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Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe Supreme Court of Hawai’i. | July 17, 1980

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe

Supreme Court of Hawai’i. | July 17, 1980 | 62 Haw. 334 | 614 P.2d 936

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Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334 (1980)

614 P.2d 936

Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334 (1980) 614 P.2d 936 Original Image of 62 Haw.

Original Image of 62 Haw. 334 (PDF)

KeyCite Yellow Flag - Negative Treatment Distinguished by Bank of New York v. Quevedo, Hawai’i, August 17, 2005

614 P.2d 936 Supreme Court of Hawai’i.

PACIFIC CONCRETE FEDERAL CREDIT UNION, Plaintiff-Appellee,

v.

Andrew J. S. KAUANOE, aka A. J. S. Kauanoe, aka Andrew Kauanoe, Defendant-Appellant.

No. 6362. | July 17, 1980.

Creditor brought action for alleged outstanding balance owing on loans, and debtor counterclaimed for alleged failure of creditor to make disclosures required by Truth in Lending Act. The First Circuit Court, Honolulu County, Norito Kawakami, J., entered summary judgment in favor of creditor, and appeal was taken. The Supreme Court, Richardson, C. J., held that: (1) information as to amount of payments allegedly made by debtor was not properly before court where creditor’s assistant treasurer only referred to ledger from which he noted payments made by debtor but no copies of the ledger were attached to the treasurer’s affidavit, and copies of checks and vouchers were neither certified nor sworn to, and thus genuine issue of material fact existed as to amounts due and owing on the loans, and summary judgment was improper, and (2) debtor’s counterclaims were in nature of recoupment defenses where they arose out of very loan transactions which were subject of suit, and thus they were not barred by statute of limitations provisions contained in the Act.

Reversed.

West Headnotes (7)

1 Judgment

Judgment

the Act. Reversed. West Headnotes (7) 1 Judgment Judgment Admissibility Affidavits, Form, Requ isites and Execution
the Act. Reversed. West Headnotes (7) 1 Judgment Judgment Admissibility Affidavits, Form, Requ isites and Execution

Admissibility

Affidavits, Form, Requisites and Execution of

228Judgment

228VOn Motion or Summary Proceeding 228k182Motion or Other Application 228k185Evidence in General

228k185(3)Admissibility

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334 (1980)

614 P.2d 936

228Judgment

228VOn Motion or Summary Proceeding 228k182Motion or Other Application 228k185.1Affidavits, Form, Requisites and Execution of 228k185.1(1)In General

Rule requires that facts set forth in affidavits on motion for summary judgment be admissible in evidence; all papers referred to in affidavits must also be attached and sworn to or certified.

11 Cases that cite this headnote

2 Judgment

or certified. 11 Cases that cite this headnote 2 Judgment Contract Cases in General 228 Judgment

Contract Cases in General

228Judgment

228VOn Motion or Summary Proceeding 228k181Grounds for Summary Judgment 228k181(15)Particular Cases 228k181(19)Contract Cases in General

In creditor’s action against debtor for alleged outstanding balance flowing on loans, information as to amount of payments allegedly made by debtor was not properly before court where creditor’s assistant treasurer only referred to ledger from which he noted payments made by debtor but no copies of the ledger were attached to the treasurer’s affidavit, and copies of checks and vouchers were neither certified nor sworn to, and thus genuine issue of material fact existed as to amounts due and owing on the loans, and summary judgment was improper. Hawaii Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 56(e).

15 Cases that cite this headnote

3 Limitation of Actions

15 Cases that cite this headnote 3 Limitation of Actions Liabilities Created by Statute 241 Limitation

Liabilities Created by Statute

241Limitation of Actions 241IIComputation of Period of Limitation 241II(A)Accrual of Right of Action or Defense 241k58Liabilities Created by Statute 241k58(1)In General

In loan transactions, one-year statute of limitations of Truth in Lending Act begins to run at moment loan transaction is consummated. Truth in Lending Act, § 130(e) as amended 15 U.S.C.A. § 1640(e).

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334 (1980)

614 P.2d 936

4 Set-Off and Counterclaim

Recoupment or ReconventionHaw. 334 (1980) 614 P.2d 936 4 Set-Off and Counterclaim 352 Set-Off and Counterclaim 352II Subject-Matter

352Set-Off and Counterclaim

352IISubject-Matter

352k25Claims Arising Out of Same Contract or Transaction or Connected with Subject of Action 352k27Recoupment or Reconvention 352k27(1)In General

“Recoupment” describes claim that defendant can assert against plaintiff only if it arises from same transaction as plaintiff’s claim; it is in nature of defense and can only be asserted to reduce, diminish or defeat plaintiff’s claim.

3 Cases that cite this headnote

5 Set-Off and Counterclaim General

Parties to and Mutuality of Cross-Demands in of Cross-Demands in

352Set-Off and Counterclaim

352IISubject-Matter

352k41Parties to and Mutuality of Cross-Demands in General

Recoupment permits defendant to raise claim without regard to statute of limitations which would apply if defendant brought affirmative action on same claim.

3 Cases that cite this headnote

6 Consumer Credit

claim. 3 Cases that cite this headnote 6 Consumer Credit Time to Sue and Limitations 92B

Time to Sue and Limitations

92BConsumer Credit 92BIIFederal Regulation 92BII(C)Effect of Violation of Regulations 92Bk64Actions for Violations 92Bk65Time to Sue and Limitations

Debtor’s counterclaims alleging Truth in Lending violations were in nature of recoupment defenses to creditor’s suit to collect on loan where they arose out of very loan transactions which were subject of suit, and thus they were not barred by statute of limitations provisions contained in the Act. Truth in Lending Act, § 130(e) as amended 15 U.S.C.A. § 1640(e).

7 Cases that cite this headnote

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334 (1980)

614 P.2d 936

7 Consumer Credit

62 Haw. 334 (1980) 614 P.2d 936 7 Consumer Credit Actions for Violations 92B Consumer Credit

Actions for Violations

92BConsumer Credit 92BIIFederal Regulation 92BII(C)Effect of Violation of Regulations 92Bk64Actions for Violations 92Bk64.1In General (Formerly 92Bk64)

Truth in Lending Act provision limiting offsets to amounts determined by judgment of court of competent jurisdiction in action in which person against whom offset is claimed was party does not operate to bar all counterclaims or defenses under the Act in creditors’ action; it applies only where debtors attempted to deduct unilaterally from amount owing because of truth in lending violations. Truth in Lending Act, § 130(h) as amended 15 U.S.C.A. § 1640(h).

