You are on page 1of 144

me

TRAVELERS
OFFICERS

SPORTSMEN

WITH PHONETIC
PRONUNCIATION.

California Regional
acility

M.A M

an tab.

FOREIGN LANGUAGES MADE EASY


BY USING

Maryborough's Self -Taught Series


Containing Travel Talk for Railway and Steamboat, Customs, Hotel, Post Office, Conversations, Classified Vocabularies, Trading, Commercial, Amusements, Cycling, Photography, with the English Phonetic Pronunciation arranged for learning at a glance, Elementary Grammar, Tables of Money (American and English Values), Weights and Measures.

French Self-Taught

flexible cloth

German Self-Taught
Italian Self-Taught

flexible cloth
flexible cloth

Norwegian Self-Taught
Russian Self-Taught Spanish Self-Taught Swedish Self-Taught Greek (Modern) Self-Taught Hungarian Self-Taught

flexible cloth
flexible cloth

flexible cloth flexible cloth


stiff stiff

cloth cloth

ENGLISH SELF-TAUGHT
For the French
.
.

L' Anglais sans Maitre


flexible cloth

For the Germans For the


Italians
.

Der Englische Dolmetscher


flexible cloth

L'Inglese Imparato da Se
flexible cloth
.

For the Spaniards

El Ingles para Cada Cual


flexible cloth

For sale by

all

Booksellers

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER, PHILADELPHIA


i

WE WANT YOU
TO BUY THE

Cheapest and Most Reliable


VEST-POCKET DICTIONARIES PUBLISHED IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES THUMB TWO PAHT8 Iff ONE VOLUME 50 Cloth binding, Fabrikoid binding, gold title, 60
French-English and English-French
CtSc cts.

German-English and English-German


Spanish-English and English-Spanish
Italian-English

***'!

HILLS

";
|'

LATIN-MUSH

and

English-Italian

Latin-English and English-Latin

Swedish-English and English-Swedish

Dano-Norwegian-English and English-Dano-Norwegian UNIFORM WITH ABOVE:

Webster Pronouncing Dictionary


the English

of

Language

Hill's

Vest-Pocket Dictionaries
COMPLETE GUIDE
list

are the cheapest and most complete books of handy size, convenient alike for the traveller, the student and the busiEach volume contains a ness man.

TO PRONUNCIATION with
common

also a expressions and short conversations. Index makes reference exceptionally easy.
rules

and

of idioms,

The Thumb

Per sale by

all

Booksellers

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER, PHILADELPHIA

MARLBOROUGH'S SELF-TAUGHT SERIES

Russian Self-Taught
PHONETIC PRONUNCIATION

Capt. C. A.
AND

THIMM
M.A.

J.

MARSHALL,

FOURTH EDITION, REVISED

PHILADELPHIA

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER


604-8 SOUTH

WASHINGTON SQUARE

PREFACE.
geographically, politically and commercially, is expanding developing rapidly and it becomes every year of greater importance for politicians, officers of both services and civil administrators, as well as for commercial men, to be acquainted with its language.

J-V

D USSIA, and

This is so well understood in Germany that the Continuation Schools there have introduced the Russian language as a eompulory subject, and if Great Britain wishes successfully to cope with these Powers in extending her commerce and trade, and to obtain for her capital and enterprise their full value, her own Schools should seriously take up this question, and teach Russian in a practical form.

In the following pages I hava endeavoured, with the able assistance* of Mr. John Marshall, M.A., a weli-known resident in St. Petersburg for many years, to prepare a handbook of the language, with its difficult and intricate grammar, in as simple and a manner as the " SBU-TAUGHT "
easy
of
possible,

employing

PHONETIC PBONUNCIATION

for every

be carefully noted that the phonetic columns are not in any sense a transliteration of the Russian Characters, but a consistent effort to express by English spelling the correct sound of Russian words spoken by the educated classes of St. Petersburg.

word throughout.

It

method must

In the selection of vocabularies and phrases, those have been adopted which will prove of most practical service to the traveller, and which have been found so valuable in other volumes of the " SELF-TAUGHT " Series. An exhaustive list of
Naval and
;

Military Terms has fjeen introdnoed for the benefit of Officer! taking up Russian fot the Staff College or for Interpretership and business men will find many Commercial and Trading Terms and Phrases for their wants.

This manual is intended to be used as a TEXT- BOOK for Schools and in preparation for examinations, as well a* for SELF-INSTRUCTION, and my hope is that those who study its pages may find much assistance, and be encouraged to master a literature of much interest, and become better acquainted with a nation, kindly, cultured, and highly linguistic.
0. A.

THIMM.

LOKDOIT, 1901.

The BaasUn
"-*,

text through oat,

*od tbe Elementary

armm*r wen

by Mr. Uartball.

CONTENTS.
Alphabet, in Russian or Printed Characters, with English ... Equivalents and Phonetic Pronunciation ...

Russian Written Alphabet (Handwriting Large and Small


Letters)
...

...

...

...
... ...

... ... ...

Vowels and Consonants ... Preliminary Notes VOOABULABEBB. Pages 18 to


:

...
...

...
...

92a 10 11

78,

and

108, 114, 115


...
... ...

and 126.
...
...

Animals, Vegetables, &c. Animals, Birds and Fishes ... Flowers and Fruit
Insects and Reptiles
...

... ... ... ...

Trees and Vegetables Colours ...

... ...
..

~.
... ...

^
...

...

Commercial Terms Countries and Nations


Cycling Fishing Holidays in Russia

...

16 19 19 19 41 70
89 125 78 S8 27 26 27 22 21 28 24 114

House, The Eating Utensils Furniture

..

Mankind; Relations
Body, The Dress

... ...

...

...

...

Human
...
...

... ... ...


...

...
...
...

... ...
...

...
...

Food and Drink Washing List


Military Titles

... ...

... ...
...
...

...

...

... ...
...

~
...

.
...
...

Naval and Military Terms


Notices
...

66 67

...
...

Numbers

(Cardinal, Collective, Ordinal)

124 41 to 44

Parts of Speech Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions and Verbs ... ... ... ... 44 to 56 ... 108 ... ... ... ... Photography ... ... 31 Professions and Trades ... ... 32 ... ... ... ... Ships and Shipping ... ... ... 78 ... ... Shooting ... 35 Time and Seasons ... ... ... ... 29 ... Town and Country ... ... ... ... 122 Post Office ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 ... ... ... Travelling 70 ... ... ... ... ... Trading Terms 18 World, The Land and Water... ... 14 ... ... ... ... ... Minerals and Metals ... ... ... ... Writing

...15

ELBKXHTABT GRAMMAS.
COHVEBSATIONS.
Breakfast
...

Pages 79 to 92a.

Pages 98 to 132
...

100 131 132 ... ... ... 107 ... ... ,.. Correspondence ... 128 ... ... Cycling 102 ... ... Dinner ~. *~ ~. ... ... ... 104 ... ... Evening ~. 93 ... ... ... ... Expressions: 99 ... ... Anger, Joy, Reproof, Sorrow, Surprise 93 ... -.. Useful and Idiomatic ... ... 116 ... Health ... ... ... ... Idiomatic Phrases ... 93 to 99 ... 100 ... ... . . ~. Inquiries 105 ... . . In Town ... ... ... 130 . . ... ... Money Changing American 133 ,, Equivalent Values; Russian, English, 123 Order 138 Tables English and American reduced to Russian 133 ... 98 ... Note on Conversation ... ... 108 ... ... ... ... ... Photography 93 ... ... _ ... Phrases, Neceisary
...
...

...
...

... Commercial Travellers' Wants Note for Commercial Travellers ...

...

_ _

Post-Office

...

...

... ...

...
...

...
...

1212

Railway Shopping Dressmaker Laundress Shoemaker Tea Telegrams

_
... ...
.

... ... ...

_
...
...
...

... ...

~.
...
...

_
...
*.

... ...
...

...

_
...

~.
...
...

~.
...

...

...
...

Time
Travelling Arrival
:

...

...

116 110 Ill 118 119 108 199 104

...

*w
...

Changing Money
Cycling Hotel Notices
Post-Offioe
...

..._. .;*
.

'

._

Railway Steamboat Telegrams Town, In

_
...

~.
...
...

.~
...
...

_
~.

_ _
...

190 130 19i 191 194 192 116 119

1M
105 190

Tram

...

.~

Washing Lists (Gentlemen, Ladies, Linen) ... Weights and Measures

~.

114 to 118
...

184

Metric System (Note on the)

...

US

KUSSIAN SELF-TAUGHT.
The Alphabet with English Equivalents and Phonetic
Pronunciation.

The Russian Alphabet has 36


Ruwian
Printed
Characters.

letters:

-? ^"^ JenU
a, e, o.

wn<noh

Name and
'

Phonetic Pronunciation.*

U) A, a.

