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General Grammar Exercises

First published 2007 Reprinted 2008 www.verbbusters.com

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To the Teacher
The material in this book is intended for use with pupils during their last few years at secondary school and perhaps even into a first-year university course. It is also appropriate for learners preparing for an ALTE level 3 examination such as the Cambridge First Certificate. The exercises have been flagged in two ways for easy reference by the teacher. According to difficulty: [R] Revision exercises or exercises of a remedial nature. [M] Exercises of medium difficulty representing the core syllabus and which should be completed by all learners. [A] More demanding exercises for more advanced learners. In general, more difficult exercises will follow easier ones under any rubric. According to exercise type: [GF] Gap-fill. These exercises usually involve filling a gap with the correct form of a verb given in brackets. [RW] Rewriting. Prompt sentences may have to be rewritten or two prompt sentences joined in some way. [CPL] Sentence Completion. The learner must write a sentence on the basis of a partial sentence or prompt. [GTX] Grammar Transformation Exercises. The learner is allowed a fixed number of words to complete a sentence which must include a keyword. [TR] Sentences for translation. Spanish Edition only. The difficulty flags are intended as rough guidelines. As always, it is up to the teacher to decide which exercises are appropriate for (which of) his / her pupils and to what extent. The lists in the four reference tables provided are intended to be neither comprehensive nor exclusive. No attempt is made to explain usage simply because that is a job best left to the teacher. This material is free for you to copy, edit, distribute and basically do as you please with as long as a) you do not charge for it or for any product you include it in and b) you reproduce the copyright notice every time you redistribute all or part of the material.

Table of Contents
Question Practice
Question Question Question Question Question Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 1 3 5 7 9 & & & & & 2 [RW] [R]....................................................................................1 4 [RW] [R]....................................................................................2 6 [RW] [R]....................................................................................3 8 [RW] [R]....................................................................................4 10 [RW] [R]..................................................................................5

Tenses
Present Simple and Continuous [GF] [R].........................................................................6 Past Simple and Continuous [GF] [R]..............................................................................7 Present Perfect and Past Simple [GF] [M]........................................................................8 Present Perfect Sentence Rewriting [GTX] [M]................................................................9 Future Forms [GF] [M]...................................................................................................10 Mixed Tenses 1 [GF] [M]................................................................................................11 Mixed Tenses 2 [GF] [M]................................................................................................12 Mixed Tenses 3 [GF] [M]................................................................................................13 Question Tags[GF] [M] ..................................................................................................14

Modal Verbs
Modal Verbs 1 [GF] [R]..................................................................................................15 Modals and Related Constructions [RW] [M].................................................................16 Modal Verbs 2 [GF] [M]..................................................................................................17 Modal Verbs 3 [GF] [A]..................................................................................................18

Gerunds and Infinitives


Verb + Object + Infinitive [RW] [R]...............................................................................19 Gerund and Infinitive 1 [GF] [M]....................................................................................20 Gerund and Infinitive 2 [GF] [M]....................................................................................21 Gerund and Infinitive 3 [GF] [M]....................................................................................22 Gerund and Infinitive 4 [GF] [M]....................................................................................23 Expressions Followed by Gerunds [GF] [A]....................................................................24 Gerund and Infinitive Sentence Rewriting [GTX] [A].....................................................25

Passives
Mixed Passives 1 [RW] [M]............................................................................................26 Mixed Passives 2 [RW] [M]............................................................................................27

Relative Clauses & Participle Phrases


Defining Relative Clauses [RW] [M]...............................................................................28 Mixed Relative Clauses 1 [RW] [M]................................................................................29 Mixed Relative Clauses 2 [RW] [M] ...............................................................................30 Participle Phrases [RW] [M]...........................................................................................31

Conditionals
First and Second Conditional Sentence Completion [CPL] [M] .....................................32 First, Second and Third Conditionals Gap Fill 1 [GF] [M]...............................................33 First, Second and Third Conditional Sentence Completion [CPL] [M]............................34

First, Second and Third Conditionals Gap Fill 2 [GF] [M] ..............................................35 Unreal Conditionals [RW] [M]........................................................................................36 Conditional Sentence Rewriting [RW] [M].....................................................................37 Mixed Conditionals [RW] [A]..........................................................................................38

Reported Speech

Reported Speech 1 [RW] [M].........................................................................................39 Reported Speech 2 [RW] [M].........................................................................................40 Reported Speech 3 [RW] [A]..........................................................................................41

Linking

Purpose Clauses [RW] [M].............................................................................................42 Linking Expressions [RW] [M]........................................................................................43

Sentence Rewriting
Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Sentence Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting Rewriting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

[GTX] [GTX] [GTX] [GTX] [GTX] [GTX] [GTX] [GTX] [GTX]

[M]....................................................................................44 [M]....................................................................................45 [M]....................................................................................46 [M]....................................................................................47 [M] ...................................................................................48 [M]....................................................................................49 [A].....................................................................................50 [A] ....................................................................................51 [A].....................................................................................52

Appendices

Table The Infinitive.....................................................................................................53 Table The Gerund.......................................................................................................55 Table - Reporting Verbs.................................................................................................57 Irregular Verbs...............................................................................................................59

Question Practice 1
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. Her name is Chus. 2. I am 25 years old. 3. They are from Germany. 4. I have got two children. 5. There are three pictures on the wall. 6. He lives in Dublin. 7. I am a doctor. 8. I am wearing jeans and a jumper. 9. She can speak three languages. 10.They play tennis at the weekend. 11.He has got a lot of money. 12.I was born in 1962.

Question Practice 2
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. His mother is a dentist. 2. They are going home. 3. They play football on Saturday morning. 4. We go to school by bus. 5. He is listening to the new CD. 6. I am learning English because it's important. 7. Those are the teacher's books. 8. I am waiting for my sister. 9. She washes her hair once a day. 10.It costs 5. 11.She bought the newspaper at the station. 12.He leaves home at 8:00.
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Question Practice 3
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. She drives a sports car. 2. She is talking to her mother. 3. We have class twice a week. 4. He missed the bus because he was asleep. 5. I saw her yesterday. 6. The film starts at 8:30. 7. They've got only a little money. 8. She's going to meet a friend. 9. He has a shower at the gym. 10.I'm watching a horror film. 11.She hardly ever washes her hair. 12.I left school when I was fifteen.

Question Practice 4
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. They are going to travel by plane. 2. He caught a taxi because he was late. 3. It takes me twenty minutes to get ready. 4. She took only a few photos. 5. She stayed at home because she was tired. 6. The weather is cold and dry. 7. I have known Paloma for three years. 8. He hasn't got enough money. 9. I can play three instruments. 10.She was born in India. 11.He is going to buy a moped. 12.They play a match every Saturday.
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Question Practice 5
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. There aren't many people in the class. 2. I lost my wallet on the bus. 3. The weather will be warm and sunny. 4. I am going to write a letter. 5. I was at home yesterday. 6. We are waiting for a friend. 7. She bought her bag three weeks ago. 8. There were too many people at the party. 9. I have a shower twice a day. 10.He goes to work by train. 11.We have lived here since 1977. 12.He writes with his left hand.

Question Practice 6
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. I lost my keys a week ago. 2. He is going to buy a reflex camera. 3. She is talking to Maria's brother. 4. Messi scored twice in the Bernabeu. 5. He wrote his last book three years ago. 6. She does her homework with invisible ink. 7. I didn't study because I was too tired. 8. They have just sold their house. 9. We haven't got enough chairs. 10.Freddy was born in Zanzibar. 11.He has to take the tablets three times a day. 12.He's known her for three years.
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Question Practice 7
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. He rings his girlfriend every two days. 2. The police are looking for three men. 3. We're going to stay in a tent. 4. I've just seen my brother's girlfriend. 5. She's got blue eyes. 6. We have to catch the early bus. 7. I won't buy it because it's too expensive. 8. His parents gave him a leather jacket. 9. We've got only a little coffee. 10.I'm watching a horror film. 11.She hardly ever takes the bus. 12.I left home in 1982.