3 Cases that cite this headnote

**937 Syllabus by the Court

1. *334 Hawaii Rule of Civil Procedure 56(e) requires that facts set forth in affidavits

be admissible in evidence. All papers referred to in the affidavits must also be attached and sworn to or certified.

2. Recoupment describes a claim that a defendant can assert against a plaintiff only if

it arises from the same transaction as plaintiff’s claim; it is in the nature of a defense and can only be asserted to reduce, diminish or defeat the plaintiff’s claim.

3. Recoupment permits the defendant to raise a claim without regard to the statute of

limitations which would apply if the defendant brought an affirmative action on the same claim.

4. A debtor’s counterclaims alleging Truth in Lending violations in a creditor’s suit to

collect on the loan are in the nature of recoupment defenses since they arise out of the

very loan transactions which are the subject of the suit. As such they are not barred by the statute of limitations provision contained in Section 1640(e) of the Truth in Lending Act.

5. Section 1640(h) of the Truth in Lending Act does not operate to bar all counterclaims or defenses under the Act in creditors’ actions; it applies only where

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614 P.2d 936

debtors attempt to deduct unilaterally from the amounts owing because of alleged Truth in Lending violations.

Attorneys and Law Firms

*345 Richard S. Kanter, Legal Aid Society of Hawaii, Honolulu, for defendant-appellant. George Y. Kimura, Leslie C. Togioka, Honolulu, for plaintiff-appellee.

Before RICHARDSON, C. J., and OGATA, MENOR, LUM and NAKAMURA, JJ.

Opinion

RICHARDSON, Chief Justice.

Defendant-appellant Andrew J. S. Kauanoe appeals from a circuit court decision granting summary judgment in favor *335 of plaintiff-appellee Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union. We reverse.

Appellant entered into two loan transactions with appellee totalling $6,216.02 on August 22, 1974 and October 1, 1974. On May, 5, 1976 appellee sued appellant for $4,646.32, the outstanding balance owing on the loans. In his answer and counterclaim appellant alleged several violations of the federal “Truth in Lending” statute the Consumer Credit Protection Act, 15 U.S.C.A. s 1601 et seq. (1968)1 (hereinafter referred to as TILA).

1 Specifically, appellant alleged that appellee did not meet the regulations under 15 U.S.C.A. s 1601 et seq. requiring disclosure of certain aspects of the loan including finance charges, total and number of payments, right of acceleration, annual percentage rate, security interest and the method of computation.

On August 11, 1976 appellee filed a motion for summary judgment alleging that the Truth in Lending counterclaim was barred by Section 1640(e)2 of the Act requiring actions under the Act to be brought within one year from the date of the violation. Appellee also attached affidavits and exhibits on the issue of the sums due and owing. The Circuit Court of the First Circuit entered an order granting the motion in all respects on September 7, 1976. Appellant raises two main issues:

2 That section states:

(e) Any action under this section may be brought in any United States district court, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, within one year from the date of the occurrence of the violation.

I. Whether the circuit court erred in granting the motion for summary judgment where the affidavits were not made on personal knowledge and did not set forth

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facts admissible in evidence.

II. Whether the circuit court properly ruled that appellant’s counterclaims under TILA were barred by the statute of limitations section contained in s 1640(e) of TILA.

**938 We find that the circuit court erred on both points and reverse the judgment entered below.

*336 I.

Attached to appellee’s motion for summary judgment were the affidavits of S. A. Higa, weighmaster of Pacific Concrete and Rock Co., Ltd., and Tetsuo Takushi, appellee’s assistant treasurer. Also attached were two exhibits, copies of checks and vouchers issued to appellant.3 These vouchers and checks indicated two loans totalling $4,500. Appellant argues that Mr. Takushi’s affidavit was not based on his own personal knowledge of the notes but on a ledger upon which are recorded all payments made by appellant pursuant to the notes. Because the ledger had not been attached to the affidavit, any information therefrom was inadmissible and should not have been considered by the circuit court.

3 The affidavits also referred to promissory notes executed by appellant on the debts in question and were attached to appellee’s original complaint as exhibits.

Appellee responds that Mr. Takushi’s affidavit avers that he personally tendered the vouchers and checks, copies of which were attached as exhibits and that this statement is sufficient to demonstrate personal knowledge.

1 Hawaii Rule of Civil Procedure 56(e)4 sets out the form that affidavits supporting summary judgment motions should take. The rule requires that facts set forth in the affidavits be admissible in evidence. All papers referred to in the affidavits must also be attached and sworn to or certified. These requirements are mandatory. As we pointed out in *337 Cane City Builders v. City Bank, 50 Haw. 472, 443 P.2d 145 (1968) mere statements in affidavits do not authenticate exhibits referred to unless these exhibits are sworn to or certified.

4 Hawaii Rule of Civil Procedure 56(e) reads in its entirety:

(e) Form of Affidavits; Further Testimony; Defense Required. Supporting and opposing affidavits shall be made on personal knowledge, shall set forth such facts as would be admissible in evidence, and shall show affirmatively that the affiant is competent to testify to the matters stated therein. Sworn or certified copies of all papers or parts thereof referred to in an affidavit shall be attached thereto or served therewith. The court may permit affidavits to be supplemented or opposed by depositions, answers to interrogatories, or further affidavits. When a motion for summary judgment is made and supported as provided in this rule, an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of his pleading, but his response, by affidavits or as

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otherwise provided in this rule, must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial. If he does not so respond, summary judgment, if appropriate, shall be entered against him.

2 Appellee’s assistant treasurer referred to a ledger from which he noted the payments made by appellant. However, no copies of the ledger were attached and thus this information was improperly before the court.5 Although copies of the checks and vouchers referred to were submitted as exhibits, they were neither certified nor sworn to and thus could not be verified as authentic. Given the inadmissibility of these materials, there exists a genuine issue as to the amounts due and owing on appellant’s loans and summary judgment was therefore improper.

5 The standard for admitting materials supporting motions for summary judgment is the same as for evidence presented at trial. 6 Moore’s Federal Practice s 56.22, at 56-1321 (2d ed.). Affiant’s testimony as to what was in the ledger was inadmissible hearsay and because it would not have been admissible at trial as an exception to the hearsay rule, it should not have been considered by the circuit court.

II.

