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2011 The University of Texas at Austin

General Editor
Bartolo Natoli

List of Contributors
Hallie Brewer Lindsay Carter Remi Chan Jeannie Fallon Colton Kaiser Eleni Karalexis Rosalynn Karstens Sara Khaleeq Thu-Hang Le Amy Madden Kelsey Nixon Ryan Nolen Katie Price Timothy Simmons Andrew Zigler

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The cover image is Jacques Sablet's The Death of Pallas (1749-1803) and was selected by Andrew Zigler and the Cover Art Committee.

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Table of Contents

Book VII
Lines 1-28
Jeannie Fallon

Lines 28-55
Kelsey Nixon

Lines 55-80
Katie Price

10

Lines 761-783
Hallie Brewer

14

iv

Book VII
Lines 1-25
Rosalynn Karstens

18

Lines 184-208
Ryan Nolen

22

Lines 280-305
Thu-Hang Le

26

Lines 374-406
Lindsay Carter

32

Lines 426-453
Andrew Zigler

36

Book IX
Lines 1-26
Eleni Karalexis

40

Lines 107-132
Colton Kaiser

44

Lines 416-445
Sara Khaleeq

48

Book X
Lines 345-375
Timothy Simmons

52

Lines 420-448
Amy Madden

56

Book XII
Lines 411-440
Remi Chan

60

vi

VII.1-28
Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Aeneia nutrix, aeternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti; et nunc seruat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen Hesperia in magna, si qua est ea gloria, signat. At pius exsequiis Aeneas rite solutis, 5 aggere composito tumuli, postquam alta quierunt aequora, tendit iter uelis portumque relinquit. aspirant aurae in noctem nec candida cursus luna negat, splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus. proxima Circaeae raduntur litora terrae, 10 diues inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos adsiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum arguto tenuis percurrens pectine telas.

Nurse of Aeneas, [in] dying you have given eternal fame to our shores, [you] Caieta; and now your honor saves [your] place and [your] name marks [your] bones in the great western lands, if that is any glory. Yet with the funeral ceremonies having been fulfilled with the proper rites, with the tomb having been put together in the rampart, afterwards [when] the deep seas were at rest, dutiful Aeneas proceeds [with his] journey by sail(s) and leaves the harbor behind. Breezes blow in the night and the bright moon does not deny the route, the sea gleams under the flickering light. The nearby shores of the Circean land are grazed, where the rich daughter of the sun calls repeatedly inaccessible groves with constant song, she burns fragrant cedar as nighttime lights in the proud houses, [and she is] running through the slender web [on the loom] with [her] clamorous quill.

Vocabulary arguo, arguer, argui, argutum: to put in clear light; to declare, prove; (as a participle: expressive, piercing, shrill, noisy, significant) Caieta, Caietae (f): the wet-nurse of Aeneas cedrus, cedri (f): juniper, cedar exaudio, exaudire, exaudivi, exauditum: to hear, discern ferus/a/um: wild, savage fervidus/a/um: seething, foaming fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi: to glitter Hesperia, Hesperiae (f): the western land induo, induere, indui, indutus: to put on, assume luctor, luctari, luctatus: to struggle luteus/a/um: yellow nutrix, nutricis (f): nurse pectin, pectinis (m): comb, weavers comb, quill praesepe, praesepis (n): stall, stable, pen rado, radere, rasi, rasum: to scrape, scratch, graze repente: suddenly resideo, residere, resedi, resessum: to reside, tarry, linger rubesco, rubescere, rubui: to turn red saetiger,-gera,-gerum: bristled tela, telae (f): web, warp, loom tenuis, tenue: thin, fine, slender tergum, tergi (n): back, rear, surface tonsa, tonsae (f): oar tremulus/a/um: trembling tumulus, tumuli (m): grave, tomb ululo, ululare, ululavi, ululatum: to howl uro, urere, ussi, ustum: to burn, inflame, consume vadum, vadi (n): shallow water, shoal

hinc exaudiri gemitus iraeque leonum uincla recusantum et sera sub nocte rudentum, saetigerique sues atque in praesepibus ursi saeuire ac formae magnorum ululare luporum, quos hominum ex facie dea saeua potentibus herbis induerat Circe in uultus ac terga ferarum. quae ne monstra pii paterentur talia Troes delati in portus neu litora dira subirent, Neptunus uentis impleuit uela secundis, atque fugam dedit et praeter uada feruida uexit. Iamque rubescebat radiis mare et aethere ab alto Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis, cum uenti posuere omnisque repente resedit flatus, et in lento luctantur marmore tonsae.

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From here are heard the groans and anger of lions struggling against chains and growling under the late night, and bristled boars and bears [are heard] to rage in pens, and the shapes of great wolves [are heard] to howl, which the cruel goddess Circe had dressed from the shape of men to the faces and backs of wild [beasts] by using powerful herbs. Neptune fills the sails with favorable winds so that the Trojans, having been delayed in the harbor, might not suffer such evil omens nor arrive at dire shores, and [Neptune] gave flight [to the Trojans] and carried [them] beyond the foaming shadows. And now the sea was growing red with beams and yellow Dawn was glittering from the lofty sky in [her] rosy chariot. When suddenly the winds settled down and every breeze lingered behind, and the oars struggle in the sluggish sea.

Commentary 7.1-28: Having buried his nurse Caieta, Aeneas continues on his journey and sets sail at night. As he and his crew approach the Isle of Circe, they can hear wild beastsformerly Circes human prisonersroaming the shores. Although Neptune fills the Trojans sails with wind to help them avoid the sorceress dominion, the breezes suddenly die as dawn breaks over the sea. 1. litoribus nostris: dative (indirect object) 1-2. nutrix Caieta: vocative 4. [tuum] nomen signat [tua] ossa 5. exsequiis solutis: ablative absolute 6. aggere composito: ablative absolute; tumuli: genitive of possession with aggerea 8-9, nec candida luna negat cursus: Aeneas and his men were able to see and navigate in the moonlight 10. proxima Circaeae . . . litora terrae: a golden line 11. dives inaccessos . . . filia lucos: another golden line 11. solis: genitive of possession with filia 12. adsiduo cantu: ablative of manner 13. odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum: chiasmus 14. arguto tenuis . . . pectin telas: synchesis 15. exaudiri: historical infinitive 18. saevire, ululare: complementary infinitives with exaudiri 18. magnorum ululare luporum: the combination of elision, alliteration, and assonance produces an onomatopoeic effect for lupus 19-20. quos induerat in vultus ac terga ferarum ex facie hominum: the earlier fate of Circes human prisoners 19. potentibus herbis: ablative of means 21-22. paterentur, subirent: subjunctives in purpose clause 24. vada fervida: white water near the coast can indicate slightly submerged rocks or sandbars, both a danger to ships 26. Aurora roseis . . . lutea bigis: synchesis 27. posuere = posuerunt

VII.29-55
Atque hic Aeneas ingentem ex aequore lucum prospicit. hunc inter fluuio Tiberinus amoeno uerticibus rapidis et multa flauus harena in mare prorumpit. uariae circumque supraque adsuetae ripis uolucres et fluminis alueo aethera mulcebant cantu lucoque uolabant. flectere iter sociis terraeque aduertere proras imperat et laetus fluuio succedit opaco. Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora, rerum quis Latio antiquo fuerit status, aduena classem cum primum Ausoniis exercitus appulit oris, expediam, et primae reuocabo exordia pugnae. 30

35

40

And at this (point) Aeneas spies a huge grove from the sea. Through (this) grove the yellow (gold) Tiber (river) bursts into the sea with a pleasant stream, swift whirlpools, and sand. Various birds (having been) accustomed to the banks and channel of the river were flying above and around the grove and were charming the air with song. He (Aeneas) orders his comrades to bend their route and to turn the prows toward the land, and happy he approaches the dark river. Come now, Erato, I shall explain what kings, what circumstances, and what was the state of things (in) ancient Latium, when the foreign army first landed (its) fleet on the Italian shores, and I will recall the beginnings of the first battle.

Vocabulary advena, -ae, m. foreign (applicable to all genders conjugates fem) adverto, avertere, averti aversus to turn; avoid aequor, aequoris n. sea arvum, -i, n. farmland assuesco, assuescere, assuevi, assuetus to be accustomed Ausonius, -a, -um Italian cantus, us, m. song cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus to assemble, collect, gather, round up dico, dicere, dixi, dictum - to say, speak, utter, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state, assert exordium, exordii, n. beginning Faunus, -i, m. Fanus father of King Latinus flavus, us, m. tawny, golden-yellow, blonde flecto, flectere, flexi, flectus to bend gigno, gignare, gignavi, gignatum to produce, give birth to, beget harena, ae, f. sand Hesperia, ae, f. Hesperia = Italy iter n. (indeclinable) a going, walk, route Laurens, Laurentis, f, - Laurentia(n) lucus, -i m. grove Marica, -ae, f. Marica (nymph) supposed mother of King Latinus moneo, monere, monui, monitum to remind, put in mind of, admonish, advise, warn, instruct, teach mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsus to charm, calm, soothe nubilus, -a, -um marriageable nullus, -a, um not any, none, no nymphia, ae, f. nymph opacus, -i, m. dark orior, oriri, ortus to rise, to appear, become visible placidus, -a, -um gentle, calm, still, peaceful, mild prora, ae, f. prow prorumpo, prorumpere , prorupi, proruptum to burst prospicio, prospecere, prospexi, prospectum to spy ripa, -ae, f. river bank sedes, sedis, f. a seat, chair, bench, throne, palace* succedo, succedere, successi, successurus to approach, to follow* Tyrrhenus, -a, um Etruscan, Tyrrhenian vates, vatis m poet vertex, is, m. a whirl, eddy, whirlpool volo, volare, volavi, volatus to fly, speed, more rapidly volucer, voluceris, f. birds
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tu uatem, tu, diua, mone. dicam horrida bella, dicam acies actosque animis in funera reges, Tyrrhenamque manum totamque sub arma coactam Hesperiam. maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo, maius opus moueo. Rex arua Latinus et urbes iam senior longa placidas in pace regebat. hunc Fauno et nympha genitum Laurente Marica accipimus; Fauno Picus pater, isque parentem te, Saturne, refert, tu sanguinis ultimus auctor. filius huic fato diuum prolesque uirilis nulla fuit, primaque oriens erepta iuuenta est. sola domum et tantas seruabat filia sedes iam matura uiro, iam plenis nubilis annis. multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant Ausonia;

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You, goddess, inform/remind your poet. I will speak (of) frightening wars, I will speak of kings (having been) driven by emotions into death, and the Etruscan hand (army), and all (of) Italy (having been) collected under arms. A greater order of events (things) is being born for me, more great (is) the work I set in motion. King Latinus, already rather old, was ruling the farmlands and calm cities in long peace. We hear this man (to have been) born from Faunus and from the Laurentian nymph, Marica. Picus (was) father to Faunus; and he brings back (names) you, Saturn, as his father, you are the most distant ancestor of (this) blood. By prediction of the gods there was no son and(or) male offspring to this man, and the first (son) having been snatched away rising in youth. Only a daughter was keeping the house and so great a throne. Already mature (enough) for a man, already (ready) for marriage for sufficient years. Many (men) were wooing her from great Latium and from all (parts of) Italy.

