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FOOD HANDLER CERTIFICATION COURSE

STUDY GUIDE

Peel Health Environmental Health Division


44 Peel Centre Dr., Suite 102 Brampton, ON, L6T 4B5 905-799-7700 www.peelregion.ca

Revised: 09.12.2008

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Food Handler Certification Course Study Guide


You have been provided with the Food Handler Certification Course study guide. The study guide will help you prepare for the certification examination. The study guide is divided into chapters. Read each chapter, and then try the study questions at the end of each chapter. The answers to the study questions are at the back of the study guide. You will also find a vocabulary list at the back of the study guide. There are two ways to complete the certification course: classroom course or home study. Classroom Course The classroom course is a full day. During the classroom course, the instructors will review in detail the information in the study guide and you will watch videos and participate in activities. The certification examination is taken at the end of day. Reading the study guide and trying the study questions before you come to the class is recommended. If you do not have time, do not worry; the information will be taught during the class. Home Study Use the study guide to help you prepare for the examination. If you are doing the course by home study you MUST make an appointment to take the certification examination. There are set dates, locations and times for the examination. Call the Region of Peel at 905-799-7700 and speak to a customer service representative, and tell them you would like to book an appointment for the food handler certification home study exam. The Examination The examination consists of 50 questions. All of the questions are multiple choice. The mark required to pass the course is 35 out of 50 (the same as 70%). Take your time to learn the information. Enjoy learning! If you have any questions, call the Region of Peel at 905-799-7700 and speak to a customer service representative.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1

Public Health Laws and the Role of the Health Department....5


CHAPTER 2

Introduction to Food Safety, Micro-organisms and Contamination...15


CHAPTER 3

Contamination of Food35
CHAPTER 4

Understanding Foodborne Illness..43


CHAPTER 5

Receiving and Storage55


CHAPTER 6

Handling Food Safely..71


CHAPTER 7

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points)...87


CHAPTER 8

Handwashing and Personal Hygiene97


CHAPTER 9

Food Allergies: A Matter of Life or Death..107


CHAPTER 10

Proper Cleaning and Sanitizing115


CHAPTER 11

Proper Food Premises Operation.......133


CHAPTER 12

Pests and Preventing Pest Problems.141


CHAPTER 13

Answers to Exercises and Study Questions..149


CHAPTER 14

Definitions of Terms...157

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CHAPTER 1
Public Health Laws and the Role of the Health Department

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PUBLIC HEALTH LAWS


In Ontario, there are many laws designed to protect our health. Two of these laws are: 1) Health Protection and Promotion Act

The Health Protection and Promotion Act is a provincial law. It applies to all of Ontario. This Act gives powers to Public Health Inspectors. It allows them to do things like: inspections, investigate complaints, take food samples, condemn food and close food premises. As defined in the Health Protection and Promotion Act, the operator of a food premises is responsible for maintaining and operating the food premises according to the regulations

2)

Food Premises Regulation

The Food Premises Regulation is also a provincial law. This regulation contains the minimum health standards for all food premises in Ontario. It includes things like: what temperature foods must be cooked to, how food is to be stored and prepared, what equipment is necessary, and the hygiene requirements of food handlers. Public Health Inspectors follow the Food Premises Regulation when doing their inspections. As defined in the Food Premises Regulation, an employee of a food premises must follow the standards and requirements of the regulation

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The Health Protection and Promotion Act and the Food Premises Regulation are provincial laws.

Other Ontario laws that may affect your business include: Ontario Building Code Ontario Fire Code Smoke-Free Ontario Act Local Municipal By-laws (e.g. FoodCheck Peel By-law) The Ontario Building Code, Ontario Fire Code, and Smoke-Free Ontario Act can be purchased from:
Publications Ontario, Ontario Government Bookstore 880 Bay Street Toronto, ON Tel: 1-800-668-9938 or 416-326-5300 http://www.publications.serviceontario.ca Most provincial laws are also available from the Ontario Government website: www.e-laws.gov.on.ca The Food Premises Regulation can be found on this website by clicking on: Search or Browse Current Consolidated Laws Click on the letter H under Browse Current Consolidated Law and look for the Health Protection and Promotion Act Click on the + sign beside Health Protection and Promotion Act Click on R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 562, Food Premises Regulation

Local Municipal By-laws in Peel can be obtained at the following Municipal Offices:
City of Brampton 2 Wellington Street West Tel: 905-874-2000 City of Mississauga 300 City Centre Drive Tel: 905-896-5000 Town of Caledon 6311 Old Church Road Tel: 905-584-2272

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THE ROLE OF PUBLIC HEALTH INSPECTORS


Public Health Inspectors work for and are employed by your local Health Department and have the duty and the authority to enforce the Food Premises Regulation. Public Health Inspectors inspect food premises such as restaurants, food take-outs, cafeterias, grocery stores, daycares, hospitals, nursing homes, homes for the aged and other public eating places for compliance with the requirements of the Food Premises Regulation.

Public Health Inspectors ensure that food is safely prepared, stored and served for the general public. Public Health Inspectors examine records and ensure that foods being used in food premises are from government inspected sources.

Public Health Inspectors investigate complaints like reports of food poisonings and have the authority to close a food premises when a health hazard is present. Public Health Inspectors educate people and provide food safety information and training. Public Health Inspectors also inspect and investigate complaints at other types of places for public health reasons, which includes (but is not limited to) public swimming pools and spas, daycares, and private drinking water systems (water wells).
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FOOD SAFETY INSPECTIONS


There are two types of food safety inspections:

1)

Regulation Compliance Inspection

The purpose of this inspection is for the Public Health Inspector to check the food handling and general maintenance and sanitation of the food premises according to the Food Premises Regulation. This includes checking for proper temperature control, food handler hygiene, the cleaning and sanitizing of utensils, pest control and overall building maintenance. No appointment is made for a regulation compliance inspection; they are surprise inspections. Following the inspection the Public Health Inspector will give the owner and/or operator a written report of their inspection findings that outlines corrections, if any, that need to be made along with a date that the corrections are to be completed. In the Region of Peel, the Public Health Inspector will also issue a PASS, CONDITIONAL PASS or CLOSED sign based on the inspection findings. The owner/operator is required to post the sign at or near the public entrance. The inspection findings will also be posted on the website: www.foodcheckpeel.ca. The sign and the website allow members of the public to know how well a food premises did on their previous inspections.

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2)

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) Audit

The HACCP audit focuses on the flow of food from receiving to service. The Public Health Inspector will audit the preparation of a hazardous food item from the menu or a food that could potentially be involved in foodborne illness. The Public Health Inspector will also concentrate on the Critical Control Points during the food preparation. The HACCP audit confirms that the foods prepared at a food premises are prepared the safest way possible. You will learn more about the HACCP system in Chapter 7 of this workbook How often will a food premises be inspected? How often a food premises is inspected depends on the level of risk the Public Health Inspector gives it. The level of risk depends on: the number of preparation steps for a food item types of foods prepared population served history of possible or confirmed food poisoning

Three Categories of Risk


High risk four (4) or more inspections each year. These food premises prepare hazardous foods and meet one of the following criteria: Serve a high risk population based on age or medical condition. For example, nursing homes, homes for the aged, hospitals and most child care centres serve high risk populations Use processes involving many preparation steps (such as cooling and reheating), and prepare foods frequently associated with food poisonings. For example, buffet restaurants, banquet facilities and catering operations

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Moderate risk two (2) or more inspections each year. These food premises meet one or more of the following criteria: Prepare hazardous foods without meeting the criteria for high risk. For example, fast food restaurants, submarine sandwich shops and pizza takeouts Prepare non-hazardous foods that are subject to extensive handling or are prepared in high volume. For example, bakeries and butcher shops Low risk one (1) or more inspections each year. These food premises do not prepare hazardous foods but meet one of the following criteria: Prepare and/or serve non-hazardous foods without meeting the criteria of moderate risk Used as a food storage facility Serve pre-packaged hazardous foods. For example, convenience stores, food banks, refreshment stands, catering vehicles, foodprocessing plants, milk depots and cocktail bars

Remember!
The main purpose of a food premises inspection conducted by a Public Health Inspector is to prevent foodborne illness

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CHAPTER REVIEW
The Health Protection and Promotion Act and the Food Premises Regulation are provincial laws As defined in the Health Protection and Promotion Act, the operator of a food premises is responsible for maintaining and operating the food premises according to the regulations As defined in the Food Premises Regulation, an employee of a food premises must follow the requirements of the regulation Food premises are inspected according to risk level. There are three different risk levels: high risk, moderate risk and low risk The main purpose of food safety inspections conducted by Public Health Inspectors is to prevent foodborne illness

Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Name two of the Ontario laws designed to protect our health.

2.

Under the Health Protection and Promotion Act, what are the responsibilities of an operator of a food premises? a) hire staff b) make money c) maintain and operate the premises according to the Food Premises Regulation d) provide plenty of parking for patrons

3.

Under the Food Premises Regulation, what are the responsibilities of an employee of a food premises? a) b) c) d) not waste any food follow the requirements of the Food Premises Regulation prepare food even when sick make money

4.

What is the term used to describe laws that apply to all of Ontario? a) b) c) d) federal law provincial law municipal by-law regional by-law

5.

What do Public Health Inspectors have the duty and authority to do? a) b) c) d) inspect food premises and enforce food safety laws investigate food premises complaints educate people all of the above

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CHAPTER 2
Introduction to Food Safety, Micro-organisms and Contamination

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CONTAMINATION
Food may become unsafe when harmful things get into it. This includes: biological micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, moulds and yeasts) chemicals physical objects This is also called contamination

When can contamination happen?


Contamination can occur: at the farm during delivery during storage during preparation during cooking during service when food is on display

Common Types of Food Contamination


The three most common types of food contamination are: 1) 2) 3) Biological Contamination: contamination of food with micro-organisms. Chemical Contamination: contamination of food with chemicals. Physical Object Contamination: contamination of food with physical objects.

We will look more closely at each of these types of food contamination

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1)

BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION

What are micro-organisms?


Micro means very small. Organism means it is alive. Therefore, micro-organisms are very small forms of life. Bacteria, viruses, parasites, moulds and yeasts are all micro-organisms. Micro-organisms can be helpful or harmful Helpful micro-organisms are an important part of making foods such as yogurt, beer, cheese and bread. These micro-organisms are safe to eat. Harmful micro-organisms are also called pathogens. These micro-organisms are not safe to eat, and can cause the person who eats the contaminated food to become sick. Some examples of pathogens include: Salmonella bacteria, Hepatitis A virus and Giardia parasite.

Where are harmful micro-organisms found?


Harmful micro-organisms can be found in or on the following places: Raw foods such as meat, poultry and fish Unclean food preparation equipment such as mixers, slicers, blenders, can openers, knives, pots and pans People especially a persons hands, nasal passages, mouth and in their bodily wastes (feces, urine and sweat) Unclean work surfaces such as tables and cutting boards Insects such as cockroaches and flies Rodents such as mice and rats Air, soil and polluted water

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Five Types of Micro-Organisms


Bacteria Viruses Parasites Yeasts Moulds

Bacteria
Bacteria cause the most foodborne illnesses in Canada. Bacteria are very small. If bacteria could be put side-by-side there would be 25,000 bacteria in 1 inch. What does bacteria smell and taste like? Bacteria generally do not have a smell and bacteria generally do not have a taste You cannot tell if a food has bacteria in it just by looking at the food. Bacteria cannot be seen unless a microscope is used. A food may look, smell and taste normal, but it can still have harmful bacteria in it. Examples of bacteria that cause foodborne illness include: Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli.

Viruses
Viruses are smaller in size than bacteria. They can be found in: people, contaminated water or ice, raw fish and shellfish that are harvested in water contaminated with sewage, raw and unwashed vegetables and fruits fertilized with human waste.

A picture of a Norovirus from a microscope

Examples of viruses that cause foodborne illness include: Hepatitis A, and Norovirus.
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Parasites
Parasites are very small, microscopic living things. They can grow in your body, lay eggs and cause illness. Parasites can be found in undercooked wild meats such as bear and boar meats, and in raw fish. Parasites have also been found in some imported vegetables and fruits like lettuce and berries. Parasites can be killed by cooking the food item to an internal temperature of 74C (160F) for 15 seconds. Another method of killing parasites is by deep freezing the food item the parasite is found in. For example, fishing industries freeze fish at -20C (-4F) or below for a minimum of seven (7) days to kill parasites that may be found in it. As well, freezing fish at -35C (-31F) or below for a minimum of 15 hours will also kill the parasite.

Deep freezing fish can kill parasites

A picture of a Giardia parasite from a microscope

Examples of parasites that cause foodborne illness include: Giarida, Trichinella, and Cyclospora.

Yeasts
Yeasts need sugar and moisture to grow. Foods containing a large growth of yeast may look slimy, or cloudy. Yeasts affect the quality of foods and can cause spoilage of jellies, jams and honey. For example, pickles may lose their crunchiness because of yeast. Yeasts generally do not cause illness

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Moulds
Moulds can be seen as fuzzy growths on foods. They mainly cause food spoilage. Some moulds produce a poison (also known as a toxin) called a mycotoxin that cannot be seen.

Moulds can be seen as fuzzy growths on food

Soft foods such as luncheon meats, cooked leftovers, pasta, yogurt, sour cream, and bread (as seen in the picture below) should be thrown out and not eaten if mould growth is seen on them. If mould is seen on hard foods such as hard salamis, dry-cured country hams, and firm fruits and vegetables such as cabbage, bell peppers, and carrots, then you can eat the food as long as you first cut off at least 1 inch around and below the mould spot. Make sure to not contaminate the knife with the mould! What should you do if a hard cheese is mouldy? A hard cheese like cheddar can still be used if it has mould on it. Remove or cut about 1 inch (2.5 cm) around and under the mould. What should you do if a soft cheese is mouldy? A soft cheese like feta should be thrown out if it is mouldy.

Remember!
Most foodborne illness in Canada is caused by Bacteria

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What Do Bacteria Need to Live and Grow?


i) Hazardous Food

Bacteria grow best on foods that are high in protein and moist. These foods are called hazardous foods. Hazardous foods include any food that is found in whole or pieces of meat (raw or cooked), poultry (raw or cook), seafood (raw or cooked), cooked rice, cooked potatoes, eggs and dairy products.

ii)

Warm Temperature

Bacteria grow fastest in the range of temperatures between 4C and 60C (40F and 140F). This temperature range is called the temperature danger zone.

iii)

Time

Bacteria need time to grow. Bacteria grow fastest when hazardous foods are left in the temperature danger zone for more than two hours.

We will look more closely into what bacteria need to live and grow

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i)

Hazardous Food

Foods can be grouped into two types: Hazardous and Non-Hazardous. Hazardous Foods Hazardous foods are foods that naturally have, or are easily contaminated with disease causing bacteria. Harmful bacteria grow best in foods that are high in protein, moist and a neutral pH. These foods are called hazardous foods. While almost any food can be involved in a foodborne illness, harmful bacteria grow more quickly in hazardous foods, which also support the growth of harmful bacteria easily. Hazardous foods need extra special care when being handled, stored and prepared. Examples of hazardous foods include: -beef -pork -chicken -turkey -milk and dairy products -fish and seafood -gravy -eggs -cooked rice and beans -mixed salads (such as tuna, egg)

Non-hazardous Foods Non-hazardous foods are foods that bacteria do not grow well on. These foods are low in protein, dry or high in acidity. Examples of non-hazardous foods include: -flour -uncooked rice -sugar and pasta -canned foods -bread (unopened) -vinegar -pickles
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Exercise: Hazardous or Non-Hazardous?