3 Appellant’s second claim is that the circuit court erred in granting summary judgment on his counterclaim alleging Truth in Lending violations. Although s 1640(e) of the Act requires actions to be brought within one year from the date of the violations,6 his counterclaim is in the nature of a recoupment defense and thus **939 may be brought regardless of any statute of limitations. Consequently, s 1640(e) would bar the claim if it had been brought as an affirmative action; however, as a recoupment defense to diminish or defeat appellee’s charges, it does not fall within the one-year requirement.

6 In loan transactions the statute begins to run at the moment a loan transaction is consummated. Lawson v. Conyers Chrysler, Plymouth etc., 600 F.2d 465 (5th Cir. 1979); Bartholomew v. Northampton National Bank of Easton, 584 F.2d 1288 (3d Cir. 1978); Goldman v. First National Bank of Chicago, 532 F.2d 10 (7th Cir. 1976); Wachtel v. West, 476 F.2d 1062 (6th Cir. 1973), cert. denied 414 U.S. 874, 94 S.Ct. 161, 38 L.Ed.2d 114 (1973); Strader v. Beneficial Finance Co. of Aurora, 35 Colo.App. 284, 534 P.2d 339 (1975); Conrad v. Home & Auto Loan Co., Inc., 81 Misc.2d 834, 366 N.Y.S.2d 850 (1975).

*338 Appellee responds that the general rule is that a recoupment claim may be allowed notwithstanding any statute of limitations; however, since appellant’s TILA claims are not in the nature of recoupment but rather are set-offs, the claims therefore must be brought within one year from the date of the loan transactions.

DOCTRINE OF RECOUPMENT

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4 5 The term “recoupment” developed under principles of common law and described a claim that defendant could assert against plaintiff only if it arose from the same transaction as plaintiff’s claim. It is in the nature of a defense and can only be asserted to reduce, diminish or defeat the plaintiff’s claims. A unique characteristic of common law recoupment is that it permits the defendant to raise a claim without regard to the statute of limitations which would apply if the defendant brought an affirmative action on the same claim. Wright and Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure: Civil s 1401

(1971).

Hawaii has recognized “recoupment” in a number of cases distinguishing it from “set-off” which arises out of a separate transaction, unrelated to plaintiff’s claim. Hong Hoon v. Lum Wai, 26 Haw. 546 (1922); Oahu Railway Co. v. Waialua A. Co., 16 Haw. 520 (1905); Erickson v. Volcano Stables and Transportation Co., 13 Haw. 428 (1901). In Erickson we stated at 430:

Set-off and counter claim are purely statutory defenses while recoupment is a common law defense. The Supreme Court of Michigan distinguishes between set-off and recoupment as follows: “This defense” (recoupment) “is contradistinguishable from set-off in three essential particulars: 1st. In being confined to matters arising out of and connected with the transaction or contract upon which the suit is brought. 2nd. In having no regard to whether or not such matters be liquidated or unliquidated. Wheaton (Wheat) v. Dotson, 7 Ark. 699 (12 Ark. 699, 7 Eng. 699.) And 3rd that the judgment is not the subject of statutory regulations, but *339 controlled by the rule of the common law.” (Citations omitted). And our own legislature has noted the distinction between recoupment and set-off as indicated in the legislative history to HRS s 657-3,7 the section on “Counterclaims.” As the House Standing Committee Report observed:

7 HRS s 657-3 reads in its entirety:

(a) In the cases enumerated in subsection (b), all the provisions of this part, or any other statute of limitations,

shall apply to a claim stated as a counterclaim against an opposing party in the same manner as if an action

thereon had been commenced at the time when the opposing party commenced his action or served the pleading stating his claim, or if a different time is applicable to the opposing party’s claim under the provisions of this section then at that time.

(b)

Subsection (a) shall apply if the claim stated as a counterclaim:

(1)

Consists of a liquidated debt or demand, or a debt or demand capable of being ascertained by calculation;

or

(2)

Arises out of a transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the opposing party’s claim.

(c)

Within the meaning of this section a counterclaim includes a claim asserted against the plaintiff by a

third-party defendant and in that situation the plaintiff is deemed as opposing party.

Not covered by either section at the present time is the application of the statute of limitations to defendant’s unliquidated claim arising out of the same transaction or occurrence. At common law this was deemed matter in recoupment, not a setoff, and defendant could not recover any excess. **940 Erickson v. Volcano Stables and Transportation Co., 13 Haw. 428, 431. No statute is necessary to avoid the bar

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of the statute of limitations if a claim arising out of the same transaction is used only as matter in recoupment. S.C. Rep. No. 527-72, 6th Leg., Reg. Sess. 1047 (1972).

Determining the “timeliness” of appellant’s counterclaims thus turns on whether they are in the nature of recoupment whether they arise from the same transaction or occurrence as appellee’s claims. The original action was appellee’s suit to recover outstanding amounts owing on loans taken by appellant. Appellant’s counterclaims allege violations in the very loan transactions which are the subject of the suit. The factual issues supporting appellant’s TILA claims are the same ones forming the basis of appellee’s suit.

*340 Appellee counters that a TILA claim does not involve a breach of the same contract. TILA violations are separate and apart from loan obligations and appellant’s claims involve a different statute.

State courts in other jurisdictions have examined this same issue and have reached different conclusions based on the set-off/recoupment distinction. The pivotal point

has been finding the TILA violation to arise out of the same transaction as the original loan obligation. In Hodges v. Community Loan Investment Corp., 133 Ga.App. 336,

210 S.E.2d 826 (1974) the Georgia Court of Appeals characterized the debtor’s

counterclaims as in the nature of set-off, not recoupment. Although the counterclaim arose contemporaneously with the execution of the contract, it was not a product of a breach of any obligation or covenant therein nor was it related to the subject matter of

the contract or to the plaintiff’s suit. Other courts have followed the Hodges reasoning in finding the counterclaims to be set-offs rather than recoupment claims. See Beneficial Finance Co. of Atlantic City v. Swaggerty, 159 N.J.Super. 507, 388 A.2d

647

(1978); Hewlett v. John Blue Employees Federal Credit Union, Ala.Civ.App.,

344

So.2d 505 (1976); Ken-Lu Enterprises, Inc. v. Neal, 29 N.C.App. 78, 223 S.E.2d

831

(1976).