Commentary
30: Fluvio amoeno abl of circumstance. reoccur on 8.31 Tibernius appears to Aeneas in his dreams and he is rising out of a fluvio amoeno (The Virgil Project, n.d.) Literary Device: assonance 33: circumque around supraque above Above and around the bank. Literary Device: anaphora Line 34: Cantu abl. Of means depending on mulcebant Aethera sing, m, acc Line 37: Erato Muse of Love indeclinable form Big turning point in the epic. Now Virgil is introducing new characters and legends to the reader. Erato, as the Muse of Love is going to help him tell the story of whatkings,what circumstances,andthestateofthingsinAncientLatiumwhentheforeignarmy.and thebeginningsofthefirstbattle Literary Device: Anaphora repetition of quiquaequis. 40: exordia Direct Object of revocabo; pugnae objective genitive He repeats this beginning in line 123 nunc repeto Anchises fatorum arcana reliquit Literary Device: assonance; anaphora 41: mone 2nd, sing, imperative, active, indic tu vocative, sing, fem tu nom, sing fem vatem acc, sing, fem (i-stem pure) Literary Device: anaphora 42: The list of kings who died is found on line 647 spurred on by their courage to encounter death actos amnis. In my opinion, this is similar to Priam when we saw him in Book II carried to death by his emotion ac densos dertur moriturus in hostis Literary Device: alliteration

43: sub arma = sub armis in arms more idiomatic translation Literary Device: assonance 45: Conington believes Virgil could be implying it is greater to narrate wars rather than wandering (such as around the ocean for years and years) A greater order of events is being born for me, more great is the work I set in motion Maior sing, masc, nom. mod ordo Maius - sing, neut, acc. mod. opus both are comparative degree adjectives** Literary Device: anaphora 46: Literary Device: assonance 49: Saturne: sing, masc, voc 50: Fato divum, by the decree of the gods The gods decreed that Latinus should have no son, in order that Aeneas might obtain his kingdom with the hand of Lavinia. (The Virgil Project) 51: Nulla fuit, was no more, i. e. at the time when Aeneas landed. Oriens sing, present, participle, feminine nominative predicate modifier (understood) lit: as it was rising 52: Servabat domum, remained in the house, as in 6. 402, Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen, with a further notion of preserving the family. Domum perhaps refers rather to her being the hope of his family, tantas sedes to her (the one daughter) being the heir of his estate. (The Virgil Project) 53: Matura sing, fem, nom predicate modifier of filia mature (enough) nubilis sing, fem, nom mod. Filia plenis plural, masc, abl mod of annis Already mature enough for a man, already (ready) for marriage for sufficient years. Literary Device: anaphora

VII.55-80
petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis Turnus, auis atauisque potens, quem regia coniunx adiungi generum miro properabat amore; sed uariis portenta deum terroribus obstant. laurus erat tecti medio in penetralibus altis sacra comam multosque metu seruata per annos, quam pater inuentam, primas cum conderet arces, ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus, Laurentisque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis. huius apes summum densae (mirabile dictu) stridore ingenti liquidum trans aethera uectae obsedere apicem, et pedibus per mutua nexis examen subitum ramo frondente pependit. 55

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Turnus sought her, (he) most handsome before all others, powerful by grandfather and great great grandfather, whom the queen hastened to bind as a spouse of families with wonderful love. But the foretellings of the gods, with various terrors, resisted. There was a sacred laurel tree, middle of the roof in the high shrine, the sacred (tree), with respect to the leaves, having been preserved with apprehension through the years. It was said that father Latinus himself, having discovered it when he first built the citadel, dedicated (it) to Phoebus, and from it placed the name of the Laurens settlers. Dense, driving bees, marvelous to tell, beset across the clear air, with a mighty humming and suspended from the top of a leafing branch, their feet having been connected together.

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Vocabulary Adiungo: to bind, connect, join Aether: sky, heaven Apes: bees Apicem: extremity, top Avus: grandfather, ancestor Atavus: great, great grandfather; ancestor Cano: to prophesy, announce Cremo: to burn Crepo: to crack, rattle Examen: swarm (of bees) Fulvus: reddish yellow Fumo: to smoke Inlustris: bright, full of light Necto: to connect, bind Nefas: Wretched! Obsedere: to beset Ramus: branch Spargere: to scatter Stridor: creaking, hissing, humming Taeda: pine wood

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continuo uates 'externum cernimus' inquit 'aduentare uirum et partis petere agmen easdem partibus ex isdem et summa dominarier arce.' praeterea, castis adolet dum altaria taedis, et iuxta genitorem astat Lauinia uirgo, uisa (nefas) longis comprendere crinibus ignem atque omnem ornatum flamma crepitante cremari, regalisque accensa comas, accensa coronam insignem gemmis; tum fumida lumine fuluo inuolui ac totis Volcanum spargere tectis. id uero horrendum ac uisu mirabile ferri: namque fore inlustrem fama fatisque canebant ipsam, sed populo magnum portendere bellum.

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The prophet cried, We distinguish a foreign man approaching and a troop, from a like place, seeking the same place, and (we distinguish) to rule above from the highest citadel. As he burns the alter with pure pinewood, nearby the virgin Lativina stands by her father. Wretched! She seemed to catch the fire in her long tresses and all attire to burn in crackling flame and her royal leaves having been lighted, her wreath, distinguished for its jewels, having been inflamed. Then, wrapped in yellow light and smoke, she scattered Volcanus in the entire palace. Truly it was made known as a terrifying and miraculous sight, for they announced that she herself would be bright with fame and fortunes, but indicated a great war for her people.

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Commentary 56. auis atauisque: Ablatives of specification 56. regia (esse) coniunx 57. adiungi: perfect passive infinitive of adiungere, direct object of properabat 60. Synchesis: sacra, multos, servata, annos 60. Comam: Accusative of Specification 62. sacrasse: perfect infinitive, indirect statement introduced by ferebatur 62. Phoebo: Apollo 64. mirabile dictu: supine 65. stridore: abl. of manner 69. adventarepetere: present active infinitives, indirect statement introduced by cernimus 69. Alliteration with parties petere 70. summa arce: abl. of place where 72. virgo: nominative singular feminine modifying Lavinia 72. genitorem astat Lavinia: the word order has Lavinia literally standing next to her father 73-75. The c alliteration and sound repetition contributes to the sound imagery of the crackling of the fire on Lavinia 73. nefas: exclamation 77-78. Anaphora with ac 79. fore: future infinitive of esse: indirect statement introduced by canebant

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VII.761-782
Ibat et Hippolyti proles pulcherrima bello, Viribius, insignem quem mater Aricia misit, eductum Egeriae lucis umentia circum litora, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae. Namque ferunt fama Hippolytum, postquam arte novercae 765 occiderit patriasque explerit sanguine poenas turbatis distractus equis, ad sidera rursus aetheria et superas caeli venisse sub auras, Paeoniis revocatum herbis et amore Dianae.

And Viribius, the most beautiful son of Hippolytus, went to war, whom, distinguished, Mother Aricia sent, (him) having been brought up around the damp shores of Egerian light, where there is the thick and peaceable altar of Diana. For they say by report [that] Hippolytus, after he fell by the art of [his] stepmother, and (Hippolytus) having been torn apart by horses having been uproared (stampeding), he [ful]filled the paternal penalties by [his] blood, [he was] turned back to heavenly stars and he went to the higher winds of heaven, recalled by Paeonian (Apollonian) herbs and by the love of Diana.

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Vocabulary aetherius, aetheria, aetherium (adj.)- ethereal, heavenly almus, alma, almum (adj.) - nourishing arceo, arcere - to enclose Aricia, Ariciae, f. - a town in Latium aura, aurae, f. - wind cornipes, cornipidis (adj.) - hoofed detrudo, detrudere - to thrust down, throw down distraho, distrahere - to tear apart effundo, effundere - to pour out, spill Egeria, Egeriae, f. - a nymph from Aricia in Latium exerceo, exercere - to drive exigo, exigere - to drive through, complete expleo, explere - to fill full, fulfill fulmen, fulminis, n. - lightning haud (adv.) - by no means Hippolytus, Hippolyti, m. - Hippolytus (Virbius), son of Hippolytum indignor, indigari, indignatus (dep.) - to be indignant, to despise infernus, inferna, infernum (adj.)- lower ignobilis, ignobile (third dec. adj.) - unknown marinus, marina, marinum (adj.)- of the sea monstrum, monstri, n. - monster nemus, nemoris, n. - meadow, forest pasture noverca, novercae, f. - stepmother Paeonius, Paeonia, Paeonium (adj.) - of Paeon (physician of the gods) pavidus, pavida, pavidum (adj.) - fearful Phobigena, Phobigenae, m. - son of Phoebus (Apollo) = Asclepius pinguis, pingue (third dec. adj.) - thick, dense placabilis, placabile (third dec. adj.) - peaceable, placable proles, prolis, f. - offspring recondo, recondere - to hide, conceal relego, relegere - to commission, despatch repertor, repertoris, m. - a discoverer setius, setia, setium (adj.) - less, lesser Stygius, Stygia, Stygium (adj.) - of the river Styx, Styxian surgo, sugere - to rise, arise Trivia, Triviae, f. - Diana turbo, turbare - to move confused, to uproar umeo, umere - to be moist, damp, wet

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Tum pater omnipotens aliquem indignatus ab umbris mortalem infernis ad lumina surgere vitae, ipse repertorem medicinae talis et artis fulmine Phoebigenam Stygias detrusit ad undas. At Trivia Hippolytum secretis alma recondit sedibus et nymphae Egeriae nemorique relegat, solus ubi in silvis Italis ignobilis aevum exigeret versoque ubi nomine Viribius esset. Unde etiam templo Triviae lucisque sacratis cornipedes arcentur equi, quod litore currum et iuvenem monstris pavidi effundere marinis. Filius ardentis haud setius aequore campi exercebat equos curruque in bella ruebat.

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780

Then the all-knowing father offended [that] any mortal from the lower shades rose up to the lights of life, he himself threw Phoegena (son of Phoebus=son of Apollo=Asclepius), the discoverer of medicine and of such art, down to the Styxian waves (the Underworld) with lightning. But the nourishing Trivia (Diana) concealed Hippolytus in secret places, and redispatches [him] to the nymph Egeria and grove, where alone in the Italian woods he, unknown, shall complete eternity and where, with [his] name having been changed, was Viribius. Whence even now hoofed horses are enclosed from the temple of Trivia and of light for sacred things, because [they] (the horses), having been made fearful by sea monsters, poured out the chariot and youth on the shore. The son of the ardent one by no means lesser drove horses on the level of the field and rushed into wars by means of a chariot.