Look at the list of foods below. Decide if the food is hazardous or non-hazardous. Circle your answer. For example: pickles crackers cooked rice yogurt cheese milk and cream meat soups cooked baked potatoes flour canned tuna (unopened) canned tuna (opened) gravy fish shellfish (mussels, clams) cooked pasta poultry uncooked rice cream sauces eggs bread
(answers on pg. 150)

hazardous or

non-hazardous

hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous hazardous or non-hazardous

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ii)

Warm Temperatures
Different temperatures affect the growth of bacteria. Take a look at the chart below:

Remember!
Very hot temperatures (74C/165F or higher) kill bacteria Hot temperatures (60C/140F or higher) stop the growth of bacteria and kills some types of bacteria The Temperature Danger Zone (4C/40F to 60C/140F) allows the bacteria to grow rapidly Cold temperatures (4C/40F or lower) slow down the growth of bacteria Very cold temperatures (-18C/0F or lower) stop the growth of bacteria, but the bacteria are still alive
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Lets take a closer look at what happens to bacteria at different temperatures:


At temperatures above 74C (165F), bacteria will die. 74oC

At temperatures 60C (140F) and higher, bacteria do not grow and some bacteria will die. This is also called the Hot Holding Temperature. 60oC

At temperatures between 4C and 60C (40F and 140F), bacteria grow rapidly. This is also called the Temperature Danger Zone.

60oC 4 C
o

Danger Zone

At temperatures 4C (40F) and lower, bacteria grow slowly. This is also called the Refrigeration Temperature.

4oC

At temperatures -18C (0F) and below, bacteria do not grow but are still alive. This is also called the Freezer Temperature.

-18oC

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Exercise: Temperature Chart


Label the thermometer with the letter that best describes that temperature or temperature range. A -- Bacteria do not grow but are still alive. B -- Most bacteria do not grow, some bacteria will die C -- Bacteria grow slowly D -- Bacteria grow fast, also called the temperature danger zone E -- Bacteria die Letter

74o C (165o F)

Cooking

___

60o C (140o F)

Hot Holding

___

___

4o C (40o F)

Refrigerator

___

-18o C (0o F)
(answers on pg. 151 )

Freezer

___

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The general food safety rule about temperature is that hazardous foods such as meat, poultry, fish, cooked rice, cooked potatoes, eggs and dairy products must be kept:

Hot at 60C (140F) or Hotter or Cold at 4C (40F) or Colder

Remember!
Keep hot foods hot and keep cold foods cold Hazardous foods must not be kept in the Temperature Danger Zone

Food Safety Tip: Preparing A Salad


Pre-chill all room-temperature salad ingredients in the refrigerator. This can include a can of unopened tuna, a jar of unopened mayonnaise, celery, lettuce and onions. This way the ingredients will already be cold while you work with them Thoroughly rinse all produce under cold running water Chill the cooked ingredients immediately after they are cooked and before mixing the salad. This can include chicken, eggs, pasta and potatoes The mixing bowl can also be refrigerated Putting the bowl on ice will help keep the salad cold when the temperature in the kitchen is hot

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Measuring the Internal Temperature of Hazardous Foods


The most important temperature measurement for food safety is the temperature of the inside of a food item. This is called the internal temperature of the food. It is important to check the internal temperature of a food to ensure that it has been held at the proper temperature to control pathogen growth. All food premises that store and/or prepare hazardous foods must have a working probe thermometer onsite for staff to check internal temperatures with. The internal temperature of food is measured by using one of the following: metal stemmed analogue probe thermometer digital probe thermometer thermocouple

digital probe thermometer thermocouple metal stemmed analogue probe thermometer

These three thermometers are all types of probe thermometers Food Safety Tips: Using A Probe Thermometer
1) Insert the probe into the centre, or thickest part, of the food. Wait until the temperature read-out stops changing on the display 2) Measure the internal temperature in more than one part of the food 3) Do not let the probe touch the bottom or side of the container the food is in 4) Wash, rinse, sanitize and air dry the probe between each food item you measure. Use the same sanitizing solution used for dishes and utensils or an alcohol swab to sanitize the probe 5) When measuring the temperature of packaged foods place the probe between the packages
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Taking Care of Your Probe Thermometer


Thermometers must be cleaned and sanitized after checking the temperature of each food item to prevent contamination. Thermometers must also be adjusted to measure temperatures correctly. This is called calibration.

When do you calibrate?


when the thermometer is new after it has been dropped at least once a month or check the manufacturers recommendation

Calibrating A Metal Stemmed Analogue Probe Thermometer


Fill a glass with ice and cold water. Place the probe into the glass, making sure it does not touch the sides or bottom of the glass. After a minute, the display should read 0C or 32F (this is the freezing point of water). If it is not at this temperature, turn the calibration nut located under the dial until the needle reads 0C or 32F.

Calibrating A Digital Probe Thermometer or Thermocouple


Check the accuracy of a digital probe thermometer or thermocouple regularly using the ice and water method. If the reading is not at 0C or 32F, try changing the battery. If that does not work, have the thermometer checked by the manufacturer or buy a new thermometer.

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Thermometers for Refrigerators, Freezers, and Hot Holding Units


Refrigerator, freezer and hot holding unit thermometers measure the air temperature inside the appliance and not the internal temperature of food items. These thermometers are used to indicate if the appliance is working properly. Under the Food Premises Regulation each cold and hot holding unit must have a working thermometer in it so that staff can check that the units are working properly. Refrigerators often break down never assume that your refrigerator is working properly, so always take the time to check the temperature. It is recommended that all refrigerators and hot holding units have their air temperatures checked at least twice a day and that you record these temperatures on temperature record log.

Refrigerator Thermometers

Oven Thermometer

Refrigerator thermometers and oven thermometers should be placed near the door as this is where the temperature will be the warmest in a refrigerator and coolest in a hot holding unit and oven. All refrigerators, freezers, and hot holding units must be equipped with working thermometers.

iii)

Time

In addition to food and temperature, bacteria also need time to live and grow. Bacteria grow best on hazardous foods left in the temperature danger zone. The longer the hazardous foods are left in the temperature danger zone, the more the bacteria multiply. This means the time spent preparing or storing hazardous foods in the temperature danger zone should be kept to a minimum.

Bacteria double in number every 10 - 20 minutes in the temperature danger zone


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When bacteria multiply to large numbers in food, that contaminated food may make a person sick if they eat it. The pictures below show how quickly one bacterium on a hazardous food can grow if left in the temperature danger zone for two hours and 45 minutes:

1 00:00

00:45 00:30

1 0:00 min

2 0:15 min

00:15

4 0:30 min

8 0:45min

16

32 64 01:15

128 01:45

16 1:00 hr

01:00

32 1:15 hr

64 1:30 hr

01:30

128 1:45 hr

512 02:15

2048 02:45

1024

256
02:30

02:00

256 2:00 hr

512 2:15 hr

1024 2:30 hr

2048 2:45 hr

Hazardous foods should not spend more than two hours in the temperature danger zone. This includes time during: Delivery Storage Preparation Holding Displaying Serving

Remember!
Most foodborne illnesses from Biological (micro-organism) Contamination involve hazardous foods being left in the temperature danger zone for more than two hours

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2)

CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

Chemical contamination can occur from a variety of sources. Some foods are exposed to chemicals while they are growing, such as pesticide use on produce, and others have chemicals added to them for flavour, as is the case with MSG (monosodium glutamate). Chemicals, such as cleaning supplies, can also be accidentally added to foods. As well, food being stored in improper containers can have chemicals transferred onto the food. To help prevent chemical contamination: Store food in food grade containers. Acidic foods such as ketchup, and apple juice should never be stored in an open can. After opening a can of acidic food it is important that you transfer the remaining contents into a food grade container Store all cleaning supplies away from food and food contact surfaces

3)

PHYSICAL OBJECT CONTAMINATION

Physical objects such as broken glass, hair, bandages, insects or pieces of equipment can contaminate food.

Fly in a can of vegetables

Machinery in a frozen treat

To help prevent physical object contamination: Do not store food in breakable containers such as glass Do not store glass or other breakable items near food preparation surfaces Do not eat, drink or chew gum while working If you are wearing a bandage on your hand while preparing food, ensure that you wear a clean, disposable glove on that hand to prevent the bandage from accidentally falling into food
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CHAPTER REVIEW
The three most common ways that food becomes contaminated are through: Biological (micro-organism) Contamination, Chemical Contamination, and Physical Object Contamination Harmful micro-organisms are also called pathogens Five types of pathogens are: bacteria, viruses, parasites, moulds, and yeasts Bacteria cause the most foodborne illness. Bacteria need three things to live and grow: hazardous food, warm temperature, and time Hazardous foods are foods that are high in protein and moist Internal temperatures of foods are measured using a probe thermometer The temperature danger zone is the range of temperatures between 4C to 60C (40F to 140F). Bacteria double in number every 10 - 20 minutes in this temperature range If a hazardous food item is to be kept hot, it must be kept at an internal temperature of 60C (140F) or hotter. This is called the hot holding temperature If a hazardous food item is to be kept cold, it must be kept at an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or colder. This is called the refrigeration temperature Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What is a common type of food contamination? a) biological (micro-organisms) b) chemical c) physical objects d) all of the above 2. Can pathogens cause foodborne illness? a) yes b) no 3. Which micro-organisms causes the most foodborne illness? a) bacteria b) viruses c) parasites d) moulds 4. List the three things bacteria need to live and grow.

5. List four examples of hazardous foods.

6. List four examples of non-hazardous foods.

7. What range of temperatures is the temperature danger zone?

8. What internal temperature should hot hazardous foods be kept at?

9. What internal temperature should cold hazardous foods be kept at?

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CHAPTER 3
Contamination of Food

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CONTAMINATION OF FOOD
As seen in the last chapter, when something harmful gets into food it is called contamination (also called cross-contamination). Contamination occurs when a harmful thing or substance already on a surface or food are transferred into or onto another food item. Contamination can happen in different ways: 1) Contaminated food item comes into contact with another food item. This is also called Food to Food Contamination. For example, raw chicken juices dripping onto a cooked chicken stored in a refrigerator. Contaminated equipment comes into contact with a food item. This is also called Equipment to Food Contamination. For example, the same cutting board is used to cut raw chicken and to cut tomatoes and lettuce for a salad without being cleaned and sanitized in between.

2)

Equipment to Food Contamination

3)

Contaminated people come into contact with a food item. This is also called People to Food Contamination. For example, a food handler with dirty hands touches food or someone coughs or sneezes directly onto food. We will look more closely into these three types of contamination

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1)

Food to Food Contamination

This is when harmful micro-organisms (pathogens) are transferred from a contaminated food item to another food item. Some examples of this include: raw meats or poultry juices dripping on cooked or ready-to-eat foods in the refrigerator; raw eggs in an eggnog drink or salad dressing; mixing leftover food items with freshly made food; or, mixing raw food ingredients with food that is already cooked.

Safe Storage

Unsafe Storage

To prevent food to food contamination in the refrigerator:


Store raw foods with dripping juices on the lower shelf. For example, raw beef or raw chicken Store cooked foods or foods to be reheated on the middle or higher shelves. For example, cooked beans or leftover casserole Store food that is ready-to-eat on the highest shelf. For example, a green salad Cover or wrap all food items Store each type of raw meat in its own container
Ready-to-eat foods

Cooked foods or foods to be reheated

Raw foods

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Exercise: Refrigerator Storage


Imagine that the boxes below are shelves in a refrigerator. Label the shelves down the right side of the refrigerator below with the following terms: Ready-to-eat foods Cooked foods or foods to be reheated Raw foods Label on each shelf inside the refrigerator below where you would store each of these items: tuna salad raw chicken frozen raw beef (for thawing) cooked pork cooked beans gravy lettuce salad gelatine desserts cheese raw turkey

(answers on pg. 151)

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2)

Equipment to Food Contamination

This is when contaminated equipment transfers harmful micro-organisms (pathogens) to a food item. Some examples of equipment that may be involved in contamination include: cutting boards, chopping blocks, work tables, knives, blenders, slicers, grinders, mixers, can openers, utensils, pots, pans, wiping cloths, sponges, and probe thermometers.

To prevent equipment to food contamination:


Avoid preparing raw foods, cooked foods, and ready-to-eat foods on the same surface. For example, do not put a cooked chicken breast on the same surface the raw chicken breast was originally prepared on unless it has been washed, rinsed and sanitized

Consider using different coloured cutting boards for raw foods, cooked foods or ready-to-eat foods. For example a red cutting board could be used solely for raw meat and a green cutting board solely for cutting vegetables If cutting food items, use different knives for raw foods, cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods Properly clean, rinse and sanitize all equipment and surfaces after each task Use the correct type and amount of sanitizer

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3)

People to Food Contamination

This is when people transfer harmful micro-organisms (pathogens) to a food item. Some ways people can contaminate food include: Working with unclean hands and unclean fingernails Sneezing or coughing onto their hands and not washing their hands Improperly tasting food

To prevent people to food contamination: People preparing food must have good hygiene which includes washing hands before handling food; properly covering cuts and sores on hands; not working when ill; coughing and sneezing into your arm to prevent hand contamination and wearing appropriate headgear to confine your hair Avoid touching food with hands whenever possible, using clean utensils instead of hands where possible

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Contamination means something harmful gets into food Contamination can happen in three ways: food to food contamination, equipment to food contamination, and people to food contamination Separate raw foods from ready-to-eat foods during storage and handling Use separate food preparation surfaces and utensils for raw foods and readyto-eat foods Protect food from contamination by keeping it covered and storing it on the correct shelf in the refrigerator Keep raw meats on the bottom shelf of a refrigerator with each type of meat in its own container Keep cooked foods or foods to be reheated on the middle or higher shelf of a refrigerator Keep ready-to-eat foods on the highest shelf of a refrigerator Hands should be washed before and after handling different types of foods and whenever hands may have become contaminated (e.g. after going to the washroom) Clean and sanitize any surface a food item touches Food handlers should always practice good personal hygiene when preparing and serving food Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Which of these is an example of contamination? a) raw chicken juices stored on the top shelf of the refrigerator dripping on a ready-to-eat salad stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator b) raw beef is cut on a plastic cutting surface, and then vegetables for a salad are cut on the same cutting surface immediately after c) a food handler sneezing into their hands and then touching food without washing their hands first d) all of the above 2. How can you prevent contamination from occurring in a refrigerator?

3. List two ways in which people can contaminate food.

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CHAPTER 4
Understanding Foodborne Illness

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FOODBORNE ILLNESS
Foodborne illness means getting ill as a result of eating contaminated food. This is commonly known as food poisoning.

Who Can Get A Foodborne Illness?