On the other hand, a majority of state courts have allowed the TILA counterclaims, defining them as recoupment claims. In Continental Acceptance Corp. v. Rivera, 50 Ohio App.2d 338, 363 N.E.2d 772 (1976), the court stated that the defendant’s TILA claim emerges from the note upon which the plaintiff’s claim was grounded. The TILA claim is a recoupment because even though it may involve certain additional facts or a differing perception, it nevertheless involved the same transaction. This being so it was not barred by the statute of limitations provision. See also Household Finance Corporation v. Hobbs, 387 A.2d 198 (Del.Super. 1978); Garza v. Allied Finance Co., 566 S.W.2d 57 (Tex.Civ.App. 1978); Akron National Bank & Trust Co. v. Roundtree, 60 Ohio App.2d 13, 395 N.E.2d 525 (1978); Empire Finance Co. of Louisville Inc. v. Ewing, Ky.App., 558 S.W.2d 619 (1977). But see *341 Public Loan Company, Inc. v. Hyde, 89 Misc.2d 226, 390 N.Y.S.2d 971 (1977); Shannon v. Carter, 282 Or. 449, 579 P.2d 1288 (1978).

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6 We adopt the latter line of cases finding that appellant’s claims were indeed in the nature of a recoupment defense. His allegations of TILA violations centered around appellee’s failure to disclose fully certain aspects of the loan. These loans were the very ones that were the subject of appellee’s claims. As the court in Household, supra asserted, it seems “inescapable that credit terms are an integral part of a loan transaction.” Id. at 200. We find that appellant’s claims arose out of the same loan transaction as appellee’s suit and as such was a recoupment defense to diminish plaintiff’s recovery.

Allowing appellant’s counterclaims is also most consistent with furthering the overall purpose and intent of the TILA.8 The general provision of the Act, s 1601, states:

8 Commentators and authorities have noted that the tolling of statutes of limitations turns on a substantive-procedural analysis. The general rule is that a procedural statute of limitations extinguishes only the right to enforce the remedy and not the substantive right itself. However, the running of a substantive limitation extinguishes the statutory right itself. 51 Am.Jur.2d, Limitation of Actions, s 15. See also “Truth in Lending and the Statute of Limitations,” 21 Vill.L.Rev. 904, 918 (1975); “Developments in the Law,” 63 Harv.L.Rev. 1177 (1950). Thus, the distinction may be crucial, determining the bringing or barring of a suit. In 1974 the United States Supreme Court in American Pipe and Construction Co. v. Utah, 414 U.S. 538, 94 S.Ct. 756, 38 L.Ed.2d 713 (1974) rejected the substantive-procedural distinction stating that the test for tolling a statute of limitations is “whether tolling the limitation in a given context is consonant with the legislative scheme.” Id. at 558, 94 S.Ct. at 768. After examining the “scant legislative history of Sections 4B and 5(b) of the Clayton Act,” the Court concluded that tolling the statute of limitations in the Act would not be inconsistent with its legislative purpose. Id. See Burnett v. New York Central R. Co., 380 U.S. 424, 85 S.Ct. 1050, 13 L.Ed.2d 941 (1965). Section 1640(e) of the TILA could be characterized as a substantive statute of limitations since it is contained in a statute which creates a right and is a part of the substantive law creating the right of action. However, in view of the move away from any sort of substantive-procedural distinction, this classification is inconsequential and we look to the purpose behind the TILA to determine whether tolling is warranted.

The Congress finds that economic stabilization would be enhanced and the competition among the various financial institutions and other firms engaged in the extension of consumer credit would be strengthened by the informed use of **941 credit. The informed use of credit results from an awareness of the cost thereof by consumers. It is *342 the purpose of this subchapter to assure a meaningful disclosure of credit terms so that the consumer will be able to compare more readily the various credit terms available to him and avoid the uninformed use of credit. Thus, the TILA seeks to protect the consumer by ensuring full disclosure of credit cost. Creditors are required to disclose clearly and conspicuously certain terms of the loan and failure to so comply could result in liability up to $1,000.9 Debtors are better able to determine for themselves the reasonableness of the credit charges imposed and “comparison shop” for loans. The resulting competitive market among lenders benefits all consumers.10

9 Section 1640(a) allows civil liability for twice the amount of the finance charge in connection with the transaction but not less than $100 nor greater than $1,000 and in the case of a successful action to enforce such liability, the costs of the action together with reasonable attorney’s fees.

10 Senator William Proxmire, a major sponsor and supporter of the TILA testified extensively at Senate debates on the Bill:

It will provide the average person with the information he needs to use credit and to shop wisely for credit. It

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will end the present system of confusing credit practices and credit terminology which requires a trained mathematician to understand. It will disclose the cost of credit in clear and simple terms to the average consumer so that he can understand fully the extent of the credit and how it compares to rates being charged by other lenders. I believe this bill well save the American consumer millions of dollars a year in credit charges and will prevent millions of families from being saddled down with excessive debt. 113 Cong. Rec. 18400 (1967) (remarks of Sen. Proxmire).

Denying debtors their counterclaims in this situation could work an injustice and undercut the aim of the TILA. The typical consumer is unaware of his rights under the Act until his creditor files suit to collect on the loan and the debtor is forced to consult an attorney. Creditors will be encouraged to wait until after the one-year period before bringing suit, confident that debtors’ claims will be barred. As the Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division, so aptly stated in Lincoln First Bank of Rochester v. Rupert, 60 A.D.2d 193, 400 N.Y.S.2d 618, 620:

Thus, the holding, urged by respondent, that a consumer should be barred by the one-year limitation from asserting a Federal Truth in Lending Act counterclaim where the creditor has not commenced suit until the one-year *343 period has expired, would frustrate the very purpose and spirit of the legislation. It would permit an unscrupulous creditor, by the simple expedient of withholding suit against an uninformed or trusting borrower, to ignore the disclosure requirements with the assurance that the borrower’s truth-in-lending claims would be barred if he should be alerted to the creditor’s violations when suit is finally commenced. We reject such an anomalous and unjust construction as contrary to the very ends **942 Congress sought to achieve by enacting the legislation.

In addition, statutes of limitations are primarily designed to prevent stale claims and assure fairness to defendants and do not bar defenses such as recoupment. Such statutes “promote justice by preventing surprises through the revival of claims that have been allowed to slumber until evidence has been lost, memories have faded, and witnesses have disappeared. The theory is that even if one has a just claim it is unjust not to put the adversary on notice to defend within the period of limitation and that the right to be free of stale claims in time comes to prevail over the right to prosecute them.” Burnett v. New York Central R. Co., 380 U.S. 424, 428, 85 S.Ct. 1050, 1054, 13 L.Ed.2d 941 (1965).