(ah}

when

accented,

like

ah as a in

W B, 6.
(*>

father, as 6pax-i, (braht) Brother. When unaccented it is very short, as a in about, t


b, p.
( beh") as

B.

v. f .

i in both, except when followed by a hard consonant, when it is sounded as p, as Tpy6isa (troop'ka) pipe. (yeti) like v in vile, except before the hard consonants and at the end of words before * and b, when it sounds like /,

W) T,

r.

g, k, h,

as, OBija (ahftsah') The sheep. (gheK) at the beginning and in the middle

kh, v.

of words
as

it is

pronounced as g in

get,

At rpyiua (groo'shah) The pear. the end of words, and before the
consonant III, it sounds as k ; as, can6r% (sapok') A boot. In some half-dozen words it is pronounced like h in have, as 6jiaro
(blah'hah) Well. In a few words before
K, k, and in in -6ypri, it is (see letter 22) i.e.

German
kh,
as

place
E<5rt

names
x

pronounced
(myakh'ka),

like

(bokh),
Softly
;

God

MHPKO

IIeTep6ypr*

(Peterboorkh') St. Petersburg.


*

beh, veh, gheh, etc., are short, like be, ve, ge, in bet, vet, get,
it is

and

so on.

f preceded or succeeded by palatals (29),


at, e.g.

Din 5=p&t

pronounced

like

a in

Character*.
<*)

V"*>>>

.,

Fame And

Phoiwtio ProtmndaUon.

[continued].

In the terminations

aro, *ro, oro, ero of the Genitive case of Adjectives or Pronouns, it is sounded like v, as

fl,,

A.

d,

t.

Moero (mah-ye-vo') Of my. (<&A) like rf, except at the end of words and before the hard consonants and semi-vowels, when it is sounded like

^ora^Ka (dahgaht'ka) A riddle ; Glad. Between the consonants 3 and H it is NOT sounded, a
t,

as

paa-i, (rat)

E,

e.

ye,

e.

n6sAHo (po'zna) Late. (eh) at the beginning of


syllables it
is

words
like

and
ye in

jo, o.

pronounced

yet, as CAHHI (yedin') Single. In other cases it is mostly sounded


e, but softens preceding consonants (see letter 29).

like

When accented, and before one or two consonants followed by a hard


vowel or semi-vowel, it sounds with few exceptions as yo, as ejiica (yol'kah)

The

fir.

After the consonants K, *, m, m,, * it has the sound of 0, as JKOJIIB


(zholch) Gall.

When

it

is

to be

pronounced as yo

or o many writers place a diaresis (") over the e (e), and whenever it is so pronounced it will be marked in the
.Russian characters.

JK,

m.

zh, sh. (zheK) like the

French j in jow;

it

will

be represented by zh, and pronounced as the * in measure (mea'zhure) ; before hard consonants and * and it sounds like sh, as My** (moo'sh)
i>

Husband

Rnwlan

_ Printed , tm Characters. BqnivalenU.


<8>

.,-.,

Name and
(zeti)

Phonetic froanndatton.

8,

z, B.

pronounced like z,as 8aBTpa(zabi'tr)

To-morrow ; but at the end of words and before hard consonants and the semi-vowels * and t it sounds as ,
as <MH8b (slees) letter 29.)
<W H, H.
ee, ye.
(ee)

Slime.
the
it

(For

*,

see

beginning of a follows a consonant, pronounced as ee, as HAM (eedee) Go ; after the semi- vowel & it sounds as yee, as cxaTbH (staiyee')

by

itself

at

word, or when

<10>

I,

i.

ee.

(For t, see letter 29.) same sound as the pre(ee) ceding letter H, and is only used before
articles.

The

has the

vowels,

with

the

exception

of

the

word Mip% (meer) The world, to distinguish the latter from amp* (meer)
Peace.
C") K, B.

k, g,

(kah) like k in the word key, as


(kot)
a,

KOT*

kh.

The

cat.

Before the soft consonants 6, 4, , it sounds as g in green, as K-& Bory (gbo'hoo) To God. "When before the hard consonants K, T, n, it is pronounced as kh, as KTO
(khto)

Who.

<

>

A,

j.

1,

I.

(el)

very hard, as I in halt before hard consonants, vowels and semi-vowels. Soft, as I in leer if followed by a soft consonant or semi-vowel.

To pronounce

the

hard sound

the

tip

of the tongue must touch the teeth. Example: (Very hard) njiyr% (plook)

plough.
:

Example
(For
I,

(soft) JIBCT* (?eest)

leaf.

see letter 29.)

Rwsian
Printed K ,",.nu Character* Jsqun
f13 )

Name and

Phonetic Pronunciation.

M, H.
H,
H.

m.
n.

(em)
(en)

as the English m.
like the

f14 )

^6> 0,

o.

o, a.

English n, bnt pronounced with tip of tongue against teeth. like o in not, but if unaccented as ah, like a in father, as ^o6p6
(dahbro') The good. like the English ^.

C*)
< 17>

n, n.
P, p. C,
e.

p.
r.

(peh)

(*r as in error')
t.

*>

B,

like the English r, trilled with the tip of the tongue (arr-r-r). as s in the word moss; it sounds (ess) as 2 before soft consonants, as C6op

(zbor)
fl*)

A meeting.
t,

T,

T.

t,

d.

(Uh]
as

like
d, as

but before soft consonant*


OTAETI, (ahddahi')

To
is

give

back. Between C and as B.iacTHbiii (vlahs'ny)


(20)
< 21 > C 22)

mut, Commanding.
it

7t
,

OQ,
f.

( 00^

ag 00

n ,^ ^

4,
X,
x.

(feh)

as as

in ^r*.

kh.

(AA)

(23)

ij, n.

t.
ch, sh.

kh (ch) in Scotch ZocA, but deeper, as A^-i (dookh) Ghost. as te in tfo, as nwH6BK (tsynof'ka) (tsefi)
Mat.
(cheh) as cA in church, but in ITO before H it sounds as sh, as (shto) what Of course.
;

C 24)

H,

i.

and

TTO KOH^MHO (kahnesh'nah)


in *&0r,

(^

III,

m.

sh.

(sha? as

in sham) like sh UIyT% (shoot) Fool,

as

^m, m.
t

hch.

(shcha) like AcA in fresh cheese, as (shchee) Cabbage soup.

27)

t, *.

(wwfe, Aarrf sign) is NOT sounded, but it hardens the consonant which precedes it, as KpoB-fc (krof ) Roof.
y.

"*>

M,

u.

(-'

as in
is

the sound of i in bit wisdom) ; the nearest to this letter, but deeper.

Russian Printed
Eq^fv'iienU.

Name *nd

phouetic Pronunciation.

t>

b,

b.

(mute, soft sign) this letter is NOT sounded, but it softens the consonant which precedes it, as east (vjahs) The

swamp.

0)

"B, *.

ye, e,

(eh)

yo.

is a SOFT vowel and has the same sound as the Russian (letter 6). It

usually pronounced as ye(t) at the beginning of words or syllables, or else as with palatalised consonant preceding. In a few words when accented
is

as o, as c*A-*a (syod'la) Saddles, the preceding consonant being palatalised.


<

n>

3,

e.

(eh)

like

in

end,

as

noTi

(pahef)

Poet.
C*8)

H),

yu, u.

(yoo)

like yu in yule at beginning of a word or syllable, as ^ati (dayu') I give; else as u in put, but palatalises preceding consonants (see letter 29).

(")

fl,

*.

ya, ye, (yah) like yar in yarrf when the beginning of words a, e.

accented
and

at

syllables,

as HMa (yar'rna) Hole. Unaccented as ye, as Hfin6 (yeytso') In other cases (i.e. when not Egg.

beginning a word or syllable)

it is

pro-

nounced accented as a, unaccented as e, but the previous consonant is


always palatalised, as MHTI. (myall/) To crush; na.MHTb (pah'metf) Memory. is only used in words derived (feetah)

<*>

6,

f.

from the Greek, and

is

pronounced

as /, representing the English th, as

AwHHbi (afee'ny) Athens.

<W V,

v.

ee.

()
as

like

ee

(see

letters

and

10).

Occurs in a few words of Greek origin,

Mvpo (mee'rah) Chrism

10
RoMlan
Printed

* Cnaractar*. Equi

,,}

Hiurtlah ntou

Name and

Phonetic PronuncUtlon.

<M)

H,

i.

i.

(ee ghort)

occurs aa second half of diphIt should be pronounced thongs. rapidly with the vowel that precedes it, and resembles the letter y in boy, may, say, &c. To represent the sound of this letter i will be used, aa A*"
;

(dai) Give

poi

(roi)

Swarm.

VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.


