

73378

FMN

115

73046

DALTON

115

73379

FMWEST

115

73047

DEERINGL

115

73464

ADENA

115

73059

FLEMING

115

73478

GALIEN

115

73063

FRENCHCK

115

73480

CROWCRK

115

73065

GARY

115

73554

BOOMERNG

115

73080

HAXTUN

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

73092

JACINTO

115

90400

CLR_1

0.6

73095

KERSEYTP

115

90450

CLR_1

0.6

73096

KIMBALL

115

94000

FLEMWIND

115

73097

KIOWA CK

115

94200

MARIAH

230

73136

MESSEX

115

99000

CSU_WIND

115

- 14 -

TableTableTableTable 3333

Branches Monitored for Voltage Violations (System Intact & N-1)

Bus #

From Bus

kV

Bus #

To Bus

kV

ID

Bus #

From Bus

kV

Bus #

To Bus

kV

ID

65420

DAVEJOHN

230

73190

STEGALL

230

1

73020

BEAVERCK

115

73065

GARY

115

1

70005

BRUSHCPP

115

73013

B.CK PS

115

1

73020

BEAVERCK

115

73136

MESSEX

115

1

70005

BRUSHCPP

115

73013

B.CK PS

115

2

73020

BEAVERCK

115

73464

ADENA

115

1

70192

FTLUPTON

230

70311

PAWNEE

230

1

73023

BIJOUTAP

115

73097

KIOWA CK

115

1

70198

GILCREST

115

70202

GODFRETP

115

1

73023

BIJOUTAP

115

73379

FMWEST

115

1

70202

GODFRETP

115

70209

GREELEY

115

1

73031

BRUSHTAP

115

73305

EFMORGTP

115

1

70202

GODFRETP

115

70240

JOHNSTN

115

1

73037

BUSHNELL

115

73038

BUSHNLTP

115

1

70209

GREELEY

115

70290

MONFORT

115

1

73038

BUSHNLTP

115

73096

KIMBALL

115

1

70209

GREELEY

115

70470

WELD PS

115

1

73038

BUSHNLTP

115

73152

PINEBLUF

115

1

70240

JOHNSTN

115

70470

WELD PS

115

1

73043

CHEYENNE

115

73077

HAPPYJCK

115

1

70290

MONFORT

115

70439

UNC

115

1

73043

CHEYENNE

115

73480

CROWCRK

115

1

70311

PAWNEE

230

70343

QUINCY

230

1

73043

CHEYENNE

115

73504

PONNEQUI

115

1

70311

PAWNEE

230

73192

STORY

230

1

73043

CHEYENNE

115

99200

SYTECH

115

1

70368

ROSEDALE

115

70439

UNC

115

1

73046

DALTON

115

73179

SIDNEY

115

1

70368

ROSEDALE

115

70470

WELD PS

115

1

73046

DALTON

115

73236

GREENWOD

115

1

70410

ST.VRAIN

230

70471

WELD PS

230

1

73047

DEERINGL

115

73053

ECKLEY

115

1

70410

ST.VRAIN

230

70474

WINDSOR

230

1

73047

DEERINGL

115

73142

N.YUMA

115

1

70470

WELD PS

115

73211

WELD LM

115

1

73047

DEERINGL

115

73230

YUMA

115

1

70471

WELD PS

230

73212

WELD LM

230

1

73047

DEERINGL

115

73372

OTIS LM

115

1

70474

WINDSOR

230

73011

AULT

230

1

73059

FLEMING

115

73478

GALIEN

115

1

73003

AKRON

115

73020

BEAVERCK

115

1

73059

FLEMING

115

94000

FLEMWIND

115

1

73003

AKRON

115

73372

OTIS LM

115

1

73059

FLEMING

115

99000

CSU_WIND

115

1

73005

ALVIN

115

73175

SANDHILL

115

1

73063

FRENCHCK

115

73080

HAXTUN

115

1

73005

ALVIN

115

73210

WAUNETA

115

1

73063

FRENCHCK

115

73210

WAUNETA

115

1

73005

ALVIN

115

73304

CRETESWT

115

1

73065

GARY

115

73221

WOODROW

115

1

73008

ARCHER

115

73043

CHEYENNE

115

1

73078

HARMONY

230

73199

TIMBERLN

230

1

73008

ARCHER

115

73140

MYERS TP

115

1

73080

HAXTUN

115

94000

FLEMWIND

115

1

73008

ARCHER

115

73152

PINEBLUF