Section 1640(e), the statute of limitations provision of the TILA serves to further enforcement of the Act’s civil liability provisions by ensuring the prompt bringing of suits. Deterrence of lenders’ violations rather than compensation of borrowers is the goal. Thus, allowing a borrower’s claims under the Act as a defense to the lender’s original suit is in keeping with this overall scheme.

7 Appellee raises an additional argument that the result sought by appellant would be inconsistent under the amendment to the Act.11 Under this section, damages pursuant to the Act cannot be asserted because appellant’s TILA claims *344 were not

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614 P.2d 936

determined by a court of competent jurisdiction in an action to which the appellee was a party. The Ken-Lu, supra case was cited in support of this argument. There a North Carolina Court of Appeals interpreted the section to bar all counterclaims or defenses under the TILA until a creditor’s civil liability had been determined by a proper court judgment.

11 That amendment is Section 1640(h), amended in 1974 to read:

(h) A person may not take any action to offset any amount for which a creditor is potentially liable to such person under subsection (a)(2) of this section against any amount owing to such creditor by such person, unless the amount of the creditor’s liability to such person has been determined by judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction in an action to which such person was a party.

This interpretation has been expressly rejected by several other courts who interpreted the section to apply only in situations where debtors tried to deduct unilaterally from the amounts owing because of alleged TILA violations. Lincoln First Bank of Rochester v. Rupert, supra; Stephens v. Household Finance Corp., Okl., 566 P.2d 1163 (1977); Reliable Credit Service, Inc. v. Bernard, 339 So.2d 952 (La.App. 1976).

Legislative reports on the Amendment indicate that these holdings are most consistent with its purpose.

The Committee amended bill also provides that a consumer may not recover damages (other than actual damages) by right of offset unless the consumer was a party to a court action in which the liability was determined. This provision is intended to prevent consumers from simply deducting from their obligation to a creditor the minimum $100 award, which is provided for in individual actions, without being a party to an action in which such a liability is determined by a court. However, nothing in this section prevents a series of individual civil actions to recover $100 in the case of any violation.

S. Rep. No. 93-278, 93d Cong., 1st Sess. 16 (1973). A subsequent bill to the TILA entitled “The Truth in Lending Simplification and Reform Act” would amend s 1640(h) to expressly allow recoupment claims. The section-by-section analysis of the bill states:

SEC. 14. Set-off rights. Would amend section 130(h) of the Truth in Lending Act to make clear that this section, which prohibits a borrower from offsetting Truth in Lending damages against a debt owed unless a court has found a Truth in Lending violation, does not prohibit a borrower from raising a creditor’s violation by way of recoupment or similar doctrine where permitted by State law. It was Congress’ intent in enacting this section in 1974 to prohibit a debtor from unilaterally offsetting alleged damages, but not to prohibit the **943 borrower from seeking an offset in a legal action. This amendment will supersede an erroneous court decision on this subject.

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334 (1980)

614 P.2d 936

123 Cong. Rec. 11337 (1977). Appellant has not attempted singly to deduct any amounts from the debts owed. Rather, in the current instituted suit he alleged as a counterclaim certain TILA violations on appellee’s part. These allegations were made to obtain a judicial determination of all claims relating to the loan transaction at one time. An approach such as the one taken in Ken-Lu, supra, would result in a complete bar to the assertion of any TILA claims as defenses in creditors’ actions. Such a drastic result was not contemplated by its drafters and would severely undercut the spirit of the Act. Appellant should be allowed his claims.

Reversed.

Parallel Citations

614 P.2d 936

End of Document

© 2011 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Negative Treatment

Negative Direct History

The KeyCited document has been negatively impacted in the following ways by events or decisions in the same litigation or proceedings:

There is no negative direct history.

Negative Citing References (2)

The KeyCited document has been negatively referenced by the following events or decisions in other litigation or proceedings:

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

Distinguished

Distinguished 1. Aames Funding Corp. v. Mores Apr. 22 , 2005 Case   —

1.

Aames Funding Corp. v. Mores

Apr. 22 , 2005

Case

Distinguished 1. Aames Funding Corp. v. Mores Apr. 22 , 2005 Case   —
 

by

   

107

Hawai’i 95, 104 , Hawai’i

 

REAL PROPERTY - Mortgages and Deeds of Trust. Defenses to mortgages foreclosed upon by exercise of mortgagee’s power of sale must be raised prior to entry

of new title.

 

Distinguished

2.
2.

Bank of New York v. Quevedo

Distinguished 2. Bank of New York v. Quevedo Aug. 17 , Case 4 5 6

Aug. 17 ,

Case

Distinguished 2. Bank of New York v. Quevedo Aug. 17 , Case 4 5 6

4

5
5
6
6

by

2005

P.2d

108

Hawai’i 88, 88 , Hawai’i

Background: Mortgagor appealed order of the Third Circuit Court, Riki May Amano, J., denying her motion for reconsideration of earlier order denying her motion

to set aside

 

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Citing References (42)

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

Distinguished

Distinguished 1. Bank of New York v. Quevedo   Aug. 17, 2005 Case 4 5 6

1.

Bank of New York v. Quevedo

Distinguished 1. Bank of New York v. Quevedo   Aug. 17, 2005 Case 4 5 6
 

Aug. 17, 2005

Case

Distinguished 1. Bank of New York v. Quevedo   Aug. 17, 2005 Case 4 5 6

4

5
5
6
6

by

117

P.3d 119, 119+ , Hawai’i

 

P.2d

Background: Mortgagor appealed order of the Third Circuit Court, Riki May Amano, J., denying her

Background: Mortgagor appealed order of the Third Circuit Court, Riki May Amano, J., denying her motion for reconsideration of earlier order denying her motion to set aside

 

Discussed by

Discussed by 2. Hawaii Community Federal Credit Union Oct. 17, 2000 Case 1 2

2.

Hawaii Community Federal Credit Union

Oct. 17, 2000

Case

Discussed by 2. Hawaii Community Federal Credit Union Oct. 17, 2000 Case 1 2

1

2
2

v. Keka

v. Keka P.2d

P.2d

11

P.3d 1, 7+ , Hawai’i

 

REAL PROPERTY - Mortgages and Deeds of Trust. Hearsay testimony as to mortgagors’ default could not support summary judgment in foreclosure action.

 

Discussed by

Discussed by 3. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Pasion Jan. 26, 2004 Case 1 2

3.