The Simple vowels
a
(a), fall

into

(e),

(o),

father, set, hot, put,

(u), bit.

u
As:

(y)

two classes: (1) Hard: which sound as in jana (lahpa) paw; 5xo

(etah) this; BOpt (vor) thief; nyib (poof) way; 6UTb (byf) to be; BOpOBCTBO (varafstv'o) stealing. (2) Soft: a. (ya), e or t (ye e), e (and t) (yo), (yu), H or i (yi i), which sound as in yard, yet, you,
yule,

yean or ravine.

As

Ana (ya'ma) pit, euy (yemu') him ixaib


,

(ye'kha/)

to drive; ejlKa (yol'ka).

DFB (yuk) south; HMt lighthouse cieTi> (se'yet) sows ; nHTaTB (pitah^) to feed . . . Consonants before these vowels are pronounced soft: d as in dear; Tep&Tb (teryahf) 4H)HM'B (dyu'im) inch,
;

upio6pi.li> (priabryol') obtained; (yim) to them; so: MaflKt (maya'k)

and

The

r as in fearful, rear ; nflTB (pya<) five, p as in peer. letters e (), u (i) after a consonant may be

transcribed simply e, i, as all consonants except as, m, U are pronounced soft before them. N.B. Unaccented X e naxa (petah ) heel After x, in, u e==o: meji (shol) went, men (zhok) burnt; = hi xapi (zhyr) fat. while u, i The diphthongs are all accented on the first vowel: ifi (ahi), on (6i), yd (ooi), efi (yei) H)3 (yui). Examples: aflea (4iva) quince,
1 : :

yuMa (ooima) heap, 6ea

fbei) strike.

e, ye. Except th'at in a few words it has the sound of yo: 3Mi>3dbi(Bt&rs): zvy6zdy,nfiioffprb^z(6btained):priabry6L HiMCHb (barley): yechmen, ye, i, when unaccented: nnmtidecnm* (50): pidesyarf.

Consonants:
T = (x) kh before K, (God); 6oitA.
T,

*: JiezKd (lightly): lekhko, and in


in

Eon

gh

(as in

German Tage)

#feo (God's); Bogha, Focnddb


0*0

(the Lord) Haspo?. v in the adjectival endings (b) dotipazo (of the good) dobravah.

MO

eto

ottr

(x)

kh, before

K, in,

*: tf/<f (who): Tthto.

H=(ui' sh in mi9 (what?) s/tfo and sometimes before HapdiMO (purposely) naroshnah. A double consonant is pronounced long; a doubk Note. rowel as two syllables. Accented vowels are sounded somewhat longer than accented, which in polysyllables are hurried over.

PRELIMINARY NOTES.
that the Russian Alphabet should b mastered at the outset and the best plan to adopt is to copy with care each letter repeatedly, until it is fixed in the mind; for this purpose only two or three should be dealt with at a time and not the whole alphabet.

It

is essential

It will surprise the student to find how quickly the characters in their various positions will be understood and secured in the memory for future use.

The pronunciation of Russian being more difficult than that of any European language the student should take every opportunity of studying carefully the phonetic given throughout this work and practise it upon any and every occasion when he may meet a native of that country. He must on no account allow timidity of pro* nouncing words incorrectly to check him, and he will find that he will be readily understood even in cases where he has not succeeded in mastering the exact tones or inflection of the words. Where no opportunity occurs the words and sentences should be always repeated aloud until the sound as well as the words themselves are familiar to the mind.

II
In studying a language
it

is

always

an

excellent

method to learn by heart as many words as possible, somewhat in the manner of a child, who expresses itself without knowing spelling or grammar. As will be noticed, Russian is not spelt as it is
pronounced, the orthography being based on that of another language (Old Bulgarian), each letter has a normal and one or more occasional sounds and the same sound is
vide Alphabet, letters expressed by different letters: 6, 30, 31; 9, 10, 35, 36; 21, 34 &c. The system of Phonetic Pronunciation her* used is the same as that adopted in the other volumes of THK MARLBOEOUQH'S " SBLF-TAUQHT " SERIES (see list at back of

Cover) and conveys the sounds of the words as pronounced by the educated classes of St. Petersburg; it is impossible however to give within the limits of this little hand-book
all the niceties of pronunciation and spelling in the form of rules and whilst the English equivalents as laid down in the preceding pages have been adhered to as far as is possible, it has been found necessary in some cases in the Pronunciation column to make exceptions. The apostrophe (') is used to denote stress or accen-

tuated syllable; the hyphen

(-)

indicates that the syllables

must be pronounced separately.

The
by
italics

soft
(I,
t,

(palatalised)

consonants will be expressed

&c).
acute accent used in the Russian characis

N.B.

The

ters denotes

stress which

very strong.
either

Monosyllables may be

accented or

not, to

the latter class belong pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions and other particles. The rules for GENDERS are very simple:

Masculine

are all substantives ending with

*B;

a few

in b, as rBOSflb (nail); and those in a, e, denoting males, as GJiyra (servant), no^MacTepLe (foreman). b. Feminine are those in a, a, and most in

Neuter,

in

e,

and

na.

Note. It ii usual not to mark the accent In Russian word* of one yUafile, bat la order to simplify the study of the language and its pronunciation toil rule has not been adhered to.

IS

VOCABULARIES.
I.

The World and


(Mipi.

its

Elements.

n
IB

ero craxin.)
no
article in Russian,

Note.

There

y^gitrt.

Engliih.

15
Bngllth.

Banian.

Vnglirt.

English.

18
Engliih.

BuiiUn.

agHih.

Bngllih.

nglUh.

English.

English.

English.

EngTItli.

26
1frgHfh,

Bngliah.

MM,

Engliih.

so
Englich.

Ruisiin.

81
English.

Banian.

n
English.

Buiiian.

33
KnglUb.
Bnatiaa.

Kngliih.

u
Kngliih.

Banian.

Pronunciation.

Bagliih.

Kuiiiwt.
|

87
English.

Bntlian.

Bngliih.

39
English.

Euesian.

40
English.

Inglish,

42
Banian
Pronunciation.
Haitian.

Pronunciation

80 BoceMbjccarb vo'semdesetf 90 ACBaHocTO deveno'stah IGOCTO Bto


101
OAHHT,
,,
,,

700 800 900

ceMbcorfc

semso't

Bocejifccorivahsemso't
ACBflTkcdrk devetso't

ahdeen*

lOOOibicaia

ty'secha

110 de'set jecaib 120 dvah'taaf ABaAqaifc 130 tpuAuan ,, tree'tsai 200 ABicTH dve'stee 300 rpHcra tree'sta 400 ^eTKipecra chetee'resta 500 naibcdn, petso't 600 mectbCOTi shesiso't
1899. One thousand eight hun Tbicaia dred and ninety.

2000 4BtTiicai dve 3000 xpa tree


10,000 Aecan

ty'sechee

TbicaTfc de'sei

ty'eech

20,000 ABajuaib
TiJcair,

dvah'tsat

a million
Mu.uioHi ineeleeo'n

ty'secha vahaemso't deveuo'stah de'vef.

nne
33.

Ordinal Numbers.
Englirh.

Bufiian.

Pronunciation.

The

1st

49

JEngliiK

English.

41
Engliih.

47
BngUih.

48
Xngliih.

49
English.

Russian.

BO
English.

51
Kngliih.

Bnffian.

Pronunciation.

52
Engliih.

Kneiian.

Pronunciation.

58
Engllih.

Rusiian.

54
Engliih.

Kuisian.

55
English.

Bussian.

PronuncUtlon.

English.

Busiian.

57
English.

HuBsian.

5$
English.

Buiiiao.

English.

60
English.

Buisian.

English.

English.

English.
file,

Russian.

Pronunciation.

connecting

64
Xagliih.

Russian.

Pronunciation.

BDglilk.

Banian.

ProniLncUtio*.

hut

English.

67
EnglUh
Banian.
PronuncUtlom.

68
Bngliih.

Roman,

69
Engliih.

Bullion.

Pronunciation.

TO

30.

Commercial and Trading Terms.

(KoMMepiecicie
English.

TopioBtie TepsraHH.)
Pronunciation.

Kussian.

Account.

Settle-

Engliih.

BuBBian.

Pronunciation.

Bond

(in)

Engllih.

73
Bnglith.

Russian.

Pronunciation.

74
Kngliih. KuBiian.

PronuncUttoa.

75
Engliik.

Rusaian.

Pronunciation.

76
Kngllih.

Banian.

Pronunciation.

77
Bngllih.

Rusiika.

Pronunciation.

78

3i.

Shooting and Fishing.


English.

(Oxoia H pti6oji6BCTBO.)
Pronunciation.

Bussian.