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Commentary 762: Aricia = town in Latium 763: educ[a]tum; umentia Egeriae lucis = Lake Nemi (near Aricia), where Dianas sanctuary and the groves of the closely associated nymph Egeria were 764: pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae (est) 765: arte = abl. of cause 766: occiderit, explerit = subjunc.: relative clause of characteristic (in indirect statement); sanguine =abl. of means 767: turbatis equis = stampeding horses 769: herbis et amore = abl. of means 770-771: umbris mortalem infernis = synchesis (imitating the translation) 772: repertorem medicinae talis et artis =refers to Asclepius (Phoebigenam) 773: Stygias undas = the river Styx, in the Underworld 774: Trivia Hippolytum secretis alma = synchesis (Trivia and secretis are literally concealing Hippolytum) 775: (Trivia) relegat (Hippolytum) 777: versoque nomine = abl. absolute 780: pavidi = refers to the horses; monstris marinis = abl. of cause 781: Filius ardentis haud setius = he was as great as his father

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VIII.1-25
Ut belli signum Laurenti Turnus ab arce extulit et rauco strepuerunt cornua cantu, utque acris concussit equos utque impulit arma, extemplo turbati animi, simul omne tumult coniurat trepido Latium saevitque iuventus effera. Ductores primi Messapus et Ufens contemptorque deum Mezentius undique cogunt auxilia et latos vastant cultoribus agros. mittitur et magni Venulus Diomedis ad urbem que petat auxilium, et Latio consistere Teucros, advectum Aenean classi victosque penatis inferre et fatis regem se dicere posci edoceat, multasque viro se adiungere gentis Dardanio et late Latio increbrescere nomen:

10

When Turnus brought the banner of war from the citadel of Laurentus and horns clattered out in loud song, and he roused his fierce horses and drove forth his arms, immediately spirits were disturbed, all Latium at once swore together in an agitated uproar and very wild youths raged. The primary leaders Messapus, Ufens, and the despiser of the gods Mezentius collected their forces everywhere and stripped the wide fields of cultivators. And Venulus was sent to the city of great Diomedes where he should seek aid, and to teach that the Trojans were put in Latium, and Aeneas had come with his fleet bearing his household gods and calling himself king demanded by fate, and that many Dardanian men of tribes were joining him and his name was increasing widely in Latium:

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Vocabulary Adveho vehere vexi vectum carry, bring, convey to a place Coniuro are swear together Consisto sistere stiti stitum put oneself in any place Cornu a horn, antler Cultor a cultivator, tiller Cunctus all in body, entire Edoceo docere docui doctum teach, instruct thoroughly Efferus a um very wild, savage Ferio, strike, smite, cut Increbreso crebrescere crebrui become frequent, strong, prevalent; increase, prevail Posco ask urgently, beg, demand Radio irradiated Raucus a um hoarse Repercutio to turn back, strike back Strepo ere ui itum make a loud noise, clatter, rattle Turbo are disturb, throw into disorder Vasto are empty, make empty Commentary 1. Laurentum: an ancient Roman city of Latium on the west coast. Turnus: King of the Rutuli 2. cornua: horns, plural Nom 3. utque. . . utque: Anaphora 4. turbati: (sunt), Passive, Pluperfect,3rd Person, Plural, Indicative 5-6. Enjambment 6. Messapus: king of Eturia and a famous tamer of horses 7. Mezentius: Etruscan king, and father of Lausus 8. latos. . . agros: Hyperbaton 9. Venulus: the ambassador of King Turnus of Etruria magni. . . Diomedis: Hyperbaton, King of Argos 12. posci fatis: demanded by fate 12-13. Enjambment

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' quid struat his coeptis, quem, si fortuna sequatur, eventum pugnae cupiat, manifestius ipsi quam Turno regi aut regi apparere Latino. talia per Latium. quae Laomedontius heros cuncta viden magno curarum fluctuat aestu, atque animum nunc huc celerem nunc dividit illuc in partisque rapit varias perque omnia versat, sicut aquae tremulum lavris ubi lumen aenis sole repercussum aut radiantis imagine lunae omnia pervolitat late loca, iamque sub auras erigitur summique ferit laquearia tecti.

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25

What he was putting together with these beginnings, if fortune follows, what outcome he should desire for the fight, should appear more clearly to that man than king Turnus or king Latinum. Such was in Latium. The hero of Laemoedon, seeing all, he tosses in a great rage of care and he divides his swift mind now hither, now thither he snatches and turns through all in different ways, as when shaking light from the water in a bronze bowl, turned back with light or the irradiant image of the moon, flits widely through all places, and now under the sky rises up and strikes the paneled shelter in the highest.

20

Vocabulary Aestus an agitation, glow, heat, rage of fire Appareo ere ui itum become visible, appear Aqua water Coeptum beginning Erigo raise up, lift, erect Fluctuo move in waves, wave, fluctuate Heros ois a demigod, hero Laqueare is a paneled ceiling Pervolito to fly through, flit through Struo struere struxi structum put together, put in order Tectum a covered structure, shelter, house Commentary 16. pugnae: Dat. ipsi: Dat. of Reference 17. regi. . . regi: Anaphora 19. fluctuat: Indicative Active magno. . . aestu: Hyperbaton Abl. Curarum: Gen. he tossed in a great rage of care 20. animum celerem: Hyperbaton, dividit he divides his swift mind nunc huc. . . nunc illuc: Assonance, now hither, now thither 21. in partisque varias Abl. 24. late loca Alliteration

21

VIII.184-208
Postquam exempta fames et amor compressus edendi, rex Euandrus ait: 'non haec sollemnia nobis, has ex more dapes, hanc tanti numinis aram uana superstitio ueterumque ignara deorum imposuit: saeuis, hospes Troiane, periclis seruati facimus meritosque nouamus honores. iam primum saxis suspensam hanc aspice rupem, disiectae procul ut moles desertaque montis stat domus et scopuli ingentem traxere ruinam. hic spelunca fuit uasto summota recessu, semihominis Caci facies quam dira tenebat solis inaccessam radiis; semperque recenti caede tepebat humus, foribusque adfixa superbis ora uirum tristi pendebant pallida tabo. 185

190

195

After the hunger had been exempted and the love of eating had been compressed, The king Evander said: " Not these annual to us, these solemn feast from custom, this alter so great in divinity empty of superstition and ignorance of the ancient god were put upon us: We were saved from fierce perils, Trojan Guest, and we renew these deserved honors. Now first look at this rock overhanging the cliff, how its huge bulk is widely scattered, the mountain home stands deserted and the crags have been dragged into might ruin. there was a cave here that receded into vast darkness, which was being held by the ominous form of the half-human Caecus and which was accessible tot he sun's rays; and was always warm with newly cut up human, and the heads of arrogant men were suspended like brands to the door, pallid and sorrowful with slaughter.

22

Vocabulary Fames, Famis -Hunger edo, edi, esum- to eat, sonsume Sollemnis, is - annual dapes- solemn feast vanus- empty Numen, numinis- divine Saxum- large stone, boulder aspicio- to look at, look upon rupes- rock, cliff disicio, ae- to throw/drive asunder, scatter moles- huge bulk, weight spelunca -Cave, Den dira -ominous recens- freshly, newly tepeo- moderately warm, tepid adfigo- affix as a brand pendeo- to hang down, suspend Pallidus,-a,-um- colorless, pallid atros- black vomens- threw up, vomit opto- to prefer adventum -Arrival Ultor- avenger inausum- unattempted intractatum- not managed stabulis- stables totidem- just as many superante- surmount juvenca- heifer

23

huic monstro Volcanus erat pater: illius atros ore uomens ignis magna se mole ferebat. attulit et nobis aliquando optantibus aetas auxilium aduentumque dei. nam maximus ultor tergemini nece Geryonae spoliisque superbus Alcides aderat taurosque hac uictor agebat ingentis, uallemque boues amnemque tenebant. at furis Caci mens effera, ne quid inausum aut intractatum scelerisue doliue fuisset, quattuor a stabulis praestanti corpore tauros auertit, totidem forma superante iuuencas.

200

205

Vulcan was the father to this monster, and, as that monster bore his huge weight, he would throw up from his mouth great black fires. At last, time brought to us what we wished (preferred), the help and arrival of a god. For Hercules is present, the greatest of avengers for killing three-birth Geryon and who was leading these remarkable cattle in victory, and his cattle were held in the valley and river. And Caecus' mind made mad by fury, lest wickedness or cunning not be attempted or managed, averted four bulls with outstanding body quality, and just as many heifers who surmount their form, from their stalls.

24

Commentary 184: exempta: perfect, passive, nominative, circumstantial participle 186: tanti: genitive going with numinis: of such approval 188: Troiane: vocative with hospes: O guest of Troy 192: traxere: nominal infinitive 193: recess and summota: ablatives of absolute: with the retreat separated 195: recenti: adjective that goes with caede, ablatives of manner: with fresh slaughter 202: teregemini: genitive of description. Geryon was a monster with three bodies. 203: Alcides: easier to take Hercules at the beginning of the sentence: For Heracles is present, the greatest avenger for killing . . . 205: effera and furis: effera modifies mens: the wild mind of Cacus was made angry 206: fuisset: subjunctive for fear clause because of ut. Cacus is fearful of what will happen if he does not try to steal the cattle of Geryon from Heracles. 207: stabulis: ablative of place from which. Cacus is leading the bulls away. 208: superante: present participle: surmounting the bulls in form

25

VIII.280-305
Deuexo interea propior fit Vesper Olympo. iamque sacerdotes primusque Potitius ibant pellibus in morem cincti, flammasque ferebant. instaurant epulas et mensae grata secundae dona ferunt cumulantque oneratis lancibus aras. tum Salii ad cantus incensa altaria circum populeis adsunt evincti tempora ramis, hic juvenum chorus, ille senum, qui carmine laudes Herculeas et facta ferunt: ut prima novercae monstra manu geminosque premens eliserit anguis, ut bello egregias idem disjecerit urbes, 280

285

290

Meanwhile, evening comes about nearer to the slanting Mt. Olympus and now the priests were walking, Potitius first, with pelts having been girded as custom, and were bearing flames. They restore the food and bring favorable gifts as pleasing courses and piled up the altars with plates having been loaded. Then the Salii arrive in song around the altars having been lit, their temples having been wreathed around by branches of poplar, this choir of youth, that of old men, which performs the praises and deeds (of Hercules) in song: how (as a child), pressing hard, he strangled twin snakes by hand, monsters of his stepmother, or how he same divided cities outstanding in war,

