Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13





The subjects for this study were male and female group selected among UniMAP students. Male hockey players (n=8) who were experienced (n=4) or novice (n=4) and female hockey players (n=8) who were experienced (n=4) or novice (n=4) push-in performers participated in the study. Subjects were selected with controlled parameters where there are in a good physical condition

Subjects were contacted, asked to participate in the study and experimental procedures were explained to them. The experience subjects have basic knowledge in field hockey. They were given an informed consent before data collection.


Hardware and Software Configuration

In this project, the analysis focused on the difference variables and velocity of the ball performed by experience and inexperience subjects. Qualisys Track Manager Software was used to record and analyze the movement of subjects lower limb while to analyze the Myomonitor Wireless EMG systems was used to analyze the muscle activity of the subjects.


Qualisys Track Manager

Qualisys Track Manager (QTM) is a Windows-based data acquisition software with an interface that allows the user to perform 2D and 3D motion capture. QTM is designed to provide both advanced features required by technically advanced users and a simple method of application for the inexperienced user [X]. QTM was used to record and analyze the lower limb movement and also to analyze the difference variables and velocity of the ball.

Kinematic variables determined from the digitized 3D data, were used to describe six positions adopted by each pusher analyzed as follows:

Resultant ball velocity (RBV): corresponding resultant velocity after stick release from the ball.

Average drag velocity of the ball (BDV): corresponding average velocity of the ball from the initial position output until the last minute the ball contact with the stick.

Length of time of drag (BDT): a period in which the first movement of the ball until the ball release from the stick.

Distance ball has been dragged (BDD): distance between the position of the ball at the beginning of movement until the release from the stick.

Stance with (SW): distance between both second metatarsal. Distance from the ball to the front foot (BF): distance of the right second metatarsal from the ball.

Angle of the right knee (ARK) and left knee (ALK) : relative angle between thigh and leg segments.

Six key positions adopted by each subjects were used in the experiment were:


Technique 1 (free style): Starting position- right foot parallel to the bottom line, left foot pointed to the target, left hand on the top of the stick and right hand in the middle of the stick with right index finger in the axial direction of the stick. During the movement, the subject transfers the weight to the front leg.


Technique 2 (reduce stance width): This technique same as in technique 1 but the subject is required to reduce the stance width from the position in technique 1.


Technique 3 (increase stance width): This technique same as in technique 1 but the subject is required to increase the stance width from the position in technique 1.


Technique 4 (front foot positioned near the ball): This technique same as in technique 1, but the front foot positioned near the ball.


Technique 5 (front foot increased from the position of the ball): This technique same as in technique 4 but the subject required to increase the position of the front foot.


Technique 6 (increase more front foot from the ball position): This technique same as in technique 4 but the subject required to maximize the distance between front foot from the ball. Measurement Volume Definition

A measurement volume of 300 cm (Length) x 300 cm (Width) x 150 cm (Height) was defined by using four reflective markers and the L-shaped calibration frame that was place in the middle of the measurement volume. This measurement volume will be calibrated and measured by the camera system. Camera System

Five Oqus Camera were used in this project. The five cameras used in the project were indicated as C1,C2,C3,C4, and C5. Each of these cameras were mounted onto the layout of experiment setup was shown in Figure 3.1 , while Figure 3.2 shows the actual image of the layout setup that appeared in the QTM software.

Target C5 C3 C4 C2

C1 Figure 3.1: The schematic diagram of the project setup

Data Collec Calibration

Calibration is a very important process before the system can be proceeds with the data collection. The calibration page contains calibration settings required to perform a correct calibration. It is very important that this data is entered correctly otherwise the motion capture data will not have as high quality as expected. Figure XX shows the calibration window with the desired settings required.

Figure 3.2: The calibration window of the QTM

When using Wand calibration it is important that the camera system have been place correctly to achieve a high quality calibration. The calibration wand should be moved around the measurement volume during the calibration process and in a way that it is visible. The calibration wand is moved inside the measurement volume in all three directions. This is to assure that all axes are properly scaled. The calibration algorithms will extract each cameras position and orientation by evaluating the cameras view of the wand during the calibration. The wand was moved in one direction at a time, by holding the wand positioned in the Z axis as example the straight line between the two wand markers should be parallel to the Z axis. The wand was moved in the entire measurement volume. It is important to fill the entire measurement volume with calibration points. Then, the same procedure was repeated by positioning the wand in the X and Y direction. The position of the calibration wand movement is shown in Figure X In particular, it is important to collect points where there will be many markers during the motion capture.