Axe

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR.
In Russian, the parts of speech are: (1) SUBSTANTIVE, (2) ADJECTIVE, (3) NUMERAL, (5) VERB, (6) ADVERB, (4) PRONOUN,
(7)

PREPOSITION,

(8)

CONJUNCTION,

(9) (9

INTERJECTION.

The Substantive. There are three GENDERS: Masculine, Feminine and


The gender for animate objects goes by sex, else by ending of nouns. MASCULINE (M.) are (1) Names of males. FEMININE (F.): (2) Nouns in -&, -8 and some in -b. (1) Names of females. (2) Nouns in -a, -a and some in -L. NEUTER (N.): (1) Some names of living objects, when sex
Neuter.
:

is

not specified.

(2)

Nouns

in -o, -e, -Mfl.

There are two NUMBERS: Singular (Sing.) and Plural (Flu.) [Dual, only after numerals '2', -3', '4' and 'both'; see Six Cases: Nominative (Norn.), Accusative Numerals]. (Ace.), Genitive (Gen.), Dative (Dat.), Instrumental (Inst.) Prepositional (Prep.). [Vocative distinct from Nominative EojKe (God!), Focno^H (Lord!), One only in Slavonic:
?

(Father!)

.]

There are nine DECLENSIONS, three for each gender, arranged according to ending, (1) hard and (2) soft, as
follows:

CASE-ENDINGS ACCORDING TO DECLENSIONS.

so
.

Neuter.

(l)-o

81
Flu.

Nom.

jfsiu

83
(6)

Many Feminine and Neuter


I

Plural Genitives insert

o,

6 between two last consonants : CT6KJO (glass) Flu, Gen. CTCKOJII.

3eMja
Flo. Gen.

(earth)

FORMAL
in,
(1) etc.; pefieaoKT. (child), Plur.

VARIATIOFB.

CHOKV usually have Norn. Plural Norn, pefiara, Ace. Gen. peCan., etc. (2) Masc. in -aiuiHi, Pin. in -ane, Gen. -am>, etc: ABOpaHHHi (> noble), Plu. ABOpane, -HI etc. ; aiiiMHiaHHHi (Englishman), lane.
Masc. diminutives in

Masc. Sing. Gen. in -y denoting quantity, 'some': laiiiKa tea); *ynn> rafiany (a pound of tobacco). (4) Masc. Sing. Prep, in -y with Preposition in common phrases: BI nojh-y (in the regiment); aa upaw (on the edge). Nouns in -bfl, &e, -ie have Plu. Gen. in -efl, -ia: (5) cyAefi; pyatbg (gun), pyxefi; B3Bicxie (notice), 6' ud 8f e )
(3)

naw

(a

cup of

(6) -xi, -11, -IIIT>, -pi, -uta and -H\a, -ia, -ma after consonant, have Flu. Gen. in -e8: na4ewb (case), KJWYb (key), poma (groveX Boxaca (rein), Benma (squirrel): na4C^eH, pomeu, etc. (7) Feminine Sing. Inst. has -ow: -ofl, -ew: -efl, -iw: -fc

the shorter forms being


(8)

more

colloquial.

nouns have Plu. Inst. in -BMH for -HMB: A (door): 4BepbMii; jomadb: JOiiia^MH; jitoxu (people): JKJ4fcMH. ocTpOBi (9) Many nouns in -i, -b have Plu. Nom. in a, a:
-b

Some

(island): ocTposa; .lenapb (leech): JCKapa.


(10)

Some
6part

in -i, -b, -o

have Plural

-ba, -b6BT>, -baMi. -b

6parbfl; cy'Ki (bough): cy^ba; (brother-in-law): Sfltbfl; nepo (feather): nepba. few in -i have old Plu. Gen. Sing. Nom. nyAl (pud) : (1 1 ) AecflTb nyAi (ten puds); canon, (boot): napa canorb (a pair of

-ban:

(brother):

boots), etc.
(five

So

also:

Miioro pasi

(many

times); naib qejOBiui

men).

IRREGULARLY DECLINED SUBSTANTIVES.


(1)

ria>b (eye); Bdjocr, (hair): Plural

-a, %,
I

aiai,,

etc.

(2) rocnoAiiu'b ^Mr., gentleman); rocnOAa, -AI etc., 6ape, -pi, etc.

6apiiHi (Sir

master): Plural

4UTi (child): Sing. Gen. Dat. Prep. AHTHTH, Inst. AHTareMi, Plu. Nom. A^TH, Gen. Ace. A'BTGH, Dat. A'BTaM'b, Inst. AtTbMH, Prep, (o) Atiaxi. (4) AO^b (daughter), Maib (mother), form other cases from -epb: Gen. AOiepH, MaiepH, etc.
(3)

AflTHTCK),

83
(5) CbiHT> (son),
i,

CB3TB (wooer), KVJTB (godfather): Plural CMHGen. -OBCU, Dat. -OBLHMI, etc. Plural K ypu, Kypi, KypaMi . . . (6) Kypaqa (hen)
:

Dat
nyia

iyAO (wonder): Plural in -eca, -6ci . . . Plural OIH, yiiiH Gen. o*e"fi, yraefl, (8) OKO (eye), yxo (ear) o*aMi, yuiaMT. (9) njaMCHb (flame), nyib (way): Sing. Gen. Dat. Prep. H:
(7)

He6o

(sky),

(10) caaeni. (fathom):

PlurahGen. camem*.
.
. .

Plural cyAa, -OBI, -aMi (12) !03flHHT> (master) Plural xoSHCBa, -esi, -CBaMT, . . (13) XpncTooi (Christ): Gen. Xpacia, Dat. -iy, Voc. -T.
(11) cyAHO (ship):
: .

(14) qepnoBb

(church):

Sing. Geii. Dat. Prep, uepnaii, PI.

-eeii,

The

Adjective.
4T.

For List of Adjectives tee Pages 44 to

For the Adjective, which agrees with its Substantive a in- Gender, Number and Case, there are two forms: long and a short. Those Adjectives which (see below) use
long attributively, use the short predicatively 4o6pBlii le-HOB-BEt (a good man); HeJIOB-EKt floSpt (the man is good) niapOKaa piKa (a wide river); ptica
the
:

mnpOKa
(1)

(the river is wide).


fall

Adjectives

into four Classes:


quality, as:

QUALITATIVE denoting a
-ift.

(thick), xopoinifi (good),


(-ifi),

KpacHElfi (red).

TOJICTHM Endings -H#

-OH,

(b)

POSSESSIVE subdivided into (a) Individual and Common, both formed from names of animate objects,
(2)

and denoting respectively the relation of an object to an individual and to the species: (a) HBaHOBT. (John's), from HBaiTb (John); rjapeBt (belonging to the Tsar), ijapt (Tsar); ateHHH'B (wife's), ateHa(wife); and (b) pb'l6iil (fish-),
pbl6a
(fish);

Me^BTiJKiH (bear-),

MeABl^L

(bear);

6o6pOBl3

(a) -OBT>, from -t, 666pl> (beaver). Endings: -o; -6BT>, from -b, -8, -e or after JK, q, m, m, n; -HITB from -a, -a; -mJHi> from -n;a. -ofiifl, (b) -i**

(beaver),

-IXKIH; -HHBIH; -OBMH,


(3)

-eBHH.
the
substance: *

MATERIAL, denoting

84
(gold-);

SOJIOTO

(gold);

4epeBaHHbifl (wooden);
-Hbifi,
-flH(H)blfi.

(wood).

Endings: -big,

(4) CIRCUMSTANTIAL, formed from Adverbs of time and place: JTETHiS (summer); jiiio (summer), S^inraiii (here); a^iCL (here); TOrjanraifi (then); Tor^a (then);

MapiOBCKifi (March); Mapn> (March). Endings: -nili; -CKiii (from months).

There are THREE DECLENSIONS;

and III of which

distinguish hard and soft endings (see

Page

79).

CASE ENDINGS ACCORDING TO DECLENSIONS.


1.

Mas.
8ing.Nom.
Ace.
bia iflj.og
iu,

Nen.
oe, ee

Fern. as, nn
yio; K)H)

OH

=Nom.orGen.

85
Possessive Individual Adjectives have only short torm,

and Possessive, Material and Circumstantial Declension, except -in, -OBifi, -eflifl which only long, have Singular long, Plural short, 2 nd Declension.
;

3 rd Declension
I 8t

DECLENSIONS OP ADJECTIVES.
I.

II.

Mas.
Sing.

Neu.

Fern.
Aotipaa

Mas.

Neu.

Fern.

Nom.
Acc
-

Ao6pbiH 4o(5poe

Baro
AoCparo
AofipOMy
(0) AofipOMT,

A66

W
pbi6bflro
"

Gen. Dat.
Inst.

466^0 a
[(-ofl)

pbiObCMy
puiObHM'h

[(-cfl)

pbi6beio

Prep.
Flu.