26

Vocabulary
anguis, anguis, m. f. snake, serpent cantus, us, m. song carmen, minis, n. song, poem cumulo (1) to heap, pile up; gather into a pile deuexus, a, um sloping, slanting, inclining downwards disicio, ere, jeci, jectus to break up, scatter, divide elido, ere, lisi, lisus to strike, expel, shatter, destroy epula, ae, f. (pl.) courses, food evincio, ere, inxi, inctus to bind; wreathe around fio, feri, factus sum to happen, come about, occur Hercules, is, m. demigod, son of Zeus, popular for good deeds instauro (1) to renew, repeat, restore juvenis, juvenis, m. f. youth, young man/woman lanx, lancis, m. plate, metal dish, tray mos, moris, m. custom, habit; manner noverca, novercae, f. stepmother onero (1) to load, burden; oppress pellis, pellis, f. skin, hide; pelt populeus, a, um of a poplar propior, propius nearer, closer ramus, i, m. branch, bough sacerdos, sacerdotis, m. f. priest, priestess Salii, i, m. dancing priests founded by Numa

Commentary 280-305. Tales of Hercules at Evanders feast. 280. Chiasmus - Vesper is written side by side with Olympo, illustrating it approaching near. 283-284. mensae grata secundae dona: synchesis, represents all the plates of food piled onto each other because it is a feast. 284. oneratis lancibus: from the first course 285. alliteration with cantus incensa circum emphasizing the ubiquitous noise crowding around the altar. Assonance with tum and circum similarly emphasizing the crowd encircling the altars. 286. tempora = temples of the head. populeisramis: assonance and hyperbaton, illustrating the branches wreathed around them 287. juvenumsenum: assonance, distinguishing age but they both make up a choir. 288. Herculeas: Greek, singular genitive. prima = primum at the start of his life 289. monstra manu geminosque hyperbaton; illustrating his hand in between the twin snakes

27

Troiamque Oechaliamque, ut duros mille labores rege sub Eurystheo fatis Iunonis iniquae pertulerit. 'tu nubigenas, invicte, bimembris Hylaeumque Pholumque manu, tu Cresia mactas prodigia et uastum Nemeae sub rupe leonem. te Stygii tremuere lacus, te janitor Orci ossa super recubans antro semesa cruento; nec te ullae facies, non terruit ipse Typhoeus arduus arma tenens; non te rationis egentem Lernaeus turba capitum circumstetit anguis.

295

300

both Troy and Oechalia, or how he suffered beneath King Eurystheus a thousand hard labors, by fate of unjust Juno. You, invincible one, you slaughter the cloud-born, both the Centaurs Hylaeus and Pholus, the Cretan prodigy, and the monstrous lion beneath the cliff of Nemea by hand. The Stygian lake trembled at you, the gatekeeper of the underworld, lying down on top half-eaten bones in his bloody cave; Neither any face, nor Typhon himself, tall and holding weapons, frightened you; you not lacking (reason) (when) the Lernaean snake stood around you with its multitude of heads.

28

Vocabulary
anguis, anguis, m. f. snake, serpent antrum, i, n. cave arduus, dua, dum steep, high, tall, towering bimembris, bimembris, m.(pl.) Centaurs, part man part beast Cresius, a, um Cretan cruentus, a, um bloody, gory, blood-red egeo, ere, ui to lack, want, be without Eurystheus, i, m. son of Sthenelus and grandson of Perseus facies, faciei, f. shape, face, look Hylaeus, i, m. a mean Centaur who tried to harm Atalanta iniquus, a, um unjust, unfair, unkind invictus, a, um unconquered, unconquerable, invincible janitor, oris, m. doorkeeper, janitor, gatekeeper lacus, us, m. basin, lake Lernaeus, a, um of Lerna macto (1) to magnify, sacrifice, slaughter, destroy Nemea, ae, f. a city in Argolis ubigena, ae, m. cloud-born Oechalia, ae, f. ancient Greek, city of Eurytus Orcus, i, m. the underworld, hell ossum, i, n. bone perfero, ferre, tuli, latus carry through, endure to the end, suffer Pholus, i, m. a wise Centaur who was companion to Hercules recubo (1) to lie down, recline rupes, is, f. cliff, rock turba, ae, f. commotion, crowd, multitude Typhoeus, i, m. an immortal storm-giant semesus, a, um half-eaten Stygius, a, um of the river Styx in the underworld

Commentary
292. fatis Iunonis iniquae: by the fate of unjust Juno; she was unfriendly to Hercules because of her jealousy of Alcmene, similar to her jealousy of Ganymede and bitterness at the judgment of Paris being the reasons for her hostility against the Trojans 293-299. tututetete: repeated pronouns help separate each labor. 293. pertulerit enjambment, emphasizing how he suffered 294. Hylaeus and Pholus are centaurs who were slain in the battle amongst the Centaurs and Lapithae 294-295. Cresia prodigia: Cretan bull 295. hyperbaton with Nemeae sub rupe leonem, lion after (beneath) the cliff of Nemea 296. janitor Orci: usually stands watch, but before powerful Hercules and played with his bones instead 298-299 necnonnon: anaphora and hepthimeral caesurae on both lines to emphasize his lack of fear 299. egentem: takes a genitive. arduustenens: appositive to Typhoeus

29

salve, vera Jovis proles, decus addite divis, et nos et tua dexter adi pede sacra secundo.' talia carminibus celebrant; super omnia Caci speluncam adiciunt spirantemque ignibus ipsum. consonat omne nemus strepitu collesque resultant.

305

Farewell fortunate one, true descendant of Jove, a glory was added to the gods, both approach us and your sacred things with your favorable foot. They celebrate such things in songs; They add on top these things the cave of Cacus and himself breathing with fire. All the forest utter with noise and the hills echo.

30

Vocabulary addo, ere, didi, ditus to add, increase, insert adicio, adicere, adjeci, adjectus to add, increase, raise bimembris, bimembris, m.(pl.) Centaurs, part man part beast Cacus, Caci, m. fire-breathing son of Vulcan carmen, minis, n. song, poem celebro (1) to celebrate/perform; honor/glorify collis, is, m. hill consono, are, ui to sound, utter, harmonize decus, oris, n. glory, honor, deed nemus, oris, n. wood, forest proles, is, f. offspring, descendant resulto (1) to reverberate, echo, resound spelunca, ae, f. cave spiro (1) to breathe, blow, exhale strepitus, us, m. noise, racket, sound Commentary 301. addite: vocative passive perfect participle 302. dexter: vocative. sacra secundo: alliteration, links together the two things wanted of the chorus; tuapede sacra secundo: synchesis, linking the two things together 303. carminibus celebrant: alliteration, makes a joyous sound

31

VIII.374-406
'Dum bello Argolici vastabant Pergama reges debita casurasque inimicis ignibus arces, non ullum auxilium miseris, non arma rogavi artis opisque tuae, nec te, carissime coniunx, incassumve tuos volui exercere labores, quamuis et Priami deberem plurima natis, et durum Aeneae flevissem saepe laborem. Nunc Iouis imperiis Rutulorum constitit oris: ergo eadem supplex venio et sanctum mihi numen arma rogo, genetrix nato. Te filia Nerei, te potuit lacrimis Tithonia flectere coniunx. aspice qui coeant populi, quae moenia clausis ferrum acuant portis in me excidiumque meorum.' Dixerat et niueis hinc atque hinc diua lacertis cunctantem amplexu molli fovet. 375

380

385

While the Argive kings laid waste to Troy in war, (her) citadels fated to fall to hostile flames, I did not ask aid for my miserable (people), nor weapons of your skill and might, neither you, dearest husband, nor your toils did I want to exercise in vain, and although I owed ever so much to Priam's sons and often had lamented the harsh labor of Aeneas. Now at Jupiter's command, it continues on the shores of the Rutulians: therefore, I come the same one as a suppliant and ask (you), a sacred divinity to me, for arms, a mother for a son. The daughter of Nereus, was able to bend you with tears, the wife of Tithonius. Behold which people assemble, which city walls with closed gates they are sharpening iron against me and for the destruction of mine. The goddess had spoken and from here and there warmed him with snowy arms, him delaying in (her) soft embrace.

32

Vocabulary vasto, vastere, vastari, vastatus lay waste, ravage, devastate inimicus, -a, -um- unfriendly, hostile, harmful incassus, -i- m. in vain exerceo, exercere, exercui, exercitus- exercise, train; administer; cultivate quamuis, cuiusvis- any, whatever; whoever it be; whom you please fleo, flere, flevi, flectus- to cry for; weep, cry numen, numenis- n.- divine will; divinity; god genetrix, genetricis- f.- mother, ancestress flecto, flectere, flexi, flexus-bend, curve, bow; persuade claudo, claudere, clausi, clausus- limp, hesitate, be weak excidium, excidi(i)- n.- military destruction, overthrown niveus, -a, -um-snowy, covered in snow, white cunctor, cunctari, cunctatus sum- delay, impede, linger medulla, medullae- f. marrow; inner most part calor, caloris- m.- heat, warmth, glow tonitrus, tonitrus- m. thunder rima, rimae- f.- crack, fissure conscius, -a, -um-aware of, knowing, conscious of devincio, devincire, decinxi, devinctus- to tie, bind; obligate supersom, supresse, superfui, superfuturus- survivie; superfluous coruscus, us- lightening electrum, i- n. electrum Commentary 374 -'Vastabant' is used vaguely in reference to the whole course of the siege 375 - 'debita' = 'doomed' or 'devoted' i.e. to war and devastation - 'casuras' = destined to fall -'debita' is explained by 'vastabant' or 'bello', due to the destruction. -'ignis' with 'casuras', not as has been thought with 'vestabant'. 376 -'Miseris,' the Trojans, implied in 'Pergama' and 'arces.' We may say that 'miseris' shows the strong inducement Venus had to make a request which she nevertheless forebode. 377 - 'artis opisve tuae' with 'arma' - 'incessum' because nothing could avail against the decree of fate 379 -'Priami natis' is understood by some as referring to Paris, who had awarded Venus the golden apple of Discord.
33

Ille repente accepit solitam flammam, notusque medullas intravit calor et labefacta per ossa cucurrit, 390 non secus atque olim tonitru cum rupta corusco ignea rima micans percurrit lumine nimbos; sensit laeta dolis et formae conscia coniunx. tum pater aeterno fatur devinctus amore: 'Quid causas petis ex alto? Fiducia cessit 395 quo tibi, diua, mei? Similis si cura fuisset, tum quoque fas nobis Teucros armare fuisset; nec pater omnipotens Troiam nec fata vetabant stare decemque alios Priamum superesse per annos. Et nunc, si bellare paras atque haec tibi mens est, 400 quidquid in arte mea possum promittere curae, quod fieri ferro liquidoue potest electro, quantum ignes animaeque valent, absiste precando viribus indubitare tuis.' Ea verba locutus optatos dedit amplexus placidumque petivit 405 coniugis infusus gremio per membra soporem.