American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Pasion

Discussed by 3. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Pasion Jan. 26, 2004 Case 1 2

Jan. 26, 2004

Case

Discussed by 3. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Pasion Jan. 26, 2004 Case 1 2

1

2
2

83

P.3d 772, 772+ , Hawai’i App.

P.2d

Defendants-Appellants Dionisio Palacio Pasion and Angelita Miguel Pasion (the Pasions) appeal the June 6, 2001 final judgment of the circuit court of the first circuit, the

Discussed by

Discussed by 4. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Miguel Jul. 18, 2003 Case 6  

4.

American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Miguel

Discussed by 4. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Miguel Jul. 18, 2003 Case 6  

Jul. 18, 2003

Case

Discussed by 4. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v. Miguel Jul. 18, 2003 Case 6  

6

 

74

P.3d 1007, 1007+ , Hawai’i App.

P.2d

Defendants-Appellants Vic Garo Miguel and Estrellita Garin Miguel (Miguels) appeal from the (a) February 7, 2001 ‘’Order Granting Plaintiff’s Motion for Summary Judgment Against

 

Discussed by

Discussed by 5. GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Yonenaka May 22, 2001 Case 1 2

5.

GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Yonenaka

Discussed by 5. GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Yonenaka May 22, 2001 Case 1 2

May 22, 2001

Case

Discussed by 5. GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Yonenaka May 22, 2001 Case 1 2

1

2
2

25

P.3d 807, 814+ , Hawai’i App.

 

P.2d

BANKRUPTCY - Debtor Protections. Automatic stay did not apply in favor of Chapter 7 debtor’s creditors.

Discussed by

Discussed by 6. GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Miguel Nov. 29, 1999 Case 2  

6.

GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Miguel

Discussed by 6. GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Miguel Nov. 29, 1999 Case 2  

Nov. 29, 1999

Case

Discussed by 6. GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Miguel Nov. 29, 1999 Case 2  

2

 

990

P.2d 134, 139+ , Hawai’i App.

P.2d

REAL PROPERTY - Mortgages and Deeds of Trust. Mortgagee’s affidavit in foreclosure action contained inadmissible hearsay.

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

Discussed by

7.

In re Galea’i

 

Oct. 23, 1981

Case

Discussed by 7. In re Galea’i   Oct. 23, 1981 Case 2 6 7

2

6
6
7
7

31

B.R. 629, 630+ , Bankr.D.Hawai’i

   

Debtor spouses sought to have industrial loan company’s claim disallowed as violating Hawaii’s usury statute and federal Truth-in-Lending Act. The Bankruptcy Court, Jon J

 

P.2d

Distinguished

Distinguished 8. Aames Funding Corp. v. Mores   Apr. 22, 2005 Case   —

8.

Aames Funding Corp. v. Mores

 

Apr. 22, 2005

Case

Distinguished 8. Aames Funding Corp. v. Mores   Apr. 22, 2005 Case   —
 

by

110

P.3d 1042, 1051 , Hawai’i

   
REAL PROPERTY - Mortgages and Deeds of Trust. Defenses to mortgages foreclosed upon by exercise

REAL PROPERTY - Mortgages and Deeds of Trust. Defenses to mortgages foreclosed upon by exercise of mortgagee’s power of sale must be raised prior to entry of new title.

Cited by

Cited by 9. Price v. AIG Hawai’i Ins. Co., Inc. Mar. 29, 2005 Case 2  

9.

Price v. AIG Hawai’i Ins. Co., Inc.

Cited by 9. Price v. AIG Hawai’i Ins. Co., Inc. Mar. 29, 2005 Case 2  

Mar. 29, 2005

Case

Cited by 9. Price v. AIG Hawai’i Ins. Co., Inc. Mar. 29, 2005 Case 2  

2

 

111

P.3d 1, 10 , Hawai’i

P.2d

LITIGATION - Judgment. Appellants waived contention that depositions in support of summary judgment motion were inadmissible.

Cited by

Cited by 10. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v.   Sep. 23, 2003 Case 2  

10.

American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v.

 

Sep. 23, 2003

Case

Cited by 10. American Sav. Bank, F.S.B. v.   Sep. 23, 2003 Case 2  

2

 

Fernandez

P.2d

78

P.3d 339, 339+ , Hawai’i

 

Mortgagee brought foreclosure action against mortgagor. The Fifth Circuit Court, George M. Masuoka, J., entered summary judgment in favor of mortgagee. Mortgagor appealed. The

Cited by

11.

Munoz v. Yuen

 

Oct. 20, 1983

Case

Cited by 11. Munoz v. Yuen   Oct. 20, 1983 Case 1  

1

 

670

P.2d 825, 827 , Hawai’i

   

Motion was filed to strike portions of opening brief of

P.2d

appellant.

The Supreme Court held that: (1) it is

counsel’s duty to call to the attention of the trial court those items

 

Cited by

12.

State By Atty. Gen. v. U. S.

 

May 24, 1982

Case

Cited by 12. State By Atty. Gen. v. U. S.   May 24, 1982 Case 1

1

2
2

645

P.2d 311, 313 , Hawai’i

 

Interpleader action was brought. The First Circuit Court, Honolulu County, Arthur S. K. Fong, J., entered judgment in favor of defendant with respect to certain funds held by the

P.2d

Cited by

Cited by 13. Waikiki Resort Hotel, Inc. v. City and   Mar. 06, 1981 Case  

13.

Waikiki Resort Hotel, Inc. v. City and

 

Mar. 06, 1981

Case

Cited by 13. Waikiki Resort Hotel, Inc. v. City and   Mar. 06, 1981 Case  
 

County of Honolulu

   

624

P.2d 1353, 1365 , Hawai’i

 

Plaintiff, which owned and operated hotel directly opposite project site, appealed from the First Circuit Court, City and County of Honolulu, Harold Y. Shintaku, J., which

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

Cited by

14.

International Sav. and Loan Ass’n, Ltd. v.

 

May 18, 2000

Case

Cited by 14. International Sav. and Loan Ass’n, Ltd. v.   May 18, 2000 Case 2

2

Carbonel 5 P.3d 454, 463 , Hawai’i App.

Carbonel 5 P.3d 454, 463 , Hawai’i App.

 

P.2d

COMMERCIAL LAW - Guaranty. Not all guarantors had to be joined as parties in mortgage foreclosure action.

Cited by

Cited by 15. Nakato v. Macharg   Dec. 08, 1998 Case 1 2

15.

