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# MIT - 16.

20

Fall, 2002

## Unit 13 Review of Simple Beam Theory

Readings:
Review Unified Engineering notes on Beam Theory
BMP 3.8, 3.9, 3.10
T&G 120-125

## Paul A. Lagace, Ph.D.

Professor of Aeronautics & Astronautics
and Engineering Systems

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

## Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 2

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

We have thus far looked at: in-plane loads torsional loads In addition, structures can carry loads by bending. The 2-D case is a plate, the simple 1-D case is a beam. Lets first review what you learned in Unified as Simple Beam Theory

## (review of) Simple Beam Theory

A beam is a bar capable of carrying loads in bending. The loads are applied transverse to its longest dimension. Assumptions: 1. Geometry

Unit 13 - 3

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

Figure 13.1

## General Geometry of a Beam

a) long & thin l >> b, h b) loading is in z-direction c) loading passes through shear center no torsion/twist
(well define this term later and relax this constraint.)

d) cross-section can vary along x 2. Stress state a) yy, yz, xy = 0 no stress in y-direction b) xx >> zz xz >> zz only significant stresses are xx and xz
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 4

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

Note: there is a load in the z-direction to cause these stresses, but generated xx is much larger (similar to pressurized cylinder example) Why is this valid? Look at moment arms:
Figure 13.2

## Representation of force applied in beam

xx moment arm is order of (h) zz moment arm is order of (l) and l >> h xx >> zz for equilibrium
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 5

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

3. Deformation
Figure 13.3

## Representation of deformation of cross-section of a beam

deformed state (capital letters)

## Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 6

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

a) Assume plane sections remain plane and perpendicular to the midplane after deformation Bernouilli - Euler Hypothesis ~ 1750 b) For small angles, this implies the following for deflections: dw u ( x, y, z ) z z (13 - 1) dx total derivative = dw since it does not dx vary with y or z Figure 13.4 Representation of movement in x-direction of two points on same plane in beam

## u = -z sin Note direction of u relative to +x direction

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 7

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

## and for small: u = -z

v ( x, y, z ) = 0 w ( x, y, z ) w ( x )
d 2w u = = z 2 dx x

(13 - 2)

xx

(13 - 3)

yy =
zz =

v = 0 y

xy

yz

## w (no deformation through thickness) = 0 z u v = + = 0 y x v w = + = 0 z y

xz =
Paul A. Lagace 2001

u w w w + = + = 0 z x x x
Unit 13 - 8

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

Now consider the stress-strain equations (for the time being consider
isotropicextend this to orthotropic later)

xx =

xx E
xx E
xx E

(13 - 4) <-- small inconsistency with previous <-- small inconsistency with previous

yy =
zz =

xy =

2 (1 + ) xy = 0 E

yz =
zx =

2 (1 + ) yz = 0 E

2 (1 + ) zx <-- inconsistency again! E We get around these inconsistencies by saying that yy, zz, xz are very small but not quite zero. This is an approximation. We will evaluate these later on.
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 9

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

4. Equilibrium Equations Assumptions: a) no body forces b) equilibrium in y-direction is ignored c) x, z equilibrium are satisfied in an average sense So:

xx xz + = 0 x z
0 = 0

(13 - 5)

(y -equilibrium) (13 - 6)

xz zz + = 0 x z

## (13 - 6a) (13 - 5a)

Unit 13 - 10

face
Paul A. Lagace 2001

z [

Eq. (13 5)

] dy dz

dM = S dx

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

These are the Moment, Shear, Loading relations where the stress resultants are: h Axial Force Shear Force Bending Moment
Figure 13.8

F =

2 h 2

xx b dz
h 2 h 2 h 2 h 2

(13 - 7)
(13 - 8)
(13 - 9)

S = xz b dz M = z xx b dz

[Force/Area]

and

Unit 13 - 11

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

## So the final important equations of Simple Beam Theory are:

xx
xx

d 2w u = z 2 = dx x xx = E

## (13 - 3) (13 - 4) (13 - 6a)

dS = p dx

dM = S dx

(13 - 5a)

--> How do these change if the material is orthotropic? We have assumed that the properties along x dominate and have ignored yy, etc. Thus, use EL in the above equations. But, approximation may not be as good since yy, zz, xz may be large and really not close enough to zero to be assumed approximately equal to zero
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 12

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

## Solution of Equations using (13 - 3) and (13 - 4) we get:

d 2
w (13 - 10) xx = E xx = Ez 2 dx Now use this in the expression for the axial force of equation (13 - 7):

d 2w 2 F = E 2 h z b dz dx 2

= E d w z b = 0
2 dx 2 h
2
2
2 h 2

No axial force in beam theory (Note: something that carries axial and bending forces is known as a beam-column) Now place the stress expression (13 - 10) into the moment equation (13 - 9):
h
d 2 w 2 2
M = E 2 h z b dz
dx 2

Unit 13 - 13

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

definition:

I =

h 2 h 2

z 2 b dz

## for rectangular cross-section:

b h3 I = 12
Thus:

[length4] b

d 2w M = EI 2 dx

(13 - 11)

Moment - Curvature Relation --> Now place equation (13 - 11) into equation (13 - 10) to arrive at: M xx = Ez EI xx =
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Mz I

(13 - 12)
Unit 13 - 14

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

Finally, we can get an expression for the shear stress by using equation (13 - 5): xz xx (13 - 5) = z x Multiply this by b and integrate from z to h/2 to get:
h 2

xz xx 2 b dz = b dz z x z
h 2 z

b [ xz (h 2) xz (z)] = =0
(from boundary condition of no stress on top surface)

M z b dz I x
z dM I dx =S

## (13 - 13) This all gives: xz =

Paul A. Lagace 2001

SQ Ib
Unit 13 - 15

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

where:

Q =

h 2

z b dz

## function of z - - maximum occurs at z = 0 Summarizing:

dS = p dx dM = S dx

xx =
xz =

Mz I
SQ Ib

d 2w M = EI 2 dx
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 16

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

Notes: xx is linear through thickness and zero at midpoint xz has parabolic distribution through thickness with maximum at midpoint Usually xx >> zz Solution Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. Draw free body diagram Calculate reactions Obtain shear via (13 - 6a) and then xz via (13 - 13) Obtain moment via (13 - 5a) and then xx via (13 - 12) and deflection via (13 - 11) NOTE: steps 2 through 4 must be solved simultaneously if loading is indeterminate Same formulation for orthotropic material except Use EL Assumptions on may get worse Can also be solved via stress function approach
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Notes:

Unit 13 - 17

MIT - 16.20

Fall, 2002

Figure 13.6

For beams with discontinuities, can solve in each section separately and join (match boundary conditions) Example of solution approach for beam with discontinuity

d2 w A = MA 2 dx w A = ... + C1x + C 2

d2 w B = MB 2 dx w B = ... + C 3 x + C 4

## --> Subject to Boundary Conditions: @ x = 0, w = wA = 0 @ x = x1,

w A = wB dw A dwB = dx dx
displacements and slopes match

@ x = l, w = wB = 0
Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 13 - 18