That one received suddenly a familiar flame, and the warmth he knew penetrated (his) marrow and hastened through his loosening bones, and not otherwise once with the shatter of a flash a trembling fiery fissure runs through the storm clouds with light; (his) wife felt it, joyful of (her) device and conscious of (her) beauty. Then the father said, fettered by eternal love: Why do you seek causes from the high? Where has your trust gone, goddess, in me? If similar care had been (for you), then it would have been divine will for us to arm the Trojans; neither the almighty father nor fates were prohibiting Troy to stand and Priam to remain through anther ten years. And now, if you prepare to war and your mind is this, whatever care I am able to put forth in my art, what is able to be from liquid electrum and iron, as much as fire and air are able to do, withdraw from doubt thrown upon your powers by praying. Saying these words he gave her a chosen embrace and pouring (himself) on his wife's lap, he sought slumber through (her) limbs.

34

Commentary (contd) 380 -The Codex Minoraugiensis has 'dolorem,' which is plausible: but Virgil occasionally repeats words at short intervals elsewhere, and we must recollect that he Aeneid is an unfinished poem 381 -some have 'imperio' 382 -'eadem' merely = nevertheless, admitting her change of conduct 383 -Vergil's art has hardly succeeded in concealing the indelicacy of Venus' asking a favor for the offspring of her adultery -Nereus' daughter is Thetis, who 385 - the well known sign of war, as 'open gates' were of peace 388 - 'lacertis' is instrumental 390 -some versions have 'calefacta' 391 - The passion thrills through his being with the speed of lightning - 'rupta' seems to include the two notions of bursting forth, and being fissure or produced by the act of rending, which agrees with the conception of 'rima'. - 'tonitru' is probably ablative of cause 392 -Virgil conceives of the lightning as a sudden fissure made across the dark atmosphere of the cloud 393 -The object of 'sensit' is to be supplied from 'dolis' and 'formae' 394 - 'pater' is a term of respect applied to all deities 395 - 'Ex alto petere' is being used as a phrase for going back 396 & 397 - 'fuisset' and 'fuisset' : the identical endings are intended to mark how exactly his service would have corresponded to her desire. 398 - 'nec fata': fate is fixed, but its action may be delayed 400 -He adopts Venus' identification of herself with Aeneas. 403 - 'Animae,' the air blowing the bellows
35

VIII.426-453
His informatum manibus iam parte polita fulmen erat, toto genitor quae plurima caelo deicit in terras, pars imperfecta manebat. tres imbris torti radios , tres nubis aquosae addiderant , rutuli tres ignis et alitis Austri. Fulgores nunc terrificos sonitumque metumque miscebant operi, flammisque sequacibus iras. Parte alia Marti currumque rotasque uolucris instabant , quibus ille uiros, quibus excitat urbes; aegidaque horriferam, turbatae Palladis arma, certatim squamis serpentum auroque polibant, conexosque anguis ipsamque in pectore diuae Gorgona , desecto uertentem lumina collo.

430

435

They held a lightning-bolt, shaped with their hands, like many of those the Father [Zeus] hurls to the land from all over the sky, part of it polished, part of it still left to do. They had added three shafts of spiraling rain, three of watery clouds, three of reddening fire, and the winged south winds [Auster]. Now they were blending horrific flashes, sounds, fury, and fears into the work with following flames. Elsewhere they worked on a chariot of Mars, with winged wheels, with which he rouses men and cities; and a chilling aegis, the chilling breastplate of Pallas, certainly burnishing its serpent scales of gold, its interwoven snakes, and the Gorgon herself on the goddesss breast, with exposed neck and eyes rolling:

36

Vocabulary Auster, i - south wind Gorgona - Gorgon, Medusa addo, ere, idi, itum - put, acquire, bring anguis - serpent, dragon aquosae - watery, of water conexus, a, um - connected, fastened deicio, ere, eci, ectum - hurl, slay, throw imber, ris - rain, storm informatum - formed, shaped nubo, ere, nupsi, nuptum - cover, veil radius, ii - ray, rod, staff rutuli - reddening tortus, a, um - twisted, bent vertens - turning Commentary 426-7. polita // fulmen erat: enjambment 429-30. tres tres tres: anaphora 429-30. tres imbris .. aquosae // addiderant: enjambment 430. addiderant alitis Austri.: alliteration 431. sonitumque metumque: assonance 433-4. rotasque uolucris // instabant: enjambment 434. quibus quibus: anaphora 435. tubatae: when the Aegis is roused to war, but its usually calm. 436. squamis serpentum auroque: the Aegis is fringed with gold scales. 437-8. in pectore diuae // Gorgona: enjambment

37

'Tollite cuncta ' inquit 'Coeptosque auferte labores, Aetnaei Cyclopes , et huc aduertite mentem: Arma acri facienda uiro. Nunc uiribus usus, nunc manibus rapidis, omni nunc arte magistra. Praecipitate moras.' Nec plura effatus, at illi ocius incubuere omnes pariterque laborem sortiti . Fluit aes riuis aurique metallum, uulnificusque chalybs uasta fornace liquescit . Ingentem clipeum informant , unum omnia contra tela Latinorum , septenosque orbibus orbis impediunt . Alii uentosis follibus auras accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia tingunt aera lacu ; gemit impositis incudibus antrum ; illi inter sese multa ui bracchia tollunt in numerum, uersantque tenaci forcipe massam .

440

445

450

Away with all this, he shouts, Stop collectively and cease your labors, Cyclopes of Etna, and turn your minds hither: youre to make sharp arms for a brave hero. Now you need strength, now you need swift hands, all now need the masterful art. Toss down delay. He said no more, and they all bent quickly to that, and shared the labor equally. Bronze and golden ore and wound-causing iron flowed in a stream and melted in a vast furnace. They shape a giant shield, one against all the weapons of Latium, layering the discs seven times with discs. Some sucked in air and blew it out again with panting puffed cheeks, others dipped the hissing bronze in the lake; the cavern groaned on account of the weight of anvils; with much force they lifted their arms together in numbers [in rhythm], and turned the mass of metal with tongs.

38

Vocabulary Aetna - Mount Aetna, a volcano, a Nymph Latinus, a, um - Latin land, people, or language accipio, ere, epi, eptum - receive, accept, hear of, learn of adverto, ere, ti, sum - turn towards, steer, pilot aes, aeris - money, bronze, brass antrum, i - cave, cavern, tomb aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatum - snatch, banish, take away, obtain, cease bracchium, ii - arm, limb, branch chalybs chalybis - iron, steel, weapon clipeus, ei - small shield, circle of the sun cunctus, a, um - collective, whole cyclops, cyclopis - cyclops, mythical one-eyed creature follis, is - bellows, belly, puffed cheeks fornax, fornacis - furnace, oven, kiln impedio, ire, ivi, itum - layer impositus, a, um - imposition, establishment, weight incubo, are, ui, itum - bend, lie on, sit upon, brood, incubate incus, udis - anvil liquesco - melt, liquify orbis, is - circle, rotation, disc rivus, rivi - stream, brook, channel, gutter septeni, ae, - seven at a time, seven each sortior, iri, itus sum - share, cast, divide vulnificus - causing wounds Commentary 437. ipsam: marks the central figure of the Aegis 438. desecto: rolling her eyes with her neck severed. 441-2. Nunc nunc omni nunc: anaphora 447. unum: a shield 448. septenosque orbibus orbis: seven layers to the shield. compare to other heroes, Ajaxs shield had seven layers of hide and 1 of metal, Achilles had five of metals, and Turnus had seven layers of metal (12.925). 448. orbibus orbis: alliteration 449-50. Alii alii: anaphora

39

IX.1-26
Atque ea dvers penitus dum parte geruntur, rim d cael msit Sturnia Jn audcem ad Turnum. Lc tum forte parentis Plumn Turnus sacrt valle sedbat. Ad quem sic rose Thaumantias re loct est: 5 Turne, quod optant dvum prmittere nm audret, volvenda dis en attulit ltr. Aens urbe et socis et classe relict scptra Paltn sdemque petit vandr. Nec satis: extrms Coryth pentrvit ad urbs 10 Lydrumque manum, collcts armat agrestis. Quid dubits? Nunc tempus equs, nunc pscere currs. rumpe mors omnis et turbta arripe castra.

And while those things are done in a far diverse part Juno [the daughter] of Saturn sends Iris from the sky to daring Turnus. In the mighty grove then [the son] of father Pilumnus, Turnus, was sitting in a sacred vale. To him thus [the daughter] of Thaumus has spoken with rosy lips: O Turnus, what no one of the gods dared to allow to the select one, behold, the revolving day has brought about gratuitously. Aeneas from the relinquished city and companions and fleet seeks the scepters and throne of Palantine Evander. Nor [is that] enough: he has penetrated the farthest cities of Corythus and the band of the Lydians, he arms the assembled peasant [people]. What do you doubt? Now [is] the time [to ask] for horses, now to ask for chariots! Tear all delays and seize the turbulent fortresses.

40

Commentary
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

13

dvers parte: ablative of place where; hyperbaton enforcing the distance cael: ablative of place where; Sturnia: here the daughter of Saturn, meaning Juno forte lc: ablative of place where parentis Plumn: genitive of origin; sacrt valle: ablative of place where Thaumantias: here the daughter of Thaumus, meaning Iris; rose re: ablative of means; hyperbaton optant: attributive participle; prmittere: complementary infinitive audret: subjunctive, relative clause of characteristic; volvenda: attributive participle relinqu urbe, socis, classe: ablatives of separation scptra [...] sdemque: alliteration uniting syntactically the two power symbols Aeneas is after nec satis: nec [est illud] satis; urbs: accusative of motion towards Lydrum: here referring to the Trojans; agrestis: substantive adjective, meaning people of the countryside nunc tempus equs: nunc [est] tempus [pscere] equs; nunc pscere currs: nunc [est tempus] pscere currs; pscere: subjuctive infinitive; nunc tempus equs, nunc pscere currs: anaphora emphasizing the command of Juno rumpe, arripe: imperatives of command

Vocabulary
Aenas, -ae (m): the Trojan hero agrestis, -e: of the fields, the country arripi, -ere, -ripu, -reptum: to seize, snatch audx, audcis: bold, daring, courageous castrum, - (n): a fortified place, fortress classis, -is (f): a ship, fleet collig, -ere, -lgi, -lectum: to assemble Corythus, - (m): an ancient town in Etruria currus, -s (m): a chariot dversus, -a, um: opposite, diverse, different dubit (1): to be uncertain, be in doubt en (interj): see, behold! vander, -dr (m): Evander extrmus, -a, -um: utmost, farthest, last ris, -is (f): goddess of the rainbow Jn, -nis (f): goddess of marriage loquor, loqu, loctus: to talk, speak lcus , - (m): a clearing, a grove Lydus, - (m): a person from Asia Minor opt (1): to choose, select, prefer Paltnus, -a, -um: of the Palatium, Palatine penetr (1): to enter, penetrate penitus (adv): inside, deep, far Plumnus, - (m): father of Turnus psc, -ere, popsc: to ask, demand prmitt, -ere, -ms, -missus: to let go, allow relinqu, -ere, -lqu, -lictus: to leave behind roseus, -a, -um: rose-colored, rosy rump, -ere, rp, ruptus: to break, burst sacr (1): to dedicate, consecrate satis (adv): enough Sturnius, -a, -um: pertaining to Saturn scptrum, - (n): a royal staff, scepter sds, -is (f): a seat, bench, chair, throne socius, - (m): a companion, associate Thaumus, Thaumantias (m): the father of Iris turb (1): to make an uproar, be in disorder Turnus, - (m): a prince of the Rutuli ltr (adv): gratuitously vallis, -is: (f) vale, valley volv, -ere, volv, voltus: to turn round