Nakato v. Macharg

 

Dec. 08, 1998

Case

Cited by 15. Nakato v. Macharg   Dec. 08, 1998 Case 1 2

1

2
2

969

P.2d 824, 832 , Hawai’i App.

 

P.2d

REAL PROPERTY - Vendor and Purchaser. Documents submitted by vendors to support summary judgment in action by purchasers were inadmissible.

 

Cited by

Cited by 16. Pancakes of Hawaii, Inc. v. Pomare   Aug. 01, 1997 Case 1  

16.

Pancakes of Hawaii, Inc. v. Pomare

 

Aug. 01, 1997

Case

Cited by 16. Pancakes of Hawaii, Inc. v. Pomare   Aug. 01, 1997 Case 1  

1

 

Properties Corp.

P.2d

944

P.2d 97, 112 , Hawai’i App.

 

REAL PROPERTY - Landlord and Tenant. Leasing company for shopping center and salesman were not parties to lease and could not enforce lease’s jury waiver provision against tenant.

Cited by

Cited by 17. Fuller v. Pacific Medical Collections, Inc. Mar. 22, 1995 Case 1 2

17.

Fuller v. Pacific Medical Collections, Inc.

Mar. 22, 1995

Case

Cited by 17. Fuller v. Pacific Medical Collections, Inc. Mar. 22, 1995 Case 1 2

1

2
2
 

P.2d

891

P.2d 300, 311 , Hawai’i App.

 

Collection Agencies. Consumers could file suit against collection agencies for alleged unfair or deceptive trade practices.

 

Cited by

18.

Arimizu v. Financial Sec. Ins. Co., Inc.

Cited by 18. Arimizu v. Financial Sec. Ins. Co., Inc.   Mar. 27, 1984 Case 4
 

Mar. 27, 1984

Case

Cited by 18. Arimizu v. Financial Sec. Ins. Co., Inc.   Mar. 27, 1984 Case 4

4

 

679

P.2d 627, 631 , Hawai’i App.

   

Employee brought action against employer for wages and vacation benefits and for a statutory penalty, and employer asserted counterclaim by

 

P.2d

way of setoff.

The First Circuit

 

Cited by

19.

McCarthy v. Yempuku

 

Feb. 21, 1984

Case

Cited by 19. McCarthy v. Yempuku   Feb. 21, 1984 Case   —
 

678

P.2d 11, 17 , Hawai’i App.

   

A

defamation action was filed against attorneys.

 

The First Circuit Court, Honolulu County, James H.

Wakatsuki, J., granted summary judgment in favor

 

of

the attorneys.

Appeal

Cited by

Cited by 20. Yamamoto v. Premier Ins. Co.   Aug. 03, 1983 Case 1 2

20.

Yamamoto v. Premier Ins. Co.

 

Aug. 03, 1983

Case

Cited by 20. Yamamoto v. Premier Ins. Co.   Aug. 03, 1983 Case 1 2

1

2
2

668

P.2d 42, 46 , Hawai’i App.

P.2d

Husband and wife filed personal injury action against driver involved in collision with husband and

against their automobile insurer. Court, Honolulu County,

The First Circuit

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Treatment

 

Title

 

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

Cited by

21.

American Sec. Bank v. Nishihara

 

Jan. 03, 1983

Case

Cited by 21. American Sec. Bank v. Nishihara   Jan. 03, 1983 Case 6

6

656

P.2d 1347, 1349 , Hawai’i App.

   

Co-obligor on promissory note appealed from judgment of the District Court of the Second Circuit, Wailuku Division, Arthur T. Ueoka, J., holding her liable on note and dismissing

P.2d

Cited by

22.

Carriers Ins. Co. v. Domingo

 

Dec. 12, 1980

Case

Cited by 22. Carriers Ins. Co. v. Domingo   Dec. 12, 1980 Case   —
 

620

P.2d 761, 763 , Hawai’i App.

   

In declaratory judgment action relating to public liability policy, the First Circuit Court, Honolulu County, Arthur S. K. Fong, J., entered summary judgment to effect that the

 

Cited by

Cited by 23. DeMund v. Lum Dec. 09, 1980 Case   —

23.

DeMund v. Lum

Dec. 09, 1980

Case

Cited by 23. DeMund v. Lum Dec. 09, 1980 Case   —
 

620

P.2d 270, 272 , Hawai’i App.

   

Plaintiff brought an action for alleged breach of restrictive covenant against another property owner and the developers. The First Circuit Court, Honolulu County, Arthur S. K

Cited by

Cited by 24. Albano v. Norwest Financial Hawaii, Inc. Mar. 30, 2001 Case   —

24.

Albano v. Norwest Financial Hawaii, Inc.

Mar. 30, 2001

Case

Cited by 24. Albano v. Norwest Financial Hawaii, Inc. Mar. 30, 2001 Case   —
 

244

F.3d 1061, 1064+ , 9th Cir.(Hawai’i)

   

COMMERCIAL LAW - Consumer Credit. Res judicata barred borrowers’ TILA claim against lender.

 

Cited by

25.

Thriftway Co. v. Amorient Petroleum Inc.

Apr. 08, 1992

Case

Cited by 25. Thriftway Co. v. Amorient Petroleum Inc. Apr. 08, 1992 Case 4 5 6

4

5
5
6
6

--- Fed.Appx. ---- , 9th Cir.(Cal.)

   

C.D.Cal. AFFIRMED.

 

P.2d

Cited by

Cited by 26. Dias v. Bank of Hawaii   May 08, 1984 Case 5  

26.

Dias v. Bank of Hawaii

 

May 08, 1984

Case

Cited by 26. Dias v. Bank of Hawaii   May 08, 1984 Case 5  

5

 

732

F.2d 1401, 1402 , 9th Cir.(Hawai’i)

 

P.2d

Bank card holder who had obtained Truth in Lending Act judgment against bank in federal court appealed from order of the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii,

Cited by

Cited by 27. Ruf v. Honolulu Police Dept.   Feb. 23, 1999 Case 1  

27.

Ruf v. Honolulu Police Dept.

 

Feb. 23, 1999

Case

Cited by 27. Ruf v. Honolulu Police Dept.   Feb. 23, 1999 Case 1  

1

 

972

P.2d 1081, 1086 , Hawai’i

P.2d

GOVERNMENT - Public Safety. No special relationship existed between police and child killed by assailant negligently released from custody.

Cited by

28.