(0)

AoOpOH

(OjpblSbCMl (o)pbl6bCfl
pblfibH

Nom.
Acc.

Ao6pbie

AOfipufl

IpuGbH
Ao6pbixi>
pb'l(5bHI1>

GEN.
Dat.
Inst.

Ao AO
(o)

pbl6bHMH
(0)

Prep.

Mas.
Bing.Nom. napeBT> A Acc- juapeei
juapeua

Neu.
-BO

80
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. is formed by adding

The Comparative
-mifl for

-ifimifi

f-afimifl)
ifi,

or

the long, declined as in Declension I (Page 83): -aa etc. ; and -ie, -e for the short ending, indeclinable. of $wo forms is explained at Page 83.
(1) -iihiiift.

-ee,

The use
cja(5bi

-te--iiBou

(living),

XHBiumiH,

JKHflie;

(weak), cjaGiuuiiii, c.iafiie. xcept: jeine'Bbifi (cheap), Kpacnsifi (red, beautiful), noSAuiu (late), TBep4biu (hard), fioraibifi (rich), Kpyrofi (steep), rycToii (dense), npocTofi (simple), TOJCTKIU (thick), lacTbiu (dense, frequent), qtfCTUH (clean), i which the long forma are regular, but the short not, viz.: jeuieeje, Kpacuie ^redder): npauie (fairer), po3%e, TBepse, Ooraie, npyie, ryiue, npome (and
-rie), TO-imc, qame, iiime. (2) -r, -K, -x give
(strict),

--,

-i-,

-ni-auinifi:

-e.

as:

cxpdrii

CTpo%aHiniu, CTpoxe; Kpiniuu (strong), Kpfcniafiinifi, Beirifi (old), Beraiauuiiii, Beirae. Except: AOjriu (long), (deep), pi4Kiii (rare), c.iajKii'i (sweet), Tomdfi (thin):
aojfcuie; r.iyfioqarimiu, r.tyowe etc., mnpoKifl (broad), mHpe; 4a.ieKiu (far), Aajbine.
-inifi as: BbicdKiii (high), BBJcuiiu, Bbiaie; (3) crapbifl, CTapiniH, cxapuie; ly^dfi (thiu, bad), lyAiiiifi, xyxe; BC^HKifl (greatl fiojbiuiii, 66-ibuie; Ma.ibifl (small), MeHbiniu, MeHbine; lopoinifi (good>

jyimifi, jyiine.

The
HH;afliuifi.

Superlative only exists as a separate form in


BbicoKifi, Bbicoqaginifi
;

pe.niKift:

Be.iH^afiinifl;

iia.iufl, Ma.itiiiuiH;

HiiSKiu

(low\

In other cases (i) the Comparative is used, with or best friend), Haawithout Ban- : - 6T> Mofi jyimifi ^pyri (he is jfiuiifl cnoco6i> yiHTbca (the best way to learn); or (2) the Positive with" caiiufi: caMbifi lopouiifi (the best).

my

The Numeral.
The Cardinals
their declensions.
(1)

Page 41) are very irregular The most important forms are:
(see

in

One.

Sing. Nom. 0411111, OJHO, ojiia; Ace. 04HHi> (04Mor6), 04ny, 04HO; Gen. 04Hord, 04Hofl; Dat. -OMy, -6u; Inst. -HMI, Plural (alone) Mas. Neut. Nom. oanii, -6fi; Prep. -OMT., -dfi. -HTi, -HMT>, HMH, -HXT>.

(2)

Two.

Fem. 04HB, -ill, etc. 4ea Mas. Neu. 4Ba, Pern. 48*, Common: 4By-n, -MT., -Ma, -li. So 66a, 66* (both), Mas. Neut. ofloHXi, Fem. o6i:

HXii, etc.
(3) (4)

(5)

(6^ (?)

Three, rpa. xpe-n> -MI, -MH, -xi. Four. HCTtipe, ieri>ipe-xi, -MI, HeiupbMa. Five, natb, Gen. Dat. Prep. naTii, Inst DflTbib. Thus mecTt, ceMb, 46BflTb, 4ec/iTL, Tpii.uiaTb. But BoceMb: BOCLMB, BOceMbio. Thus 60, 70, 80. nffnaecHra, i]HTH4ecflTH, -bio. Fifty. Forty, cdpoin, Gen. Dat. Inst. copoxa (Gen. Plu. -OBI in odpOKi C'OBT), 40 fortieti.). Thua: CTO, 4eBHHOCTO: -a.

87
(8) 200.

CTan.

ABiciH, 4Byn> COTT>, Thus TpncTa, leT

(9) 500. naifccoii,

DHTH

c.,

DHTB craMi, naibw CTUMH, IIHTB craiv

600, 700, 800, etc. (10) 1000. Tticgqa is regular.

Thus

The Ordinals

(see

Page 42) are regular (Adjectives, see Page 84).

The Pronoun.
Personal. (1) (to me), MHOK Mia (we), naci (us, of us), naMi (to (by me), o MHi (about me us), HaMH (by us), o naci (about us). (2) TU (thou), xe6a (thee, of thee), Tefii (to thee), Tofioro (by Bbi (you), eaci, uaM'b, Basin, o Baoi>. thee), o ie6i (about thee). Note. TU ia used only of God, the Tsar, near relations, lenranti, animals or in contempt else BU. peasants,
.

DECLENSION OP PHONOTJNB. a (1), Mena (me, of me), MHS

(3) OHT. (he),

OHO

(it),

(by

o HeMi. (about ), OHa (she), 6e ea (ot her), efl (to (her), OHH (they Mas. and Neu.), her), 4w (by her), o Hefi (about her). out (Fern.): eii>. uMb. HMH.
),

erp (him,

it;

his, its),

eMy

(to

),

HMI

Rejleaivi.
006610

(Singular and Plural.) Demonstrative. (5) cefl (Mas.), cie (Neu.) (this): cero, -uy, CHMI, o CCMT,; cia (Fern.), (Gen. Dat. Prep.) cefl, (Aco.) ciw, (Inst.) cew, -e~u. ciii (these), CUXT>, -MI, CHMH. TOTT> (Mas^), TO (Neu.) (that): TO-rd", -My, rtMi, o TOMI; ia (Fern.): TOH, Ty, TOW, TB (those), -11, -MT>, TOMB. 3TOTB, 3TO (this): aTOFO, -My, 3THMT>, Ofil, 3TOMT,; 3T8, tC.J JTB (these), -11, -MI, -MB. Relative, Interrogative and Indefinite: (6) KTO (Mas. and Fern.) (who, who?, some [one]): Kor<$, -My, KtMl, o KOMI. (Singular

(by),

(4) cefii (him-, o ccfit (about).


(

it-,

herself, etc.

of),

ce6t

(to),

and

Plural.)

YTO (Neu.) (which, etc.): *ero, -My, vtttt,, o qe'Mi. (Sing, and is regular (see Page 84). Plu.) KOTOpufl (who, which, etc.) .Possessive. (7) MOU (Mas.) (my), Moe (Neu.), Moero, -My, MOfl (Ftm.): MOH), Moeu, Moero, etc. Thus TBOfl (thy), -MOHMt, Moesii; CBOfl (my, thy, his, her our, etc., reflexive, referring to Subject). ;^ (8) Hami (Mas.), name (Neu.) (our): Hamero, -My, HaiiiHMT>, naiua (Fem.): -y, -efi, -ew Plural: Haimi,THii, -BMI, -BMH. HameMT>,
;

Thus too

saiui, (your).

The Verb.
For last of Verbs -ee Page*
Note.
47 to 62.

used as in Shakespearian English, viz.: in addressing God, the Tsar, husband, wife, near relation or friend, children, dependents, peasants, animals and in bu*e. In all other cases, the 2nd person Plural
is

The 2nd person Singular

88
REMARKS cv THE FORMS AND HEARINGS OF THE VERB. Besides voice, mood, time, number and gender, the
Russian verb distinguishes several kinds of actions for which there are sometimes separate forms. The time or circumstances are ascertained: I. (a) Definite.
a iHTaro (Tenept), I am (now) reading; OHT. uncart aio HHCbMO (Biepa), he wrote this letter (yesterday); OHT> luerb no AOport, he is going along the road (i. e. now or at some definite time); om> n-JbiBerb KI ao4K'B, lie swims to the boat.
(b) Indefinite.

The

action

is

general, habitual:
Hafiep-

puOa njaBaerb, a fish swims; a IHCTO 1041111 no CJKHOH, 1 often walked on the quay.

K.B. Observe im&Tb, nHcarb. bare only one form; while lojim, BJTH (go) UfcBaTb, n.ihiib (swim), have two forms. II. (a) Iterative (Past) or rej eated action. Example: ci^iTb, sit; but: a CH/KHBa.n> y nerd qaca no rpe, I-would sit with him

three hours together.