Question Practice 8
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. She took a few photos at the party. 2. I was looking after my niece and nephew. 3. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet in 1598. 4. The weather was cool and cloudy. 5. He visits his patients by plane. 6. I go to bed at eleven o'clock. 7. It takes her fifteen minutes to get ready. 8. We stayed in the cheapest hotel. 9. She was talking to the postman. 10.I have a check-up every six months. 11.She got married fifteen years ago. 12.They have been here for 20 minutes.
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Question Practice 9
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. Wittgenstein was born in Vienna in 1889. 2. She has to wear a shirt and tie. 3. Her boss is mean and bad-tempered. 4. He is praying for his mother-in-law. 5. I have read 100 pages. 6. He wants to buy a laptop. 7. The late film starts at 11:00. 8. I borrowed my brother's car. 9. They are going to move house in two weeks' time. 10.He uses an electric razor. 11.She fixed the bike by oiling it. 12.I have to do the exercises every other day.

Question Practice 10
Rewrite the following in the interrogative and negative. Make questions for the words in italics. 1. I left my bag on the train. 2. The tickets cost 5 each. 3. Beckett won the Nobel Prize in 1969. 4. She met her husband three years ago. 5. He visits his parents twice a year. 6. He doesn't earn enough money. 7. They had only a few DVDs. 8. She is going to ask for a loan. 9. I have known her since 1990. 10.His father bought him a mountain bike. 11.They spend the summers by the sea. 12.He has to wear a uniform.
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Present Simple and Continuous


Rewrite the verbs in brackets in the present simple or present continuous. 1. He (speak) four languages. 2. At the moment, he (speak) English. 3. Where you (live)? 4. What he (do)? He's a nurse. 5. Can you help me? No, I can't because I (do) my homework. 6. How often you (clean) your teeth? 7. Polar bears (live) in the Artic and they (eat) fish. 8. I (not work) tomorrow because it's a public holiday. 9. That monkey (eat) a banana. 10.She (smoke) another cigarette. 11.She (smoke) twenty cigarettes a day. 12.She (work) on Saturdays? 13. What you (do)? I (read) a book. 14.He hardly ever (wear) a track suit. 15. What you (wear) to the party? 16. What you (do)? I (be) a bus driver. 17. Your brother (like) football? 18.In Brazil, they (play) a lot of football. 19. Turn on the TV. Arsenal (play) Juventus. 20. What the children (do)? They (watch) TV. 21.She usually (drink) wine but today she (drink) beer. 22.His girlfriend (study) Physics. This year, she (write) a thesis. 23.I always (wear) pyjamas in bed. 24.I haven't got my pen so I (write) with a pencil.

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Past Simple and Continuous


Rewrite the verbs in brackets in the past simple or past continuous. 1. He (cut) his finger when he (chop) onions. 2. She (watch) television when she (hear) a noise. 3. My daughter (break) her leg while she (play) football. 4. While we (wait) for the bus, it (start) to rain. 5. The cook (read) the newspaper when he (smell) burning. 6. My sister (break) a tooth while she (eat) a pizza. 7. Deirdre (light) a cigarette while she (wait) for the lights to change. 8. I (tidy) my files when I (delete) the desktop. 9. He (come) down the hill when he (fall) off his bike. 10.He (break) a plate while he (cook) dinner. 11.I (meet) Eva when I (work) in Frankfurt. 12.As I (go) through customs, a policeman (stop) me. 13.Her Dad (have) a shower when he (slip) on the soap. 14.She (visit) her niece in Madrid when someone (steal) her wallet. 15.She (have) a bath when the phone (ring). 16.I (step) on a fresh turd as I (walk) down the street. 17. Sebastian (tidy) his room when he (find) a dead cat. 18.She (surf) the net when she (download) a trojan. 19.As I (leave) the house, I (notice) a man watching me. 20.I (go) to the shops when I (meet) Marta and her mum. 21.He (have) a heart attack while he (work) on a new film. 22.A farmer (dig) a ditch when he (find) the body. 23.She (have) lunch with her boyfriend when her husband (walk) in. 24.A shark (attack) her when she (surf) in Miami.

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Present Perfect or Past Simple


Rewrite the verbs in brackets in the past simple or present perfect simple or continuous. 1. When she (give up) smoking? She (not smoke) since the baby (be) born. 2. I last (visit) Hamburg a long time ago. 3. How long they (be) married? Well, they (get) married last April. 4. You (be) at home last night? Yes, I (not go out) all week. 5. How long you (know) your girlfriend? I (know) her for three months. We (meet) at a party on New Year's Eve. 6. Look, I (buy) an MP3 player. Wow! How much you (pay) for it? 7. You (go) to class yesterday? No, I (not go) to class for three weeks. 8. I (not buy) any new clothes since Xmas. 9. I'm not going to watch the film because I already (see) it. 10.He (do) Tae Kwon Do for about twelve years but he still not (pass) the black belt exam. 11. Your brother (leave) college yet? No, he still (not pass) his final exams. 12.The police (arrest) Hans. They think he (kill) his wife. 13.They (find) the body yet? 14. When you (get) the new laptop? Well, I (have) it for a month now. 15. He won't be able to travel because he (lost) his passport. 16.I (lose) my watch on the beach the other day. 17.He (not play) very well recently. He (not score) in six games, 18. You (see) Liz recently? I (not see) her since I (be) in Dublin a few years ago. 19. You (have) any messages today? Yes I (have) three so far. 20. You (write) the resum yet? Yes, I (do) it last night. 21. Wait a minute, I (see) this before. 22.He (look for) a job for 6 months but he still (not find) one. 23. You (see) Tina lately? Yes, I (meet) her the other day. 24. How long he (have) that car? He (buy) it at Christmas so he (have) it for three months now.

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Present Perfect Sentence Rewriting


Rewrite each sentence using not more than six words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. It's a long time since I heard from her. not I ................................................ a long time. 2. They met seventeen years ago. for They ................................................ seventeen years. 3. We last got together a long time ago. since It's a ................................................ together. 4. It is two years since they last saw each other. for They ................................................ years. 5. How long have you known each other. meet When ................................................ other? 6. When did they break up? since How ................................................ broke up? 7. They have been married for ten years. since It's ................................................ married. 8. I bought this watch five years ago. for I ................................................ five years. 9. We haven't been in touch for ages. since It's ................................................ in touch. 10.I last did an exam when I was at school. since I ................................................ at school.

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Future Forms
Rewrite the verbs in brackets using a form of be going to or will. 1. He's brought his camera. He (take) some photos. 2. Have we got any shampoo? Why? You (wash) your hair? 3. What I (do) tonight? Perhaps I (ring) my sister. No, I know! I (watch) the film! 4. Today is Monday so I (watch) my favourite series. 5. You (help) me with this box, please? 6. The police want to speak to Hans again. Oh dear, I (see) him tonight so I (tell) him then. 7. What are you doing with all that money? I (pay) the rent. 8. Sorry, Hans isn't here. OK, I (call) back later. 9. They are knocking down the Cathedral. They (build) a multi-storey car-park. 10.Arsenal have won their last 16 matches. They (win) the league. 11. This exercise is really difficult. Here, I (help) you. 12.He's bought a revolver. I'm afraid he (kill) someone. 13.He's very ill. They (operate) next week. 14.He's gone to the bank. He (borrow) some money. 15.I'm tired. I don't think I (go out) tonight. Perhaps I (rent) a DVD. 16.If he has recovered, he (can) play the final. 17.His wife (leave) him because he is seeing another woman. 18.It's her birthday next week. Perhaps I (buy) her a book. 19.The bulb is fused. I (get) a new one tomorrow. 20.You (leave) the key on top of the fridge, please? 21.He did a bad interview. I don't think he (get) the job. 22.You (not win) unless you play well. 23.The socialists have a five point lead. They (win the election). 24.I (not come) to class tomorrow. We (visit) a museum.

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Mixed Tenses 1
Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. 1. I (watch) TV at 9:00 last night. 2. Then (I get) up and (turn) off the TV. 3. He usually (smoke) cigars. 4. I (watch) TV tonight. 5. You (see) Borat? 6. I (read) a book at the moment. 7. I (not smoke) a cigarette this week. 8. I (meet) some friends at 9:30 this evening. 9. I (buy) a car when I (be) 18. 10.I (not think) it's true. 11. This exercise is very difficult. I (help) you. 12.The film already (start) by the time we (get) to the cinema. 13.I don't think he (pass) the next exam. 14.He's brought his camera. He (take) a picture. 15.You (buy) a newspaper yesterday? 16.I (learn) English for 10 years. 17.We (know) each other since we (be) children. 18.I (hear) a noise when I (watch) TV last night so I (go) out and (turn) on all the lights. The cat (knock) over the bin and she (eat) a piece of cheese she (find) in the rubbish. 19.He (not go) to college unless he (pass) his exams. 20.I (finish) paying back the loan by the end of next year. 21.She (learn) English for years but she (not pass) the First Certificate yet. 22. I need some shampoo because I (wash) my hair. I (lend) you mine. 23.He's a freelance photographer so he (not work) for only one company. At the moment, he (take) wildlife photos in Africa. 24. What you (do) tonight? We (have) dinner in a Chinese restaurant.