Anyone can! Health Canada estimates that between 11 13 million Canadians suffer from foodborne illness each year For young children, elderly people and those who have a weakened immune system (e.g. cancer or diabetes), foodborne illness can be very serious. These groups of people are more at risk of suffering from the most severe side effects of foodborne illness, which can include damage to the kidneys or reactive arthritis. In severe circumstances foodborne illness can even result in death. Symptoms are the changes in normal body function that occur when someone is ill

Incubation period means the total time between when the person eats the contaminated food and when the person starts to show symptoms

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What are the symptoms of a foodborne illness?


There are different types of foodborne illness, and each type of foodborne illness have different symptoms. The symptoms may begin immediately after eating a contaminated food Sometimes symptoms may not begin until a few weeks after the contaminated food was eaten For the most common types of foodborne illness, the symptoms usually begin about 12 to 48 hours after the contaminated food was eaten

Common Symptoms of a Foodborne Illness Include:


fever abdominal pain cramps diarrhea nausea vomiting dehydration chills visual disturbances sore throat difficulty swallowing muscular soreness breathing problems headache

Sometimes symptoms are so severe in people that it can result in death


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Three Types of Foodborne Illness


1) 2) 3) Foodborne Infection Foodborne Intoxication Chemical Intoxication

We will look more closely at the three types of foodborne illnesses

1)

Foodborne Infection

A foodborne infection occurs when someone eats food containing harmful microorganisms (pathogens). The most common type of foodborne infection involves bacteria. Harmful bacteria can come from humans and animals. Once the bacteria are eaten, it grows inside the persons body and eventually causes symptoms to appear. The symptoms of a foodborne infection usually begin several hours to a few days after eating the contaminated food (this is also known as the incubation period). The most common incubation period for foodborne infections are 12 to 36 hours after eating the contaminated food.

1:00 p.m. Friday


Contaminated food eaten

11:00 p.m. Saturday


Stomach cramps, diarrhea and fever

The common symptoms of a foodborne infection are stomach cramps, diarrhea and fever. Salmonella and Campylobacter are examples of pathogens that can get into food and cause a foodborne infection if the food is eaten.

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2)

Foodborne Intoxication

A foodborne intoxication can happen two ways: a) A person eats a food contaminated with a toxin (also called a poison) that is already present in the food before it is eaten. This toxin can be produced by bacteria, moulds, or certain plants or animals. Toxins cannot be destroyed by cooking, so they have to be prevented from growing on the food before the person eats the food b) A pathogen produces a toxin inside the body after the food is eaten. For example, a bacterium can produce the toxin inside the body after it is eaten. Generally, the symptoms of a foodborne intoxication occur faster than a foodborne infection. The incubation period is typically a few minutes to a few hours after eating the contaminated food.

1:00 p.m. Friday


Contaminated food eaten

4:00 p.m. Friday


Vomiting

The first symptom of a foodborne intoxication is usually vomiting. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium botulinum are examples of pathogens that can produce toxins in food, or in the body, and cause a foodborne intoxication.

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3)

Chemical Intoxication

A chemical intoxication can happen two ways: a) A person eats a food contaminated with a commercially manufactured chemical. The chemical could be from a pesticide, a cleaner, or from damaged cookware and non-food grade storage containers. b) A person eats a food with a chemical additive such as MSG (monosodium glutamate) or a chemical food preservative like sulphates and nitrates. Generally, the symptoms of a chemical intoxication occur even faster than a foodborne intoxication. The incubation period is typically very short with symptoms occurring immediately to a few minutes after eating the contaminated food.

1:00 pm Friday
Contaminated food eaten

1:15 pm Friday
Vomiting, headache, dizziness, flushing, dry/burning throat and/or severe allergic reaction

The common symptoms of a chemical intoxication are vomiting, headache, dizziness, flushing, dry burning throat and severe allergic reactions.

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Common Foodborne Illness Pathogens


The chart below describes some common foodborne illness pathogens along with the foods most commonly involved, the average incubation period and the common symptoms. PATHOGEN Salmonella
(Foodborne Infection)

FOODS INVOLVED Poultry, meat, milk, fish eggs, egg custards, cheese sauces Meat, poultry, unpasteurized milk, raw vegetables Roast beef, poultry, gravy, cooked beans Rice and rice dishes, custards, cereals, dry food mixes, spices, meat loaf Ground beef and other red meats, unpasteurized milk, apple cider Water and food contaminated with fecal matter. Most often person-to-person spread. Ham and other meats, warmed-over foods, custards, potato salad, cream-filled pastries Raw shellfish, raw vegetables and salads

AVERAGE INCUBATION PERIOD 12 - 36 hours 2 - 5 days

COMMON SYMPTOMS Sudden headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain and nausea Diarrhea (often bloody), fever, nausea and abdominal pain Sudden stomach pains, nausea and diarrhea Sudden onset of nausea and vomiting and/or abdominal pain and diarrhea Severe diarrhea (may be bloody) and abdominal pain. Chronic diarrhea, greasy stools, cramps, bloating, fatigue and weight loss Severe nausea, cramps, vomiting and diarrhea Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain

Campylobacter
(Foodborne Infection)

Clostridium perfringens
(Foodborne Intoxication)

10 - 12 hours 1 - 6 hours

Bacillus cereus
(Foodborne Intoxication)

E. coli 0157:H7
(Foodborne Intoxication)

3 - 4 days

Giardia lamblia
(Foodborne Infection)

7 -10 days

Staphylococcus aureus
(Foodborne Intoxication)

2 - 4 hours

Norovirus
(Foodborne Infection)

24 - 48 hours

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Linking Hazardous Food and Foodborne Illness


The most common cause of foodborne illness in Canada is hazardous foods kept at unsafe temperatures (in the danger zone). Examples of hazardous foods kept at unsafe temperatures include: food not cooked to the proper internal temperature food not cooled quickly through the danger food not re-heated to the proper internal temperature food being left in the temperature danger zone for extended periods of time food being left to defrost at room temperature food being stored in the temperature danger zone

These foods were left in the temperature danger zone for extended periods of time

There are other causes of foodborne illness, which can include: Contamination Poor food handler hygiene Improper cleaning and sanitizing of food contact surfaces

Remember!
While there are other causes for foodborne illness, the most common cause of foodborne illness is hazardous foods kept at unsafe temperatures

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What If People Became Ill At Your Food Premises?


Suppose several people became ill from food prepared at your food premises. This could be costly to your business because of: Loss of customers and sales Lawsuits from ill people Fines issued by the courts Loss of reputation Increased insurance premiums Embarrassment Lowered employee morale Costs to the health care system If a food prepared at your food service business is suspected of causing a foodborne illness, you should: Call your local health department or Public Health Inspector for help Ask the customer about their symptoms, what food was eaten and when Remove any suspected food from service Save any suspected food in the refrigerator for possible testing Keep suspected food separate from other foods Label and date the container or wrapping of the suspected food Review with the staff how the food was prepared Ask staff if they were ill with similar symptoms

Food Safety Tip: Food Samples


Some food service businesses, like nursing homes, are required to keep food samples from each meal prepared and served. At least 200 grams of each hazardous food served should be kept in a food grade container or wrapping for at least seven days. The samples should be labelled with the date of production and service, if different, and the name of the food (e.g. Pork Chops Prepared and Served on November 29, 2008)

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Everyone can suffer from foodborne illness, however, the elderly, very young and those with weakened immune symptoms are more at risk The three types of foodborne illness are: foodborne infection, foodborne intoxication, and chemical intoxication Symptoms for foodborne infections occur several hours to days after eating the contaminated food. The common symptoms include stomach cramps, diarrhea and fever Symptoms for foodborne intoxications occur a few minutes to a few hours after eating the contaminated food. The first symptom is usually vomiting Symptoms for chemical intoxications occur immediately to a few minutes after eating the contaminated food. The common symptoms include vomiting, headaches and dizziness The greatest cause of foodborne illness is hazardous foods kept at unsafe food temperatures

Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What are some common symptoms of a foodborne infection?

2.

What is the most common symptom of a foodborne intoxication?

3.

What is the most common cause of foodborne illnesses? a) b) c) d) unsafe food temperatures cross-contamination poor hygiene poor cleaning and sanitizing

4.

Why is a foodborne illness costly to the food business? a) b) c) d) lawsuits from ill customers loss of customers and sales costs to the health care system all of the above

5.

How many days should institutions (e.g. nursing homes) keep samples of food from the meals that have been served? a) b) c) d) 7 days 5 days 3 days 2 days

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CHAPTER 5
Receiving and Storage

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RECEIVING
Foods should only be purchased from government inspected food suppliers. Hazardous foods must have a permanent code marking of the manufacturer or processor designating the plant where the food was manufactured or processed. Foods with a shelf life of less than 90 days must also have the date on which the food was manufactured on or a best before date. Foods like meat and eggs must have identification stamps or tags on them to show that they are from government inspected sources.

Examples of stamps or tags that indicate hazardous foods are from government inspected sources

Receipts must be kept for one year from date of purchase so that the source of the food can be traced. During an inspection your Public Health Inspector may request to see your receipts. Examine each food item coming into your food premises for signs of spoilage, contamination, damage, dirt, insects and rodents. Check the temperature of hazardous foods Check that the delivery truck is being maintained in a manner to prevent the food from becoming contaminated Check that the delivery truck is refrigerated if necessary

We will discuss what to look for when receiving specific foods


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Fresh Meats (e.g. beef, lamb, pork)


All meats must be from an animal that has been inspected and stamped or labelled Meats should be firm, moist, and elastic The internal temperature should be 4C (40F) or lower when delivered Beef should be a bright cherry red Lamb should be a light red Pork should be pink with white fat Do not accept meat if it is brown, green, slimy, sticky or smelly Do not accept meat if the package is torn or dirty

Fresh Poultry (e.g. chicken, turkey, duck, goose)


All poultry must be from an animal that has been inspected and tagged Poultry should be firm with no discolouration The internal temperature should be at 4C (40F) or lower when delievered

Do not accept poultry if it is purple, green, has a bad odour or is sticky

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Fresh Whole Fish


Shiny, brightly coloured skin Firm flesh, elastic to touch A fresh, mild odour Bright pink or red gills free of slime Clear eyes that bulge a little (except for a few naturally cloudy-eyed fish, such as walleye pike) Should be packed in ice at a temperature of 4C (40F) or lower when delivered Do not accept fish that has a strong fishy odour. Fresh fish should have a cucumber-like, sea-breeze smell Do not accept fish with brown or gray gills as that is a sign of decay

Fresh Fish Fillets, Shucked Shellfish and Other Seafood


Glossy and freshly cut appearance (no darkening or drying around the edges) Firm and elastic flesh No gaping in fillets No discolouration Should be packed in ice at a temperature of 4C (40F) or lower when delivered

Shellfish
Closed shells or shells that close shut when tapped Do not accept shellfish with shells that are partly open and do not close when tapped (this means the shellfish are dead)

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Milk and Dairy Products


All milk, and the majority of dairy products must be pasteurized. This means the milk has been heat treated to kill pathogens Must be delivered at an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or lower and well before the best before date Small cream and milk packages (e.g. for coffee) must also be at 4C (40F) when received Unpasteurized milk is not permitted in a food premises. This means you cannot use unpasteurized milk as an ingredient nor can you sell unpasteurized milk. Ensure that you are buying from reputable suppliers

Eggs and Egg Products


Eggs and egg products must be of Grade A or Grade B quality, clean, uncracked and kept refrigerated at 4C (40F) or lower Must be received at an internal temperature of 13C (55F) or lower and well before the best before date Grade C eggs, and eggs that are ungraded, are not permitted for use in a food premises as they may not be safe for consumption

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Frozen Foods
Frozen foods should not appear thawed or refrozen Frozen foods must be received at an internal temperature of -18C (0F) or lower Do not accept frozen foods that have frozen liquid on the outside of the package, distorted packaging, and/or large ice crystals on the food itself

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

Check for insects, rotting, mould and damage Fruits and vegetables should be received in clean, preferably disposable containers

Do not accept fruits or vegetables if they were shipped in containers that do not appear clean or are that are re-used disposable containers

Food Safety Tip: Bean Sprouts


Bean sprouts are now considered a hazardous food and therefore must be kept refrigerated! Various sprouts, including radish, mung beans, and alfalfa, have been linked to outbreaks of Salmonella and E. coli infections in several countries. To control bacterial growth bean sprouts must be kept refrigerated.

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Mushrooms
Fresh mushrooms must be kept cool and exposed to the air Do not accept fresh mushrooms if they are stored in tightly sealed containers when being received Do not accept slimy mushrooms

Canned/Jarred Foods
Canned or jarred foods must be properly labelled and come from a government inspected source Cans or jars must have a code marking of the manufacturer Before accepting a delivery check that the cans are well before their best before date Do not accept home-canned or jarred foods Do not accept canned foods that are dented, rusted, or that are leaking or swollen

Dry Goods

Dried fruits, cereals, grains, sugar, flour and rice must be received in dry, unbroken packaging Dry goods must be delivered well before the best before date Do not accept dried goods when packages appear to be damp, have mould, holes, tears or signs of insect and rodents on the packages

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Vacuum Packaged Foods


Vacuum packaged foods refer to foods that are put into plastic pouches and have the air removed. The package is then sealed with heat so there is no air inside. Vacuum packaging will not stop the growth of some pathogens in the food if left in the danger zone Do not accept vacuum packaged foods that are to be delivered at the proper temperature (e.g. kept at a temperature of 4C (40F) or lower) but are shipped at a temperature higher than that. Measure the temperature by holding a probe thermometer between two packages (be careful not to poke any holes on the packages) Do not accept vacuum packaged foods if the packages have any holes, tears, bubbles, slime or discolouration on the food

Modified Atmosphere Packaged (MAP) Foods


Modified Atmosphere Packaged (MAP) foods refer to foods that are put into plastic pouches, have the air removed and replaced with a nitrogen-carbon dioxide gas mixture before sealing the pouch with heat. MAP packaging will not stop the growth of some pathogens in the food if left in the danger zone Do not accept MAP foods that are to be delivered at the proper temperature (e.g. kept at a temperature of 4C (40F) or lower) but are shipped at a temperature higher than that. Measure the temperature by holding a probe thermometer between two packages (be careful not to poke a hole in the packages) Do not accept MAP foods if the packages have any holes, tears, bubbles, slime or discolouration on the food

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Water and Ice


Water must be potable. Potable means safe to drink. If you rely on a private well for your water supply ensure that it is regularly tested and free of any bacteria Ice must be made from potable water Check bottled water for proper seals that are undamaged

Do not accept bottled water if the seals on the caps are damaged/missing Do not accept bagged ice if the bag is torn and the ice is exposed to the air

BEST BEFORE DATES


Best before dates are required by law on all foods with a shelf life less than 90 days, with a few exceptions (such as fresh fruit and vegetables). The best before date is the period of time during which an unopened food stored under proper conditions will retain its wholesomeness and nutritional value. Foods may still be safe to eat after this date but the food may lose some of its nutritional value (e.g. Vitamin C content). The food may also lose some of its flavour or its texture may change. Examples of foods with Best Before dates include eggs, yogurt and milk. Do not accept food past the best before date
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EXPIRY DATES

An expiry date is similar to a best before date, except it is used on fortified foods (foods that have vitamins or minerals added to it) with a short shelf life. Foods should not be eaten after this date. Examples of foods with Expiry dates include baby formulas and nutritional supplements

Do not accept food past the expiry date

What are the other numbers on cans?


