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M commerce is the new environment of e commerce now a days the user of internet is at the top position people are using he internet in the form of ecommerce also it means the exchange of business data from one computer to another computer through internet but the mode of user of internet is changing from ecommerce to m commerce The formal definition of m commerce is m commerce is any transaction with mandatory value that is conducted via mobile telecommunication networks Example: mobile banking Mobile stock tracking and mobile ticketing E recharge are some example of m commerce Gsm Cdma Gprs Tdma Cdpd M commerce v/s e commerce Technical difference between ecommerce and m commerce

Srno Technology 1 Devices 2 Operating system 3 Presentation standard 4 Browser 5 Bearer networks

Ecommerce Pc Windows,unix,linux Html dhtml Ms ie netscape etc

M commerce Mobile pagers pdas Windows symbian palm proprietary plat forms Html wml hdml i mode




Plhone comp up browser nokia browser mobile explorer other micro browsers etc Tcp/ip and fined wireline Gsm,gsm/gprs, tdma cdma cdpd intenet


Advantages of m commerce:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Drawing forces of m commerce: Increasing rate of mobile devices Anytime anyway Growth of infrastructure Simplicity easily to operate Electronic commerce and market Electronic fund transfer (eft) Point of sale(pos) Just in time(jit) Electronic mail(e mail)

Forces of e commerce
1. 2.

Economic force: Marketing and customer interaction force

3. 4. 5.

Technology of digital convergence Convergence of content Convergence of transmission technology

FORCES BEHIND E COMMERCE: ECONOMIC FORCE:-blesa e commerce ds }kjk low cost ,ao nqljh companies ds lkFk competition dh Hkkouk fn[kkbZ x;h gSA vFkkZr fofHkUu suppliers dks e transaction ds } kjk low cost ij de le; esa lqpuk order ls lEcaf/kr Hksth tkrh gSA nwljh vksj customer end ij retail banking ;k telephone call centre dh rqyuk esa O;kikj ls lEcaf/kr laiq.kZ information dks de cost share fd;k tkrk gSA electronic commerce ds }kjk external and internal integration le; ij ,ao electronic data interchange ds :i esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA Ex. fofHkUu invoices ftudk fd vkidks order iqjk djuk gSA mlesa lEcf/kar vyx vyx foHkkxksa dks e commerce ds tfj;s email djds fufpr le; esa lwfpr fd;k tkrk gSA Bhd blh izdkj invoice ls lEcaf/kr dke iq.kZ gksus ij eky ls lEcaf/kr tkudkjh dk le; le; ij vuqeku yxk;k tk ldrk gSA(building inventory system)(shipping line and updation)bl izdkj ckg~; ,ao vkarfjd information dk co ordination ckg~; ,ao vkarfjd integration dgykrk gSA Marketing of customer intraction force:-e commerce ds }kjk marketing esa sales ,ao customer service and support ds u;s vk;ke fn;s x;sAcM+h cM+h companies vius customers dks vius productsds ek/;e ls tv dh rqyuk esa T;knk vPNs <ax ls ,ao lLrh nj ij crk ldrh gSA vkt market esa fofHkUu products dh HkhM+ gSA e commerce ds }kjk u;s u;s products dks u;s rjhds ls crk;k tk ldrk gS vr% market research esa ,d u;k vk;ke tksM+k x;k AcM+h cM+h dEifu;ksa esa(branded equity) ds }kjk rsth ls bl cktkj dks le>dj consumer base okrkoj.k fd;k x;kA Digital technology of convergence:-blds vUnj sound,characters, video,motions pictures etc.dks bit format esa convert dj nsrs gSa ftlls bl lc dk transmission oks Hkh fcuk fdlh ;k ux.; quality loss ds laHko gS ifj.kke Lo:i electronic commerce esa multimedia evolution vk x;kA ftlus ubZ industries dks tUe fn;kA tSls communication,entertainment, publishing and computing word vkrs gSaA Conversion of content Transmission technology Convergance of content:-original format dks blds lanHkZ eas digitalization djus ls digital format esa convert djds bls searching,story,enhancement conversion esa compression esa encryption esa replication esa ,ao low cost ij transmit djuk laHko gwvkAbl tool us control based industry dks c<kok fn;kA tSls Magazine, newspaper etc Content conversion sophisticated information dks publishdjus ,ao browsing industry dk eq[; idea cukA Netscape communication and browser provider us 6 million dollars dek;sA Content convergence ;g network database ,ao e publishing dk iz;ksx dj corporate ,ao individual decision making ,ao information processing dks c<kok fn;kA physically production distribution ,ao delivery dks NksM+dj ;gka informationds processing manipulation ,ao distribution dks c<kok fn;k x;kA bleas computer creation ,ao network infra structure dks c<kok feykA Convergence of transmission:-bleas information dks compress djds j[krs gSa rkfd phoneline, wirelesss ,ao cable wire ij transmission laHko gks ldsA convergence of transmission okLro esa fofHkUu communication ds lk/kuksa dk convergence gS tks fd voice,data,image ,ao video