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Mixed Tenses 2
Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. 1. He usually (smoke) Marlboro but today he (smoke) Camel. 2. You (see) Titanic? Yes, I (see) it last year. 3. She still (wait) for the bus. It (not come) yet. 4. How long you (be) here? I (be) here for half an hour. 5. You (clean) your room yet? No, I (not clean) it yet. I (do) it in a minute. 6. The hard drive is too small so I (buy) a new one. 7. I (not go) to bed until the film (finish). 8. You (like) a coffee? No thanks, I just (have) one. 9. How long you (fish)? About 2 hours. You (catch) any fish yet? Yes, I (catch) three so far. 10.He (clean) the windows yesterday when he (fall off) the ladder. 11. When you (buy) that watch? I (buy) it 2 weeks ago. 12. You (see) George lately? No, I (not see) him since Christmas. 13.When I (get to) the station this morning, the train already (leave). 14.You (hear) the news? Jack's wife (leave) him. She (find out) that he (see) another woman. 15.He probably (tell) you when he (get) home. 16. How long he (play) for Liverpool. He (play) for them since October. How many goals he (score)? He (not score) any. 17.I (wait) for 15 minutes the other day by the time she (arrive). 18. You (read) the paper? No, I already (read) it. 19. You ever (see) a ghost? No, I (not believe) in ghosts. 20. You (do) the homework? No, I (not can) do it because I (not have) time. 21. You (enjoy) yourself at the party? Yes. I (not have) so much fun in years. 22. I (try) to solve this problem for three hours but I still (not find) the solution. 23.She (chop) onions yesterday when she (cut) her finger. 24.I (come) to class next week unless I (be) ill.

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Mixed Tenses 3
Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. 1. I (not see) him since Xmas. 2. You (see) the photos I (take) at Xmas? 3. She hardly ever (write) to me any more. 4. What this word (mean)? 5. I like your new car. When you (buy) it? 6. I didn't sign the contract until I (read) it. 7. How long you (know) her? I (meet) her five years ago. 8. By the time I (get) home last night, she already (go) to bed. 9. I (find) this photo yesterday while I (tidy) my desk. 10.I (wash) my hair tonight. I (not wash) it for a week. 11.He's really tired. He (work) very hard recently. 12.He (not pass) his exams next month unless he (study). 13.I'll go to bed when the film (finish). 14.I just (leave) the house when it (start) to rain. 15.How much (cost) a laptop? 16. I (ring) her if I (know) her number. 17.I (not play) rugby since I (be) at school. 18.We (not win) the match unless we (play) very well. 19.What you (do) when I (phone) last night? 20.How long it (take) to get a degree in medicine? 21.The police (look) for the child for weeks but they still (not find) him. 22.I (not hear) you. What you (say)? 23.I (not watch) the film tonight because I (already) see it. 24.He (survive) his accident if he (wear) a helmet.

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Question Tags
Complete each of the following with an appropriate question tag. 1. She can't play piano. 2. He lives in Dublin. 3. Shut up for a minute. 4. She took some photos. 5. Let's watch TV. 6. You have lunch at home. 7. She speaks French. 8. Someone has broken the window. 9. I am right. 10.We have to read the text. 11.You weren't waiting for me. 12.They are having a party. 13.You will help me. 14.You haven't been to Berlin. 15.No-one saw you. 16.He had to go to hospital. 17.Your father hasn't read the paper. 18.Don't tell anyone. 19.Aidan has got a bicycle. 20.These are yours. 21.You had already seen the film. 22.Everyone believes me. 23.Do sit down. 24.She wouldn't do that.

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Modal Verbs 1
Complete the following with an appropriate modal verb. 1. You ............ smoke in the cinema. 2. ............ I help you? 3. You ............ stop at a red traffic light. 4. I ............ wear a uniform at school. 5. She ............ hear because she's deaf. 6. We ............ speak Spanish in class. 7. I ............ write well with my left hand. 8. You ............ take an umbrella. It isn't raining. 9. You ............ buy stamps in a post office. 10.I ............ wear a track-suit track-suit in PE. 11.I ............ come to class because I was ill. 12.You ............ wear a helmet on a motorbike. 13.We ............ hurry. There's plenty of time. 14.She ............ play tennis until they take off the plaster. 15.Kasparov ............ play chess when he was six. 16.She ............ speak three languages. 17.He drives a BMW. He ............ earn a lot of money. 18.She ............ be from France. She doesn't understand French. 19.He always passes his exams. He ............ study a lot. 20.You ............ know her. She lives next door to you. 21.There's no answer. He ............ be at home. 22.He ............ have much money. His clothes are very shabby. 23.He ............ like her. He's always talking to her. 24.He has a terrible cough. He ............ smoke a lot.

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Modal Verbs and Related Constructions


Rewrite the following using where possible with a form of be able to, be allowed to, be supposed to or have to. 1. Can you write with your left hand? 2. He can smoke in his room. 3. I can't do the homework. 4. We must fasten our seat belts. 5. You must stop at a red light. 6. We needn't take a taxi. 7. You shouldn't write on your book. 8. She can play the piano. 9. We mustn't write on the photocopies. 10.We can use the phone for local calls. 11.You must wear a helmet on the bike. 12.Must we wear track suits for PE? 13.You needn't worry about me. 14.You can park opposite the station. 15.You mustn't speak Spanish in class. 16.We can't use a dictionary. 17.You must wear a cap in the pool. 18.You shouldn't wear a track suit to class. 19.I can speak German. 20.You may use the sauna before 8:00. 21.She can't play tennis until they take off the plaster. 22.We can't wear earrings at school. 23.You needn't buy a present. 24.You should turn off your mobile in class.

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Modal Verbs 2
Rewrite each sentence using an appropriate modal verb and the correct form of the infinitive. 1. I'm sure he earns a lot of money. He ................................................ 2. Perhaps he won the lottery. He ................................................ 3. It isn't possible that he knows me. He ................................................ 4. It isn't possible the earth was made in 7 days. The ................................................ 5. It's possible that he heard you. He ................................................ 6. There was no need to to buy me a present. You ................................................ 7. It isn't possible that she missed the bus. She ................................................ 8. I think they were speaking French. They ................................................ 9. Why didn't you ask her first? You ................................................ 10.The only possibility is that he had a crash. He ................................................ 11.It would be a good idea if you saw a doctor. You ................................................ 12.It isn't necessary to wear a helmet. You ................................................ 13.I'm sure that he lives near here. He ................................................ 14.I'm sure there is no monster in the lake. There ................................................ 15.Perhaps they are still waiting for you. They ................................................ 16.I'm sure you have seen it before. You ................................................ 17.I'm sure he was smoking a cigarette. He ................................................ 18.We translated the text but it wasn't necessary. We ................................................ 19.It's obvious that they were expecting us. They ................................................ 20.He didn't play golf because it was raining. He ................................................ 21.I'm sure that he didn't take the money. He ................................................ 22.It wasn't a good idea to tell him. You ................................................ 23.It's possible that they have found the wreck. They ................................................ 24.I don't know if she will pass. She ................................................

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Modal Verbs 3
Rewrite each sentence using where possible an appropriate modal verb and the correct form of the infinitive. 1. He ..... (steal) the ring. He hasn't got a reciept. 2. He ..... (know) me. I've never seen him before. 3. You ..... (take) a taxi because there was a bus and you ..... (take) it. 4. Children ..... (obey) their parents. 5. You ..... (shout) I'm not deaf. 6. This is a dead-end. We ..... (turn) left. 7. You ..... (lie) to her. She was going to find out anyway. 8. He ..... (use) Colgate . He's got bad breath. 9. She ..... (use) Colgate. She's got beautiful teeth. 10.Bring the camera! You ..... (want) to take a photo. 11.He ..... (call). The phone didn't ring all day. 12.There ..... (be) a monster in Loch Ness. 13.I can't hear them very well but they ..... (speak) German. 14.He ..... (pick) it up. His fingerprints are all over it. 15.She ..... (get) lost. She's lived here all her life. 16.You ..... (see) it before. It's been here for years. 17.He ..... (work) late. I saw him at the hotel. 18.You ..... (tell) me sooner. I can't change it now. 19.It's very late. She ..... (miss) the bus. Or she ..... (have) an accident. 20.I couldn't do the exercise but my brother ..... (do) it. 21.He ..... (go) out. His shoes are still here. 22.You ..... (smoke). Otherwise the fire alarm ..... (go) off. 23.He ..... (pass) the exam, but I doubt it. 24.I ..... (bring) a book if I'd known it ..... (take) so long.