41

Dxit, et in caelum paribus s sustulit ls ingentemque fug secuit sub nbibus arcum. Agnvit juvenis duplicsque ad sdera palms sustulit ac tl fugientem est vce sectus: ri, decus cael, quis t mihi nbibus actam dtulit in terrs? Unde haec tam clra repente tempests? Medium vide discdere caelum plantisque pol stlls. Sequor mina tanta, quisquis in arma vcs. Et sc efftus ad undam prcessit summque hausit d gurgite lymphs multa des rns, onervitque aethera vts. Jamque omns camps exercitus bat aperts dves equm, dves pictai vestis et aur;

15

20

25

She spoke, and with equal wings she lifted herself to the sky and in [her] flight she cut a large bow under the clouds. The youth recognized and to the stars both palms he lifted and accompanied with such a voice the fleeing one: Iris, glory of the sky, who having been led to me from the clouds carried yourself away towards lands? Whence this storm so clear suddenly? I see that the middle of the sky parts asunder and stars supported on [its] axis. I follow such omens, whoever you summon to arms. And thus having spoken, to the stream he advances and draws out clear waters from the uppermost water, praying many [things] to the gods, and he filled the firmament with prayers. And already the army went from the entire open fields rich of horses, rich of ornamented garment and of gold;

42

Commentary
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

paribus ls: ablative of means fug: ablative of manner sdera: accusative of motion towards fugientem: attributive participle; tl vce: ablative of manner decus cael: appositive to Iris, separated by caesurae; actam: circumstantial participle terrs: accusative of motion towards tempests: enjambment emphasizing the divine sign; medium vide discdere caelum: hyperbaton enforcing imagery of the torn sky; discdere: infinitive of indirect statement plantisque pol: alliteration reinforcing that the two words go together efftus: passive periphrastic participle summ gurgite: ablative of separation multa: substantive adjective, meaning many things; rns: circumstantial participle; vts: ablative of manner aperts camps: ablative of separation dves equm, dves pictai: anaphora adding more weight to the richness of Turnus army; equm: read as equrum, genitive plural; pictai: an old genitive form of pictae, attributive participle; equm, vestis, aur: genitives of description

Vocabulary aethr, -eris (m): the air, sky, firmament gnsc, -ere, -nv, -nitus: to recognize la, -ae (f): a wing apertus, -a, um: uncovered, open arcus, -s(m): a bow campus, (m): a plain, field decus, -oris (n): glory, honor, dignity dfer, -ferre, -tul, -ltus: to carry off discd, -ere, -cess, -cessus: to divide duplex, -icis: twofold, double, both effor (1): to speak fuga, -ae (f): flight fugi, -ere, fg: to flee, take flight gurges, -itis (m): an abyss, water hauri, -re, haus, haustus: to draw (out) juvenis, -is: a youth lympha, -ae (f): clear water, spring water medius, -a, -um: middle nbs, -is (f): a cloud, mist men, minis (n): an omen, sign oner (1): to load, burden, fill r (1): to speak, pray palma, -ae (f): the palm of the hand pl (1): to support with stakes, prop up pr, paris: equal ping, -ere, pinx, pictus: to paint, decorate polus, - (m): an end of an axis prcd, -ere, -cess: to go forth, advance repns, -entis: sudden, hasty, unexpected sec (1): to cut, carve sequor, sequ, sectus: to follow, accompany unda, -ae (f): a wave, billow, stream vestis, -is (f): garment, clothing vtum, - (n): a promise to a god, vow

43

IX.107-132
Ergo aderat promissa dies et tempora Parcae debita complerant, cum Turni iniuria Matrem admonuit ratibus sacris depellere taedas. hic primum noua lux oculis offulsit et ingens 110 uisus ab Aurora caelum transcurrere nimbus Idaeique chori; tum uox horrenda per auras excidit et Troum Rutulorumque agmina complet: 'ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere nauis neue armate manus; maria ante exurere Turno 115 quam sacras dabitur pinus. uos ite solutae, ite deae pelagi; genetrix iubet.' et sua quaeque continuo puppes abrumpunt uincula ripis delphinumque modo demersis aequora rostris ima petunt. hinc uirgineae (mirabile monstrum) 120 reddunt se totidem facies pontoque feruntur.

Therefore the day he had promised came and the fates completed their owed time, when the injury of Turnus to the sacred ships warned the mother to repel the fire. There first a new light shined to them and a huge cloud was seen to move across the sky from dawn, and with Idaean help; then a horrible voice went through the air and fills the Trojan and Rutulian lines: Trojans, do not hurry to help the ships or to get up arms; Turnus can burn the ocean, sooner than the sacred pines. Go free, goddesses of the sea. Your parent orders it. And immediately the ships broke away its cord from the shore and with their noses lowered like dolphins and sought that the deep water. Then (miraculous monster) as the so many virgin shapes came back, and carried themselves on the sea.

44

Vocabulary Depellere-to expel Taedas- torches of fire Noua- new Pinus- pine tree Abrumpunt- tear Genetrix- parent Cunctatur- delay or stop Reuocatque- retreat or leave Increpat- to make a noise Rauca-oak roots Demersis-to sink Continuo-continuous Offulsit- to shine or appear Exurere- to burn up Rostris- snout or muzzle

45

Obstipuere animis Rutuli, conterritus ipse turbatis Messapus equis, cunctatur et amnis rauca sonans reuocatque pedem Tiberinus ab alto. at non audaci Turno fiducia cessit; ultro animos tollit dictis atque increpat ultro: 'Troianos haec monstra petunt, his Iuppiter ipse auxilium solitum eripuit: non tela neque ignis exspectant Rutulos. ergo maria inuia Teucris, nec spes ulla fugae: rerum pars altera adempta est, terra autem in nostris manibus, tot milia gentes arma ferunt Italae.

125

130

The Rutulians were amazed in the mind, Messapus himself was shook in his mind and his horses started, and even the noise stream of the river stopped, as Tiber fled from the height. But the loyalty of brave Turnus did not stop; also he raised their minds and scolded them further. These marvels are locked on the Trojans, Juppiter himself has taken from them their usual aid: they did not waiting for Rutulian spears nor fires. Therefore the seas are unkind for the Trojans, and they have no hope of flight: other parts are lost to them, and however this land is in our hands, so many thousands of Italians are armed.

46

Commentary 1. 2. 3. 4. Bucolic Diaeresis Line107 between et and tempora. Primum appears to have the context meaning not first but then in line 110. Anaphora in line 116 and 117 in ite. Line 120, Mirabile monstrum is similar to mirabile dictum as used earlier in The Aeneid. 5. In line 120, mirabile monstrum is an example of alliteration. 6. Totidem is Nominative to go along with reddunt in line 122. 7. Line 127 animos tollit could be taken to mean raises his own spirits but more likely he raises spirits collectively 8. In line 127 ultro is an instance of anaphora. 9. In line 128 his refers back to the Trojans. 10. In line 129, auzilium solitum eripuit shows assonance. 11. In line 130 the subject of expectant here is most likely the Trojans, although it seems a little vague.

47

IX.416-445
diuersi circumspiciunt. hoc acrior idem ecce aliud summa telum librabat ab aure. dum trepidant, it hasta Tago per tempus utrumque stridens traiectoque haesit tepefacta cerebro. saeuit atrox Volcens nec teli conspicit usquam auctorem nec quo se ardens immittere possit. 'tu tamen interea calido mihi sanguine poenas persolues amborum' inquit; simul ense recluso ibat in Euryalum. tum uero exterritus, amens, conclamat Nisus nec se celare tenebris amplius aut tantum potuit perferre dolorem: 'me, me, adsum qui feci, in me conuertite ferrum, o Rutuli! mea fraus omnis, nihil iste nec ausus nec potuit; caelum hoc et conscia sidera testor; tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicum.'

420

425

430

They, opposite, looked around. Behold the same man (Nisus), more harsh, poises this other spear high against his ear. While they wavered, the javelin goes through both Tagus's temples, whistling, and fixes (itself) made warm in the pierced brain. Fierce Volcens raged, but could not spy out the author of the spear anywhere nor was he, burning, able to let loose. "In the meantime, you will pay out the penalty of both in hot blood," he says; at the same time, he was going with an opened sword into (at) Euryalus. Then truly frightened, frantic, Nisus shouts, not able to conceal himself in the ample darkness, or to endure such suffering: "I am here, to me, turn your sword to me, who did (this), oh Rutulians! All the deceit is mine, he neither dared nothing, nor was he able; I call to witness the sky and the conscious stars; he only loved his unfortunate friend too much."

48

Vocabulary
adactus, -a, -um: driven adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus: to be present ambo, ambae, ambo: both, the two amens, amentis: frantic, distracted, insane, demented aratro, aratri: plough artus, artus: a joint, limb atrox, atrocis: fierce, savage, cruel, terrible calidus, -a, -um: warm, hot candidus, -a, -um: white celo, celare, celavi, celatum: to hide, cover, conceal cervix, cervicis: neck circumspicio, cicumspicere, circumspexi, circumspectum: to look around, observe, see clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum: to call, cry out, shout aloud collum: neck comminus: hand-to-hand, close combat conclamo, conclamare, conclamavi, conclamatum: to shout, cry out, bewail, signal confossus, -a, -um: pierced through, full of holes conlabor, conlabi, conlapsus sum: to fall together conscius, -a, -um: conscious, aware conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectum: to spy out, catch sight of, notice, watch converto, convertere, converti, conversum: to invert, turn back, rotate, reverse costa, costae: rib cruor, cruouris: blood, gore demitto, demisi, demissum: drop, lower, put down, sink, let fall demum: at last diligo, diligere, dilexi, dilectum: to esteem, love, regard diversus, -a, -um: different, diverse, apart ensis, ensis: sword exanimo, exanimare, exanimavi, exanimatum: to deprive of life, kill, wear out exterreo, exterrere, exterrui, exterritum: to strike with terror, terrify, frighten flos, floris: flower, blossom fraus, fraudis: deceit, guild, fraud fulmineus: of lightning glomero, glomerare, glomeravi, glomeratum: to gather, assemble, group gravo, gravare, gravavi, gravatum: to burden, weigh down, suppress haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum: stick, cling, remain fixed immitto, immittere, immisi, immissum: to let loose, allow, insert, introduce infelix, infelicis: unfortunate, unlucky languesco, languescere, langui: to wilt, become faint, become weak lassus, -a, -um: faint, languid, tired, exhausted, weary libro, librare, libravi, libratum: to poise, balance nimium: to much, excessively papaver: poppy

49

talia dicta dabat, sed uiribus ensis adactus transadigit costas et candida pectora rumpit. uoluitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus it cruor inque umeros ceruix conlapsa recumbit: purpureus ueluti cum flos succisus aratro languescit moriens, lassoue papauera collo demisere caput pluuia cum forte grauantur. at Nisus ruit in medios solumque per omnis Volcentem petit, in solo Volcente moratur. quem circum glomerati hostes hinc comminus atque hinc proturbant. instat non setius ac rotat ensem fulmineum, donec Rutuli clamantis in ore condidit aduerso et moriens animam abstulit hosti. tum super exanimum sese proiecit amicum confossus, placidaque ibi demum morte quieuit.