115

1

73080

HAXTUN

115

99000

CSU_WIND

115

1

73008

ARCHER

115

73183

SKYLINE

115

1

73087

WESTHILL

230

73190

STEGALL

230

1

73008

ARCHER

115

73480

CROWCRK

115

1

73088

HOYT

115

73464

ADENA

115

1

73009

ARCHER

230

73011

AULT

230

1

73092

JACINTO

115

73096

KIMBALL

115

1

73009

ARCHER

230

73190

STEGALL

230

1

73092

JACINTO

115

73179

SIDNEY

115

1

73009

ARCHER

230

94200

MARIAH

230

1

73095

KERSEYTP

115

73158

PROSPEC

115

1

73011

AULT

230

73165

RAWHIDE

230

1

73095

KERSEYTP

115

73554

BOOMERNG

115

1

73011

AULT

230

73199

TIMBERLN

230

1

73096

KIMBALL

115

73355

KIMBALLC

115

1

73011

AULT

230

73212

WELD LM

230

1

73097

KIOWA CK

115

73147

ORCHARD

115

1

73011

AULT

230

73212

WELD LM

230

2

73097

KIOWA CK

115

73158

PROSPEC

115

1

73012

AULT

345

73108

LAR.RIVR

345

1

73097

KIOWA CK

115

73213

WIGGINS

115

1

73012

AULT

345

79014

CRAIG

345

1

73098

KODAK

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

1

73013

B.CK PS

115

73020

BEAVERCK

115

1

73098

KODAK

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

2

73014

B.CK PS

230

73192

STORY

230

1

73103

L.MEADOW

115

73213

WIGGINS

115

1

73015

B.CK TRI

115

73020

BEAVERCK

115

1

73106

LAPORTE

230

73165

RAWHIDE

230

1

73016

B.CK TRI

230

73192

STORY

230

1

73107

LAR.RIVR

230

73190

STEGALL

230

1

73020

BEAVERCK

115

73031

BRUSHTAP

115

1

73108

LAR.RIVR

345

73193

STORY

345

1

73143

N.YUMA

230

73180

SIDNEY

230

1

73117

LOST CK

115

73370

LOSTCKTP

115

1

73143

N.YUMA

230

73192

STORY

230

1

73211

WELD LM

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

1

73143

N.YUMA

230

73224

WRAY

230

1

73305

EFMORGTP

115

73309

BARLOW

115

1

- 15 -

Bus #

From Bus

kV

Bus #

To Bus

kV

ID

Bus #

From Bus

kV

Bus #

To Bus

kV

ID

73150

PEETZ

115

73179

SIDNEY

115

1

73305

EFMORGTP

115

73378

FMN

115

1

73150

PEETZ

115

73191

STERLING

115

1

73305

EFMORGTP

115

73379

FMWEST

115

1

73158

PROSPEC

115

73370

LOSTCKTP

115

1

73309

BARLOW

115

73310

FME

115

1

73165

RAWHIDE

230

73199

TIMBERLN

230

1

73311

FMS

115

73377

EXCEL

115

1

73165

RAWHIDE

230

73467

DIXON

230

1

73311

FMS

115

73379

FMWEST

115

1

73166

REDWILLW

115

73208

WAGES

115

1

73433

WINDSORT

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

1

73180

SIDNEY

230

73181

SIDNEYDC

230

1

73555

BRACEWLL

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

1

73180

SIDNEY

230

73190

STEGALL

230

1

73555

BRACEWLL

115

73558

WHITNEY

115

2

73183

SKYLINE

115

73375

WARRENLM

115

1

79039

HAYDEN

230

94200

MARIAH

230

1

73188

STEGALDC

230

73190

STEGALL

230

1

73136

MESSEX

115

73191

STERLING

115

1

73191

STERLING

115

73478

GALIEN

115

1

73139

MYERS

115

73140

MYERS TP

115

1

73208

WAGES

115

73210

WAUNETA

115

1

73140

MYERS TP

115

73154

POLE CK

115

1

73211

WELD LM

115

73554

BOOMERNG

115

1

73142

N.YUMA

115

73166

REDWILLW

115

1

 

TableTableTableTable 4444

 
 