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Verb + Object + Infinitive


Use the cues to report the following. 1. 'Would you speak up, please?' the teacher / ask / her 2. 'Don't make any noise!' she / tell / the children 3. 'Will you lend me a hand?' my sister / ask / me 4. 'You should give up smoking.' the doctor / advise / Mr Smith 5. 'Go to the bank on your way home.' she / remind / him 6. 'Don't leave it until the last minute!' the teacher / warn / them 7. 'Don't buy Novell!' the broker / advise / him 8. 'Don't drive too fast.' his father / warn / him 9. 'Try harder!' the coach / encourage / us 10.'Will you get me a newspaper?' he / want / me 11.'Don't worry about anything.' the voice / tell / her 12.'Can you lend me some money?' he / want / me 13.'Will you look after my bag for me.' she / want / me 14.'Eat up and shut up!' she / tell / the kids 15.'Would you take a seat please?' she / invite / him 16.'Don't write on the photocopies!' the teacher / forbid / the pupils 17.'Could you call back later?' the secretary / ask / me 18.'Get out and don't come back!' his wife / tell / him 19.'Meet me in the chapel.' the bishop / tell / his girlfriend 20.'Get a life, son.' his father / tell / him 21.'Could you take a message?' I / ask / her 22.'Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper.' the teacher / tell / them 23.'Would you look where you are going?' she / ask / him 24.'Feed the squirrels, won't you.' she / remind / him

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Gerund and Infinitive 1


Complete the sentences using the gerund or infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1. I would like (see) that film. 2. She prefers (read) to (watch) TV. 3. They enjoy (play) cards. 4. I would prefer (live) in Paris. 5. He managed (pass) the exam. 6. I want you (tell) me the truth. 7. He asked me (help) him. 8. I told him (not make) any noise. 9. They wouldn't let me (make) a call. 10.They made us (wear) uniforms. 11.He doesn't mind (work) on Saturdays. 12.I went to the shop (buy) the paper. 13.I prefer (take) the bike than (go) by car. 14.He would prefer (earn) more money than (have) more free time. 15.I wouldn't like (live) in Madrid. 16.He wants (look) for a new job. 17.I need (find) a job. 18.I don't mind (help) at home. 19.Would you mind (not smoke)? 20.He can't stand (have) (wait). 21.Do you enjoy (play) golf? 22.I want someone (help) me. 23.He asked us (hurry up). 24.They told us (not worry).

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Gerund and Infinitive 2


Complete the sentences using the gerund or infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1. He told me (not complain). 2. Let them (go)! 3. Did you advise him (do) that? 4. He asked me (stay). 5. Did you tell him (go)? 6. He can't stand (not work). 7. I would prefer (go) to prison than (get) married. 8. Did he let you (see) it? 9. Don't make him (talk)! 10.They told me (not throw) litter on the ground . 11.She forbade me (smoke). 12.He is afraid of (fall). 13.Would you mind (close) the window? 14.He gave up (drink) when he got married. 15.I feel like (take) a break. 16.He isn't used to (earn) money. 17.I am fed up with (listen) to him. 18.It isn't worth (take) a taxi. 19.I can't stand (waste) time. 20.I prefer (read) to (watch) TV. 21.He enjoys (be) with his grandchildren. 22.Don't make me (laugh). 23.They won't let him (see) his family. 24.They made him (give) them the keys.

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Gerund and infinitive 3


Complete the sentences using the gerund or infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1. We'd better (hurry up). 2. They tried (knock down) the door. 3. I couldn't help (remember) her. 4. In the end, we managed (find) a hotel. 5. I miss (drive) my own car. 6. I turned off the music so as (avoid) (disturb) the neighbours. 7. I am sorry (tell) you this but there has been an accident. 8. If you drink a lot of coffee, you risk (not be able) (sleep). 9. I left early in order (not be) late. 10.I'm looking forward to (meet) your girlfriend. 11.I don't know how (say) it in English. 12.I can't afford (not study). 13.Have you tried (take) an aspirin. 14.I couldn't help (look) back. 15.I would prefer (rent) a car than (take) a taxi. 16.You'd better (not remind) me of that again. 17.She is trying (lose) weight. 18.I'm fed up with (not have) any money. 19.He eventually managed (pass) the driving test. 20.We miss (see) our family. 21.We went slowly (avoid) (have) an accident. 22.I don't remember (tell) you that. 23.If you don't save, you risk (run) out of money. 24.I wrote it down so as (not forget) it.

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Gerund and Infinitive 4


Complete the sentences using the gerund or infinitive of the verbs in brackets. 1. I would prefer you (not smoke). 2. I paid him (leave) me alone. 3. Didn't you hear me (come) in. 4. I forgot (close) the door. 5. I don't feel like (stay) in. 6. Do they let you (go) out at night? 7. They encouraged him (tell) you. 8. Try (take) these tablets. 9. You had better (leave) now. 10.I can't stand (have) (wait) 11.There is no point in (talk) to him. 12.He refused (lend) us a hand. 13.It isn't worth (take) the car. 14.Don't worry about (fail). 15.I'll never forget (meet) her. 16.He put off (revise) the notes until the last moment. 17.It's too heavy for you (lift). 18.They kept (talk) even though I told them (shut) up. 19.When did you take up (play) the guitar? 20.They warned us (not cross) the border. 21.They gave permission for the plane (take) off. 22.I remember (wake) up in hospital. 23.I'm not afraid of (travel) by plane. 24.The noise didn't let me (sleep).

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Expressions followed by Gerunds


Use an appropriate gerund to complete each sentence . 1. There's no point in ............ She isn't going to come. 2. It's no good ............ He's as deaf as a post. 3. It's no use ............ him. He doesn't know anything. 4. The film was so sad that I couldn't help ............ 5. It's not worth ............ again. You're going to have to get a new one anyway. 6. It's not worth ............ We're only going to be here for a few days. 7. I'm tired, I don't feel like ............ tonight. 8. There's no point in ............ He's going to die anyway. 9. His language skills are poor. He has difficulty in ............ 10.There's no point in ............ with inflation so high. 11.It's no use ............ now. You should have studied before the exam. 12.It's no use ............ They won't hear us. 13.There's no point in ............ There's nothing we can do about it now. 14.It's no good ............ it now. It's already dead. 15.She can't stand ............in bed in the mornings. 16.It's no use ............ I'm not going to pass anyway. 17.It's no good ............ There's nobody home. 18.I couldn't help ............ how ill she looked. 19.There's no point in ............ You're not going to win. 20.He 's thinking of ............ because he needs the money. 21.There's no point in ............ They've already given it to someone else. 22.It's not worth ............ The shop is just round the corner. 23.There's no point in ............ One vote makes no difference. 24.The difference is only 20p. It isn't worth ............

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Gerund and Infinitive Sentence Rewriting


Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. She has finally managed to pass her driving test. in She has finally ................................................ her driving test. 2. I'd rather you didn't smoke. not Would ................................................ 3. I wrote it down so that I wouldn't forget it. to I wrote it down ................................................ it. 4. Nowadays, mothers usually work outside the home. for Nowadays, it's ................................................ outside the home. 5. She was about to give birth in the ambulance. point She was ................................................ birth in the ambulance. 6. I wish I had learned to play piano at school. regret I ................................................ to play piano at school. 7. They wouldn't let us leave the building. from They ................................................ the building. 8. Joining the golf club is too expensive for me. afford I ................................................ the golf club. 9. He hasn't eaten meat since his visit to the abbatoir. put His visit to the abbatoir ................................................ meat. 10.He insists that we wear ties in the office. on He ................................................ ties in the office.