The other numbers on cans are codes used by the manufacturer (e.g. packaging numbers). There is no standardized system for these codes, and they are all specific to the manufacturer. Check with the manufacturer if you have a concern about the other numbers on the can

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STORAGE
Food Containers
Food containers must be of good quality and be commercial food grade Re-useable food containers must be easy to clean and sanitize Cardboard can be used as an original container for certain foods such as fruits and vegetables. Cardboard cannot be reused to store any foods

Do not use plastic tubs or pails for food storage that originally contained cleaning products Do not store food in the original metal can after it has been opened. Remove the food from the can and put it in a proper food grade container. For instance after opening a can of ketchup transfer the remaining contents into a stainless steel or food grade plastic container and dispose of the can

Safe Food Storage


Practice the FIFO (First In First Out) method of stock rotation Throw away any food past the Best Before or Expiry date Cover foods in clean, food-safe wrappers or containers with lids Label foods that have no label Keep food storage areas clean at all times, sweep up any dirt/fallen debris, and do not overload shelves or store food on the floor
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Why do foods have to be stored 15 cm (6 inches) off of the floor? it is the law makes it easier to clean the floor helps keep food dry makes it easier to see if there is insect and/or rodent activity

Food must be stored at least 15 cm (6 inches) off of the floor

Dry Storage
Many non-hazardous foods can be stored safely in dry storage. This includes flour, sugar, spices, bread crumbs, unopened canned foods, cereal, uncooked rice, and uncooked pasta The best temperature range for dry storage is 15C to 22C (59F to 71F). All foods must be stored at least 15 cm (6 inches) off of the floor Foods in dry storage should also be stored in the original, unopened container or in a clean, covered and labelled container to prevent potential contamination

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Refrigerator Storage
The air temperature in the refrigerator must be 4C (40F) or lower in order to keep the internal temperatures of food 4C (40F) or lower as well Place a working thermometer refrigerator so you can check the temperature daily Store raw foods on the lowest shelf of the refrigerator Store cooked foods or foods to be reheated on the middle shelf of the refrigerator Store ready-to-eat foods on the top shelf of the refrigerator Cover, date and label foods where possible Keep all food at least 15 cm (6 inches) off of the floor in walk-in coolers Do not line or cover the refrigerator shelves with paper, cardboard or any other material as this can prevent good air circulation

Freezer Storage
The air temperature in the freezer must be at - 18C (0F) or lower in order to keep the internal temperature of food -18C or lower as well Place a working thermometer inside each freezer so you can check the temperature Cover, date and label foods where possible Keep all food at least 15 cm (6 inches) off of the floor in walk-in freezer Defrost your freezer as needed Do not refreeze food that has been completely thawed or defrosted

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What will freezing raw fish at -20C (-4F) for 7 days or -35C (-31F) for 15 hours do to any parasite? Freezing kills parasites. Keeping raw fish at these temperatures will kill any parasites in the fish. This is important when the fish is to be consumed raw, like for sushi. Does freezing kill bacteria? No! Freezing stops the growth of bacteria, but the bacteria are still alive. Only cooking will kill bacteria.

Chemical (Cleaning Supply) Storage


Store cleaning supplies separately and away from food and food contact surfaces Store cleaning supplies in their original labelled containers, and keep them tightly closed Clean up any spills as soon as possible Wash hands before and after handling chemicals

Cleaning chemicals should be stored separately and away from food

Never use a chemical container to store food as chemicals from the container can get into the food Never use a food container to store chemicals. Someone may think they are adding a food ingredient to a recipe when they are actually adding a chemical

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Any foods being received in a food premises must be from a government inspected source Home prepared foods are not permitted in food premises Do not accept any foods that may be contaminated, suffered temperature abuse, are damaged or that are past the best before or expiry date Always check the temperature of hazardous foods that should be refrigerated or frozen Practice the FIFO (First In First Out) method Store foods in its original container or in a clean, covered, labelled, food-safe container Foods must be stored 15 cm. (6 inches) off the floor Freezing fish at -20C (-4F) for 7 days or -35C (-31F) for 15 hours will kill any parasite that may be in it Freezing does not kill bacteria Store cleaning supplies (chemicals) away from food and food contact surfaces at all times Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What type of eggs are not permitted in foodservice establishments?

2.

List the correct temperature for each of the following storage areas: a) dry storage b) refrigerator c) freezer _____________ _____________ _____________

3.

Foods must be stored 15 cm (6 in.) off the floor. Why?

4.

Complete this sentence:

To kill parasites in fish, it must be frozen at ______ for 7 days or ______ for 15 hrs. 5. Cleaning and sanitizing products such as soap and bleach must be stored: a) b) c) d) next to food above food away from food in a container without a label

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CHAPTER 6
Handling Food Safely

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PREPARATION
Thawing/Defrosting
The acceptable ways to thaw or defrost hazardous foods are by using one of the following methods:

Microwave Cold Running Water

Refrigerator

When defrosting a hazardous food by microwave or cold running water, it should be immediately cooked Defrosting a hazardous food by refrigerator is the safest method, although it takes the longest

Food Safety Tip: Defrosting Properly


Never thaw or defrost a hazardous food by leaving it out on the counter. The surface of the food will be in the danger zone while the inside of the food may still be frozen and as a result, pathogens will start to grow on the surface of the food

This food is being defrosted in the walk-in fridge

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Handling Produce
Fresh fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet, but they can also be a cause of foodborne illness. In Canada, fresh produce is a big source of foodborne illness if not handled and prepared properly.

Food Safety Tips: Handling Fresh Produce


At the grocery store, bag fresh fruits and vegetables to protect them from pathogens that might be on the grocery cart, your hands or juices that might drip from raw meat, poultry and fish Pathogens grow faster and are more likely to survive on pre-cut fresh produce. Keep pre-cut fresh produce refrigerated and use it by the best before date Wash your hands when handling and preparing fresh produce, and make sure to clean and sanitize utensils and cutting surfaces before you start and after you finish. Use separate cutting surfaces where possible Carefully rinse all fresh produce under running water just before preparing or eating. Do not use soap or sanitizer on the produce. Scrub firm produce (e.g. cantaloupes, melons) with a clean brush. Discard damaged outer leaves of vegetables and soak leafy greens and dense vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower in water for a few minutes to dislodge dirt, then rinse under clean running water

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COOKING
Cook hazardous foods completely in one continuous process Cook to the required minimum internal temperature Use a probe thermometer to check the final internal temperature after cooking

Do not cook hazardous foods too far in advance of service. The safest thing to do is to immediately serve food after cooking Do not slow cook hazardous foods (low temperature for a long time period)

What are safe ways to taste food?

Use a fresh spoon

Put a sample in a bowl

2-spoon method

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Minimum Internal Cooking Temperatures for Hazardous Foods


An accurate probe thermometer is required to measure the internal temperature of hazardous foods. Whole poultry Cook: internal temperature 82C (180F) for 15 sec. Reheat: internal temperature 74C (165F) for 15 sec. Food mixtures containing poultry, egg, meat, fish or other hazardous foods Cook and reheat to internal temperature 74C (165F) for at least 15 sec. in all parts of the mixture

Whole Poultry

Food Mixtures

Chicken Pieces, Ground Poultry

Poultry other than whole poultry (e.g. legs, wings) and ground poultry Cook and reheat to an internal temperature of 74C (165F) for at least 15 sec.

Pork Roast, Pork Chops, Ground Pork

Pork and pork products Cook and reheat to an internal temperature of 71C (160F) for at least 15 sec.

Ground Meat

Ground meat, other than ground meat containing poultry (e.g. ground beef, ground pork) Cook and reheat to an internal temperature of 71C (160F) for at least 15 sec.

Fish

(1

Fish Cook and reheat to an internal temperature of 70C (158F) for at least 15 sec.

Other Hazardous Foods

Other hazardous foods (e.g. whole beef, lamb) Cook and reheat to an internal temperature of 60C (140F) for at least 15 sec.

Photos on this page courtesy of the U. S. Department of Agriculture

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SERVICE
Hot Holding For Service (e.g. Buffets)
Hazardous foods being held for service after cooking must be kept at an internal temperature of 60C (140F) or hotter at all times Acceptable hot holding equipment includes steam tables, double boilers, sterno candles, heated cabinets and chafing dishes The hot holding equipment must be preheated before using. For example, if using a steam table turn the table on and fill with water prior to placing any food in the unit. Ensure that the steam table is producing enough steam to keep food at 60 C (140F) or hotter prior to putting any food in the unit. This could take more than an hour depending on the unit Food must have an internal temperature of 60C (140F) or hotter before being placed in the hot holding equipment Hot hold small batches of food to help maintain the proper temperature Protect food from contamination and help keep the heat in by using lids, covers or shields Periodically check the internal temperatures of the food in hot holding with a probe thermometer to ensure it is at 60C (140F) or hotter

Food Safety Tip: Hot Holding


Hot holding equipment is not to be used for cooking or reheating hazardous food. Some equipment may take longer than two hours to reheat the food, and some equipment may not have the ability to get the food reheated to the proper temperature. Food must always be reheated to the proper temperature before placing it in the hot holding unit

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Cold Holding for Service (e.g. Salad Bars)


Hazardous foods being held for service that should be cold must be kept at an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or colder at all times Acceptable cold holding equipment includes refrigerators, salad bars (as seen in picture), display coolers, and stainless steel pans in ice baths If ice is used, the melted water should drain away from the food. Frozen ice packs can also be used to keep food cold Food must have an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or colder before being placed in the cold holding equipment Cold hold small batches of food to help maintain the proper temperature Protect food from contamination, and help maintain the temperature by using lids, covers or shields Periodically check the internal temperatures of the food in hot holding with a probe thermometer to ensure it is at 4C (40F) or colder

Food Safety Tip: Cold Holding


Some equipment may take longer than two hours to cool hazardous foods to 4C (40F) or colder, and some equipment may not have the ability to get the foods to an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or colder. As a result, hazardous foods being kept cold should have an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or colder before placing it in the cold holding unit

Remember!
Make sure HOT FOOD IS KEPT HOT at 60C or hotter Make sure COLD FOOD IS KEPT COLD at 4C or colder

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COOLING FOODS
The goal is to cool hazardous foods as quickly as possible through the Danger Zone (4C - 60C) as improperly cooling foods can cause foodborne illness. Hazardous foods must be cooled as fast as possible to an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or colder.

Did you know?


A large container, 40 cm (16-inch pot) of hot food (e.g. beef stew) placed directly into the refrigerator after cooking can take more than 6 days to cool to 4C (40F)!

Cooling Hazardous Foods Faster Containers


Aluminum and stainless steel containers cool food the fastest. Glass and plastic are poor containers to use as they insulate heat The shallower the container, the faster the food will cool Use a 5 cm (2 inch) deep pan for heavy thick liquids like chilli or for dense foods like beans or rice Use a 7.5 cm (3 inch) deep pan for thin liquids such as soup or gravy
These foods are cooled in stainless steel containers and in the walk-in fridge

Quantity
Reduce larger quantities of heated foods to smaller quantities Cut large pieces of meat into smaller pieces, then refrigerate or freeze

Stirring
Stirring helps cool food faster Speed up cooling by occasionally stirring the food while it is chilling. This can be as simple as stirring the food every 15 to 30 minutes

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Ice bath
Use a sink or container large enough to hold the pot of hot food and place the pot of food in the ice so that the pot is surrounded by ice The outside of the bottom and sides of the pan containing the food should be touching the ice Stir the food periodically while in the ice bath to release heat from the middle. After the food has cooled place it into the refrigerator

Air circulation in the refrigerator and freezer


Let foods chill uncovered for 30-45 minutes in the fridge or freezer, then cover them with a proper cover Do not stack containers as it will block air circulation Wired shelves help the air circulate in the refrigerator Do not place containers in front of the fan in the refrigerator Always close the door to the refrigerator when not in use. Remember that the warmest part of the refrigerator is usually by the door

Blast Chiller
Some food premises may have a blast chiller, which acts like an oven with the exception the foods are chilled as opposed to heated up Do not stack containers as it will block air circulation Make sure the machine is kept clean and sanitary at all times

Remember!
Use aluminum or stainless steel shallow pans Split up large quantities of food into smaller batches Uncover and stir occasionally Use an ice bath, and replace ice when it melts Place the food in the refrigerator or freezer after using an ice bath Cover, date and label the container when the food is cooled to an internal temperature of 4C (40F) After cooling, store cooked and ready-to-eat foods above raw foods in the refrigerator or freezer

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REHEATING FOODS
The goal is to reheat hazardous foods as quickly as possible through the Danger Zone (4C - 60C) as improperly reheating foods can cause foodborne illness. Hazardous foods must be reheated as fast as possible to an internal temperature equal to the original cooking temperature or 74C (165F) within 2 hours. The original cooking temperatures for hazardous foods were mentioned earlier on pg. 75.

Reheating Hazardous Foods Faster


Stir or portion food into smaller amounts to help reheat faster Use a method that will re-heat the food quickly, like a stove, oven or microwave Do not use hot holding equipment, such as a steam table, to reheat or to cook food. Hot holding equipment is not designed to reheat or cook food as it may take longer than two hours and/or the temperature may not get to the original cooking temperature or 74C (165F)

Do not use hot holding equipment to reheat hazardous foods

Food Safety Tip: Leftovers


The best strategy is not to have any leftovers. If you do have leftovers, cool it quickly to an internal temperature of 4C (40F) or lower. You can reheat it to the original cooking temperature once. After that, the food must be thrown away. Also remember not to mix leftovers with freshly made food!

