Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Phng php nhn bit v tch cht

Cc bi tp nhn bit, tch cht v tinh ch I. Nhn bit 1. Nguyn tc - Nm vng tnh cht vt l, ho hc c bn ca cht - C th dng phng php vt l v ho hc nhn bit cht, nhng thng u tin phng php vt l trc - Cc phn ng dng nhn bit phi n gin, c du hiu r rng: c kt ta xut hin, c kh thot ra, dung dch i muC nhng phn ng xy ra nhng khng c du hiu r rt th khng c dng nhn bit, v d NaOH + HCl - Nu c nhiu thuc th c th dng nhn bit th u tin thuc th d tm kim v r tin, cho hin tng r rng hn - Cc cht dng nhn bit u c gi l thuc th k c qu tm, nc - bi yu cu nhn bit cc cht ring bit th ta ch cn tm ra ( n -1) cht, cn nu bi yu cu chng minh s c mt ca n cht trong hn hp th phi nhn bit n cht . 2. Phng php Bc 1: Ly mu th v nh s th t (nu cn) Bc 2: La chn thuc th, cho vo tng mu th Bc 3: Nu hin tng quan st c, rt ra kt lun l cht g, vit phng trnh ho hc minh ha ( nu c ). 3. Cc dng bi tp nhn bit a) Nhn bit cc cht ring bit: + Thuc th khng hn ch + Thuc th hn ch + Khng dng thm thuc th ( phn bit bng tnh cht vt l, un nng cc cht hoc cho cc cht phn ng vi nhau tng i mt ) b) Chng minh s c mt ca nhiu cht trong hn hp 4. Mt s thuc th thng dng a) Dd axit: + qu tm + axit HCl: dd AgNO3 kt ta trng AgCl + axit H2SO4: kim loi Ba c kh thot ra v c kt ta trng BaSO4 Dd mui Ba hoc Ba(OH)2: c kt ta trng xut hin BaSO4 Dng BaO rn: cht rn tan v c kt ta trng BaSO4 + axit H3PO4: Dng dd mui AgNO3 c kt ta mu vng Ag3PO4 + axit HNO3: Dng kim loi Cu dd khng mu chuyn dn sang mu xanh, c kh mu nu thot ra ( nu HNO3 long th c kh NO khng mu ho nu trong khng kh).

+ axit H2S:Dng dd mui Ag, hoc Cu c kt ta en Ag2S hoc CuS b) Baz kim: Dng qu tm hoc phnolphtalein. Vi Ca(OH)2 sc kh CO2 hoc SO2 xut hin kt ta trng sau kt ta tan nu sc d. Vi Ba(OH)2: Dng H2SO4, mui sunfat : c kt ta trng BaSO4 c) Mui Khi nhn bit mui theo kim loi ta dng dd kim ( NaOH ) + Mui Al3+ : to kt ta trng keo sau kt ta tan dn trong kim d. + Mui Cu2+ : to kt ta keo xanh + Mui Fe2+ : kt ta trng xanh + Mui Fe3+ : kt ta nu + Mui Mg2+ : kt ta trng khng tan trong kim d. + Mui Ag+ : to Ag2O kt ta en + Mui NH4+ : c kh NH3 mi khai v lm xanh giy qu m Nhn bit tho gc axit: + Gc Cl- : dd AgNO3 : c kt ta trng AgCl + Br-: dd AgNO3 : c kt ta vng nht AgBr + I- : dd AgNO3 : c kt ta vng AgI + S2-: dd AgNO3 : c kt ta en Ag2S + PO43-: dd AgNO3 : c kt ta vng Ag3PO4 + SO42-: dd Ba2+ : c kt ta trng BaSO4 + CO32- : dng axit mnh: c kh CO2 + SO32- : dng axit mnh: c kh SO2 + SiO3 : dng axit mnh: To H2SiO3 kt ta keo + NO3- : dng axit mnh ( HCl, H2SO4 ) v bt Cu: c kh NO2 mu nu d) Cc kh: + CO : Dn qua bt CuO nung nng : CuO mu en chuyn thnh mu ca Cu + H2 : Dn qua bt CuO nung nng : CuO mu en chuyn thnh mu ca Cu + CO2 : lm c nc vi trong + SO2 : lm mt mu nu ca dd nc brm SO2 + Br2 + H2O HBr + H2SO4 + NH3 : c mi khai, lm xanh qu tm m, hoc phn ng vi HCl m c to khi trng: NH3(k) + HCl(k) NH4Cl(r) ( bt trng) + H2S : mi trng thi, to kt ta en vi dd Cu(NO3)2 + HCl : qu tm m ho , to khi trng vi NH3, to kt ta trng vi dd AgNO3 + NO : khng mu ho nu trong khng kh