,(b)

Single (Past or Fut.^ action. Example: cryiaTb, knock; but: OHT. CTyKHyji BI 4Bepb, he knocked (once) at the door. N.B. Form: (a) in -binarb, -EBaib. -ait cOBarb: c6lbiBaTb, n.i&Katfc:
.
.

n.iiKHlaib, rep^Tfc:

r.iwtib

Tap&Tfc, KHBytb: KH44ib. r.iflHyib, njenraib: menByib.

(b) in -Hyib

ip6raifa:

Tp6Hy,

IIL

(a) Imperfect denoting unfinished action (Infin., Present, Fast, Future and Imperative.) (b) Perfect (Infin., Past, Future, Imperat.) a finished action, or one just begun: on HHTa.n> (I P-) KHBTV, nor4a n Bomeji he was reading a book when I Kostaary. Perf.) Example entered the room, fl npoinTJLn. BCW raseiy (Perf.), I have read the whole paper, fl 6yjy micatt (Inap.) qi^ufl 46Hb, I shall be writing all day Ona BHMI HanHmen (Perf.) 061 3TOMT), she icitt write you about it. OHI sarosopaji (Perf.),

differs from the Imperfect by a Preposition: jt-iaib (Imp.): CAijaTb (Perf.); micarb: HaiiiicaTb; iHTaib: npoimaTB. Some verbs distuiguish Imperf. from Perf. without Preposition : 43BaTb: Aart; 4tBaTl>: 4tTt; KOHHatb: KOHIHTB &c. Compound (Perf. verbs form their Imperfect from the Iterative form (II a)) no4nacaTb (Perf.), sign; nojniicLiBarb (Imp.), aajepacaib:
:
)

Form

he began to speak. The Pei lect usually

The Voices are: (l) Active (see above), (2) Reflexive: a Motor b, wash myself; a Goibcfc, I am afraid. (3) 'Reciprocal: OHH o(5

embrace (each other). (4) Middle: KHHra jierKt the book reads easily. niiCbMo nocbuaetca ^epesi BepJfiHl, the letter is sent through Berlin. Observe: (2), (3) ani self. (5) Passive: OBI BCBMB (4) are expressed by adding -cfc, -ca yBaxaeHi, he is respected by all OHI 6bUT> 334epwaHi iia rpamiii*, he was arrested on the frontier. Usually replaced by Active, Note. (5) is expressed by the verb <5hiTb and the Predicative form of the Participle Imperfect or Perfect Passive (-Ml; -n, -n).
HHjjaioTca, they

HHtaexca,

89

The Verbs
with Infinitive
ry.iflxb, KOJOTI,,

REMARKS ON THE COHJUGATIONB, two classes: (A) Regular: polysyllable* in -n preceded by a vowel; Examples: Aiuaxb,
fall into (b)

roBOpaxb, se.iixb, xoHyxb, xepexb; (B) Irregular: (a) with Infinitive in -TB preceded by a consonant, (0) Infinitives in -ib, -TH, -mH. The Kegular verbs are divided into 3 Conjugations: (I) Infinitives -axb, -HTb, -tTb. 1st Sing. Pres. in -H) preceded by vowel. (2) -oBaxb or -eBan, -yw or -KHU. (1) -aib, -aw (see 4iuan). BIO. Examples: (1) 4iuaxb, 4 fcjaR(4) -ixb, (3) -flxb, -aio.

monosyllables,

(2)

(4)

pncoBsxb, pHcyio; HMtXb, HMBHj.

mesaxt,
-tn,

ILHOIO.

(3)

ryaaib,

ryjaio.

(II) Infinitives in -HTb,


:

-OXb,

-an,
. . ;

1st Sing, in -H)

and with

softened final consonants -.IK>, -wy . 6 HB HTb X. A HTb - Tb Infin. M BTb 1 HXb 8 S Tb on axb axi, ra an
a-

thus :
C HXb

T HTb K tTb aib

X STb
arb

CT HTb CK tTL axb

*
H)

m
y
(1)

Present

jao

ay

^y

my

my

roBOpaxb: -pro, Be.iiit: -JKJ, KO.ioib: -jw; (2) JH)6HXb: -<5jib, aoBHTb: -B^K), xepnixb: -n.b, ApeMaxb: -M.iib, tpa*HTb: -*JH>; (3)xyafuxb: -y, Kpiinaib: -y, Abimaxb: -y, -y; i4)B04HXb: -y, BH4txt: -y, Hasaxb: -xy; (5) tuaxHr BepxiTb: -wy, n.iaKait: -ny; (6) npocuxb: -my, BHcixb: naxaib: -my; (7) ^iiciHXb: -my, xpycrtTb: -my, HCKaTb: -my.

Examples:

(III) Infinitives in -Hyib, -epexb, 1st

Person Sing, in -ay, -py.

Examples:

The
below:

xaay; (2) xepexb, Tpy. other Persons of the Present are exhibited in the table
(1) THHyri,,
(a)

Sing.

1.

(b)

(o)

(d)

y
euib
exi,

y
nujb
HTT.

2.
3.

eiub

Hinb

en,

HTI
HMT,

PlO.

1.

CMb
exe
roxi

6MI
6Te

HMT>

2.
3.

HTC

yn>

an

HTC HTB (ati)

Ib) Conj. Ill

Conj. I and Conj. II (1) in -OTb, (2) -aTE. and Conj. (4), (5), (6), (7) in -aTb. ic) Conj. II (1) and (2) exc. -on, -axb (see (a)). (3), (4), (5), (6) and (7) except those in -an, not (d) Conj. preceded by at, ^, in, m(a)

The Past in Conjugation (I) and (TJ) is formed by changing -n into -Jb, -ja, -ja, -JH (see 4iuaxb). In Conjugation (HI), some verbs in -HyTb and all those in -epexb are shortened; as: xanyTb:
TflHyxb but coxnyn: cozi, -jua, -uo; xepexb: xepi, The 2 nd Person Sing. Imperative ends in H,
-pja,
b,

H or

-pjio. i.

Example*:

A&iaa, OMUIH,

KOU,

Jtt6u, eipb, ro-roBb,

coma.

90

CONJUGATION OP A REGULAR VERB


Infinitive (imperfect) Ai-iaii.

(Active).

Past

Present Part. AtJa-wmifl, doing. (c) A'wa-BUiiH, having done.


Indicative Present.

Inf. (perfect) CAi-ian., to do. Pres. Gerund Atja-a, (in) doing.

Past (c) AtJa-BT>, having done.

-BUIH,

Indicative Past- Imperfect,


a

a AtJa-io, I do,

TU

AiJa-einfc,
oiia.

doing thou dost. ..


At.ia-eii., he, she,
[it

am

TM
. .

")Aija-.n>,I did,

was doing

OHT>,

OHO

[OHO >m.,-.iaf.,thou didst, wast,, oni,ona,J -.10 n., he,., did, was
1

MM
BU

At.ia-e MT>,

at-ta-eie,

we do you do

does

HU
BU
OHU out

we did, were
you
they
did,

Mi.ia.JB,
J

were*

OHH, uHt Atja-iOTi, they

do

Future Imperfect. 6yAy Ai-ian., I shall do, be doing (see verb Kurt below).
Future Perfect.
C4i.ia-Kj

Past Perfect. I did, have a CAt^-aji, -a, -o done, had done ... (as inlmperf.).
. .

...
.

done

I shall do, have (endings as in Pres.).

Conjunctive and Conditional. I should, a (cJAtjaj-i, -a, -o 6si would do, hare done ... (as in Past Perf.).
.

Imperative,
(c)*ija-ejn,, -MTC, let them do.

(c) Atja-fl!

let

do! nycri, (c)AtJaeri, let him do. us do. (cjntja-ftre do nycrt (c)Ai-ia-ioTi,
!
!

Note. 1. The Past, originally an adjective, has forms for the three genders.
2. The Conjunctive is formed of Past and 6u: (Imperf.) OHa nncua 6u jy^uie, ecjiu 6ti uMlia xopouiee nep6 she would write better, if she had a good pen, (Perf.) a notia.i b 6bi Ht OIOTV, ecjn (5u norOAa Cu.ia lopouia, I should have gone shooting, if

the weather had been

tine.

To Be. Gerund OSIBT,,


-Te, -yri, Past

Infinitive GblTi,, Present Gerund fijTAym being, Past ; -BEBH having been. Future 6j Ay, -emb, -CTT>, -em,
-ja,

I shall be, &c.


6bi.iT>,

6u

or, if

-JH I was, . . Conjunctive a 6bLn Imperative 6yAb! be! CyjhTe! be! The Present: am, art ... is omitted: OHT, Ao6pi>, he is kind, emphatic, expressed by 6CTf>.
-jo,
. .