435

440

445

He was giving such speaking, but the sword, driven with force, pierces through the ribs and ruptures the white breast. Euryalus turns in death, and the blood goes through his beautiful limbs and his neck sank down to his shoulder, falling together: just as when a purple flower, felled by the plow, dying, languishes, or poppies droop with falling neck and are weighed down in head (with respect to the head) by a chance rain. But Nisus rushed in the middle and sought through all Volcens alone, he was delayed by Volcens alone. With the enemy gathering all around, and they were repelling him from this place in close combat. He pursued none the less, and he whirls about his sword like lightning, until he, having turned, plunged it into the face of a screaming Rutulian, and dying, carries away the life of the enemy. Then, pierced through, he threw himself down on his dead friend, and he rested there in the calm in death at last.

50

perfero, perferre, pertuli, perlatum: to bear, endure, suffer persolvo, persolvere, persolvi, persolutum: to release, discharge, pay, render pluvia, pluviae: rain, shower proturbo, proturbare, proturbavi, proturbatum: to drive on or away, to repel, repulse quiesco, quiescere, quievi, quietum: rest, sleep, repose recludo, recludere, reclusi, reclusum: to open, disclose, reveal recumbo, recumbere, recumbui: to lie back, recline, sink down, fall down roto, rotare, rotavi, rotatum: to whirl about, to swing around rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptum: to break, burst, tear, rupture saevio, saevire, saevii, saevitum: to rage, be furious strido, stridere, stridi: to make a harsh noise, hiss, whistle succisus, -a, -um: cut down, felled suvelut: even as, just as, like, as if tempus, temporis: temple tenebra, tenebrae: darkness, shadow, gloom tepefacio, tepefacere, tepefeci, tepefactum: to make warm testor, testari, testatus sum: witness, testify, attest traicio, traicere, traieci, traiectum: to throw, cast, stab, strike, pierce through transadigo, transadigere, transadegi, transadactum: to thrust through, drive through trepido, trepidare, trepidavi, trepidatum: to tremble, waver usquam: anywhere

Commentary
416-417. hoc...aliud...telum hyperbaton; creates a visualization of the spear and forces the reader to be aware of its placement 419. traiectoque haesit (se) tepefacta cerebro. 424. vero exterritus, amens repetition used to emphasize Nisus' state of mind 426. tantum potuit perferre dolorem chiasmus and alliteration; draws attention to Nisus' suffering 427. me, me adsum qui feci (hunc) in me convertite ferrum repetition to put emphasis on himself/draw attention to himself. 430. tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicum assonance used to emphasize the excessive love of the unfortunate friend 431. viribus from vis, vis 431. dicta dabat alliteration; serves to emphasis Nisus' speech 434. cervix conlapsa alliteration; draws attention to Euryalus' neck sinking down in death 435. purpureus, succisus, moriens all agreeing with flos 437. demisere 3rd person, plural, perfect form of demitto 437. caput accusative of respect 438-439. solumque Volcentem solo Volcente repetition to place emphasis on Volcens alone, over all others present. 441. proturbant enjambment 443. fulmineum enjambment 445. confussus enjambment; the last three enjambments force the reader to take particular note of the battle and Nisus' death.

51

X.345-375
Hic Curibus fidens primaeuo corpore Clausus 345 aduenit et rigida Dryopem ferit eminus hasta sub mentum grauiter pressa, pariterque loquentis uocem animamque rapit traiecto gutture; at ille fronte ferit terram et crassum uomit ore cruorem. tris quoque Threicios Boreae de gente suprema 350 et tris quos Idas pater et patria Ismara mittit, per uarios sternit casus. accurrit Halaesus Auruncaeque manus, subit et Neptunia proles, insignis Messapus equis. expellere tendunt nunc hi, nunc illi: certatur limine in ipso 355 Ausoniae. magno discordes aethere uenti proelia ceu tollunt animis et uiribus aequis; non ipsi inter se, non nubila, non mare cedit; anceps pugna diu, stant obnixa omnia contra: haud aliter Troianae acies aciesque Latinae 360 concurrunt, haeret pede pes densusque uiro uir.

Here Clausus from Cures comes trusting in the youthful body and at a distance hits Dryops under the chin, with a rigid spear pressing heavily, and equally he seizes voice and soul, the throat as he was speaking, and his forehead hit the earth and he spewed thick blood from the mouth. He (Clausus) also scattered through various ways three Thracians rom the exalted race of the Boreas and three whom father Idas and native Ismara sent. Halaeus ran to be under them and Aruncian hand and the offspring of Neptune and Messapus with distinguished horses. Now these, now those stretch to drive out; it is fought in the threshold itself of Ausiona. As warring winds even in spirit and equal in strength do battle in the great sky, between them neither cede cloud nor sea; the two-headed engagement last for a long time, all things stand in strenuous opposition. No differently the battle lines of Troy and the battle lines of Latium run together, foot fixed to foot and man close to man.

52

Vocabulary Fido, Fidere, Fisus, sum- to trust, confide, rely upon Rigida, -us,- um- n. (f.) rigid, stiff, hard Ferio, Ferire- to hit, strike, kill, slay Eminus- at a distance Mentum, Menti- n. chin Premo. Premere, Pressi, Pressus- to press, pursue, oppress Partier-equally, together Gutter, Gutteris- n. throat, neck, gullet Frons, Frontis- n. forehead, brow, face Crassus, -a, -um- m. thick, heavy, thick-coated Vomo, Vomere, Vomui, Vomitus - to vomit, discharge, spew out Cruor, Cruoris- m. blood, gore Proles, Prolis- f. off-spring Certo, Certare, Certavi, Certatus-to fight, vie (with), contest, struggle Limen, Liminis- n. threshold, entrance, lintel Discors, Discordis- n. discord Proelium, Proeli- n. battle, fight, conflict Ceu- just as, as, in the same way Tollo, Tollere, Sustuli, Sublatus- to lift, raise, destroy Cedo, Cedere, Cessi, Cessus-to cede, withdraw, retire Anceps, Ancipitis- f. two-headed, two fold, two edged Pugna, Pugnae- f. engagement, battle, fight Obnixus, -a, -um- f. strenuous, resolute, determined Haud- by no means Aliter- differently Acies, Aciei- f. battle line, point, sharp edge Haereo, Haerere, Haesi, Haesus -to stick, cling to, adhere Densus, -a, -um- m. crowded, dense, thick Commentary Ln.348-49: Ille fronte= that forehead Ln. 351: Mutit=Clausus Ln. 354-55: Enjambment of the clause causes the characters to be stretched literally from one line to the next. Ln. 360-61: The chiasmus has the battle lines running together. Ln. 361: The feet are stuck with the feet and the men or close with men

53

At parte ex alia, qua saxa rotantia late intulerat torrens arbustaque diruta ripis, Arcadas insuetos acies inferre pedestris ut uidit Pallas Latio dare terga sequaci, aspera aquis natura loci dimittere quando suasit equos, unum quod rebus restat egenis, nunc prece, nunc dictis uirtutem accendit amaris; 'quo fugitis, socii? per uos et fortia facta, per ducis Euandri nomen deuictaque bella spemque meam, patriae quae nunc subit aemula laudi, fidite ne pedibus. ferro rumpenda per hostis est uia. qua globus ille uirum densissimus urget, hac uos et Pallanta ducem patria alta reposcit. numina nulla premunt, mortali urgemur ab hoste mortales; totidem nobis animaeque manusque.

365

370

375

But out of another part, at which place a torrent had impelled for rolling trees having been torn from the banks, so Pallas sees the Arcadians not accustomed to fights with ground troops give their back to the pursuing Latium, whom the nature of the place advised them to leave the horses (which alone remained in desperate affairs), now with prayers, now with bitter speech courage was kindled. Where do you flee, comrades? Trust not in flight, by your deeds, by the leader Evanders name and conquered wars and my hope which now rises earnestly for my fathers praise . Here the high fatherland demands you and leader Pallas. We are mortals driven to a mortal foe. We have just as many lives and just as many hands.

54

Vocabulary Roto, Rotare, Rotavi, Rotatus-rotate, revolve, whirl round Infero, Inferre, Intuli, Illatus- bring/carry in, import, advance Arbustum, Arbusti- n. tree, orchard, plantation Diruo, diruere, dirui, dirutus- demolish, destroy overthrow Ripa, Ripae- f. bank Insuetus, -a,-um- unused to, unaccustomed to (with gen./dat.) Sequax, Sequacis- that follows closely, seeking after Asperum, Asperi- n. adversity, difficulty Suadeo, Suadere, Suasi, Suasus- to urge, recommend, suggest Resto, Restare, Restiti- to stand firm, be left Egenis- needy Prex, Precis- prayer, request Devinco, Devincere, Devici, Devictus- to conquer,subdue, defeat Aemulo, Aemulare, Aemulavi, Aemulatus- to strive, emulate, imitate Rumpo, Rumpere, Rupi, Ruptus- to break, destroy, Globus, Globi- m. a ball, round thing Reposco, Reposcere- to demand back Numen, Numinis- n. divine will, divinity, a nod Premo Premere, Pressi, Pressus- to press, pursue, oppress Mortalis, Mortalis, Mortale- mortal, transient, human Urgeo, Urgere, Ursi-to roll up, hem in, press down Commentary Ln. 363: The repetition of the R sound makes it seem like something is rolling. Ln. 364-67: The meter seems to be running away suggesting that the Arcadians are doing the same thing. Ln. 385: The meter begins to slow down as order and courage is being restored by the words of the Leader Pallas Ln. 369-72: Anaphora with per really hammering through the idea of through though the pun is intended. Ln. 376: There is an implied habeo, habere.