+ NO2 : lm lnh t mu nu chuyn sang khng mu hoc lm qu tm m ho : 2 NO2(mu nu) N2O4( khng mu) NO2 + H2O HNO2 + HNO3 e) Cc oxit: Oxit baz: nhn bit cc oxit kim loi thng phi chuyn thnh dung dch kim hoc dd mui, sau nhn bit kim v mui nhn bit cc oxit ban u. 5. Bi tp 1. Ngi ta a cho em 1 mu oxit, lm th no bit oxit thuc loi oxit no. 2. Nhn xt sau y ng hay sai: Trn ln 2 cht vi nhau ta thu c mt hn hp. Ly VD minh ho. 3. C 5 mu kim loi : Ba, Mg, Al, Fe, Ag. Nu ch dng dd H2SO4 long th c th nhn bit c nhng kim loi no. 4. Trnh by cch phn bit cc cht ring bit sau: a) 5 cht bt: Cu, Al, Fe, Ag, S b) 4 cht bt mu trng: CuO, Na2O, MgO, P2O5 c) 4 cht bt: K, Mg, Al, Ag 5. Ch dng thm 1 ho cht, hy phn bit cc oxit ring bit sau: K2O, Al2O3, MgO 6. Hy chn 1 thuc th thch hp nhn bit cc dd ring bit sau: a) NaOH, Ba(OH)2, Na2SO4 v NaCl b) NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, Al(NO3)3, MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3. 7. Ch dng H2O v CO2 c th nhn bit c 5 cht bt mu trng sau y khng: Na2CO3, NaCl, Na2SO4, BaCO3 v BaSO4 8. Trnh by phng php ho hc nhn bit tng dung dch trong cc trng hp sau: a) NaCl, NaNO3 v HCl ng trong 3 l ring bit b) NaCl, CaCl2 v AlCl ng trong 3 l ring bit c) HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 trong cng mt dung dch long 9. Ch dng 1 ho cht thch hp hy nhn bit a) CaCl2, Ba(OH)2, Na2SO4, KOH b) Ba(NO3)2, NaCl, H2SO4, HCl c) NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, Al(NO3)3, CuCl2 d) CaCO3, Fe2O3, Al2O3 v SiO2 ) Cc dung dch K2SO4, K2CO3, K2SiO3, K2S, K2SO3. 10. Nhn bit cc cht sau m khng dng ho cht khc : H2O, dd NaCl, dd HCl, dd Na2CO3 11. C 5 l mt nhn mi l ng 1 trong cc dung dch sau: NaHCO3, NaHSO4, Mg(HCO3)2, Na2SO3, Ba(HCO3)2. Trnh by cch nhn bit tng dung dch m khng dng ho cht khc. 12. Khng dng thm thuc th, hy nhn bit cc dung dch: a) CaCl2, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, Ca(HCO3)2 b) NaHCO3, Na2CO3, BaCl2, Na3PO4, H2SO4

a) b)

a) b) a) b) c)

