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BASICS

TRANSISTOR: FIRST INVENTED IN 1948 BY J.BARDEEN,WILLIAM.H.BRATTIAN and WILLIAM B.SHOCKLY. Transistors are

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT):


BJT is a bipolar device, since its operation depends upon both majority and minority current carriers. n-type: majority carriers:electrons minority carriers: holes p-type: majority carriers:holes minority carriers: electrons BJT has low input impedence because its input circuit is forward biased. Due to low input impedence,BJT has high external leakage currents i.e.high drive current. BJT is a current controlled device i.e.input current controls the output current. BJT suffer from minority carrier storage effects and it has lower switching speed.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR:


Current is controlled by an electricfield thats why called as field effect transistor i.e.field effects the transistor. FET operation depends only on majority carriers,called as unipolar device. FET has low input impedence because its input circuit is reverse biased. FET has low external leakage currents i.e.low drive current. FETs are easier to fabricate and suitable for ICs because occupy less space than BJTs. FET is a voltage controlled device,i.e.voltage at the input terminal controls the output current. FET does not suffer from minority carrier storage effects and it has higher switching speed. FET is less noisy than BJT.

FET classified into two types Junction FET (JFET) Metal oxide semi conductor FET (MOSFET)

JFET:

JFET has high input impedeance,since its input circuit is reverse biased.i.e.gates are always reversed biased, hence gate current is practically zero.

MOSFET:

MOSFET has high input impedeance.i.e. low drive currents. Also called as insulated gate FET (IGFET) In this oxide material is silicon dioxide(sio2),its acts as a insulator i.e. high resistence. Thats why MOSFET has high input impedence compared to JFET and BJT. Why we are using MOSFETs compared to JFET & BJT in LSI & VLSI applications has high input impedeance i.e. low drive current occupies less area on silicon chip easier to fabricate.

LOGIC GATE FAMILIES:


Logicgate family is a collection of different ICs with same input,output and internal characterstics,but they perform different functions. each logic gate family has its own basic electronic circuit upon which more complex digital circuits and functions are developed. In SSI,MSI,LSI,VLSI,ULSI all these integrations , more number of transistors are present.transistors arrangement based on logic gate families Suppose,implement a NAND gate,transistors are arranged using logic gate families. Different logic gate families are RTL DCTL RCTL DTL TTL ECL resistor transistor logic gate family direct coupled transistor logic Resistor capictor transistor logic Diode transistor logic transistor transistor logic emitter coupled logic

MOS CMOS

metal oxide semiconductor complementary metal oxide semiconductor. RTL,TTL,DTL,ECL are the bipolar logic family i.e.uses bipolar transistors i.e. uses a BJTs. TTL used for small scale integration (SSI). ECL used for the medium&large scale integration (MSI & LSI) MOS and CMOS families uses unipolar transistors called unipolar logic gate families.i.e. uses a MOSFETs.

Fastest logic gate family is ECL i.e. fastest switching speed, but consumes more power.i.e. 40mW. CMOS is the slowest logic family,but Low power consumption.i.e 0.01mW MOS logic is mainly used for LSI and VLSI applications because the silicon chip area required for fabrication of a MOS device is very small.

CMOS Technology Unipolar(FET) MOS,CMOS High input impedeance i.e. Low drive current i.e. Low external leakage crrents. High packing density Low Trans conductance Low power consumption Used in VLSI & ULSI

Bipolar Technology Bipolar(BJT) TTL,RTL,DTL,ECL Low input impedeance i.e high drive current i.e. high external leakage crrents. low packing density High Trans conductance. High power consumption. Used in MSI & LSI applications Especially TTL in SSI.