Remember!
Reheat hazardous foods to its original cooking temperature or 74C (165F) within 2 hours

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MICROWAVES
Using microwaves make preparing foods fast and easy, but you have to be aware of certain things when you use them. When cooking or reheating in a microwave: Arrange food items uniformly in a covered dish. Cover foods with a microwave-safe material to hold in moisture and provide even heating Debone large pieces of meat or cook large pieces of meat on medium power (50%) for longer times Stir or rotate food once or twice during microwaving, and make sure you cook it to the proper internal cooking temperature using a probe thermometer Reheat leftovers to 74C (165F) or the original internal cooking temperature within 2 hours. Stirring the food will help it achieve the proper temperature Do not microwave whole, stuffed poultry Avoid partially cooking food. Always thoroughly cook food in the microwave or finish it off on the grill, barbeque, stove or in the oven immediately after Due to the possibility of uneven heating, microwaving baby food and baby formula is not recommended. If you must microwave baby food and formula, stir the food, shake the bottles and take a temperature check before serving to an infant or child

Remember! Microwave ovens apply heat unevenly to foods, so use a probe thermometer in different spots to verify that all parts of the food have been thoroughly cooked to the proper internal cooking temperature Food Safety Tips: Using Microwaves
Use only containers and wraps labelled as microwave oven safe in the microwave. This marking should be on either on the packaging or on the container itself. Do not use containers such as margarine tubs or plastic bags in the microwave, as these can melt in the food, possibly causing chemicals from the container or bag to get into the food. As well, avoid using dishes with metallic rims or cookware with metal parts, brown bags and newspapers in the microwave

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GOOD SERVICE PRACTICES


Part of handling food safely involves good service practices. If good service practices are applied and maintained, it results in good customer service, and the benefit of good customer service is repeat business. Practice good personal hygiene Use properly cleaned and sanitized tongs and utensils when preparing and serving food Hold plates by the bottom or edges Hold cups or glasses near the bottom or by the stem Hold utensils such as forks, knives and spoons by the handles Scoop ice with a long-handled, non-breakable scoop or tongs Dispensing scoops and dippers for ice cream must be kept in a dipper-well with running water between servings Table surfaces and serving trays should be wiped using a clean cloth with sanitizing solution between each use Leftover, unwrapped or prepared foods that have already been served to customers, including breads, rolls and sauces must be thrown away Single service items such as disposable cups and plastic utensils should be stored off the floor in closed containers and cannot be reused Clean and sanitize food utensil dispensers and other dispensers regularly

Do not touch any part of a glass, utensil or plate that will touch food or a persons mouth

Avoid touching food with your hands. Use a utensil where possible Do not touch any part of a glass, dish, plate or utensil that may also touch a person's mouth Do not stack cups. Hold them by the handle, on saucers or use a tray
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SELF-SERVICE AREAS
Self-service areas include salad bars, buffets and bulk food containers in food stores. All foods must be protected from contamination Self-service lines such as salad bars and buffets need to have food shields (e.g. pan cover) or sneeze guards installed at appropriate heights Containers with hinged lids may be used for bulk foods Clean utensils and plates should be available for customers at all times Each food needs its own serving utensil Serving utensils should be placed in the food so that the handles are pointing out Eating utensils should be displayed so that the handles are pointing out of the food Use a sanitized probe thermometer to check the internal temperatures of hazardous foods on the buffet line and at the salad bar

Store all serving utensils, glasses, utensils and plates for customers properly

Customers must not be allowed to return to a salad bar or buffet with used plates or utensils.

Remember!
Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold in self-service areas. Hazardous foods should be kept at 4C (40F) or colder or 60C (140F) or hotter
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CHAPTER REVIEW
To safely thaw hazardous foods use one of the three methods: a microwave oven; a refrigerator; or cold running water Cook all hazardous foods to the proper internal temperatures Reheat foods as rapidly as possible to the original cooking temperature or 74C (165F) or hotter Verify internal cooking and reheating temperatures by using a probe thermometer Cool foods as rapidly as possible to an internal temperature of 4C (40F) Foods can only be reheated once, otherwise it must be thrown out Practice good service practices, which includes good hygiene practices and using utensils instead of hands where possible Foods in self-service areas must be protected from contamination Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. List three ways to safely thaw food.

2.

What is the minimum internal temperature and time to which the following foods must be cooked for at least 15 seconds? Whole poultry ________ Food mixtures ________ Chicken pieces & ground chicken ________ Roast pork ________ Ground beef ________ Fish (cooked) ________ Other hazardous foods ________

3.

Complete this sentence: When cooling a hazardous food, the food should be cooled to an internal temperature of _____ C ( _____ F) or colder as quickly as possible.

4.

List five ways to cool foods faster.

5.

What internal temperature should hazardous foods be reheated to?

6.

Complete this sentence: Keep hot foods hot at ___C ( ___F), keep cold foods cold at ___C ( ___F).

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CHAPTER 7
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points)

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HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP)


HACCP is pronounced haa-sip. HACCP stands for:

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points


HACCP is a food safety inspection system that reviews all food handling processes in a food business from receiving to service to the customer. It is also called an audit. What is the purpose of HACCP? identify poor food handling processes correct these poor processes

What is the goal of HACCP? prevent foodborne illness and make the safest food possible

The Flow of Food


HACCP requires that food be observed at each step it goes through at a food premises, from the start (e.g. receiving) to the end (e.g. service to the customer). This is known as the flow of food.

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What are Common Steps in the Flow of Food?


Receiving or delivery from the supplier Storage Thawing Preparation Cooking/Reheating Holding Cooling Service or delivery to the customer

HACCP Flow Chart


A HACCP flow chart is a diagram showing the flow of food and what happens to each ingredient in the food item from start to finish. The HACCP flow chart shows: Safe food handling techniques to be followed in each step in the flow of food What a food handler should do if a safe food handling technique is not met. This is also called a corrective action. For instance, if a chef checks the internal temperature of a food and finds it is not at the minimum internal temperature the corrective action would be to put the food back in the oven and continue cooking it until it has reached the minimum internal temperature What records need to be kept (e.g. final cooking temperature logs; meat and poultry receipts)

Example of a Simple HACCP flow chart for Roast Chicken (a more detailed flow chart is on pg. 93)

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Critical Control Points (CCP) HACCP also identifies Critical Control Points (CCP) during the preparation of a hazardous food. Critical Control Points (CCP) are points during food preparation where proper food handling techniques can reduce or eliminate pathogens or other contaminants. Some examples of Critical Control Points include: Final internal cooking temperature Final internal reheating temperature Final cooling temperature Hot and cold holding temperatures Handwashing Cleaning and sanitizing

Remember!
The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system does the following: Monitors the flow of food from start (ex receiving) to finish (e.g. service to customer) by breaking a recipe or food handling process into steps by using a HACCP flow chart Identifies Critical Control Points in the preparation of the food Sets food safety standards and corrective actions for each step in the recipe or process

Developing a HACCP Plan


The HACCP system is a seven step system. The seven steps are:
1. Assessing food safety hazards 2. Identifying Critical Control Points 3. Establishing Standard Operating Procedures 4. Monitoring Critical Control Points 5. Taking Corrective Action 6. Setting up an effective record-keeping system 7. Verifying your system is working

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Step 1: ASSESSING FOOD SAFETY STANDARDS The question to ask at this step is: Where are food safety problems most likely to occur? Identify menu items that contain hazardous foods. It is easier if you concentrate on one menu item at a time Draw a flow chart for that menu item. A flow chart is a picture of what happens to the ingredients in a food item from start to finish Identify food safety concerns (hazards) that could develop in your recipe ingredients during each part of the flow of food

Step 2: IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (CCP) The question to ask at this step is: Can a food handler control or eliminate the food safety problem? If you can answer yes to this question, then it is a CCP A CCP must be something you can measure or observe. An example would be a final internal cooking temperature or observing handwashing CCPs usually involve cooking time and temperature, food handler health and hygiene, cross-contamination, cleaning and sanitizing

Step 3: ESTABLISHING STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES These are the requirements that must be met to keep food safe at each step in the flow of food Standard Operating Procedures should be as specific as possible and must be based on safe food handling techniques and laws A Standard Operating Procedure is something that you can measure or observe. An example would be cooking temperatures and times, or cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation work surfaces and equipment.

Step 4: MONITORING CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (CCP) The questions to ask at this step are (using beef stew as an example): What food will be monitored? Beef stew How will the food be monitored? With a clean and sanitized probe thermometer Who will monitor it? The chef What temperatures need to be recorded and when? Cooking, reheating, and holding temperatures and the time the temperatures were taken need to be recorded on a temperature log sheet How often will it be monitored? Every hour while the food is in the steam table
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Step 5: TAKING CORRECTIVE ACTION The question to ask at this step is: What should a food handler do if the CCP is not meeting the standard operating procedure? A corrective action must be established for each CCP and standard operating procedure Examples of corrective actions include: Rejecting a shipment Calling a supervisor or manager for advice Cooking the food longer or at higher temperatures Moving or covering the food to prevent cross-contamination Discarding the food Washing the hands at critical times Sanitizing work surfaces and utensils at critical stages in food preparation Step 6: SETTING UP AN EFFECTIVE RECORD KEEPING SYSTEM The question to ask at this step is: What records are needed to show that food is being prepared safely? Records should show that CCPs and standard operating procedures are being monitored Receipts of where the food came from should also be kept Keep written records simple, within reach and easy to use Examples of what you can do: Develop a HACCP recipe binder Include the CCP, standard operating procedures, required monitoring and temperature recording as well as corrective actions for each menu item Use charts for recording: Refrigerator temperatures at specific times Final cooking temperatures and time Hot or cold holding temperatures and time Cooling temperature and time Reheating temperature and time Step 7: VERIFY THAT THE FOOD SAFETY SYSTEM IS WORKING The questions to ask in this step about the HACCP system in place are: Is it working for the food premises? Is it helping to identify, prevent and correct problems with food handling? Is it helping with employee training? Does anything need to be changed? It may help to review your records, review public health inspection reports and listen to employee concerns when deciding what needs to be changed
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Creating a HACCP Flow Chart for Roast Chicken


Step in Flow of Food
Receiving

Standard Operating Procedures and Corrective Actions


- make sure chicken is frozen solid and has an internal temperature of -18C (0F) or lower - check for government inspected tag or stamp, obtain a receipt - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor or do not accept the delivery - keep freezer at -18C (0F) or lower - record the temperature of the refrigerator and freezer once each shift - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor - thaw safely using one of these methods: -refrigerator at 4C (40F) or lower on bottom shelf -under cold running water -microwave - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor - wash hands before and after handling raw chicken - clean and sanitize work surfaces, utensils and wiping cloths after working with raw chicken - minimize time the raw chicken is kept in the temperature danger zone - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor - make sure the internal temperature of chicken gets to 82C (180F) or higher for at least 15 sec. - measure with a sanitized probe thermometer - if the temperature is below 82C (180F), continue to cook the chicken - if possible, record final cooking temperature of three chickens from each batch - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor - cut whole chicken into small pieces with sanitized utensils - place in shallow pans and use an ice bath if possible - quickly cool chicken to an internal temperature of 4C (40F) by placing it in the refrigerator or freezer as soon as possible - record internal food temperature and time every hour until 4C (40F) is achieved - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor - reheat cooked chicken quickly to 74C (180F) or higher - measure internal temperature with a sanitized probe thermometer - record the temperature of the chicken - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor - hot hold chicken at an internal temperature of 60C or higher - measure with a sanitized probe thermometer - record the temperature of the food and the time every hr - if there is a problem, tell the supervisor

Storage

Thawing

Preparation

Cooking

Cooling

Reheating

Hold for Service

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HACCP Inspection or Food Safety Audit


Public Health Inspectors may conduct a HACCP inspection when inspecting a food premises. This would also be known as a food safety audit or a HACCP audit. During the HACCP audit, the Public Health Inspector will devote much of the audit to observing the food being prepared. In particular, the Public Health Inspector will observe the Critical Control Points (CCP), as they can reduce the likeliness of foodborne illness occurring.

The Public Health Inspector will then be able to suggest ideas or corrective actions and help focus in on areas where improvement in the food preparation process to prevent contamination, bacteria growth and food poisoning can occur.

Remember!
The HACCP inspection will help confirm that foods being prepared are the safest and highest quality possible

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CHAPTER REVIEW
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points HACCP is a food safety inspection system that reviews all food handling processes. It is also known as an audit Critical Control Points (CCP) are points during food preparation where proper food handling techniques can reduce or eliminate pathogens or other contaminants The HACCP System: monitors the flow of food from start to finish; identifies CCPs; sets food safety standards and corrective actions for each step in the recipe or process The HACCP inspection will help confirm that the foods being prepared are the safest and highest quality possible Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What does HACCP stand for?

2.

List the three things the HACCP system does.

_______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ 3. Give examples of common steps in the flow of food.

________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ 4. Define the term Critical Control Point.

5.

Give an example of a Critical Control Point.

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CHAPTER 8
Handwashing and Personal Hygiene

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HANDWASHING
Handwashing Sinks
Hands should always be washed at the dedicated handwashing sink. All food premises are required by law to have a dedicated handwashing sink in each food preparation area. The handwashing sink is only for handwashing; do not block the handwashing sink and do not put dishes or other items in this sink.

Why is a dedicated sink required for the sole use of hand washing? It is the law under the Food Premises Regulation It prevents contamination of food and utensils. Do not wash your hands where dishes, pots, utensils or foods are being washed It encourages people to wash their hands

Supplies at Handwashing Sinks


Liquid Soap in a dispenser

Paper towels, a cloth towel roller or a hot air dryer

Hot and cold running water

Waste container

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Correct Handwashing Procedure

Use warm, running water Use liquid soap. Bars of soap are not permitted in food premises Lather for at least 20 seconds, scrubbing all parts of the hands including inbetween fingers, under fingernails, the back of the hands and the wrists If you are wearing a ring or jewellery, ensure that you thoroughly clean under and around them Hot air driers and cloth towel rollers also permitted for use. If a single cloth towel is used, it must be clean and used only once a new cloth towel is required for each time the hands are washed
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PERSONAL HYGIENE
Everyone, including healthy people, have micro-organisms on their hands and their body. These micro-organisms can be either helpful to your body or harmful (otherwise known as pathogens). It is important to remember that you can not see micro-organisms with just your eyes, and pathogens can get into food and make people sick. By practising proper personal hygiene you can help prevent foodborne illness!

Good Hygiene
Food handlers who are sick should NOT work with food! The pathogens that have made you sick can easily be spread to other people through food and/or utensils. Report any illnesses to a supervisor or manager. If you are sick do not return to work until you have been symptom free for at least 24 hours. This is especially important if the symptoms include: diarrhea vomiting a severe cold with coughing and sneezing What if you have a cut on your hand? You can still work, provided you: Keep the cut clean to prevent infection Wear a clean bandage over the cut Wear a glove over the bandaged hand. The glove helps to keep the cut clean and prevents the bandage from getting into any food Follow proper procedures for glove use

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Proper Glove Use


Food handlers in Ontario are not required under the Food Premises Regulation to wear gloves when handling food, unless they have a cut or open sore on their hands or fingers. When using gloves, the keep in mind the following tips: glove use does not replace proper handwashing wear gloves that fit properly gloves must be worn if food handlers have a cut or open sores on their hands change gloves when switching between different foods, especially when switching from a raw food to a ready-to-eat food practice proper handwashing and change your gloves after using cleaning chemicals always properly wash your hands before putting gloves on always properly wash your hands after removing gloves always properly wash your hands between glove changes avoid using latex gloves where possible, as people can be allergic to latex

Remember!
Wearing gloves does not replace proper handwashing

Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers (Gels)


Alcohol-based hand sanitizers may be used, but only after properly washing your hands with soap and water.

Remember!
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers do not replace proper handwashing
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Personal Cleanliness
Bathe or shower every day Keep fingernails clean and trimmed Do not use nail polish Do not wear excessive jewellery Wash hands after tissue use Keep uniforms and aprons clean Keep hair clean and confined Frequently wash hands

What habits should food handlers avoid?


coughing near food picking or scratching skin near food smoking inside a food premises putting fingers in mouth, nose, hair sneezing near food chewing gum while working with food

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Apron Use
Food handlers should put on a clean apron each shift Food handlers should change aprons as they become dirty Aprons may need to be changed more than once a day! Aprons are not hand towels

Tobacco Use
According to the Smoke-Free Ontario Act and the Food Premises Regulation, it is against the law to use tobacco in a public place or workplace. Contamination may occur from ashes or butts. Hands may also become contaminated with saliva when smoking, which in turn can cause people-to-food contamination.