55

X.420-448
quem sic Pallas petit ante precatus: da nunc, Thybri pater, ferro, quod missile libro, fortunam atque uiam duri per pectus Halaesi. haec arma exuuiasque uiri tua quercus habebit. audiit illa deus; dum texit Imaona Halaesus, Arcadio infelix telo dat pectus inermum. at non caede uiri tanta perterrita Lausus, pars ingens belli, sinit agmina: primus Abantem oppositum interimit, pugnae nodumque moramque. sternitur Arcadiae proles, sternuntur Etrusci et uos, o Grais imperdita corpora, Teucri. 420

425

430

Whom Pallas seeks before having prayed thus: Give now, father Tiber, to my iron, which missile I balance, fortune and a way through the chest of hard Halaesus. Your oak tree will have these arms and equipment of the man. The god heard those; while Halaesus protected Imaon, he, unlucky, gives (his) unarmed chest to the Arcadian spear. But Lausus, a huge part of the war, does not permit the troops to have been terrified by such a great fall of the man: first, he abolishes opposite Abas, both a knot and a delay of battle. The descendants of Arcadia are overthrown, the Etruscians are overthrown, and you Trojans, oh bodies not destroyed by Greeks (are overthrown).

56

Vocabulary addenso (1) crowd together, thicken, condense aequor, is, n. plain, level, sea almus, a, um loving, nourishing, gentle concurro, ere, concurri, concursus join, assemble, come together (in battle) currus, us chariot, wagon inermis, e unarmed interimo, interimere, interimi, interemptum abolish, kill, destroy libro (1) balance, fling, consider lumen, luminis, n. eye, light nego (1) deny, refuse obeo, obire, obii, obitum survey, go towards Olympus, i, m. Mt. Olympus quercus, us, f. oak, oak-tree regnator, oris, m. ruler sino, sinere, sivi, situm permit, suffer, set down sterno, sternere, stravi, stratum scatter, lay down, overthrow succedo, succedere, successi, successum succeed, climb, help tego, tegere, texi, tectum cover, protect trux, trucis, wild, fierce volucer, volucris, m. winged, flying

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agmina concurrunt ducibusque et uiribus aequis; extremi addensent acies nec turba moueri tela manusque sinit. hinc Pallas instat et urget, hinc contra Lausus, nec multum discrepat aetas, egregii forma, sed quis Fortuna negarat in patriam reditus. ipsos concurrere passus haud tamen inter se magni regnator Olympi; mox illos sua fata manent maiore sub hoste. interea soror alma monet succedere Lauso Turnum, qui uolucri curru medium secat agmen. ut uidit socios: tempus desistere pugnae; solus ego in Pallanta feror, soli mihi Pallas debetur; cuperem ipse parens spectator adesset. haec ait, et socii cesserunt aequore iusso. at Rutulum abscessu iuuenis tum iussa superba miratus stupet in Turno corpusque per ingens lumina uoluit obitque truci procul omnia uisu, talibus et dictis it contra dicta tyranni:

435

440

445

The troops run together, with both leaders and strength equal; the outermost battle lines crowd together and the crowd does not allow spears and hands to be moved. Hence, Pallas presses on and urges, hence Lausus in opposition, nor does there age differ much, outstanding in form, but to whom fortune had denied return to the fatherland. Yet the ruler of great Olympus did by no means allow they themselves to come together in battle between themselves. Soon their own fates await them under a greater enemy. Meanwhile the loving sister advises Turnus to help Lausus, who cuts the middle of the battle line with a winged chariot. When he saw the allies (he said): It is time to cease from battle; I alone am borne against Pallas, Pallas is owed to me alone. I wish a parent himself was present (as) a spectator. He said these, and the allies withdrew from the field, having been ordered. But with the withdrawal of the Rutulians, the young man then, having wondered at the proud orders, is stunned at Turnus and rolls (his) eyes along the huge body (rolls the huge body through his eyes) and surveys everything far off with his wild sight, and with such words he goes against the words of the tyrant:

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Commentary 420-448. Pallas prays to father Tiber for help in killing Halaesus. After he does kill Halaesus, Pallas and his men confront Lausus and the Etruscians. Turnus, who is advised by his sister to help Lausus, and Pallas prepare to battle. 420. quem: Halaesus, a fellow warrior of Imaon. 421. quod missile libro: Pallas is preparing to hurl his weapon as soon as the prayer is complete. 422. duriHalaesi: hyperbaton 423. tua quercus habebit: Spoils will be hung on the tree as an offering to father Tiber. 424. Imaona: Greek accusative and the object of texit. 425. Arcadio infelix telo dat pectus inermum: chiasmus 426-427. nonagmina, Lausus does not stand by idly, rallying his men instead. 428. pugnaemoram, Abas was like a knot (he made the war intricate) and a stay (he hindered the war and delayed its outcome). 429. sternitursternuntur: anaphora. 430. et vos, o Grais imperdita corpora, Teucri: chiasmus. 430. Grais: by the Greeks; dative of personal agent. 431. ducibus et viribus aequis: ablative absolute; Pallas and Lausus are wellmatched. 433-434. hinchinc: anaphora; emphasizing the equality of the two men. 434. nec multum discrepat aetas: continues to convey the similarities of the two men. 435. quis = quibus 435. Negarat = negaverat 436. passus (est) 438. maiore sub hoste: Pallas will be killed by Turnus and Lausus by Aeneas. 439. soror alma: Turnuss sister, the nymph Juturna 440. volucri curru medium secat agmen: synchesis 440. volucri curru: ablative of means. 441. pugnae: dative of separation with desisto. 442. Pallanta: Greek accusative 441-443. solidebetur, Pallas is owed to Turnus as a victim to be slain. 443. cuperem (ut): imperfect subjunctive denotes an unaccomplished wish in present time (optative). To kill a son before his father would be considered an unholy act. 444. aequore iusso: ablative of separation. 445. abscessu: temporal ablative 445. Rutulum = Rutulorum 445. iuvenis: Pallas 448. talibus et dictis = et talibus dictis

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XII.411-440
Hic Venus indigno nati concussa dolore dictamnum genetrix Cretaea carpit ab Ida, puberibus caulem foliis et flore comantem purpureo; non illa feris incognita capris gramina, cum tergo uolucres haesere sagittae. 415 hoc Venus obscuro faciem circumdata nimbo detulit, hoc fusum labris splendentibus amnem inficit occulte medicans, spargitque salubris ambrosiae sucos et odoriferam panaceam. fouit ea uulnus lympha longaeuus Iapyx 420 ignorans, subitoque omnis de corpore fugit quippe dolor, omnis stetit imo uulnere sanguis. iamque secuta manum nullo cogente sagitta excidit, atque nouae rediere in pristina uires. 'arma citi properate uiro! quid statis?' Iapyx 425

Here mother Venus, having been moved by the unworthy pain of her son, plucks a dittany from the Cretan Ida the husk with soft leaves and covered with a purple flower, not unknown these herbs to the wild she-goats when the winged arrow have stuck in their backs: Venus, having surrounded her face with a dark cloud, brought down this, she dyes this in the river water, poured into the glittering basin, and sprinkles (upon him) the healthy juices of Ambrosial and the fragrant Panacea. The aged Iapyx foster the wound with water unaware and immediately indeed, all pain flees from the body all the blood stands in the deepest wound. And now with no forcing, the arrow cut off, followed the hand and new strength returned like before. Hurry move the arms for the men! Why are you standing still?

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Vocabulary Accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus: kindle, set on fire, light Ambrosius/a/um: ambrosial, divine, immortal Aurum, -i (N) gold Avunculus, -i (M) maternal uncule, mothers brother; great uncle Capra, -ae (F) she-goat Caulis, caulis (M) stalk, stem Cio, cire, civi(ii), citus: move, set in motion Cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus: collect, gather, round-up Comans, -ntis: hairy Concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus: to shake, vibrate Creteus/a/um: Cretan, made of clay/chalk Dictamnos, dictamni (F) dittany Fera, -ae (F) wild beast/animal Flos, floris (M) flower, blossom Folium, foli(i) (N) leaf Fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus: pour, cast Fusus/a/um: broad, spread out Gramen, graminis (N) grass, turf, herb Habilis, habilis, habile: handy Haereo, haerere, haesi, haesus: stick, adhere, cling to Ida, -ae (F) name of two mountain; one in Crete and the other in Phrygia Imus/a/um: inmost, deepest, last Lorica, -ae (F) coat of mail; breastwork Lympha, -ae (F) water, water-nymph Odifer, -ifera, -iferum: fragrant, sweet-smelling Opus, operis (N) need, work, fortification Panacea, -ae (F) panacea heal-all plant Propero (1) hurry, speed up Pubes, puberis: ripe, soft Purpureus/a/um: purple Quippe: of course, obviously, naturally Sagitta, -ae (F) arrow Saluber, -bris, -bre: healthy, salubrious Sucus, -i (M) juice, sap Sura, -ae (F) calf of the leg Tergum, -i (N) back, rear, reverse Volucer, volucris, volucre: winged, able to fly

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ille auidus pugnae suras incluserat auro 430 hinc atque hinc oditque moras hastamque coruscat. postquam habilis lateri clipeus loricaque tergo est, Ascanium fusis circum complectitur armis summaque per galeam delibans oscula fatur: 'disce, puer, uirtutem ex me uerumque laborem, 435 fortunam ex aliis. nunc te mea dextera bello defensum dabit et magna inter praemia ducet. tu facito, mox cum matura adoleuerit aetas, sis memor et te animo repetentem exempla tuorum et pater Aeneas et auunculus excitet Hector.' 440

Iapyx cries and first lights (their) spirits against the enemy. These acts are not brought forth with human resources nor with the art of the teacher, neither my right hand protects you Aeneas the greater god drives and resends (you) to glorious works. That man eager for war had enclosed his calfs with gold from here and from here and dislikes delays and shakes (his) spear. After his handy shield is on his side and coat of mail is on his back, he hugs ascanius with (his) broad arms and performing a last kiss through (his) helmet, he speaks: Boy learn courage from me and true labor, fortune from others, now my hand will give you defense in war and lead you amongst great rewards. Fashion yourself, soon when mature age grows up, that you be mindful, and let father Aeneas and uncle Hector excite you, seeking the examples of your (relatives) in your soul.

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Commentary 411- 412: Hyperbaton with Venus on line 411 and genetrix on line 412 412: Dictamnum or Dictamnus is an abundant herb found on the Cretan Ida and said to have been sough for by wounded goats. 413: Puberibus foliis = dittany is said to have soft wooly leaves. 414-415: illa feris incognita capris gramina Chiasmus 418: Alliteration with spargitque salubris 419: Ambrosia is a plant that is an ointment used by the gods. Panacea is a heal-all plant. 420: Alliteration with lympha longaevuus. Iapyx is the west-northwest wind. 421: corpore ablative of separation 425: Assonance with the letter I, properate imperative 2nd person plural 427-428: Talking about what things will no longer protect him. 429: Anaphora with maior 431: hinc atque hinc From here and from here; Anaphore with hinc 432: Prepares coat of mail and shield to re-enter war. 433: Alliteration with circum complectitur; hyperbaton with fusis and armis 435-440: Aeneas advises Ascanius 440: Referring to his uncle Hector.

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