Itemized Cost for Plant Implementation

 
           

Multiple

Line Cost using Single Pole Steel

k/mile

A

   

Substation Cost

Single Cost

Cost

Osprey

126

690

   

(2) Bus Section

1

Bus

2

Bus Cost

Bittern

147

1200

     

$298,000

 

$596,000

Transmission Lines

Miles

KV

A

   

Bus Tie

 

$359,000

 

-

Beavercrk to Adena

15

115

653

   

Steel Footings

 

$87,333

 

-

Flemming to CSU Wind

8.625

115

753

   

Bus System

 

$69,000

 

-

Frenchck to Haxton

16.2

115

753

   

Control

 

$61,000

 

-

Haxton to CSU Wind

2.875

115

753

   

(3) Switches

1

Switch

3

Switches

         

$35,000

 

$105,000

Line Reconductor

Cost

   

(3) Breakers

1

Breaker

3

Breakers

Beavercrk to Adena with OSPREY

$1,890,000

     

$72,000

 

$216,000

Flemming to CSU Wind with Bittern

$1,267,875

   

Site prep

 

$46,000

 

-

Frenchck to Haxton with Bittern

$2,381,400

   

Transformer

 

$1,258,000

 

-

Xaxton to CSU Wind with Bittern

$422,625

   

Total Substation Cost

 

$2,797,333

 

-

Total Line Reconductor Cost

$5,961,900

   
         

Multiple

75MW

Cost

   

150MW

Single Cost

Cost

Wave Trap Removal

$25,000

   

Wave Trap Removal

 

$25,000

 

-

Transformer rated ≥ 200MVA

$1,680,000

   

Transformer rated ≥ 200MVA

 

$1,680,000

 

-

Transformer Foundation 1%

$16,800

   

Transformer Foundation 1%

 

$16,800

 

-

Transformer Installation 3%

$50,400

   

Transformer Installation 3%

 

$50,400

 

-

Line Reconductor (Beavercrk to Adena with Osprey)

         

$1,890,000

   

Total Line Reconductor Cost

 

$5,961,900

 

-

Total Substation Cost

$2,797,333

   

(12) Current Transformer 150MVA

1 150MVA

12 150MVA

Total Cost

$6,459,533

     

$7,000

 

$84,000

   

(6) Current Transformer ≥ 160MVA

1 ≥160MVA

6

≥160MVA

     

$7,000

 

$42,000

   

Total Substation Cost

 

$2,797,333

 

-

   

Total Cost

$10,657,433

 

-

- 16 -

X.

Appendix

 

TableTableTableTable 5555

 

One-Line Diagram Index

Drawing #

Description

0

No Wind Farm – System Intact-(Base Case w/ no wind farm)

1

150MW Wind Farm – System Intact (Base Case w/ 150MW)

2

150MW Wind Farm – Ault-Larimie Outage

3

150MW Wind Farm – Beaver Creek –Brush Outage

4

150MW Wind Farm –Haxton-CSU Outage

5

150MW Wind Farm –Flemming-CSU Outage

6

150MW Wind Farm – Weld-Weld Outage

7

75MW Wind Farm – System Intact (Base Case w/ 75MW)

8

75MW Wind Farm – Ault-Larimie Outage

9

75MW Wind Farm – Beaver Creek-Brush Outage

10

75MW Wind Farm – Weld-Weld Outage

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- 18 -

- 18 -

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- 19 -

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- 20 -

- 21 -

- 21 -

- 22 -

- 22 -

- 23 -

- 23 -

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- 24 -

- 25 -

- 25 -

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- 26 -

- 27 -

- 27 -

- 28 -

- 28 -

Lab Work Created

Lab 1 provides an introduction to PSS/E and power flow studies. This lab explains the files used

within PSS/E. Emphasizing the *.sav data file and its components.

sheet representation of the power system being studied. This lab describes the different tabs used

in the data file and their contents.

The data file is a spread

Lab 2 introduces the-one line diagram, known as a slider file in PSS/E. This lab explains the components of a one-line diagram, including buses, branches, loads, etc. A one-line diagram is a three phase power system simplified and represented graphically with single lines.

Lab 3 explains how to solve for outages in the power system. This lab will focus on performing a power flow study by manually taking lines out of service to create outages, solving the system and documenting each effect an individual outage has on the power system.