T-shape calibration wand

X direction

Y direction

Z direction

Figure 3.3: The movement of wand during the calibration axis

When the calibration was done a window with the calibration results was shown as in Figure XX. The results will shown if the calibration passed or failed and the calibration quality results. Basically, the calibration results need to pass in order to continue collection of the desire movements.

Figure 3.4: The calibration result


Reflective Makers Placement

The spherical reflective markers of diameter, 19mm were attached on the both sides of the subjects lower limb to observe the respective segments movement during push-in. Figure X shows the position of the markers which were attached on the subjects hip, knee, ankle, and second metatarsal joint.

Figure 3.5: The position of markers on the lower limb

The markers were attached to the subjects by double adhesive tape. The anatomical points and labels of the reflective markers which were placed on the respective segments are shown in Table X.

Table 3.0: Marker

A B C D E F G H I Anatomical Position Right Hip Right Knee Right Ankle Right 2nd Metatarsal Left Hip Left Knee Left Angle Left 2nd Metatarsal Ball


Kinematic Data Recordings

Before the experiment will be carried out the subject were given time for jogging on a treadmill about 15 minutes. It is to enhance muscle strength before starting the test. Then, the subject were given time for warming up with some basic push-in and to slightly adjust their position of pushing to ensure that the subjects were perform in a more comfortable position during the test.

Then subject was directed to stand on the position of the penalty corner push-in area which was within the measurement volume area. This project uses a kinematic approach and the parameters are focused on the lower limb movement.

The capture rate was set at 100 Hz, which is equivalent to frames per second. The duration of the capture was set to eight seconds, and the capture procedure began when the subject were ready to perform the test.


Identification and Analysis of Kinematic Data

Once the motion was captured successfully, the measurement was shown in 3D view (Figure X). Then, the respective trajectory markers were identified according to the location. Table X shows the labels and color codes for each of reflective markers.

Figure X : The 3D view of the kinematic data captured

Table 3.1: Labels of anatomical positions and color codes for reflective markers. Marker
A B C D E F G H I Anatomical Position Right Hip Right Knee Right Ankle Right 2nd Metatarsal Left Hip Left Knee Left Ankle Left 2 Metatarsal Ball

Color Brown Yellow Green Blue Orange Turquoise Lavender Red Gray

Next, bones were connected between markers to form a body structure after finished labeling the markers. Figure X shows the 3D view of the lower limb.

Identified and labeled markers Bone

Cropped Timeline

Figure 3.6: The 3D view of the lower limb



Electromyography (EMG) is an experimental technique concerned with the development, recording and analysis of myoelectric signals. Myoelectric signals are formed by physiological variations in the state of muscle fiber membranes [X]. Myomonitor Wireless EMG systems was used to record muscle activity during the push-in as shown in Figure X.

Surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and biceps femoris as shown in Figure X. The EMG signals were recorded at a sampling frequency of X Hz. The

maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension/flexion was measured using Delsys EMGworks Analysis.


Statistic Analysis of Data

The comparison and differentiation between the two groups of players were analyzed by SPSS software. SPSS software provides a wide range of data analysis and it is a useful tool to analyze large amount of numerical data. Independent T-test was used as the method to analyze the kinematic data since there were two groups of participants with same variable to analyze.

For EMG value, the Paired-Samples T Test was used as the method to analyze muscle activity since this method can compares the means of two variables for a single group. The procedure computes the differences between values of the two variables for each case and tests whether the average differs from 0. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the knee angle and muscle activity. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05.

T formula for T value can be calculated using the following formula: t=(

2) 2



represents the mean difference and

represents the standard error


The formula for degree of freedom can be calculated using the following formula. df = n1 + n2 2 (2.0)

Where df represents the degree of freedom, n1 is the population of group one and n2 is the population of group two.

Calculation for mean difference between two group is: Mean Difference =

(3.0) Hockey Stick

The hockey stick used in this project is Grays Dare Evolution Wooden Stick SG037. The length of the stick is 36.5 with the weight is L and maxi headshape. This stick is chosen to be used in the project due to new stick for 2010 and ideal for players to improve their techniques and skills [X].