I should be ...

The Participles 6yAynUfl=Puture, 6iJBiiufl=Past:


his

former chief;

na

tiyAymee,

for

erd 6hiBmifi the future.

HMiifc, Regular: OHI HMieii cofiaKV, he has a dog; more usually expressed: y Hero (sieHH, Te6)i, Hen, H3CT>, Baci, HHII.J ccifc codaKa he (I, thou, she, we, you, they) baa, have a dog.

There ia'=ecTb. To Have Infinitive

91

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN
Infinitive

-HTfc.

noroBOpHTb, to speak. Present Part. roBOp-auiifi, saying. Pres. Gerund roBOp-a, saying. Past Past (no)rOBOp-HBiniH, (no) roBOp-HBi, having said. -HBIQH, having spoken.
Inf. (Perf.)

rOBOpim, to say.

INDICATIVE PRESENT.
H iOBOp-k), I say, saying thou sayest ... Tbi roBOjMiinb,
OUT,, oiia,

INDICATIVE PAST-IMPERFECT.

am

a
")

roBop-ii.n> m., I said...


.

-H.ia f., thou saidst. . OHO roBOp-Hir,, he, she, n., he, she. it said MU roBOp-HMT, we say [it says . . . Mbi we said . . . 1 Bbi roBOp-Hie, you say Bbi irOBOp-HJH, you said OHH, OH* roBOp-flii, they say. OHII, onij they said...

Tbi

[OHO[ OHi.jOHaJ -HJO

FUTURE IMPERFECT.
fl

PAST PERFECT.
fl

6y4y roBOp-HTb, I shall say . . (see verb 6biTb, Page 88).

noroBOp-iLn, -ri.ja,

H.IO, I

spoke...

(as in Imperf.).

FUTURE PERFECT.
fl

CONJUNCTIVE AND CONDITIONAL.


.

noroBOp-K) ... I shall speak (as in Present).

fl

(no) roBop-i'Mi, u.ia, iuo, 6u . . . I should say, should have

spoken
I
!

IMPERATIVE, (no) roaop-n say, speak nycrb (no) roBOp-HTi I let him say, speak! (no) (no) rosop-uMi! let us say, speak! rOBOp-HTC! say, speak! nycib (no) roBOp-an.! let them say, speak!

CONJUGATION OF VEEBS IN
Infinitive Maa-aib, to smear.

-aii.

smear. PresentPart-Max-ymifl, smearing. Pres. Ger. Ma/K-a, -yin, smearing. Past Part, (c) Maa-asmiS, having Past (c) MaS-aKiim, having
Inf. Perf. CMas-aib. to

smeared.
INDICATIVE PRESENT.
fl

smeared.
INDICATIVE PAST-IMPERFECT. I smeared... fl "JMas-iUTi, Tbi [OHO l-aja, thou smearedst. OHT>. ona,J-a.io,he, she.it smeared..
Mas-ajii,

Ma/K-y, I

Tbi

smear Max-emb, thou smearest


it

owb, ona, OHO Max-era, he, she,


Mbi

1 Hax-eMi, we smear [smears Mbi Bbi Bbi sia/K-exe, you smear [ OHH, oat Maac-yTi, they smear. OHH, OHSj

we, you, they smeared, were smearing.

fl

FUTURE IMPERFECT. 6y4y Maa-atb, I shall smear, &c.

PAST PERFECT.
fl

ciiaa-a.n., I

smeared, &c.

Irregular Verbs. The Irregular Verbs have for the most part the same
GpHib:
Gpiio,

ter-

minations as the Begular, but the stem suffers changes, as:


Opieuib
. .

.,

cjbirb:

cxibiBy,

utiTb:

MOW, crjan:

CT6JK), &C.

92

The Adverb.
For

form of the The most common Adverb Neuter Singular of the Adjective, as: xopomo, well', Besides these there are Majio, little; MHOro, much many Adverbs which are various cases of Substantives
. . .
:

Lilt of Adverbs see Pages 62 to M. is the short

Biepa, yesterday; flOMa, at home yTpoarB, in the morning... or with Prepositions Hayra;n>, haphazard; saoAHO, together;
;

noioiTL, afterwards.

The Comparative is the short form of the Adjective: yMH6: yitHie; cleverly, more cleverly; xopomo: jyqme,
well, better.

The
For

Preposition.

List of Prepositions see Pages 62 to 68.

require certain cases, as follow: Genitive: Besi (without), A.IH (for), 40 (to, till), HST, (out of), (from), pa4H (on account of), y (at), H3b-3a (from behind) and nearly all Adverbs used as Prepositions: npoiUBT. (opposite), Ha uepxy (on the top of) ... Dative: Ki (to), BonpeKH (contrary to). Accusative: IIpo (about, for), CKBOSB (through), iepe3i> (across).

The Prepositions

on

Instrumental: Ha^i, (above), MCHJ4y (between). Prepositional: Ilpa (near, in the time of). Accusative (motion), Instrumental (rest) 3a (behind), n04i (under), nepeAi (before). Accusative (motion), Prepositional (rest): Bi (into, in), Ha (onto, on), o6i> or o (against; about, with). Genitive, Accusative, Instrumental: C% (from, since; equal to; with). Dative, Accusative, Prepositional: IIo (on, by; on, up to;
:

after).

The
a; 6y4

Conjunction.
62 to 66.

For List of Conjunctions gee Pages

The most common Conjunctions


but, and;
if

are:

He;KejH

than

Aa
eoiti,

eate^a

ate

H; 1160; HJH H TiiKT. KaKT> JH; Kor^a juo; AttWb


;

ae TOJiKO HOB notonly but also in order that, to HH( HH) neither, (nor) if however OAnaxo on the other hand noTOMy HTO because raxi ^TO so that and; for; or TO and so; to wit T6jbKO;iOTa(6u)only; although ?, (question); when ITO; Trdfiia teat; in order to or; only

moreover; and

92*
Tor LUt of Expression! see Pages M to 10*. Surprise: a! (ah!), an! (alas!), TO -TO! (really IV Joy: ypa! (hurrah!), xa xa! (ha ha!).

The

Interjection.

Fear:

Aversion: a! axi>! (ugh!) ah!), n>y! (pooh!). Pain and Grief: an, 6xi ! (ah! oh !), rope ! (woe !), JBU ! (ala* !> Exhortation: ay! Hye! (now! now then!). Hailing: afi! red! (halloo! hey!).
!

oft! (oh!), ax-re! (ah!).

THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET.


Printed and Written Characters.

A, a

E, 6

B, B

I\ r

&A
00

E, e

JK,

3, 8

a
H, H
I, i

*
0, o

0*0

K, K

.1,

M, M

H, H

n, n

u
P,p

* C, c

6
T,T

********
y,y

**

O,*

X,x

U,

11

H,

ffl,

III,

T>,

H,

L, t

fc,

3, a

K),

vt
fl, fl

up
9, e

"
V, v
fi,
fl

Barely used, never

ipiriala,

USEFUL AND NECESSARY IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS AND PHRASES.


H HG06XOJHMHH
II

JUUOMaTH'ieCKifl

o6opOTBI.)

NOTE. Inquiries for information may be opened by the phrase: Ey4&Te TEKT. A06pu (boot'te tak dahbry') Be 80 kind, [while raising the hat the inquirer being a man].
English. Russian.

Pronunciation.

If

you please

94
Engllih.

95
English.

Russian.

8
Xngliih.

BnttlML

PronuncUHoa.

Xngllib.

BngUfh.

ft

Expressions of Surprise, Sorrow, Joy, Anger and


ReprOOf.
(Inteijectioni lee

Page

93.*)

(Bupasenia HsyM.aemfl,
Engllih.

neqa.ni, pa^ocin,

rmBa H

ynpeica.)
Banian.
Pronunciation.

What?

100
Bngtlih.

Bntiian.

Pronunciation.

101
Bnfliih.
j

Buiilan.

102

Dinner.
Xagliih.

(06t;r&.)
11.

See Vocabularies 10 A
Buisian.

Pronunciation.

Show me

the bill-

103
JSngUih.

Buiiiao.

PrononcUtiom.

104
English.

Banian.

105
English.

BnisUa.

Pronunciation.

106
Knglish. Buitian.

107
English.

Butilan.

108
English.

Basstan.

S&glith,

110

EngUih.

Shopping. (IIoKynKH.) BM Vocboliei 0, 9, 10, li-, n. Pronunciation. BaUn.

How much?

Ill
Bngllfh.

112
English.
1

Basiian.

118
ngltah.

Haitian.

Pronunciation.

114
English.

Kusiian.

PronuneUtioB.

115
*TOE LADIXI.
Kugllih.

(/KeHCKO

Banian.