Lab 4 provides an introduction to the contingency file, monitor file, and the subsystem files. This lab will explain how the three files are utilized by the AC Contingency Calculation (ACCC) feature of PSS/E to perform a power flow study on a particular zone. An introduction to a power flow study is also given in this lab. A power flow study is performed in this lab by automatically taking contingencies and viewing the overloads due to the outages.

Lab 5 explains how to modify the contingency file, monitor file, and the subsystem files previously introduced. This lab introduces and explains how the Multiple AC Contingency calculation report feature of PSS/E is capable of creating a single report with the results of multiple ACCCs into one file.

Lab 6 covers the introduction of a wind farm into a base case and analyzes the effects using

PSS/E.

rated at 1.5 MW, 60 Hz, will be added to the base case. From this a system impact study, or

power flow study can be performed and produced.

A model of a wind farm based on characteristics of GE built wind turbine generators

- 29 -

LAB1 – INTRODUCTION TO PSS/E EE461: POWER SYSTEMS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY - 30 -

LAB1 – INTRODUCTION TO PSS/E EE461: POWER SYSTEMS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY

LAB1 – INTRODUCTION TO PSS/E EE461: POWER SYSTEMS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY - 30 -

- 30 -

PURPOSE: The purpose of this lab is to introduce PSS/E. This lab will introduce the following aspects of PSS/E:

Introduction to PSS/E

How to access PSS/E on campus computers

Explanation of file types

Explanation of tabs

Introduction to PSS/E

Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E) is composed of a comprehensive set of programs for studies of power system transmission network and generation performance in both steady-state and dynamic conditions. Currently two primary simulations are used, one for steady-state analysis and one for dynamic simulations. PSS/E can be utilized to facilitate calculations for a variety of analyses, including:

• Power flow and related network functions

• Optimal power flow

• Balanced and unbalanced faults

• Network equivalent construction

• Dynamic simulation

The lab manuals that will be considered throughout the duration of this course will be primarily focused on power flow, dynamic simulations will not be explained. PSS/E uses a graphical user interface that is comprised of all the functionality of state analysis; including load flow, fault analysis, optimal power flow, equivalency, and switching studies.

In addition, to the steady-state and dynamic analyses, PSS/E also provides the user with a wide

rage of auxiliary programs for installation, data input, output, manipulation and preparation. Furthermore, one of the most basic premises of PSS/E is that the engineer can derive the greatest benefit from computational tools by retaining intimate control over their application.

Power Flow

A power flow study (also known as load-flow study) is an important tool involving numerical

analysis applied to a power system. Unlike traditional circuit analysis, a power flow study usually uses simplified notation such as a one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses on

various forms of AC power (ie: reactive, real, and apparent).

Power flow studies are important because they allow for planning and future expansion of existing as well as non-existing power systems. A power flow study also can be used to determine the best and most effective design of power systems.

- 31 -

The PSS/E interface supports a variety of interactive facilities including:

• Introduction, modification and deletion of network data using a spreadsheet

• Creation of networks and one-line diagrams

• Steady-state analyses (load flow, fault analysis, optimal power flow, etc.)

• Presentation of steady-state analysis results

Dynamics

The dynamic simulation program includes all the functionality for transient, dynamic and long term stability analysis. The dynamic simulation interface is operated as a separate program, currently independent of the PSS/E interface. This can be observed when going to a PSS/E program and viewing the dynamics as a separate program. The purpose of the dynamics is to facilitate operation of all dynamic stability analytical functions. The dynamics program, in addition to supporting the dynamics activities, also continues to support the traditional load flow interface through the LOFL activity. This lab will not address dynamic simulations.

How to access PSS/E on campus computers

1. Log onto your computer

2. If an access key was provided, put USB access key in USB port of computer

3. In the start menu. Go to Start Engineering Application PSSE 30.2 PSSE (Power Flow) (This step is shown below):

start menu. Go to Start Engineering Application PSSE 30.2 PSSE (Power Flow) (This step is shown

- 32 -

Note: The following error message will be displayed if PSS/E does not detect an access key:

will be displayed if PSS/E does not detect an access key: Click OK. Continue clicking OK

Click OK. Continue clicking OK on any other error messages that may occur. PSS/E will close down and you will need to insert your access key into the USB port before attempting to open PSS/E again.

4. PSS/E initial configuration