Ford v. Defenbaugh

 

Sep. 16, 1981

Case

Cited by 28. Ford v. Defenbaugh   Sep. 16, 1981 Case 2 7

2

7
7

403

So.2d 863, 865+ , Miss.

   

Debtors appealed from decision of the Circuit Court, Grenada County, Clarence E. Morgan, Jr., J., which entered judgment in favor of lender in suit for deficiency judgment. The

P.2d

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

29.

Time limitations under 15 U.S.C.A. sec.

 

1978

ALR

3

1640(e) on Truth in Lending suits, 36 A.L.R. Fed.

 

657

 

P.2d

This annotation collects and analyzes the cases in which the federal and state courts have construed and applied the Truth in Lending Act’s statute of limitations, which appears at

 

30.

Business and Commercial Litigation in

 

2011

Other

6

 

Federal Courts s 72:12, Avoiding counterclaims and defenses Business and Commercial Litigation in Federal

Courts

Secondary

 

Source

P.2d

The final task before drafting a complaint to pursue

 

debt is to minimize or eliminate the risk of potential defenses or counterclaims by the debtor. The attorney should begin by

a

31.

Wright & Miller: Federal Prac. & Proc. s

 

2011

Other

4

 

1401, History of the Counterclaim and

 

Secondary

 

Crossclaim Wright & Miller: Federal Prac. & Proc.

Source

P.2d

The current federal counterclaim and crossclaim practice is the end product of a long period of judicial and legislative development designed to facilitate the adjudication of all

 

32.

CJS Interest and Usury; Consumer Credit s

2011

Other

6

7
7

503, Consumer asserting claim defensively against creditor CJS Interest and Usury; Consumer Credit

 

Secondary

 

Source

P.2d

A

claim under the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) may

 

be asserted defensively, as by a claim for recoupment, or by a setoff. A provision of TILA to

the effect that it does not

 

33.

CJS Limitations of Actions s 289, Truth in

 

2011

Other

 

Lending Act and other consumer protection

 

Secondary

 

laws CJS Limitations of Actions

 

Source

An affirmative action against a creditor for damages for violation of the Federal Truth in Lending Act accrues on the date of occurrence of the violation thereunder. Such a

34.

CJS Set-Off and Counterclaim s 85,

2011

Other

 

Generally CJS Set-Off and Counterclaim

 

Secondary

 

Source

A

cause of action which is assigned is generally

 

subject to any right of recoupment, set-off, cross

 

demand or counterclaim. In respect of such claims, the assignee ordinarily has

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

35.

RULE 56 TAKES A WRONG TURN, 6-MAR

 

2002

Law Review

 

Haw. B.J. 18, 19+

   

Two recent decisions of the Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals, GE Capital Hawaii, Inc. v. Yonenaka (’’Yonenaka’’) and GE Capital Hawaii, Inc., v. Miguel (’’Miguel’’) under R.56,

 

Mentioned by

36.

Hawaii Leasing v. Klein

 

Feb. 01, 1983

Case

Mentioned by 36. Hawaii Leasing v. Klein   Feb. 01, 1983 Case   —
 

658

P.2d 343, 347 , Hawai’i App.

   

Lessor of car wash equipment brought action against officers of corporate lessee for deficiency on their guaranties of payment of lease rents under two

lease agreements.

The

 

Mentioned by

Mentioned by 37. Ailetcher v. Beneficial Finance Co. of   Jul. 22, 1981 Case   —

37.

Ailetcher v. Beneficial Finance Co. of

 

Jul. 22, 1981

Case

Mentioned by 37. Ailetcher v. Beneficial Finance Co. of   Jul. 22, 1981 Case   —
 

Hawaii

   

632

P.2d 1071, 1074 , Hawai’i App.

 

Automobile dealership and one of its employees brought action against finance company to recover for damages allegedly suffered as a result of finance company’s refusal to make

Mentioned by

Mentioned by 38. Lane v. Yamamoto May 11, 1981 Case 1  

38.

Lane v. Yamamoto

May 11, 1981

Case

Mentioned by 38. Lane v. Yamamoto May 11, 1981 Case 1  

1

 

628

P.2d 634, 635 , Hawai’i App.

 

P.2d

Rightful owner brought suit against prosecutor and city and county seeking to recover damages based on allegation that prosecutor acted with malice in delaying the return of stolen

 

Mentioned by

39.

Jacoby v. Kaiser Foundation Hospital

 

Jan. 07, 1981

Case

Mentioned by 39. Jacoby v. Kaiser Foundation Hospital   Jan. 07, 1981 Case 2  

2

 

622

P.2d 613, 618 , Hawai’i App.

 

Patient and her husband brought suit alleging medical malpractice and breach of health plan contract. The First Circuit Court, Honolulu County, Arthur S. K. Fong, J., granted

 

P.2d

Mentioned by

Mentioned by 40. Munds v. First Ins. Co. of Hawaii, Ltd.   Jul. 30, 1980 Case

40.

Munds v. First Ins. Co. of Hawaii, Ltd.

 

Jul. 30, 1980

Case

Mentioned by 40. Munds v. First Ins. Co. of Hawaii, Ltd.   Jul. 30, 1980 Case

2

 

614

P.2d 408, 410 , Hawai’i App.

P.2d

Vendors sought declaratory relief of coverage by insurance companies under homeowner’s policy and personal catastrophe policy and of obligation of insurance companies to defend

Mentioned by

Mentioned by 41. In re Smith Aug. 06, 1984 Case 6  

41.

In re Smith

Aug. 06, 1984

Case

Mentioned by 41. In re Smith Aug. 06, 1984 Case 6  

6

 

737

F.2d 1549, 1552 , 11th Cir.(Ga.)

 

P.2d

Debtor in Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceeding scheduled debt owed to creditor as a disputed claim contending that she was entitled to rescission and statutory damages under the Truth

Pacific Concrete Federal Credit Union v. Kauanoe, 62 Haw. 334

Treatment

 

Title

Date

Type

Depth

Headnote(s)

Mentioned by

42.

United Missouri Bank of Kansas City v.

Dec. 23, 1981

Case

Mentioned by 42. United Missouri Bank of Kansas City v. Dec. 23, 1981 Case 6 7

6

7
7

Robinson 638 P.2d 372, 376 , Kan.App.

 

P.2d

Debtor appealed from judgment of the District Court, Wyandotte County, Ralph David Lamar, J., holding that her counterclaim for damages arising out of lender’s alleged violations