Remember!
Hands must be properly washed afterwards if tobacco is used

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CHAPTER REVIEW
A dedicated handwashing sink in each food preparation area is required because: it is the law, it prevents contamination of food and utensils, and it encourages food handlers to wash their hands Follow the correct handwashing procedure when washing hands Food handlers who are sick are not allowed to work with food Wearing gloves does not replace proper handwashing Alcohol-based hand sanitizers do not replace hand washing Practice good hygiene and personal cleanliness when working with food Tobacco usage is not allowed in food premises Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What should you do if you have a cut on your hand and you have to prepare food?

2.

Why does every food preparation area require a separate handwashing sink that is to be used only for handwashing? a) b) c) d) to prevent cross-contamination of food and utensils it is the law it encourages people to wash their hands all of the above

3.

List 3 rules about proper glove use.

4.

If a food handler is sick with diarrhea and/or vomiting, can they work with food?

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CHAPTER 9
Food Allergies: A Matter of Life or Death

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FOOD ALLERGIES
A food allergy involves an immune system reaction in the body. In Canada, approximately 3-4% of adults and up to 6% of young children has a form of food allergies. Often, there are no cures for a person who has a food allergy. People who are allergic to certain foods must avoid those foods in order to prevent serious health consequences. Why Should Food Handlers Care About Food Allergies? The health of the customer is at risk Customers with food allergies will ask questions about ingredients and you need to be prepared to answer these questions Accurate and timely ingredient information may be a matter of life and death

Most Common Foods That Cause Food Allergies


Peanuts Tree nuts (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts (filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts and walnuts) Shellfish Milk Eggs Fish Soy Sesame seeds Wheat

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Common Symptoms of Allergic Reactions


Gastrointestinal symptoms - nausea - vomiting - diarrhea Skin symptoms - hives - eczema - swelling of eyelids, lips, hands or feet Respiratory symptoms - runny nose - asthma (wheezing) Other symptoms - tightening of the throat - headache - anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis (pronounced anna-fill-axis) is a life threatening allergic reaction. It affects less than 1-2% of the population in Canada. The symptoms associated with anaphylaxis includes swelling, difficulty breathing, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, suffocation, coma and even death. Anaphylactic shock is a serious form of anaphylaxis that can occur rapidly. The first symptoms of anaphylactic shock may be a feeling of uneasiness, red face and feeling of warmth. Light-headedness, coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath may occur, followed by shock where blood pressure falls, suffocation can occur and the person becomes cold, clammy and faint. If a customer tells you they are having anaphylactic shock, you should immediately call 911 and request for medical help.

What is an epinephrine auto-injector?


Due to the severity of anaphylactic shock, people who have severe food allergies may carry an epinephrine auto-injector (ex. EpiPen) which contains epinephrine, a substance that helps to prevent shock. The symptoms may temporarily go away, but further medical treatment is still necessary
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How much of the food does a person need to be exposed to for an allergic reaction to occur?
Allergic reactions can be triggered by very small or trace amounts of the food. One bite of the tiniest portion of the food can be fatal. As well, a contaminated utensil that was exposed to the food but not properly cleaned and sanitized can trigger a life threatening allergic reaction.

How can food handlers help customers with food allergies?


People with food allergies must carefully avoid those food ingredients that cause their allergic reaction. Therefore, it is very important to provide your customers with accurate ingredient information. Never guess the ingredients that are in a food!

Remember!
Allergic reactions to food, particularly anaphylaxis, can be life threatening to some people and even cause death. If a customer tells you they are having anaphylaxis, you should immediately call 911 and request for medical help

FOOD INTOLERANCE
Food intolerance is different than a food allergy in that a food tolerance is not an immune system reaction. Food intolerances normally occur because the body is unable to digest or absorb certain foods. As well, a food intolerance usually occurs if a normal-sized portion of the food is eaten, unlike a food allergy where even a small amount of the food can cause a reaction. The symptoms of a food intolerance varies from person to person, but usually involves the gastrointestinal system, including bloating, loose stools, gas or diarrhea. An example of a food intolerance is celiac disease. Symptoms like abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea can occur after a person eats a food containing cereal grains containing gluten (ex. wheat, barley, rye).
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Another example of a food intolerance is lactose intolerance. Symptoms like abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and flatulence can occur after a person eats a food containing lactose (ex. milk, cheese, dairy products).

LABELS ON FOOD PACKAGES


Canadian laws require that most pre-packaged foods include a list of ingredients on the label in descending order of quantity in the food. These food labelling requirements help people with allergic reactions to avoid the problem foods.

Example of a food label

Currently, food premises such as restaurants, fast food outlets and bakeries are not required by law to have these labelling requirements. These food premises can, however, help by providing customers with accurate information when a customer asks about the ingredients in a food being sold or served at the restaurant. Some restaurants put a message on their menus stating: Ingredient inquiries are welcome, please ask your server. Did you know? Not all ingredients may be listed on a label as some are exempt (ex. spices/seasonings, flour). As a result, sometimes a common food allergen may go undeclared or is not listed on a label. In the case that an ingredient that is supposed to be listed is not listed, a food recall may take place

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PROTECT YOUR CUSTOMERS, YOUR BUSINESS AND YOURSELF!


Establish a food ingredient information policy The policy will be not only for staff, but also for customers. The policy should state who can answer questions involving ingredients or where the information can be found. In most cases, the chef may be the best person to give this type of information. Communicate with staff List food ingredients with each menu item or have a recipe binder on hand. Make sure the entire staff is aware of this information. Find out if in doubt! Never guess about the ingredients of a food. Find out what the ingredients are and tell the customer. If you do not know, say so. Treat any customer concern about food ingredients seriously Ingredient inquiries by customers must be taken seriously. Concerns about food ingredients are not just a like or dislike issue but a life or death issue that must be taken seriously. Tips during food preparation to reduce potential allergic reactions wash hands before preparing and handling food clean and sanitize work and cutting surfaces, utensils and any equipment that food touches use separate cooking equipment and utensils when preparing food for anyone with a food allergy store common foods associated with allergies separately label all food products and ingredients Post Emergency Procedures where everyone can see them Create an emergency procedures list so if a person suffers an allergic reaction (or any other medical emergency), directions on how to handle it will be provided (ex. call 9-1-1 and request for medical help).

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CHAPTER REVIEW
A food allergy involves an immune system reaction in the body Anaphylaxis is a life threatening allergic reaction. Anaphylactic shock is a serious form of anaphylaxis that can severely lower blood pressure and cause fainting and suffocation The best method for prevention of allergic reactions for people who have food allergies is for them to avoid the foods they are allergic to A food intolerance does not involve an immune system reaction; it occurs when the body is not able to digest or absorb certain foods Food labels help determine what ingredient is in a food item Accurate ingredient information for a food should always be provided to customers upon request Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Why is it important to know about food allergies? a) b) c) d) 2. the health of people with food allergies is at risk customers may ask about food ingredients food allergies are a matter of life and death all of the above

Where can you find information about the ingredients of a food? a) b) c) d) check with the public health department on the label the food came in ask your friend guess about the ingredients

3.

Complete the following sentences:

The safest thing for people who have allergic reactions to foods is to ____________ those food ingredients which cause their allergy. In order to do this, food handlers need to provide _________________ ingredient information. 4. What should you do if someone goes into anaphylactic shock? a) b) c) d) walk away call the public health department call 9-1-1 and request for medical help find their epinephrine auto-injector and inject them with it

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CHAPTER 10
Proper Cleaning and Sanitizing

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PROPER CLEANING AND SANITIZING


Clean and sanitize utensils, equipment or surfaces after each use Clean and sanitize when switching from one food item to another. For example, when switching from preparing raw chicken to cooked chicken on the same cutting board Clean and sanitize at least once a day for grill surfaces and griddles Clean and sanitize at least every two hours for equipment in constant use with the same food. For example, a deli meat slicer

Remember!
Any utensil, equipment or surface will first have to be cleaned properly in order for it to be effectively sanitized afterwards

Cleaning Schedule
A cleaning schedule should be created and followed to help ensure that a food premises keeps clean and organized. A cleaning schedule should include the following information: What is to be cleaned and sanitized When it is to be cleaned and sanitized Who is responsible to clean and sanitize the item What chemicals to use and how to mix them How to clean and sanitize the item

Example of a Cleaning Schedule

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WASHING DISHES, UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT


Proper washing of dishes, utensils and equipment involves cleaning, rinsing and sanitizing.

Cleaning
Cleaning means to remove food residue, stains, grease and other dirt Warm water and soap/detergent are used in cleaning

Rinsing
Rinsing means to remove the soap and loosened dirt after cleaning Clean, warm water (at least 43C) is used in rinsing

Sanitizing
Sanitizing means further reducing the number of pathogens to safe levels after cleaning and rinsing Sanitizing can be done in two ways: either by heat or by using chemicals

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Two Types of Sanitizing


1) HEAT SANITIZING This method sanitizes dishes, utensils and equipment by using very hot water, usually much hotter than what you can get at a regular sink. If you use heat sanitizing when manually washing, the temperature of the water must be at a minimum of 77C (171F) or higher and be in contact with the dish, utensil or equipment for at least 10 seconds. If you use heat sanitizing when using a machine dishwasher, the temperature of the water during the sanitizing cycle must be at a minimum of 82C (180F) or higher and be in contact with the dish, utensil or equipment for at least 10 seconds. 2) CHEMICAL SANITIZING This method sanitizes dishes, utensils and equipment by using a solution of a mixture of water and chemicals. There are three acceptable sanitizers solutions for use in a food premises (ppm means parts per million): Chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite or bleach) at 100 ppm Quaternary ammonium solution (quats) at 200 ppm Iodine solution at 25 ppm The temperatures for all these solutions must be at a minimum of 24C (75F) or higher and be in contact with the dish, utensil or equipment for at least 45 seconds. Never mix a chemical sanitizer solution with other chemicals solutions, like soaps or other cleaners.

Is Vinegar an approved chemical sanitizer solution?


No! Vinegar can be used to help remove grease from surfaces or for general cleaning, but it is not recognized as an approved chemical sanitizer solution

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Sanitizer Test Strips


Sanitizer test strips or a sanitizer test reagents must be available to measure the concentration (the ppm) of the chemical sanitizer solutions being used. This is required by the Food Premises Regulation be in a food premises at all times. There are three different types of sanitizer test strips for the three different types of chemical sanitizer solutions: chlorine, quaternary ammonium and iodine test strips. Make sure you follow the manufacturers directions on how to use the test strips.

Chlorine Test Strips

Quaternary Ammonium Test Strips

Iodine Test Strips

Remember!
If the ppm in the chemical sanitizer solution is too high, add water to dilute the solution. If the ppm is too low in the chemical sanitizer solution, add more chemical to strengthen the solution

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MACHINE DISHWASHING
Commercial dishwashers, which are different from the dishwashers used at home, must be used in food premises. Generally, these types of dishwashers have shorter cycles, the water being used is hotter, thermometers are provided to indicate the water temperature, and different chemicals are added during the cycle. There are two types of commercial dishwashers: 1) High Temperature Dishwasher: this machine uses detergent during the wash cycle and very hot water, or heat sanitizing (very hot water at a minimum of 82C (180F) or higher and be in contact with the dish, utensil or equipment for at least 10 seconds) for its sanitizing cycle.

Example of a High Temperature Dishwasher

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2)

Low Temperature Dishwasher: this machine uses detergent during the wash cycle and a chemical solution, or chemical sanitizing (bleach at 100 ppm, quats at 200 ppm or iodine at 25 ppm at a minimum of 24C (75F) or higher and be in contact with the dish, utensil or equipment for at least 45 seconds) for its sanitizing cycle.

Example of a Low Temperature Dishwasher

Remember!
The machine itself must be constantly cleaned Always allow a complete cycle to finish; do not stop a cycle Potable (clean) water must be used during the wash and rinse cycles The machines spray arms (pictured below, left) must be cleared before use and able to spray water cleanly

Detergent and chemical sanitizer (if used) must always be available for use

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Washing Dishes, Utensils or Equipment In A Machine Dishwasher


Scrape off any food or dirt

Pre-rinse or soak with clean, warm water

Load into machine and make sure all surfaces are exposed to the spray arms

Check the thermometers to ensure the water temperature during the wash cycle is between 60C to 71C (140F to 160F)

OR
If machine is a high temperature dishwasher it uses hot water for sanitizing. Check the thermometer to ensure that the sanitizing rinse water temperature for the machine is at least 82C (180F) and in contact with the item for a minimum of 10 seconds If machine is a low temperature dishwasher it uses chemicals for sanitizing. Chlorine bleach (100 ppm), quaternary ammonium (200 ppm) or iodine (25 ppm) solutions are injected into the sanitizing rinse. Check the thermometer to ensure that the sanitizing rinse water temperature for the machine is at least 24C (75F) and in contact with the item for a minimum of 45 seconds. Use sanitizer test strips to ensure the chemical solution is at the proper concentration

Air dry, ensuring item is completely dry before reusing. Any items that appear to still be soiled should be run through the cycle again

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MANUAL DISHWASHING
Some food premises have their dishes, utensils or equipment washed by hand; otherwise known as manual dishwashing. Manual dishwashing can happen in either a three-compartment sink or a two-compartment sink.

Three-Compartment Sink
In this type of sink, there are three separated sinks side-by-side, sharing one or more taps with hot and cold running water. A three-compartment sink is required in a food premises when the food premises uses multi-service articles. According to the Food Premises Regulation, a multi-service article is any container or eating utensil that is intended for repeated use in the service or sale of food. In other words, if the food premises is serving the food with reusable plates, spoons, forks, knives, cups, etc., then a three-compartment sink would be required.

Two-Compartment Sink
In this type of sink, there are two separated sinks side-by-side, sharing one or more taps with hot and cold running water. A two-compartment sink can be used in a food premises provided that the food premises only uses single-service articles. According to the Food Premises Regulation, a single-use article is any container or eating utensil that is to be used only once in the service or sale of food. In other words, if the food premises is serving the food with disposable (plastic or paper) plates, spoons, forks, knives, cups, etc., then a two-compartment sink can be used.

Remember!
Only dishwashing of dishes, utensils or equipment is to be done in a threecompartment or two-compartment sink. Handwashing is not allowed!