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Passive 1
Rewrite the following sentences in the pasive. 1. An explosion has killed eight soldiers. 2. The doctor is examining the boy at the moment. 3. You should keep fresh meat in the fridge. 4. Capitan Cook didn't discover the Azores. 5. Some workmen were repairing the lift. 6. You have to pay the rent on the 1st of the month. 7. We expect that they will publish his book in June. 8. Someone shot J.F. Kennedy in Dallas in 1963. 9. The experts think that marijuana helps to treat migraine. 10.You have to do the homework at the weekend. 11.Nobody has touched it. 12.The bank sent me a letter. 13.People will never forget the destruction of Hiroshima. 14.They used to play cricket in his old school. 15.Pollution is damaging a lot of old buildings. 16.Someone gave him a T-shirt for his birthday. 17.Someone will have to do something about him. 18.Br Kingston teaches them Latin. 19.The police believe that he has killed a dozen men. 20.They are fixing the broken windows. 21.A man on the train told me this story. 22.The papers say that he is living in Argentina. 23.Her boyfriend bought her a fur coat . 24.They are going to play the match on Friday.

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Passive 2
Rewrite the following sentences in the pasive. 1. They are widening the road. 2. People believe that he has left the country. 3. They gave him an award for his contribution to the film industry. 4. Someone is going to take her picture. 5. The police believe that he has killed two men. 6. They were building a bridge over the river. 7. They asked us a lot of questions. 8. We have to do the resum at home. 9. Someone has stolen my bike. 10.People think that the plane crashed in the mountains. 11.His boss has promised him a new job. 12.The police were looking for two men. 13.They have had to knock down the building. 14.Someone had broken into their house. 15.They have had to put the dog down. 16.The police think that he took part in the robbery. 17.No-one has used it for a long time. 18.People say that he was killed in a plane crash. 19.They gave me a pencil and some paper. 20.People used to use horses for transport. 21.We believe that three people were killed in the crash. 22.The secretary has told the director the news. 23.They are going to ask us a lot of questions. 24.I don't like people laughing at me.

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Defining Relative Clauses


Join each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun, adjective or adverb. 1. He took the bus. It passes the police station. 2. Show me the photos. You took them in Cadiz. 3. The woman is my wife. You are talking about her. 4. She likes the record. She is listening to it. 5. The children are very noisy. She looks after them. 6. Maria is a girl. Her mother works in the administration. 7. I went to the shop. It sells English books. 8. He is wearing the shirt. You bought it for him. 9. I telephoned the people. We met them on holiday. 10.I know the woman. Her son died in the accident. 11.He gave her a ring. It had been stolen 12.Is that the girl. He is interested in her. 13.He repaired the radio. It had fallen on the floor. 14.The postman was angry with the woman. Her dog bit him. 15.He visited the house. He had lived there as a boy. 16.I have found the keys. I lost them yesterday. 17.I took it back to the shop. I had bought it there. 18.I went to the dentist. You recommended him to me. 19.Did you get the letter? I sent it to you. 20.Luis and Arturo are kids. Their dad doesn't pay his bills. 21.The Astor is the cinema. We saw the film there. 22.Have you met the girl? He is going out with her. 23.I lost the ring. He gave it to me. 24.Have you seen the camera. I bought it in Carrefour.

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Mixed Relative Clauses 1


Join each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun, adjective or adverb. 1. My sister is doing a keep-fit course. She wants to lose weight. 2. Our teacher has told us to read Hamlet. I have read it before. 3. I have spent a lot of money on my car. I bought it second-hand. 4. Her boyfriend works in the bank. He wants to marry her. 5. The letter was from the University. I did my degree there. 6. I go to another dentist. His prices are lower. 7. A man came to repair our TV. It had broken down. 8. He lives in his mother's house. It's not far from here. 9. I broke my tooth on a cake. My mother had made it. 10.Tina showed me some photos. She had taken them by the Black Sea. 11.The policeman stopped us. He asked us a lot of questions 12.I spoke to my cousin. My sister is very fond of him. 13.The police are looking for a man. He was seen leaving the shop. 14.My boss's wife asked me to help her. I can't stand her. 15.The bank was robbed last week. My girlfriend works there. 16.Colin is going to London. His sister is in hospital. 17.We talked about some teachers. I used to have them at school. 18.I was told to read a book. I had read it at school. 19.He set off for the farm. His parents live there 20.Dr Schwarz is the new director. He doesn't like me. 21.I spoke to a secretary. She gave me the forms. 22.Hamlet is Shakespeare's most famous play. He wrote it around 1600. 23.Maynard Smith died in 2004. He won the 2001 Kyoto Prize. 24.Michael spent all the money. His uncle had left it to him.

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Mixed Relative Clauses 2


Join each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun, adjective or adverb. 1. I visited my grandfather. I hadn't seen him for a long time. 2. They didn't have the book. I wanted to buy it. 3. He told us to read a lot of books. That was a waste of time. 4. He was talking to a girl. She works in the library. 5. The princess is going to visit the hospital. Her son suffers from leukemia. 6. Our teacher hasn't corrected the exam. He is leaving next year. 7. My parents met during the Blitz. They have been together for thirty years. 8. They haven't identified the boy. A taxi driver brought him to the hospital. 9. The liberal party has withdrawn from the elections. Its candidate had stepped down. 10.My aunt has gone to Lourdes. A lot of people say they have been cured there. 11.The keys are on the shelf. You were looking for them. 12.He was talking to a cousin of mine. She works in the library. 13.They were watching a programme. I had seen it before. 14.He lived during the Renaissance. The church had a lot of power then. 15.They didn't give her the information. She had paid for it. 16.She downloaded a file. It crashed her system. 17.I'm reading Animal Farm. George Orwell wrote it in 1945. 18.I met a girl. Her uncle is a famous film maker. 19.My mother sent me some money. She always remembers birthdays. 20.I was reading a book. The teacher had told me to read it. 21.I've always wanted to visit Vienna. So many famous people have lived there. 22.I managed to finish the last exercise. It was very difficult. 23.She downloaded screensaver.exe. It crashed her system. 24.They had to kill the dog. His owner had abandoned him.

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Participle Phrases
Substitute participle phrases for the phrases in italics. 1. He went home because he had run out of money. 2. The boat was blown off course by the wind and struck some rocks. 3. As I had never seen anything like it, I didn't know what it was. 4. He didn't believe that he had a chance when he applied for the job. 5. When he had done his job, he took a rest. 6. The letter had been posted in France and had a return address on the back. 7. When he had buried the body, he carefully removed all traces from his clothes. 8. He had been rejected at the BBC so he applied to ITV. 9. He managed to catch up by driving at top speed. 10.As I wasn't able to sleep, I decided to go for a walk. 11.Once he had repaired the computer, he set about fixing the printer. 12.I couldn't go to the meeting because I hadn't been told of the time. 13.As he left the room, he heard a noise which seemed to come from a cupboard. 14.He was breathing heavily when he opened the door. 15.Anyone who wants to help should put his name down. 16.He went to bed because he was exhausted after all his work. 17.He had been badly frightened so he never returned. 18.The management will not be responsible for valuables which are left on the premises. 19.I went up to the office because I wanted to speak to the director. 20.She was smoking a cigarette when she walked in. 21.She was shaking like a leaf as she sat down. 22.Because he had lost money, he was cautious about the investment. 23.As I didn't know anything, I went ahead with the plan. 24.She looked directly at me as she opened the envelope.

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First and Second Conditional Sentence Completion


Complete the sentences. 1. If I miss the bus ................................................ 2. I would buy a car ................................................ 3. You won't sleep ................................................ 4. If I saw a ghost ................................................ 5. If he forgets my birthday ................................................ 6. She will play ................................................ 7. I would call the police ................................................ 8. Unless you pay him ................................................ 9. If I knew her number ................................................ 10.I would read the book ................................................ 11.If I'm hungry ................................................ 12.If you park here ................................................ 13.If I were a girl ................................................ 14.He will pass his exams ................................................ 15.If you break that vase ................................................ 16.When I get home ................................................ 17.If someone stole my wallet ................................................ 18.If I lost my job ................................................ 19.I'll tell him ................................................ 20.If today were Sunday ................................................ 21.I won't take an aspirin ................................................ 22.If I met Jack Nicholson ................................................ 23.Unless I'm tired ................................................ 24.I'll delete the Windows partition................................................