116

Health.
English,

117
XogVUh. EniiUn.
PronunciAtkM.

118
English.

119

Steamboat.
Bngliah.

Be* Vocabularies 15
Buggian.

(Hapoxdjp,.) * 16.
Pronunciation.

When do we start?

120
English.

Engliih.

122
English.

123
Bngliih.

124
English.

125

Cycling Vocabulary. (Cjiouapb


English.

^M

BGJiocnnejHCTOBi.)

Kngliih.

127
Eagliih.

Bunian.

PronancUtiom.

128

Cycling Phrases.
English.

(Opaati MO.

Bejocmejicron.)
PronuncUtioa.

I want my machine

129
English.

Ruisian.

Pronunciation.

ISO

Changing Money.
Engliih.

(Pa3MtHT>

Bastimn.

Where can

I get

131

Commercial Travellers' Wants.


TOprOBHTL areHTOBt.)
Engliih.

Bunii

Pronunciation

Please give

me the

132
English.

183

MONEY.
Russian

(Iem,ra.)

Money with English and American


Equivalents.
BT.

cpaBHemn

CT>

aHrjiificKHMH

Note:

P.

134

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

(BtCKl

H
English.

MEASURES OP LENGTH.
1 1
1

inch = foot = yard =


/rrt/\

English.
1

Russian.

(Mipu
(dyoo'im) ==

Russian.
AIO ii Mb

Awfiuy (dyoo'imoo)

*yry

(foo'too)

3 #yTaMT> (foot'am)
\

BepinoKT, (vershok') 1 foot *yxi (foot)

=
.

inch
! 3/4 in.

(220yds.)p aMl (loot am) mile (1760 yds.) l/j BPpcxu

r(SftZllCllV&rill * /
)

ft

4>\ J

T~

= =

apin.iHT. (arsheen')j|

16

BepmoKi
1

fT^ft

2 8 in. 4
'

(vershok')]"^

caweab (sazhen )
7

(versty')

*yxaMT> (foot'am)|

5 miles

7*/j

BCpcnJ

(versty').

=600ca,-KeHaMT>>= 1166 yds. J (sazhenyarm) j 2 ft. -= /j mile.

BepCTa(verstah')1

= 3500

yds. (=2 & l


ft.

WEIGHTS.
English.

(BtciJ.)

6.66 30oz. (Letter Post) i/j jOTHHKa (zolotneekah') = 0.56 t oz. *yffra (foo'ntah) 1 Ib. (16 ozs.) -= 1.11 *YHTa
1
1

Russian.
1

Russian.

SOJOTHHirb (zolotneek ^ =96 4o.!flMT> (dol'yam)! 1 JOTl(lot) I

English. 1 2.4

drams

qr. (28 Ibs.)

cwt. (112

Ibs.)

= 31.08 *yffra = 3.108 nyaa


=

30.10THUKaMl[= 0.45 OZ.

ton (20 cwt.)

(poo'dah) 62.16 nyAa

(zolotneekah'm)J *VHTT, (foont) (_ofllb 32 j6xaMi(lot'am)(

ny4T> (poot)

-=40 *yHTaMT(foont'-(
1

[^(^agiiiVg.

6epKOBeqi> (ber'kavets)

1=

[am)U=

-=lOny4aM^(poo'd-J

361 Ibs. 8 owt. 25 Ibs.

LIQUIDS,
English.
1

&o.

(>KHAKOCTH H np.)
Russian.
1

1
1

= 0.46 KpyatKH(kroosh'kee) = 0.93 KpyXKH quart = 0.37 B64pa gallon (vedrab'> pint = 0.18 rapima (gar'ntsah)
pint
(2 pts.)

Russian.

English.

(4 qts.)

npy/KKa ikroosh'ka)=2.16pints 1 1 B6Ap6 217 gal(yedro ) | -= 8 fflTO* b (shtof)( lon>

= lOKpyffiKH (kroosh'kee)

= 10.82 quarts.

gallon =1. 4 rapnua

quart =0.35 rapnua

1 rapHeirb 1

(gar'net*)= 2.88 quarts

=
(=
[=

2.8

rapnqa 0.35 leTsepnKa


(chetvereekah*)
11.2 rapHua

5.77 ^eiBepHK'b (chetvereek')l -= 8 ra pnnaarb (gar 'n ets) gallons


I

=
1

-= 4 ICTBeplIKaMT,

OCMHHa(ahsmee'Da)1 __
!

pec
v

(chetvereekah'm)J
(chet'verf) 1

bushel-!

ocMuaaMT.
(cheivereekah*)
12

= 577 r
, .

quarter l= 11.2 ^CTBCpHKa (8bush.)|== 1.4 ^ereepTH

(ahsmee'nahm)J

bu8heU

^)ei;

1-8.66
(luarterf'

(chet'vertee).

(chetvertyah'm)J

Stormonth's Unabridged Dictionary


of the

English Language
REVISED EDITION WITH SUPPLEMENT
The Most Complete Handy Reference Dictionary Published
1300 Pages, Cloth-Bound, Postpaid to any Address, $1.50
There's been so

much

noise, of late,

and advertising, about

fancy prices, that there's danger of your overlooking the modest, yet invaluable STORMONTH.
rival dictionaries, at

Note
It
is

its
'tis

Points of Merit
of particular value.

For the business man's use

preferably and safely consulted for terms or words used in the various Trades and Professions.

used in the Arts and Sciences.


used in the

many Avocations

of

men.

used in the different lines of Manufacture.


used in all Commercial and Industrial Transactions.

Contains all proper and familiar words or terms used in ordinary spoken and written speech.
Besides thousands upon thousands of unfamiliar words.
It includes every

Its Definitions are concise, accurate

department of English speech. and explanatory.


is

By its
Its

use the popular Pronunciation of every word

instantly acquired
contents.

plan and style afford a lightning reference to

its

Its list of

Synonyms

is

very complete.

Its valuable

a full

Appendixes contain thousands of useful articles, including list of Latin, French and other phrases, together with their

English translations
lany pertinent to a

being classified
It is altogether the

amount of other useful miscelunabridged Dictionary. The whole and alphabetically arranged for ready reference.
;

also a large

first-class

more useful and economical

of reference books.

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER, PHILADELPHIA


3

000 037 746

New

THE MOST COMPLETE PRONOUNCING DICTIONARIES INDISPENSABLE FOR THE STUDY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

Pronouncing Dictionaries
Two
Parts in

Containing the whole Vocabulary in General TJse with copioua selections ol Scientific, Technical, and Commercial Terms, and others brought into Use, with their Pronunciations figured in both Languages.

One Volume

French- English and English-French. A dictionary of the French and English languages. By E. CLIFTON and J. MCLAUGHLIN. The pronunciation of every word is given as nearly as it was found possible
it according to the English sounds. In addition to this the editor has added a chapter on "French pronunciation in general," which will be of value in helping the beginner to acquire the correct pronunciation. great

to represent

1370 Pages, Large 12mo, Cloth, $2.50


Italian-English English-Italian. A new dictionary of the Italian and English languages. By A. ENENKEL, revised and corrected

by

J.

MCLAUGHLIN.

This dictionary contains all the words used by writers from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the present time, also special terms relating to Sciences, Arts, Commerce and Manufactures vainly bought after in so many similar works. The pronunciation is figured by a very simple system and as exactly as possible.

1090 Pages, Large 12mo, Cloth, $2. 50


Spanish-English English-Spanish. A new dictionary of the Spanish and English languages. By A. ANGELI, revised and corrected by
J.

MCLAUGHLIN.

TO THE STUDENT AND TRANSLATOR THIS WORK WILL BE A BENEFIT; TO THE TRADESMAN. MANUFACTURER AND POLITICIAN A NECESSITY
The increased commercial relation with Cuba, Porto Rico, Philippines and South American countries has rendered this study indispensable even to him who is not attracted by the pleasure of being able to read in the original the works of the poets, historians, philosophers and men of science. In addition to the words in general use the work includes the majority of proper names and places which differ in the two languages, and special terms relating to Sciences, Arts, Commerce and Manufacture.

1350 Pages, Large 12mo, Cloth, $2.50 UNIFORM WITH THE ABOVE
:

Russian-English and English-Russian.

of the Kussian and English languages. The necessity of a Russian-English dictionary is a fact long since recognized, and we trust this work will meet with the approval of all who are interested In
the study of the Russian language. The pronunciation is given as well us it was found possible to represent it by English sounds. The work was undertaken and has been completed with the valuable help of M. P. Stadirnow, a
friend to Russian literature.

new dictionary By M. GOLOVINSKY.

135O Pages, Large 12mo, Cloth, $4.00


For sale by
all

Booksellers, or sent, postpaid, by

DAVID McKAY, PUBLISHER, PHILADELPHIA


4