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Washing Dishes, Utensils or Equipment Manually Using A Three Compartment Sink

Scrape off any food or dirt from item

Use the first sink for washing. Scrub the item using soap/detergent and clean, warm water. If the suds are gone or the water gets dirty, change it Use the middle sink for rinsing. Use a thermometer to ensure that the water is at a minimum of 43C (110 F). Make sure the soap/detergent is rinsed off the item completely. If the soap/detergent is not rinsed off completely, the sanitizer will not work properly

OR
Use the third sink for sanitizing. If you use heat for sanitizing, use a thermometer to ensure that the water temperature is at a minimum of 77C (171F) and in contact with the item for a minimum of 45 seconds Use the third sink for sanitizing. If you use chemicals for sanitizing, use a thermometer to ensure that the water temperature is at a minimum of 24C (75F) before you add one of the three approved chemicals to make a solution: chlorine bleach (100 ppm), quaternary ammonium (200 ppm) or iodine (25 ppm). The item must be in contact with the chemical solution for a minimum of 45 seconds. Use sanitizer test strips to ensure the chemical solution is at the proper concentration

Air dry, ensuring item is completely dry before reusing. Do not use a towel to dry

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Washing Dishes, Utensils or Equipment Manually Using A Two Compartment Sink

Scrape off any food or dirt from item

Use the first sink for washing. Scrub the item using soap/detergent and clean, warm water. If the suds are gone or the water gets dirty, change it Rinse the item with warm water under a running tap with the water draining back into the first sink. Use a thermometer to ensure that the water is at a minimum of 43C (110 F). Make sure the soap/detergent is rinsed off the item completely. If the soap/detergent is not rinsed off completely, the sanitizer will not work properly

OR
Use the second sink for sanitizing. If you use heat for sanitizing, use a thermometer to ensure that the water temperature is at a minimum of 77C (171F) and in contact with the item for a minimum of 45 seconds Use the second sink for sanitizing. If you use chemicals for sanitizing, use a thermometer to ensure that the water temperature is at a minimum of 24C (75F) before you add one of the three approved chemicals to make a solution: chlorine bleach (100 ppm), quaternary ammonium (200 ppm) or iodine (25 ppm). The item must be in contact with the chemical solution for a minimum of 45 seconds. Use sanitizer test strips to ensure the chemical solution is at the proper concentration

Air dry, ensuring item is completely dry before reusing. Do not use a towel to dry
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Preparing a Chlorine Sanitizer Solution


A chlorine sanitizer solution is perhaps the easiest and most cost-effective chemical sanitizer solution to make. A jug of regular, unscented 5.25% bleach can make hundreds of litres of sanitizer solution! To prepare a sanitizer solution using chlorine bleach, add 2 mL of 5.25% chlorine bleach to every 1 L of water to make a sanitizing solution of 100 ppm. This would be the same as adding 9 mL (2 tsp) of 5.25% chlorine bleach to 4.5 L (1 gal) of water to make a sanitizing solution of 100 ppm. 5.25% chlorine means the chlorine has 5.25% sodium hypochorite as an active ingredient (the chlorine percentage can be found printed on the label of the container). To determine how much 5.25% chlorine bleach is required for a sanitizing solution of 100ppm, use the following formula:

10.5 x (litres of solution wanted) 5.25 [% chlorine]

millilitres (mL) of chlorine bleach required

Example: 100 ppm chlorine sanitizing solution 9 mL (2 tsp.) 5.25% bleach

4.5 L (1 gal.) water

Remember!
Use chlorine sanitizer test strips to verify that the solution is at 100 ppm

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CLEANING AND SANITIZING EQUIPMENT


Food processing equipment (ex. slicers, can openers, mixers) must be taken apart and each part cleaned and sanitized after each use or in-between tasks. This can happen more than four times a day! Sometimes equipment cannot be cleaned and sanitized in a two- or threecompartment sink or a dishwasher, as it is too big or heavy to be moved. These types of equipment are called fixed or in-place equipment.

For equipment being cleaned and sanitized in place, the strength of the sanitizer solution must be doubled (ex. 100 ppm chlorine solution becomes a 200 ppm)

Posted Instructions For Fixed Equipment


According to the Food Premises Regulation, fixed equipment that is cleaned and sanitized in-place must have instructions posted in a place accessible to the person cleaning and sanitizing it. The instructions must include: the chemicals used for cleaning and sanitizing the strength of the chemical solutions to be used the length of time the equipment is to be exposed to the chemicals the procedures used for cleaning and sanitizing the equipment
The posted instructions should be accessible; for example, where the cleaning supplies and water supply used to clean and sanitize in-place equipment is located

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Cleaning and Sanitizing Fixed Equipment

Unplug any electrical equipment Scrub non-food contact surfaces first, using soap/detergent and clean, warm water, followed by rinsing it of with clean, warm water

OR
If you use heat (steam) for sanitizing, the temperature of the steam must be at a minimum of 82C If you use chemicals for sanitizing, the sanitizer solution must be doubled in strength: chlorine bleach at 200 ppm, quaternary ammonium at 400 ppm or iodine at 50 ppm. The equipment must be in contact with the chemical solution for a minimum of 45 seconds. Use sanitizer test strips to ensure the chemical solution is at the proper concentration

Scrub food contact surfaces next, using soap/detergent and clean, warm water, followed by rinsing it of with clean, warm water

OR
If you use heat (steam) for sanitizing, the temperature of the steam must be at a minimum of 82C If you use chemicals for sanitizing, the sanitizer solution must be doubled in strength: chlorine bleach at 200 ppm, quaternary ammonium at 400 ppm or iodine at 50 ppm. The equipment must be in contact with the chemical solution for a minimum of 45 seconds. Use sanitizer test strips to ensure the chemical solution is at the proper concentration

Air dry both non-food contact and food contact surfaces, ensuring the item is completely dry before reusing. Do not use a towel to dry.

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WIPING CLOTHS AND SPONGES


If wiping cloths and sponges are not handled properly, they can be a source of pathogens and can spread pathogens to any surface they touch. Different wiping cloths or sponges should be used for food contact surfaces (ex. cutting boards) and non-food contact surfaces (ex. table tops).

Safety Tips: Properly Handling Wiping Cloths and Sponges


Store in a chemical sanitizing solution at the proper concentration (chlorine bleach at 100 ppm, quaternary ammonium at 200 ppm, iodine at 25 ppm). Do not leave them on the counter, as a damp, used wiping cloth or sponge sitting on a counter can be a breeding ground for pathogens Rinse the wiping cloth or sponge under clean, running water before putting it back in the sanitizing solution Store wiping cloths or sponges used for food contact surfaces in a different bucket than the ones used for non-food contact surfaces Make a fresh batch of sanitizing solution periodically throughout the day as needed. Dirty wiping cloths or sponges continuously put in the bucket weakens the sanitizer solution Use different coloured buckets to keep the food contact and non-food contact solutions from getting mixed up If using a spray bottle to store sanitizing solution ensure that it is properly labelled. Make sure a new solution for the spray bottle is made daily as the strength of the sanitizing solution weakens after 24 hrs. Replace wiping cloths and sponges on a regular basis. This may be more than once a day!

Replace wiping cloths with new, clean ones on a regular basis Use different coloured buckets Label spray bottles and make new solution daily

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GARBAGE AND WASTE MANAGEMENT


Use plastic or wet-strength bags Put garbage in leak-proof, non-absorbent, rodent-proof containers Close the bag and secure it tightly Wash hands after taking out garbage Wash, rinse and sanitize garbage containers as often as necessary to discourage pests and odour Large bins should be emptied at least twice weekly or as needed to prevent the garbage from overflowing and to prevent a strong odour

All liquid waste must be disposed of in a sanitary manner. This includes grease and mop water Clean out grease traps regularly to prevent overflows. Do not dispose of grease down a drain. Have a waste removal company dispose of the grease

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Sanitizing means reducing the number of pathogens on a surface to a safer level There are two ways to sanitize: with heat or with chemicals Posting a cleaning schedule will make cleaning easier Follow proper procedures when using a mechanical dishwasher or when manually washing If using chemicals when sanitizing, make sure it is at the proper concentration Use sanitizer test strips to regularly check that the solution it is at the proper concentration Practice safe techniques when handling wiping cloths Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What is the correct wash water temperature for a dishwashing machine?

2.

What is the correct sanitizing rinse temperature of a high temperature dishwasher?

3.

What is the correct sanitizing rinse temperature of a low temperature dishwasher?

4.

Label the sinks in the order they are used when manually washing dishes using a three-compartment sink. First sink: ____________________ Second sink: __________________ Third sink: ____________________

5.

Label the sinks in the order they are used when manually washing dishes using a two-compartment sink. First sink: _____________________ Second sink: ___________________

6.

What are the three acceptable sanitizers for use in a food premises?

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CHAPTER 11
Proper Food Premises Operation

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PROPER FOOD PREMISES OPERATION


There are a lot of factors involved to have a food premises operating in proper, working condition. Some of these factors involve the safe practices of food handlers, and some involve the actual, physical premises itself.

Lighting
The lighting levels in a food premises should be bright enough for food handlers to clearly see what tasks they are doing. This includes the lighting being adequate in every section of the food premises for cooking, cleaning and serving at all times it is open for business. According to the Food Premises Regulation, the levels of illumination required under the Ontario Building Code must be maintained during all hours of operation of a food premises. For exact requirements and further information of the Ontario Building Code, contact the local municipal building department.

Storage Space
There should be enough storage space for all food and other materials and equipment in the food premises; the correct quantity should be ordered and not be overflowing within the room of the premises. As well, any materials or equipment (ex. broken stove, furniture, containers) not regularly used in the room should not be stored there and be removed from the room.

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Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation is required to remove heat, steam, condensation, smoke, odours and fumes, all of which are vented to outside of the food premises. These ventilation systems would be found over cooking equipment (ex. stoves, ovens), dishwashers, and in each washroom. Some examples of mechanical ventilation systems include exhaust fans, ducts, canopies, hoods and filters.

According to the Food Premises Regulation, the ventilation systems in every food premises shall be maintained so that the premises do not become a health hazard. Therefore, the equipment must be constructed of corrosion-resistant and easily cleanable materials, and must be cleaned as often as necessary. This may be more than three times a week!

Walls and Ceilings


Walls and ceilings must be made of sound and tight construction and must be kept in good repair. It must be constructed of corrosion-resistant and easily cleanable materials, like tiles, stainless steel, or walls and ceilings painted with water-resistant paint.

According to the Food Premises Regulation, walls and ceilings should be cleaned and maintained in a sanitary condition. Cleaning should be done as often as necessary; this may be more than once a day!
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Floors
Floors and floor coverings should be constructed of corrosion-resistant and easily cleanable materials, like tiles or concrete floors painted with waterresistant paint. Rubber or vinyl mats (as seen in picture on right, below) are allowed on these floors provided they are kept in a clean and sanitary condition. Carpet mats or cardboard laid on the floor are not permitted for use. According to the Food Premises Regulation, floors or floor coverings must be tight, smooth and nonabsorbent in rooms where food is prepared, utensils are washed and in rooms where hand washing and toilet fixtures are located. The only place carpet is allowed in a food premises is where food is served (not prepared), provided they are kept in a clean and sanitary condition.

Food Contact Equipment and Utensils


Food contact equipment and utensils must be made of sound and tight construction and must be kept in good repair. It must be constructed of corrosionresistant and easily cleanable materials, and must be cleaned and sanitized after each use. As well, there should be no cracks, chips or open seams on any equipment or utensils.

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Live Animals
Live birds and animals are not allowed in a food premises where food is being prepared.

Live animals are not allowed in food premises

According to the Food Premises Regulation, the only exceptions to this law are: service dogs serving as a guide for a blind person or for a person with another medical disability who requires the use of a service dog, provided they are only in the section of the food premises where food is served, sold or offered for sale live aquatic species displayed or stored in sanitary tanks, such as fish or live lobsters (as pictured above, right) any food premises that the Health Department gives permission to have live birds or animals

Service dogs are permitted where food is served but not prepared

Live lobsters are permitted where they are stored in sanitary tanks

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Lighting in a food premises must be bright enough to operate the premises in a safe manner. Food handlers must be able to see what they are doing Mechanical ventilation is required in a food premises over cooking and dishwashing equipment and in every washroom to remove heat, steam, condensation, smoke, odours and fumes Walls, ceilings and floors must be made of sound and tight construction and must be kept in good repair Food contact equipment and utensils must be made of sound and tight construction and must be kept in good repair Live birds and animals, except for a few exceptions, are not allowed in a food premises

Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Where in a food premises is mechanical ventilation (vented to the outside of the premises) required?

2.

Are carpeted mats or cardboard allowed to be laid on the floors where food is being prepared?

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CHAPTER 12
Pests and Preventing Pest Problems

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PESTS
A pest infestation in a food premises is considered a health hazard to humans because pests have the ability to spread pathogens to food and food contact surfaces. If a pest infestation is found in a food premises, it can be ordered closed by the Public Health Inspector. Aside from food, pests can damage the building and equipment in a food premises by gnawing through rubber, aluminum, walls, plastic and wood. The most common pests that affect food premises are: cockroaches, flies and rodents.
This food premises must be re-inspected due to inadequate pest control (magnified)

Cockroaches
The most common cockroaches in Ontario range in size from 1.2 1.6 cm, and are able to survive with very little food or water. Cockroaches live and breed anywhere that is dark, warm, moist and hard-to-clean.

The German Cockroach is a common cockroach found in Ontario

Cockroaches can carry pathogens such as Salmonella bacteria and can spread it to food or food contact surfaces. If the cockroaches are seen in the broad daylight, it is a general sign of an infestation. Did you know? One female cockroach is able to lay eggs and produce over 300 babies over its lifetime
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Flies
The most common flies in Ontario range in size from 6 9 mm, and are especially a concern in the summer (as they generally do not survive in the winter).

Flies can carry pathogens such as Salmonella and Giardia and can spread it to food or food contact surfaces. They are attracted to the odours of food, garbage, and human and animal waste, and when they land on it, they vomit on it to soften it up before ingesting it. As a result, they can contaminate other food or surfaces through their mouth, feet, hair, feces and vomit itself. Did you know? One female fly is able to lay eggs and produce over 500 babies over its lifetime

Rodents
The rodents that are of most concern in food premises are mice and rats. The most common mice in Ontario range in size from 5 10 cm, while the most common rats in Ontario range in size from 15 25 cm (not including the tail, which can be just as long as the body).

Rodents can carry pathogens such as Salmonella and Hantavirus and can spread it to food or food contact surfaces. Rodents can multiply quickly and will eat almost anything, leaving thousands of droppings along the way. Did you know? One female mouse is able to have up to 800 babies over one year
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PREVENTING PEST PROBLEMS


Preventing a pest problem is more effective than simply waiting for the problem to happen and reacting to it. The following are steps to prevent a pest problem.

Physical Barriers
Creating physical barriers to keep pests out of the food premises is the most effective method for prevention. This includes: Installing tight fitting screens on doors and windows, and using weather stripping to stop any gaps under or around them Repairing and filling in any holes in walls. Steel wool or sheet metal around pipes and other openings can also be used to plug the holes because pests do not like to bite through metal Making sure doors to the exterior of the food premises are shut at all times (with the exception of deliveries). If it gets too warm in the premises, a screen door can be installed provided there are no holes or gaps on the door itself

Identifying Pest Infestations


In the event there is a pest infestation in a food premises, it can be identified through simple signs. This includes: The presence of feces (droppings), especially under and around counters, surfaces and equipment Bite marks on food products, packaging, or equipment Greasy, smudge marks along walls left by rodents Seeing pests during the day. Pests like to hide and not be seen; if they are seen in broad daylight, it can be a sign of a major infestation Did you know? You can identify different pests by the way their feces (droppings) look: Cockroach feces looks is dark and looks like pepper Mice feces is dark and the looks like a rice grain Rat feces is dark and looks like a coffee bean

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Removing Nesting Areas


If pests have adequate food, water and shelter in a specific area, they are likely to want to live or nest there. Some ways to remove nesting areas include: Cleaning and sanitizing all food contact surfaces throughout the day and when the food premises closes Cleaning and sanitizing all non-food contact surfaces, especially hard-toreach places. This includes removing pieces of food and grease under equipment Removing any unused equipment from the food premises. These can act as a place of shelter for the pests Removing garbage from inside the food premises as soon as possible and keeping it in tightly covered, pest proof containers outside of the food premises Repairing water leaks and cleaning all spills immediately Making sure food being received in the food premises does not have pests and storing food, especially dry goods such as cereal grains and pasta, in pest-proof storage containers

Removing nesting areas includes storing food properly

Remember!
Pieces of food and grease left under equipment (ex. stove, refrigerator) will: make it hard to keep pests out of the kitchen provide a source of food for pests attract pests
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Treatment From A Pest Control Operator


Treatment from a private pest control operator is recommended, even if there is no infestation in the food premises. Pest control operators can do things like set traps and keep track of the progress of treatment.