Packing density: number of components in a chip or circuit. Trans conductance: performance (speed) of the technology or device. CMOS logic gate family is best for transistor arrangement.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ( IC )
JACK KILBY Inventor of IC in 1954

IC: Integration of different discrete components


Integration:All the components connected in a single chip. Disccrete components: Transistors,Diodes and etc. Discrete means small in size. Now a days IC (any circuit or design) has following properties Minimum power Consumption Minimum area occupies High Performance i.e. Speed

Technology
SSI (1961-1966) MSI (1966-1971) LSI (1971-1980) VLSI (1980-1990) ULSI (1990-2000) sensors GSI

No:of transistors
10 100-1000 1000-20000 20,000-1,00,000 1,00,000-10,000,000 >10,000,000

Typical products
Logic gates & Flip flops Counters,MUX,Adders 8-bit micro processors,ROM,RAM 16 & 32- bit Micro processors special processors & smart

SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI GSI

Small scale integration Medium scale integration Large scale integration Very large scale integration Ultra large scale integration (3 million devices on a single chip) Giant scale integration

Moores Law:

Founder of INTEL For every 18-24 months Number of Transistors are doubled Area or Size of the chip decreased by half Operating frequency half Power Consumption reduces.

If any two points satisifies simultaneously then that design is best design. If any three or all four impossible to satisifies simultaneously.

VLSI: Large no: of discrete components present in a single chip.


Very large: 20,000 to 1,00,000 transistors present Scaling : Changing the parameters of the device. Integration: All the components in a Single chip (Inter connected).

BICMOS:
Bipolar technology + CMOS Technology High performance i.e. speed Low power consumption Complexity of the circuit is high i.e. occupies more area on chip.

SEMICONDUCTORS:
Si, Ge and GaAs ( gallium Arsenide ) Mostly with Silicon based VLSI & BICMOS Technologies. GaAs: Provide high speed logic/fast digital processors. But GaAs has Radio activity nature i.e.When the Temperature increases device Temperature also increases, Due to this device (circuit) will be damages, So GaAs not prefer ,to use in the designing of household Electronic equipments.

No: of Transistors in a Gate: Number of Transistors = 2 * No: of inputs.


Suppose NAND Gate has three inputs then

Number of Transistors = 2 * 3 = 6 Transistors

Therefore 6 Transistors are required to design a 3 input NAND Gate. The earliest ICs used Bipolar Technology and Majority of logic ICs used either TTL or ECL. After Introduction of MOS Technology, nMOS Technology used. The main advantage of CMOS over nMOS is Low power Consumption

FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array Field: on the site/location , we can design the model of the digital system. Programmable : A device that can be configured by the user with some electrical equipment. Gate Array : Array of Gates are present i.e. Large no: of Gates are present.

VLSI:
VLSI Technology, to implement the powerful digital circuits at Low cost using an Integrated circuit Fabrication facility , due to this Manufacturing time takes several months from beginning to end.

FPGA :
Implementing logic circuits without use of an Integrated Circuit Fabrication facility. FPGA is a Programmable logic device that implementing Multi level logic , includes both logic & Interconnect , but differ in that their Programming is done by the end user at their site. No masking steps are required.

Types of ASICs: (Application specific Integrated Circuit)


Full custom ASIC Semi custom ASIC Programmable ASIC

Custom Mask Layers Full custom ASIC Semi custom ASIC CBIC MGA Programmable ASIC PLD FPGA None None All Some All

Custom logic cells Some

None None

None None

CBIC : Cell Based Integrated Circuit MGA : Masked Gate Array PLD : Programmable Logic Device Full custom ASIC: The time it takes just to make an IC is typically 8 weeks ( not including design time ) eg: Micro Processors CBIC: The time it takes just to make an IC is typically 8 weeks Eg : Gates, MUXs, FlipFlops

PLDs:
Two types of PLDs are available Programmable array logic (PAL) AND gate is Programmable & OR Gate is Fixed Programmable Logic Array (PLA) Both Gates are Programmable. Based on Boolean equation ,Implement Logic circuit using PLA or PAL. CPLD: Complex Programmable Logic Device For Implementation of Logic Circuits , that require more no: of inputs & outputs. CPLD contains multiple PLAs or PALs. Compare to FPGA ,CPLD has Low Complexity i.e. Low Intensity.