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First, Second and Third Conditionals Gap Fill 1


Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. 1. We may go to the beach if the weather (be) fine. 2. If he had taken my advice, he (not go). 3. If anyone should call, (say) I'm in a meeting. 4. He wouldn't have bad dreams if he (not watch) so many horror films. 5. I (not say) anything unless they ask me. 6. If you should find it, (give) me a ring. 7. If he had woken up on time, he (not miss) the bus. 8. I (tell) you the answer if I knew it. 9. If you drop an egg, it (break). 10.If she (be) here, I would ask her. 11.If you should be in town, (drop in) to my office. 12.I would have told you if I (know). 13.Unless the weather improves, we (not be) able to play. 14.If she had compared the prices, she (not buy) the most expensive one. 15.I (not say) anything to him if I were you. 16.He may change his mind if you (talk) to him. 17.I won't be able to help you unless I (have) all the information. 18.I wouldn't do it if I (be) you. 19.If you should have any problems, (ring) this number. 20.If she had let us know, we (not wait) for her. 21.He may take part in the competition if his injury (not be) serious. 22.If we (know) her address, we could get in touch with her. 23.If the bus weren't so slow, I hardly ever (be) late. 24.He may come to the party if his girlfriend (come) too.

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First Second and Third Conditional Sentence Completion


Complete the sentences. 1. If he says sorry ................................................ 2. He would buy a car if ................................................ 3. If my watch stops ................................................ 4. He wouldn't have made so many mistakes if ................................................ 5. If I saw a ghost ................................................ 6. If he had read the book ................................................ 7. If you had locked the door ................................................ 8. I wouldn't have missed the train if ................................................ 9. If we don't hurry ................................................ 10.He would improve his English if ................................................ 11.I would have taken a photo ................................................ 12.I will help you if ................................................ 13.If they had seen the sign ................................................ 14.If he had waited ................................................ 15.I will tell him if ................................................ 16.He would pass his exams if ................................................ 17.If I hadn't been ill ................................................ 18.If you park here ................................................ 19.If he hadn't lied ................................................ 20.Unless it rains ................................................ 21.If he knew the truth ................................................ 22.If you don't like it ................................................ 23.If the bus had come on time ................................................ 24.If the police hadn't caught him ................................................

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First, Second and Third Conditionals Gap Fill 2


Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense. 1. I (not go) to bed until the film (finish). 2. If I (be able) to play guitar, all the girls (like) me. 3. When you (be) eighteen, you (be allowed) to drink whiskey. 4. He (die) unless he (have) the operation. 5. If I (hear) the alarm clock yesterday morning, I (get) up. 6. If I (be) younger, I (take up) Taekwondo. 7. I (tell) him if I (trust) him but he can't keep a secret. 8. Don't park here. If they (catch) you, you (have) to pay a fine. 9. The door was open. They (not get) in if you (lock) it. 10.You (not sleep) well tonight if you (drink) a lot of coffee. 11.I (drink) Guinness if I (live) in Dublin. 12.If drugs (be) legal, there (not be) so much crime. 13.OK, I (lend) it to you as long as you (look) after it. 14.If he (not smoke), he (not cough) all the time. 15.What you (do) if you (win) a lot of money. 16.They (never) find out if she (not tell) them. 17.I (answer) if I (understand) the question, but I didn't. 18.If I (forget) my keys, I (ring) the bell. 19.If you (drop) eggs, they (break). 20.No-one was hurt but if the bomb (explode), it (kill) everyone. 21.I (ring) you this evening as soon as I (get) home. 22.If I (know) her address, I (write) to her. 23.He not (eat) pork if he (be) a Muslim. 24.If I (see) you last night, I (stop).

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Unreal Conditionals
Rewrite the following using conditional constructions. 1. He bought the most expensive one because he didn't compare the prices. 2. People don't understand him because he doesn't speak clearly. 3. People take their cars everywhere so they have to pay a lot for petrol. 4. Her husband was having an affair. That's why she left him. 5. I didn't do the homework because I didn't have time. 6. Children watch too much TV. That's why they read and write badly. 7. I don't read much because I'm always tired. 8. He can't come to the wedding because he is ill. 9. Parents don't punish their children. That's why they behave badly. 10.He missed the train because he didn't hear the alarm clock. 11.A lot of new mothers give up their jobs because they have to look after the kids. 12.He stole a lot of money. That's why he's in prison. 13.I don't drink warm beer because I'm not British. 14.Girls work harder than boys so they get better exam results. 15.His bike was stolen because he didn't lock it. 16.I didn't help you because you didn't ask me. 17.I didn't take any photos because I forgot my camera. 18.I'm tired because I didn't get much sleep last night. 19.She got pregnant because they didn't take precautions. 20.Idiots get married because they want to have children. 21.The company closed down because it didn't get the contract. 22.She didn't send in the application on time so they didn't give her an interview. 23.She believes anything he says because she's in love with him. 24.He doesn't meet people because he stays at home all the time.

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Conditional Sentence Rewriting


Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I'll only help you if you pay me. not I ................................................ you pay me. 2. He doesn't sleep well because he drinks too much coffee. so If he ................................................ would sleep better. 3. We'll know the result when the match is over. not We ................................................ the match is over. 4. I didn't go because I didn't have a ticket. if I would ................................................ had a ticket. 5. When you put salt on ice, the ice melts. if Ice ................................................ on it. 6. I can't phone because I don't know the number. be If I knew the ................................................ to phone. 7. He didn't study so he failed his exam. he If he ................................................ passed his exam. 8. I'll only lend you the book if you take care of it. long I'll lend you the book ................................................ care of it. 9. I really think you should go to the doctor's. were If ................................................ go to the doctor's. 10.He doesn't like you because you are rude to him. so He would like you ................................................ to him.

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Mixed Conditionals
Rewrite the following using conditional constructions. 1. I haven't bought a car because I live in the center. 2. He isn't dead because he wasn't on that plane. 3. He lost his job because he insulted the boss's wife. 4. He didn't read the text so he doesn't know what it's about. 5. He is looking for work because he lost his job. 6. She believes in ghosts because she once had a strange experience, 7. She wears lucky charms because she is superstitious. 8. l never see him because he never comes to class. 9. He never comes to class. That's why I haven't been able to tell him. 10.She walks with a limp because she broke an ankle when she was five. 11.I have decided to buy a bike because l can't afford a car. 12.His parents don't let him watch TV because he failed an exam at Xmas. 13.They don't know what he looks like because nobody saw him. 14.I didn't know she didn't eat meat. That's why I made hamburgers. 15.He doesn't eat meat so l made a vegetable lasagne. 16.l don't eat eggs because they have a lot of cholesterol. 17.He missed the penalty. That's why we lost the match. 18.They are pIaying the final because they won the semi-final. 19.She is very careful with money because her parents were poor. 20.He can't drive because they took away his licence. 21.They took away his license because he knocked down a pedestrian. 22.She can't print the file because she knows nothing about computers. 23.He lived in South Africa as a child. That's why he speaks with an accent. 24.He thinks you like him because you lent him your notes.

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Reported Speech 1
Rewrite the following in reported speech using the introductory verbs say, tell, ask or suggest. 1. 'My sister still hasn't found a job', he said to me. 2. 'What did you say?' I asked her. 3. 'How about having a rest' her husband said to her. 4. 'I didn't hear the alarm clock this morning', I said to him. 5. 'Were you looking for me an hour ago?' he asked us. 6. 'Shut up and don't answer back!' his father said to him. 7. 'Will you lend me your car tonight?', he asked me. 8. 'Did you find the money?' I asked her. 9. 'Let's stay in and watch the film on TV', she said to me. 10.'Could you please hurry up?' she said to me. 11.'Don't write on the photocopies', the teacher said to us. 12.'Where did you buy it?' her boyfriend asked her. 13.'Read the text tomorrow but don't use a dictionary', the teacher said to me. 14.'What's your new boss like?' she asked me. 15.'I bought a car last year', he said to me. 16.'Why don't you take an aspirin?' I said to her. 17.'Where were you last night?' his wife asked him. 18.'What does this word mean?' she asked the teacher. 19.'Have you seen The Graduate?' her friend asked her. 20.'You must take the tablets three times a day', the doctor said to me. 21.'My mother wants to sell her house', he told her. 22.'Could you please be quiet?' the teacher said to the pupils. 23.'Shall we ask a policeman', he said to her. 24.'Will you help me with the homework?' he asked his sister.