Pest control operators can set traps, like bug lights and rodent traps

Aside from having the ability to remove a pest infestation, they are also pros in identifying potential areas where pests can nest.

Safety Tip: Pesticides


Pesticides are chemicals used to control insects and rodents. Chemical pesticides are not a substitute for good sanitation. Do not try to solve pest problems by using only pesticides. Pesticides can be dangerous to food, employees and customers. If pesticides are being used, make sure they are kept in the original labelled container and stored away from food

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Pests in a food premises are a health hazard and a pest infestation can cause the food premises to be closed The pests that cause the most problems for food premises are cockroaches, flies and rodents The greatest concern of pests is that they can spread pathogens to food and food contact surfaces Some ways to prevent pest problems in food premises include: using physical barriers to keep them out, identifying pest infestations, removing nesting areas, and receiving treatment from a pest control operator Using chemical pesticides is not a substitution for good sanitation in the food premises Notes:

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following are ways to prevent pests? a) b) c) d) 2. keep the kitchen clean remove garbage and store garbage properly provide physical barriers like screen doors all of the above

What will happen if pieces of food and grease are left under equipment?

3.

What three pests cause major problems in food establishments?

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CHAPTER 13
Answers to Exercises and Study Questions

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Chapter 1 Public Health Legislation and the Role of the Health Department
Answers to Study Questions (pg. 13) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. - Health Protection and Promotion Act - Food Premises Regulation c) maintain and operate the food premises according to the Food Premises Regulation b) follow the requirements of the Food Premises Regulation b) provincial law d) all of the above

Chapter 2 Introduction to Food Safety


Answers to Exercise: Hazardous or Non-hazardous? (pg. 23) pickles crackers cooked rice yogurt cheese milk and cream meat soups cooked baked potatoes canned tuna (unopened) canned tuna (opened) flour gravy fish shellfish (mussels, clams) cooked pasta poultry uncooked rice cream sauces eggs bread non-hazardous non-hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous non-hazardous hazardous non-hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous hazardous non-hazardous hazardous hazardous non-hazardous

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Answers to Exercise: Temperature Chart (pg. 26)


Letter 74o C (165o F) 60o C (140o F) Cooking

E B D

Hot Holding

4o C (40o F) -18o C (0o F)

Refrigerator

C
Freezer

Answers to Study Questions (pg. 34) 1. d) all of the above 2. a) yes 3. a) bacteria 4. - hazardous food (food high in protein and moisture) - temperatures in the danger zone - time 5. beef; pork; chicken; turkey; milk and dairy products; fish; seafood gravy; eggs; cooked rice and cooked beans; mixed salads (such as tuna and egg) 6. flour; sugar; bread; vinegar; uncooked pasta; unopened cans; pickles 7. 4o C (40 F) to 60o C (140o F) 8. 60o C (140o F) or hotter 9. 4o C (40o F) or colder

Chapter 3 Contamination of Food


Answers to Exercise: Refrigerator Storage (pg. 38)

tuna salad lettuce salad gelatine desserts cheese cooked pork cooked beans gravy raw turkey (for thawing) frozen raw beef raw chicken

Ready-to-eat foods

Cooked foods or foods to be reheated

Raw foods

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Answers to Study Questions (pg. 42) 1. d) all of the above 2. -storing all raw foods below ready to eat foods and foods that will be reheated -storing raw food in a separate refrigerator 3. -working with unclean hands and unclean fingernails -sneezing or coughing onto their hands and then not washing them -improperly tasting food

Chapter 4 Understanding Foodborne Illness


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 53) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fever vomiting a) unsafe food temperatures d) all of the above a) 7 days

Chapter 5 Receiving and Storage


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 70) 1. Ungraded, cracked or Grade C eggs are not permitted because they are a source of Salmonella 2. a) dry storage 15 C (59 F) to 22 C (71 F) b) refrigerator 4 C (40 F) c) freezer -18 C (0 F) 3. - makes it easier to clean the floors - keeps food dry - makes it easier to see insects and rodents - its the law 4. To kill parasites in fish, it must be frozen at -20o C (-4F) for 7 days or 35o C (-31F) for 15 hrs. 5. c) away from food

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Chapter 6 Handling Food Safely


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 85) 1. - microwave - refrigerator - under cold running water 2. Whole poultry 82o C (180o F) Food mixtures 74o C (165o F) Chicken pieces & ground poultry 74o C (165o F) Roast pork 71o C (160o F) Ground beef 71o C (160o F) Fish (cooked) 70o C (160o F) Other hazardous foods 60o C (140o F) 3. When cooling a hazardous food, the food should be cooled to an internal temperature of 4 C (40 F) or colder as quickly as possible. 4. - use aluminum or stainless steel pans - refrigerate immediately - make larger portions smaller - use shallow pans - leave foods uncover, stir until chilled and recover - use and ice bath, replacing ice when it melts 5. Reheat to the original cooking temperature or 74 C or higher within 2 hours 6. Keep hot foods hot at 60 C (140 F), keep cold foods cold at 4 C (40 F).

Chapter 7 HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points)


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 96) 1. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points 2. - monitors the flow of food from receiving to service by breaking a recipe into steps - identifies critical control points (CCP) - sets food safety standards and corrective actions for each step in a recipe or process 3. - receiving/delivery from suppliers - storage - preparation - thawing - cooking - cooling - reheating - holding - service/delivery to customer 4. Points during food preparation where proper food handling techniques can reduce or eliminate pathogens or other contaminants. 5. - final internal cooking temperature of food - final internal cooling temperature of food - final internal reheating temperature of food - internal holding temperature of food - handwashing - cleaning and sanitizing food contact surfaces, equipment and utensils

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Chapter 8 Personal Hygiene and Handwashing


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 105) 1. Wash hands properly, clean cut and put on a clean bandage, and put on a new, clean glove over the bandaged hand. Wash hands in-between changing gloves and change the glove often. 2. d) all of the above 3. - use only when necessary (if hands are cut or have sores) - where possible, avoid using latex gloves - change between working with different foods - wash hands before putting gloves on - wash hands after removing gloves - wash hands between glove changes 4. No. Food handlers who are sick with symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea or fever are not to work with food until they have been symptom free for at least 24 hours. Sick food handlers can accidentally contaminate food putting the customers who eat that food at risk for becoming sick.

Chapter 9 Food Allergies: A Matter of Life and Death


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 114) 1. d) all of the above 2. b) on the label the food came in 3. The safest thing for people who have allergic reactions to foods is to avoid those food ingredients which cause their allergy. In order to do this, food handlers need to provide accurate ingredient information. 4. c) call 9-1-1 and ask for medical help

Chapter 10 Proper Cleaning and Sanitizing


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 132) 1. 2. 3. 4. 60o C to 71o C (140o F to 160o F) 82o C (180o F) 24o C (75o F) First sink: wash Second sink: rinse Third sink: sanitize 5. First sink: wash and rinse Second sink: sanitize 6. - chlorine (bleach) - quaternary ammonium (quats) - iodine

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Chapter 11 Proper Food Premises Operation


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 139) 1. 2. Mechanical ventilation is required over cooking and dishwashing equipment and in every washroom to remove heat, smoke and odours. No. The only place where carpet is allowed in a food premises is where food is being served (not prepared), provided they are kept in a clean and sanitary condition.

Chapter 12 Pests and Preventing Pest Problems


Answers to Study Questions (pg. 148) 1. d) all of the above 2. - will attract pests - make it hard to keep pests out of the kitchen - provides a source of food for pests 3. Rodents (mice and rats), flies, cockroaches

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CHAPTER 14
Definitions of Terms

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Anaphylactic Shock

A serious form of anaphylaxis that can severely lower blood pressure and cause fainting or suffocation Life threatening allergic reaction Very small living organisms that are found everywhere. Bacteria may be helpful or harmful. Bacteria are tasteless, odourless and cannot be seen by the naked eye Period of time during which products stored under proper conditions will retain their goodness. Products may still be safe to eat after this date but the nutritional quality may not be as good A method used to determine if an instrument such as a thermometer is measuring accurately A foodborne illness resulting from eating food contaminated with chemicals such as pesticides or cleaning products Process of physically removing food residues, stains, grease and soil by using hot water and soap A food inspection conducted by a Public Health Inspector to make sure that the requirements of the Food Premises Regulation are met

Anaphylaxis Bacteria

Best Before Date

Calibrate

Chemical Intoxication

Cleaning

Compliance Inspection

Commercial Food Grade Containers that have been specifically made for the safe storage of Containers food Condemn Food An act taken by a Public Health Inspector to prevent the food from being eaten or offered for sale by requiring the food be destroyed A situation where food becomes unsafe because harmful microorganisms, chemicals or physical objects get into the food. Contamination of food can happen in three ways: food-to-food, equipment-to-food, people-to-food Points during food preparation where proper food handling techniques can reduce or eliminate pathogens or other contaminants. For example, holding hot food at 60 C (140 F), holding cold food at 4 C (40 F), handwashing Same as contamination The range of temperatures from 4 C to 60 C (40 F to 140 F) in which bacteria grow very fast A date that may appear on the packaging of a product, particularly fortified foods, like baby formula. These foods should not be eaten after this date

Contamination

Critical Control Point (CCP)

Cross-contamination Danger Zone

Expiry date

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First In First Out (FIFO) A method of stock rotation in which all food products stored first should be used first. Newer items should be placed behind the older items so the older items get used before the newer items Food Allergy A reaction to food that involves the bodys immune system. Allergic reactions can be mild, severe or life threatening and usually happen after eating particular foods. The symptoms can include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hives, and asthma. One of the most severe symptoms is anaphylactic shock A reaction to food that does not involve the bodys immune system, and normally occur because the body is unable to digest or absorb certain foods. The symptoms can include bloating, gas and loose stools A place where food is manufactured, processed, prepared, stored, handled, displayed, distributed, transported, sold or offered for sale A provincial law under the Health Protection Promotion Act. It provides the minimum health standard requirements for all food premises in Ontario An illness that is caused by consuming contaminated food. The symptoms can include mild nausea, discomfort, vomiting, cramps and/or diarrhea. It can also result in death. Foodborne illness may be caused either by biological (micro-organisms) or chemical contaminants in food Occurs when a person eats food containing pathogens. The symptoms of a foodborne infection appear a few hours to several days after eating the food. The first symptoms are usually abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever

Food Intolerance

Food Premises

Food Premises Regulation

Foodborne Illness (Food Poisoning)

Foodborne Infection

Foodborne Intoxication Occurs when a person eats food containing a toxin released by a pathogen. The toxin may be in the food when it is eaten. The symptoms of a foodborne intoxication begin a few minutes to a few hours after eating the food. The first symptom is usually vomiting Health Hazard A condition of a person, place, or thing, that has or is likely to have a harmful effect on the health of any person

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Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)

A food safety system that looks at food safety from receiving to service. This system helps to find problems with food handling, correct problems with food handling and educate staff with safe food handling practices Foods capable of supporting the growth of micro-organisms. Hazardous foods are high in protein and moisture. These foods are most likely to be involved in foodborne illness. Examples include poultry, fish, shellfish, meat, milk and dairy products A provincial law that gives certain powers and responsibilities to Public Health Inspectors to conduct various investigations and inspections including food premises inspections. Premises in which hazardous food is prepared and served to high risk populations (ex. nursing homes, homes for the aged, hospitals). High risk food premises also includes food premises in which food preparation involves many steps such as cooling and reheating, and premises that prepare foods frequently implicated as the cause of a foodborne illness. Examples are full menu restaurants, large banquet facilities and catering operations. The time period between when a person eats a contaminated food and when the symptoms of illness first appear

Hazardous Foods

Health Protection and Promotion Act

High Risk Food Premises

Incubation Period

Low Risk Food Premises Premises in which non-hazardous foods or prepackaged hazardous foods are offered for sale. Examples of low risk food premises may include convenience stores and snack bars. These premises do not meet any of the High and Medium Risk food premises definition Medium Risk Food Premises Premises which prepare non-hazardous foods that are subject to extensive handling or are prepared in high volume and premises in which hazardous foods are prepared without meeting the criteria for high risk. Examples are fast-food restaurants, submarine, pizza shops and bakeries. Small living organisms not visible to the naked eye. Examples include bacteria, viruses, parasites, yeasts and moulds A special type of packaging in which raw or cooked food may be placed. Air is removed from the package and replaced with a nitrogencarbon dioxide gas mixture, followed by being sealed Moulds can be seen as a furry coating on a surface, and can be found growing almost anywhere where moisture is present (ex. Refrigerators, ice machines). Moulds can be found on food products such as cheese, yogurt, bread

Micro-organisms

Modified Atmosphere Packaged (MAP)

Moulds

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Non-Hazardous Foods

Foods that are low in moisture, low in protein, and/or high in acidity. These types of foods generally do not support the growth of bacteria. Examples include crackers, sugar and salt The person responsible for maintaining and operating a food premises according to the Food Premises Regulation Very small, microscopic living things, which can grow in the body and lay eggs and cause illness. Can be killed by freezing food at -20 C for 7 days Exposing a food product such as milk or cheese to a high temperature for a given period of time to destroy harmful micro-organisms Harmful micro-organisms that can cause illness Safe for drinking parts per million The use of clean warm water to remove the soap and loosened dirt from a surface Reducing the number of harmful micro-organisms to a safe level by using heat or chemicals The changes in normal body function that occur when someone is ill The process of changing a food from the frozen state to a state where the food is still cold but not frozen hard Foods stored in packaging where the air is removed and then heat sealed to ensure the air stays out A very small type of micro-organism, smaller than bacteria. Some viruses can be spread through foods and cause illness Micro-organisms that require sugar and moisture to survive. Yeasts are used in the production of beer, wine, bread and yogurt. Yeasts can also spoil foods such as jellies, honey and pickles

Operator

Parasites

Pasteurization

Pathogens Potable ppm Rinsing

Sanitizing

Symptoms Thaw

Vacuum Packaged Food Viruses

Yeast

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Prepared by: Health Services Department Environmental Health Division 44 Peel Centre Dr., Suite 102 Brampton, ON L6T 4B5 905-799-7700 www.peelregion.ca Revised December 8, 2008 Designed to meet the requirements of the Ontario Food Handler Training Protocol

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