c) MgCl2, NaOH, NH4Cl, BaCl2, H2SO4 d) NH4NO3, Al(NO3)3, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl3, HCl, KOH ) K2SO4, Al(NO3)3, (NH4)2SO4, Ba(NO3)2 v NaOH 13. NH3 b ln hi nc, mun c NH3 tinh khit c th dng cc cht no trong s cc cht sau: P2O5, Na, H2SO4 c, CaO, KOH 14. Cho 2 ng nghim (1) v (2) u ng dd KI. Cho lung kh O2 qua dd ng (1) v O3 qua dd ng (2). a) Nu hin tng v t so snh tnh oxi ho ca O2 v O3 b) Nhn bit sn phm to ra trong ng (2). 15. nhn bit cc cht rn ring bit mt nhn gm: NaCl, Na 2CO3, CaCO3, BaSO4 ta dng ho cht l: A. dung dch HCl v CO2 B. H2O v CO2 C. dung dch NaOH v CO2 D. dung dch NaOH v dung dch HCl Mt s dng bi tp nhn bit: @. Nhan biet bang thuoc th t chon: Cau 1: Trnh bay phng phap phan biet 5 dung dch: HCl, NaOH, Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3. Cau 2: Phan biet 4 chat long: HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, H2O. Cau 3: Co 4 ong nghiem, moi ong cha 1 dung dch muoi (khong trung kim loai cung nh goc axit) la: clorua, sunfat, nitrat, cacbonat cua cac kim loai Ba, Mg, K, Pb. Hoi moi ong nghiem cha dung dch cua muoi nao? Neu phng phap phan biet 4 ong nghiem o?. Cau 4: Phan biet 3 loai phan bon hoa hoc: phan kali (KCl), am 2 la (NH4NO3), va supephotphat kep Ca(H2PO4)2. Cau 5: Co 8 dung dch cha: NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2, Na2SO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, CuSO4. Hay neu cac thuoc th va trnh bay cac phng an phan biet cac dung dch noi tren. Cau 6: Co 4 chat ran: KNO3, NaNO3, KCl, NaCl. Hay neu cach phan biet chung. Cau 7: Bang phng phap hoa hoc hay nhan biet cac hon hp sau: (Fe + Fe2O3), (Fe + FeO), (FeO + Fe2O3). Cau 8: Co 3 lo ng ba hon hp dang bot: (Al + Al2O3), (Fe + Fe2O3), (FeO + Fe2O3). Dung phng phap hoa hoc e nhan biet chung. Viet cac phng trnh phan ng xay ra. @. Nhan biet ch bang thuoc th qui nh: Cau 1: Nhan biet cac dung dch trong moi cap sau ay ch bang dung dch HCl: 4 dung dch: MgSO4, NaOH, BaCl2, NaCl. 4 chat ran: NaCl, Na2CO3, BaCO3, BaSO4. Cau 2: Nhan biet bang 1 hoa chat t chon: 4 dung dch: MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3. 4 dung dch: H2SO4, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, MgSO4. 4 axit: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4.

Cau 3: Ch c dung them quy tm va cac ong nghiem, hay ch ro phng phap nhan ra cac dung dch b mat nhan: NaHSO4, Na2CO3, Na2SO3, BaCl2, Na2S. Cau 4: Cho cac hoa chat: Na, MgCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3. Ch dung them nc hay nhan biet chung. @. Nhan biet khong co thuoc th khac: Cau 1: Co 4 ong nghiem c anh so (1), (2), (3), (4), moi ong cha mot trong 4 dung dch sau: Na2CO3, MgCl2, HCl, KHCO3. Biet rang: Khi o ong so (1) vao ong so (3) th thay ket tua. Khi o ong so (3) vao ong so (4) th thay co kh bay len. Hoi dung dch nao c cha trong tng ong nghiem. Cau 2: Trong 5 dung dch ky hieu A, B, C, D, E cha Na2CO3, HCl, BaCl2, H2SO4, NaCl. Biet: o A vao B co ket tua. o A vao C co kh bay ra. o B vao D co ket tua. Xac nh cac chat co cac k hieu tren va giai thch. Cau 3: Hay phan biet cac chat trong moi cap dung dch sau ay ma khong dung thuoc th khac: a) NaCl, H2SO4, CuSO4, BaCl2, NaOH. b) NaOH, FeCl2, HCl, NaCl. Cau 4: Co 6 dung dch c anh so ngau nhien t 1 en 6. moi dung dch cha mot chat gom: BaCl2, H2SO4, NaOH, MgCl2, Na2CO3. lan lt thc hien cac th nghiem va thu c ket qua nh sau: Th nghiem 1: Dung dch 2 cho ket tua vi cac dung dch 3 va 4. Th nghiem 2: Dung dch 6 cho ket tua vi cac dung dch 1 va 4. Th nghiem 3: Dung dch 4 cho kh bay len khi tac dung vi cac dung dch 3 va 5. Hay xac nh so cua cac dung dch. Cau 5: Khong c dung them hoa chat nao khac , hay nhan biet cac chat ng trong cac lo mat nhan sau: KOH, HCl, FeCl3, Pb(NO3)2, Al(NO3)3, NH4Cl. Cau 6: Khong c dung them hoa chat nao khac , hay nhan biet 5 lo mat nhan sau: NaHSO4, Mg(HCO3)2, Ca(HCO3)2, Na2CO3, KHCO3. II. Tch cht v tinh ch cc cht 1. Phng php a) S dng phng php vt l: - Phng php lc: tch cht khng tan ra khi hn hp lng - Phng php chit: tch cc cht lng ra khi hn hp lng khng ng nht.