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Reported Speech 2
Rewrite the following in reported speech using the introductory verbs say, tell, ask or suggest. 1. 'Could you take a message please?' he said to her. 2. 'Don't believe everything you read', he said to us. 3. 'Why don't you take some time off?' my boss said to me. 4. 'Did you manage to find what you were looking for?' his wife asked him. 5. 'I won't speak to him again unless he apologises', she told me. 6. 'Would you come back tomorrow' she asked him. 7. 'Could you call back in fifteen minutes?', said the secretary to me. 8. 'Let's not tell anyone', she said to her friend. 9. 'What film did you see last week?', I asked him. 10.'I'll wait here until you get back', he said to me. 11.'What was the weather like yesterday', I asked them. 12.'Let's think about it before we do anything', she said to me. 13.'I was working on a film when I met my wife', he told the interviewer. 14.'Could you please turn down the volume?' my neighbour said to me. 15.'Who was that girl you were with last night?' my girlfriend asked me. 16.'Don't say anything unless they ask you', I said to her. 17.'Wait for me if I am late', she said to me. 18.'Why don't you tell her the truth?', he said to me. 19.'Could you take these books back to the library?', I asked her. 20.'Don't believe everything you read', he said to us. 21.'How many people were there at the party?', she asked me. 22.'How many days will you have to work next week?', he asked her. 23.'I couldn't come because I was ill', I said to them. 24.'Don't open the door to anyone', he told her.

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Reported Speech 3
Choose an appropriate verb from the list to report each of the following remarks. explain, threaten, advise, deny, remind, suggest, accuse, intend, warn, refuse, apologise, let, agree, admit, offer, tell, promise, encourage, ask, discourage 1. 'I won't lend you another penny', said John to his brother. 2. 'You took five pounds from my wallet', said Julia's father to her. 3. 'Don't drink too much', said Mrs Lewis to her husband. 4. 'I didn't play well because I had a stomach bug', the player told the reporter. 5. 'Why don't you take up a sport?', said the doctor to me. 6. 'I have never made any payments to this woman', the bishop told the press. 7. 'I really don't think that you should take the exam', said the teacher to Sid. 8. 'If you don't pay, we'll tell our story to the newspapers', they said. 9. 'Shall I help you with your bags', said the stranger to Mrs Lewis. 10.'Don't forget to do the homework', said the teacher to George. 11.'I'm going to move to New York', said John. 12.'I'll break your neck if you speak to her again', her father said to me. 13.'If I were you, I'd look for another job', said my boss to me. 14.'I didn't touch your guitar', said Topper to Mick. 15.'I'm really sorry that I spoiled your plans', he said to us. 16.'Don't worry about anything', he said to his girlfriend. 17. 'I'm really sorry I forgot your birthday', he said to her. 18.'You are not allowed to use a dictionary', said the teacher to us. 19.'The most important thing is to keep practising', said the music teacher to John. 20.'All right, I'll tell you what I know', said the suspect to the police. 21.'Will you please shut up!', the teacher said to the kids. 22.'I'll have it for you tomorrow', he said . 23.'OK, I took the money, so what?', said Julia to the policeman. 24.'Will you get me some tobacco', my sister said to me.

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Purpose Clauses
Rewrite the folowing using in order / so as to, so that, in case. 1. He crossed the road because a) he wanted to buy a newspaper. b) he didn't want to meet his teacher. c) he didn't want his teacher to see him. 2. He left early because a) he wanted to catch the train. b) he didn't want to miss the train. c) there might be a lot of traffic. 3. He took off his shoes because a) he didn't want to make any noise. b) he didn't want anyone to hear him. 4. He wore a mask because a) he didn't want to be recognised. b) he didn't want anyone to recognise him. c) he was afraid someone might recognise him. 5. He took an umbrella because a) he didn't want to get wet. b) he thought it might rain. 6. I carry a mobile because a) someone might ring me. b) I want to be able to make calls. 7. I write down new words because a) I want to learn them at home. b) I don't want to forget them c) I might forget them. 8. We locked the door because a) someone might be able to get in. b) we didn't want anyone to get in. 9. She gave the children pocket money because a) they might need to buy something. b) she wanted them to be able to buy something. 10.I recorded the programme because a) I wanted to see it again. b) I wanted you to see it. c) I thought you might want to see it.

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Linking Expressions
Choose appropriate expressions from the list to join the following pairs of clauses. although, however, despite, besides, while, whereas, moreover 1. they didn't play well / they won the match 2. she read the text / she wrote a resum 3. she didn't feel well / she went to the party 4. exercise reduces cholesterol / it combats stress 5. he didn't feel well / she went to the party 6. she didn't write a resum / she didn't read the text 7. coal is cheap / it pollutes the atmosphere 8. the car uses a lot of petrol / it's difficult to park 9. the car performs well / it uses a lot of petrol 10.civil liberties are important / society must protect itself 11.tv provides information / it turns us into passive spectators 12.smoking reduces your quality of life / it can kill you 13.air travel is expensive / it's safe and fast 14.children eat lots of junk food / they take very little exercise 15.solar power is cheap and clean / it only produces small amounts of electricity 16.the flight was delayed / they lost my luggage 17.girls get better marks at school / boys do better at college 18.computers save time / they can take up a lot of time too 19.everyone admires literature / no-one reads it 20.democracy is not perfect / other systems are a lot worse 21.credit cards are convenient / they make it easy to spend too much 22.bicycles are clean and efficient / they save you money 23.prison is not a solution / criminals must be kept off the streets 24.alcohol is a dangerous drug / it is freely available

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Sentence Rewriting 1
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I last bought a record six months ago. for I ................................................ six months. 2. Some workmen were repairing the pipes. by The pipes ................................................ 3. They won't help you unless you pay them. only They ................................................ you pay them. 4. It isn't necessary to lock the door. not You ................................................ the door. 5. I'm not strong enough to lift this box. too This box is ................................................. lift. 6. They played the match although the weather was awful. the Despite ................................................ the match. 7. I've never drunk whisky before. time This is the ................................................ whisky. 8. He doesn't understand because he doesn't listen. would If ................................................ understand. 9. A wolf is much bigger than a fox. nearly A fox ................................................ a wolf. 10.'When will you have the money?', he asked me. I He wanted to ................................................ the money.

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Sentence Rewriting 2
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I last visited my grandparents six months ago. for I ................................................ six months. 2. The waiters were laying the tables. by The tables ................................................ waiters. 3. I'll take an aspirin if my headache gets worse. not I ................................................ my headache gets worse. 4. It isn't possible that they met on holiday. not They ................................................ on holiday. 5. The film was so boring that I fell asleep. such It was ................................................. fell asleep. 6. He didn't manage to win although he played well. of In ................................................ he didn't manage to win. 7. I've never smoked dope before. time This is the .................................................. smoked dope. 8. She didn't help because she was tired. would If she ................................................ have helped. 9. The company lost more money than it earned. as The company didn't ................................................ it lost. 10.'Who will you stay with?' he asked me. I He asked ................................................. with.

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Sentence Rewriting 3
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I've never kissed a girl before. time This is the ................................................ a girl. 2. We couldn't swim in the river because it was too shallow. us The river was ................................................ swim in. 3. It's probable that he will win the election. likely He ................................................ the election. 4. 'Why don't you look for another job?', my girlfriend said to me. I She suggested ................................................ another job. 5. They only send people to jail if they are guilty. unless They don't ................................................ they are guilty. 6. I haven't smoked a cigarette for a week. since It's ................................................ a cigarette. 7. No-one arrived later than he did. to He was ................................................ 8. He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study. failed If he had studied, ................................................ the exam. 9. Although he was seriously ill, he was very active. serious Despite ................................................ he was very active. 10.I'm sorry I said that. wish I ................................................ that.

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Sentence Rewriting 4
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I haven't smoked a cigarette for three weeks. smoked It's ................................................ a cigarette. 2. I don't go out as much as I used to. do I used to go out ................................................ now. 3. The UN is flying in supplies. by Supplies ................................................ the UN. 4. It wasn't necessary to translate the text. not You ................................................ the text. 5. I can't ring her because I don't know her number. able If I knew her number, ................................................ to ring her. 6. She's never travelled by plane before. time This is the ................................................ by plane. 7. 'Don't forget to lock up when you leave', he said to me. to He reminded ................................................ I left. 8. Although they were exhausted, they managed to reach the summit. spite They managed to reach the summit ................................................ 9. We took a wrong turning because we didn't see the sign. not If we had seen the sign, ................................................ a wrong turning. 10.The coffee was so strong that it kept me awake all night. such It was ................................................ me awake all night.