Combinational circuits: Present output depends upon only present input. Eg : Decoders, Encoders , Adders, MUXs, ROM,Subtractors. Sequential Circuits: Present output depends upon present input and past output. Eg : flipflops, Registers, Counters, RAM Using CPLDs , implement only combinational circuits i.e. only in the SOP (Sum of Product ) form. Using FPGAs , implement combinational circuits & Sequential circuits.

FPGA : one of the most Sophisticated type of PLD is known as FPGA.


FPGA chip consists of a Large no: of Small Logic Cells (Blocks ) , Which are Connected together using the Programmable switches . FPGA contains more than 500 million Transistors. FPGA contains Logic blocks, that Perform Combinational and Sequential logic functions.Logic block contains gates ,flipflops and Sub circuits. Some FPGA Logic blocks Contains AND & OR plane i.e. PLA or PAL.

Programmable switches: To establish the required connections between the logic blocks. Programmable switches connecting the Two wire segments and can be programmbly opened or closed using the Programming Technology.

Programming Technology: Programmable switches inside Transistors (PassTransistors) are exists, that are Controlled by the Programming Technology i.e. The Fundmental method of Customization of an FPGA that provides the UserProgrammability . There are 4 Main types of Programming Technologies SRAM Based Anti fuse Based EPROM EEPROM

SRAM : Static Random Access Memory.

EPROM:Erasable Programmable read only Memory EEPROM:Electrically Erasable Programmable read only Memory Programming Technology has following properties Uses a standard CMOS Technology Non-volatile Memory Reprogrammable Occupies less Area on the chip Having a Low ON Resistence and High OFF Resistence FPGA, First Introduced in 1985 by the Xilinx Company

Vendors of FPGA: Xilinx,Actel,Altera,Plessy,Plus,Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Quick Logic,Algotronix,Concurrent,Crosspoint Solutions. Xilinx: XC 2000, 3000, 4000,Spartan (3), Virtex Every Xilinx advanced version Gate Count is Increases i.e No: of Transistors are Increases. Suppose Xc 2000 has 1200 1800 Gates, Xc3000 has 2000 9000 Gates. Actel : Act 1,2, 3 Company Xilinx Actel Altera Plus AMD General Arcitecture Symmetrical Array Row Based Hierarchical PLD Hierarchical PLD Hierarchical PLD Logic Block Look up Table MUX Based PLD PLD PLD ProgrammingTech: SRAM Based Anti fuse EPROM EPROM EEPROM

Look up Table : A Digital Memory with K address lines that can be implement any function of K inputs by Placing the Truth table into the Memory. Logic block: The Basic Unit of the FPGA that performs the Combitional and Sequential logic Functions. CPLD Vendors: XC 9500, Altera Max 5000,7000,9000 etc.

Using SSI,MSI,LSI VLSI Technologies , to Implement the Combitional & Sequential Circuiits i.e. Digital ICS and Processors ,but these are fixed i.e. not Programmable I.e. Permanent ICS. Manufcturing time takes several months. FPGA chip can be implemented using VLSI Technology. FPGA also Implement the Combitional & Sequential Circuiits ,but these are Programmable i.e.PlaceTruth table or Program into the FPGA chip, that Implement the Logic Circuit i.e. To verify output Response. Design Turn around few hours or Minutes.

VHDL:

Used for Design of Digital systems.

Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language ABEL:Advanced Boolean Expression Language Used for Design of Digital Systems in the form of SOP i.e. PAL or PLA.

Suppose ,to Implement an Digital Circuit ,write the VHDL code for that circuit and Dump the code into an FPGA using Serial Communication Cable and FPGA implement the digital circuit. Reference Book: FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYY BY Stephen D.Brown , Robert J. Francis , Jonathan Rose , Zvonko G. Vranesic

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