2 3 4 5

- Phng php chng ct phn on: cc cht c tos khc nhau nhiu. - Phng php lm ng c: cc cht c nhit ng c khc nhau nhiu - Phng php lm nht: cc cht rn c mu sc khc nhau - Phng php t tnh; c cn - Phng php sc k: sc k kh, sc k lng b) S dng phng php ho hc * S tch: XY A AX p. ti to A B p. tch B Phn ng dng tch phi tho mn 3 yu cu: Ch tc dng ln cht cn tch trong hn hp T sn phm to thnh c th tch d dng khi hn hp T sn phm to thnh d dng ti to li c cht ban u Lu : Khc vi bi tp nhn bit, bi tp tch cht yu cu phi tch ton b cc cht ra khi nhau v vy phi tin hnh tt c i vi hn hp. Ni cch khc l khng ly mu. 2. Bi tp 1. Hy dng phng php ho hc tch cc kim loi: Cu, Ag, Al, Fe ra khi hn hp. 2. Trnh by phng php tinh ch mui n tinh khit t hn hp NaCl, Na2SO4, NaBr, MgCl2, CaCl2 v CaSO4. NaCl NaBr MgCl2 + BaCl2 CO2,Cl2 CaCl2 HCl Na2SO4 NaCl CaSO4 HCl t0 NaCl 3. Bng phng php ho hc hy tch Al2O3, Fe2O3 v SiO2 ra khi hn hp. 4. Trong phng th nghim thng iu ch CO2 t CaCO3 v HCl do CO2 b ln mt t kh HCl v hi nc. Lm th no c CO2 hon ton tinh khit.( NaHCO3 H2SO4 hoc P2O5 ). NaCl NaBr + Na2CO3 MgCl2 CaCl2 BaCl2(d) BaSO4 NaCl NaBr + Cl2 Na2CO3 (d) MgCO3 CaCO3 BaCO3 Br2 NaCl Na2CO3 + Cl2(d)

5. Nu 2 phng php tch Ag Cu ra khi hp kim. 6. lm kh kh NH3, HCl ngi ta lm th no. Mt s bi tp vn dng Cau 1: Tach rieng dung dch tng chat sau ra khoi hon hp dung dch AlCl3, FeCl3, BaCl2. Cau 2: Neu phng phap tach hon hp gom 3 kh: Cl2, H2 va CO2 thanh cac chat nguyen chat. Cau 3: Neu phng phap tach hon hp a voi, voi song, silic ioxit va sat (II) clorua thanh tng chat nguyen chat. Cau 4: Trnh bay phng phap hoa hoc e lay tng oxit t hon hp : SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 va CuO. Cau 5: Trnh bay phng phap hoa hoc e lay tng kim loai Cu va Fe t hon hp cac oxit SiO2, Al2O3, CuO va FeO. Cau 6: Bang phng phap hoa hoc hay tach tng kim loai Al, Fe, Cu ra khoi hon hp 3 kim loai.