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Sentence Rewriting 5
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I've never stolen a car before. time This is the ................................................ a car. 2. The cell was so small that he couldn't lie down. a It was ................................................ he couldn't lie down. 3. She's a very ordinary person although she looks strange. her In ................................................ she's a very ordinary person. 4. I don't swim as well as I used to. do I used to ................................................ now. 5. I didn't warn him because I didn't know about the risks. warned If I had known about the risks, ................................................ him. 6. Nobody's using the kitchen at the moment. not The kitchen ................................................ at the moment. 7. It's quite possible that he was lying. well He ................................................ 8. 'Could you lend me your syringe, Sid?', said Nancy to Nancy ................................................ his syringe. 9. I didn't want him to see me, so I crossed the street. that I crossed the street ................................................ see me. 10.Joe's garage usually services my car for me. get I usually ................................................ at Joe's garage.

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Sentence Rewriting 6
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1) He couldn't wear the boots because they were too small. so The boots ................................................ couldn't wear them. 2) I've never seen a better film than Crimes and Misdemeanours. ever Crimes and Misdemeanours is ................................................ seen. 3) 'Don't take any risks', she said to me. warned She ................................................ any risks. 4) I haven't seen him for ages. since It's ................................................ him. 5) It isn't possible that he got lost. not He ................................................ 6) I overslept because I didn't hear the alarm clock. If I wouldn't ................................................ heard the alarm clock. 7) I shouldn't have insulted her. only If ................................................ 8) I left early in order not to be late. that I left early ................................................ be late. 9) They didn't let anyone leave. prevented They ................................................ 10)Although he knows a lot of English, he didn't pass the exam. of He didn't pass the exam ................................................ of English.

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Sentence Rewriting 7
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. He regrets selling his house. wishes He ................................................ house. 2. They are going to knock down the Cathedral. is The Cathedral ................................................ down. 3. Although he's very wealthy, he's extremely mean. great In ................................................, he's extremely mean. 4. I haven't seen a good film for ages. last It's ................................................ a good film. 5. He should have done better than he did. not He ................................................ he should have done. 6. I didn't get the letter because you didn't post it. got I ................................................ if you had posted it. 7. He's likely to win the election. good He has ................................................ the election. 8. She read the text and even wrote a resum. only Not ................................................ text but she also wrote a resum. 9. 'Don't try to repair it yourself', he said to me. warned He ................................................ repair it myself. 10.The only possibility is that their car broke down. down Their car ................................................

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Sentence Rewriting 8
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I regret not leaving my wife sooner. left I wish ................................................ sooner. 2. My car has been stolen twice this year. stolen I ................................................ twice this year. 3. He is unlikely to turn up. little There is ................................................ up. 4. I was ignored by everyone. took No-one ................................................ 5. The snow was too soft for us to ski on. that It was such ................................................ ski on it. 6. 'Why don't you ask your parents?', she said to me. ask She suggested ................................................ my parents. 7. Although the day had been extremely hot, they weren't tired. of Despite ................................................ day, they weren't tired. 8. It really wasn't necessary to go to all that trouble. not You really ................................................ all that trouble. 9. He paid more for it because he didn't wait. not If he ................................................ so much for it. 10.I had only just turned the corner when the bomb exploded. turned No sooner ...............................................than the bomb exploded.

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Sentence Rewriting 9
Rewrite each sentence using not more than five words including the word in bold so that the new sentence means the same as the original. 1. I regret not taking my camera. had I ................................................ camera. 2. The Dell is faster and besides, it comes with Ubuntu preinstalled. addition In ................................................, the Dell comes with Ubuntu preinstalled. 3. They only asked me one question. was I ................................................ 4. They believe that he fell off the hotel balcony. to He ................................................ off the hotel balcony. 5. His house has been broken into twice this year. had He ................................................ into twice this year. 6. 'If I were you, I would talk to her about it', he said to me. to He advised ................................................ about it. 7. I'm sorry I didn't ring you sooner. not She apologised ................................................ 8. 'Why don't you buy his wife a present', she said to me. that She suggested ................................................ wife a present. 9. The soup was so cold that I couldn't drink it. enough The soup wasn't ................................................ drink. 10.He burned the gloves because he didn't want the police to find them. that He burned the gloves ................................................ find them.

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Expresssions followed by infinitives


1. Verb + infinitive would like would prefer would rather* would sooner* want expect hope ask need had better* learn decide agree arrange offer promise threaten intend mean (= intend) plan prepare try manage refuse neglect fail can't afford bother trouble remember forget seem appear pretend claim

2. Verb + obj + infinitive would like would prefer want ask tell remind advise order encourage urge persuade convince recommend invite forbid prohibit warn force oblige make* allow let* enable see* hear* notice* watch*

3.1 Verb + Q-word + infinitive learn find out know wonder ask enquire remember forget understand

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3.2 Verb + obj + Q-word + infinitive ask tell * These verbs take the infinitive with no to. teach show

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Expresssions followed by gerunds


1. Verb + gerund prefer ... to ... love adore like enjoy mind dislike can't bear can't stand hate detest delay postpone put off miss feel like look forward to dread start begin take up continue go on keep keep on carry on stop give up mean (= imply) involve consider can't help imagine fancy

admit deny regret risk

2. Verb + prep + gerund talk of / about think of / about dream of / about believe in (dis)approve of succeed in insist on object to apologise for

3. Verb + obj + prep + gerund suspect / accuse someone of blame / punish someone for thank someone for excuse / forgive someone for discourage someone from prevent / stop someone from free / save someone from warn someone against congratulate someone on

4. Adj + prep + ger afraid of interested in fond of keen on crazy about worried about used to tired / sick of fed up with
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5. Expression + gerund it's no use / good it isn't worth there's no point (in)

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Reporting Verbs
Verb + infinitive decide agree arrange offer promise threaten intend plan prepare refuse claim pretend Verb + obj + infinitive ask tell remind advise order encourage, urge persuade, convince recommend invite forbid, prohibit warn force, oblige, make* allow, let* Verb + prep + gerund insist on object to apologise for * infinitive without to

Verb + gerund admit deny regret suggest

V + obj + prep + ger accuse s.one of blame s.one for thank s.one for discourage s.one from congratulate s.one on

Verb + if / Q-word ask wonder enquire want to know Verb + that say repeat add claim pretend reply answer explain point out admit agree

V + obj + if / Q-word ask

Verb + ind obj + that tell answer remind advise persuade convince

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Verb + that promise threaten deny suggest* *

Verb + ind obj + that ** that + should

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Irregular Verbs
Infinitive be do have go come get see eat drink buy meet read write hear begin give take catch make leave find lose run ride drive swim fly know break speak say build wear send win stand fall cut become bring think sing was / were did had went came got saw ate drank bought met read wrote heard began gave took caught made left found lost ran rode drove swam flew knew broke spoke said built wore sent won stood fell cut became brought thought sang Past Past Participle been done had gone come got seen eaten drunk bought met read written heard begun given taken caught made left found lost run ridden driven swum flown known broken spoken said built worn sent won stood fallen cut become brought thought sung

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Infinitive teach tell sleep keep ring grow throw cost let wake forget understand lend spend sit hit put pay feel fight sell forgive mean show choose steal lie hold bite hide hurt learn burn mistake blow swing flee shine creep light lead lay bear shoot taught told slept kept rang grew threw cost let woke forgot understood lent spent sat hit put paid felt fought sold forgave meant showed chose stole lay held bit hid hurt learnt* burnt* mistook blew swung fled shone crept lit led laid bore shot

Past

Past Participle taught told slept kept rung grown thrown cost let woken forgotten understood lent spent sat hit put paid felt fought sold forgiven meant shown chosen stolen lain held bitten hidden hurt learnt* burnt* mistaken blown swung fled shone crept lit led laid born shot

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Infinitive beat set hang tear dream spread forbid bleed split leap wind slide spit grind spring sink swell rise shut shit spin sew sow mow spell smell spill spoil saw beat set hung tore dreamt* spread forbade bled split leapt* wound slid spat ground sprang sank swelled rose shut shit / shat spun sewed sowed mowed spelt* smelt* spilt* spoilt* sawed

Past

Past Participle beaten set hung torn dreamt* spread forbidden bled split leapt* wound slid spat ground sprung sunk swollen risen shut shit / shat spun sewn sown mown spelt* smelt* spilt* spoilt* sawn

* These verbs have both regular and irregular past tenses and past participles.

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