dks pipeline ds }kjk transmission djuk laHko cukrs gSa budh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh single line ij computers ds e/; tqM+uk ,ao information dk vknku iznku laHko gksrk gSaA lkFk gh fofHkUu peripherals devices ds e/; high speed connection curk gSA blds }kjk fofHkUu multimedia application es lq/kkj fd;k x;k gSA blesa network ds izfr easy access ,ao low cost ij delivery channels dks private djk;k x;kA tgka igys voice ,ao data network dk convergence ;kn j[kuk dkQh eqfdy FkkA D;ksafd personal branch exchange ,ao atm TkSls ubZ network technologies ds vkus ls lcdqN iw.kZ :i ls cny x;kA vkt ge vkokt ds lkFk video ,ao data dks wide area network ds tfj;s vklkuh ls viuh desktop machine ls Hkst ldrs gSa bl technology us vuko;d wiring dks Hkh de fd;kA le; esa uk vkus okys telephone computer ,ao tv ds tky esa net information access devices convergence }kjk transmission convergence dks fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x;kA nwljh technology tSls:- cable modems, hybrid fiber co axial cable ,ao asymmetrical digital subscriber line(adsl) vkfn technology }kjk ? kaVksa rd unlimited band width dks miyC/k djkuk laHko gqvkAblds lkFk lkFk vyx vyx esa switching laHko gw;hA Implication of forms various forces: economic and market forces and digital convergence ds izHkko ls fofHkUu industries us information based products ,ao bl {ks= ds ykHk mBkus ds fy;s [kqn dks iquZLFkkfir fd;kA digital convergence us vkt ds u;s competitive environment dk u;k :i ys fy;kA telephone market ds ?kVrs margin us computer driven intelligent network dks tUe fn;kA fofHkUu izdkj dh value added services dks offer fd;kA blh izdkj dh services us tv tSls market esa games home shopping, banking vkfn lkeus vk;s Abu lcdk izHkko customer services at home ds uke ls tkuk tkus yxkA Frame work:

Policy legal Common business services infrastructure And privacy Messaging of information distribution infrastructure Multimedia context of network publishing infrastructure Network infrastructure Building block of e commerce

Technical standard for document Security and network protocol

Common business services:-[kjhnnkjksa ,ao cspus dh izf;k esa dke es yh tkus okyh common business services gS security or authentication dk /;ku j[kk x;kA Messaging and information distribution:-as a mean of retrieving and saving lqpuk ,ao lansk dk distribution vFkkZr fofHkUu izdkj ds messages dks Hkstuk ,ao izkIr djuk ,ao store fd;s gw;s message dks access djuk ;k fofHkUu izdkj dh information dks <q<dj fudkyukA Multimedia content and network publishing:-blds vurxZr fofHkUu izdkj ds products dks cukuk ,ao bUgs yksxks ds chp communication ds fy;s publishing djuk vkfn izdkjA Network infra structure;-information ds super highway us ,d cgwr gh l?ku vk/kkj iznku fd;k tks fd fofHkUu izdkj dh e commerce activities ds pyus ds fy;s vfr vko;d fl) gwvkA Multimedia ds }kjk ;g laHko gwvk fd e commerce ls lEcf/kar lwpuk telephone network cable, tv wireless ;k internet ij nh tk ldrh gSA Applications of e commerce: Retail stores as of books music, toys etc Sites for buying and selling

Carrying transmission in semi automated way Customers services by bank to the account state deposit payment etc. E tickets(railway ,airlines, bus cinema etc.) Tax filling Publishing and marketing Web information help ful in the learning Online training Home shopping Remote banking Video in demand

Srno Advantages 1 nwjh dks dksbZ egRo ugha gSa

24 ?kaVsa [kjhnus dh lsok gS

3 4 5

Setup cost is very low Flexibility add and brochures(pamplets) remove products, cagalange

6 7 8 9

Error reduction as auto process if ordr once place need no to read do ,d ckj ;fn dksbZ order ns fn;k tk;s rks mldk process automatically pyrk gSAcustomer dks nwckjk ls order nsus dh vko;drk ugh gksrh gSA Wider choice available for comparison with no wastage of time Can available(subscribe) services and financial, medical advise etc, from appropriate portal Payment is possible within a circle by giving your credit card no. Business approach to world

Disadvantages fdlh oLrw dks Nwdj eglwl djus dh {kerk iznku ugha djukA Store cgwr yEcs le; rd ekStwn ugh jgrh gS ,ao vf/kdrj dEifu;ksa dks e soter proper setup djuk ugha vkrk gSA Majority of people dont serialize to do everything on pc at home Hackers intercept(many) transcation if can create problem for both customer and company Young and educated persons are interested but woman and elders are not those bl uke dks djus ds fy;s Selling of products is scaly a problem to unware people. Internet access must be there The process requires faithfulness Edi standard have to be in place before b to b ecommerce . Security of transaction needful.

10 Reduce order processing cost Types of e commerce: Inter organization Intera organization Customer to business Inter organization:

Suppliers management:blds }kjk fofHkUu electronic applications suppliers dh l[;k dks ? kVkrh gSA ,ao partners dh la[;k dks c<krh gSA bl dk;Z esa purchase order processing cost ,ao cycling time dks de djrh gSA bl dk;Z ds fy;s de ls de dk;ZdrkZvksa dh

vko;drk iM+rh gSA bl izdkj e commerce }kjk supply management de [kpZ esa ,ao de yksxksa }kjk laHko gks ikrk gSA Inventory management:-electronic application ds }kjk order ship ,ao bill cyctle dks NksVk cuk;k tk ldrk gS ;fn vf/kdrj business partners electronically ,d nwljs ls TkwM+s gw;s gks rks fdlh Hkh information dks ,d ckj fax ;k email }kjk Hkstus ij ;g information lHkh yksxksa dks ,d lkFk ,ao iw.kZ :i ls izkIr gks tk;sxhA blds lkFk lkFk ge Hksth xbZ information dk mls track djds feedback Hkh ys ldrs gSa ;g inventory management ds Lrj ij out of stock dks jksdus ,ao auditing facility esa lgk;d gksrh gSA Distribution management:-electronic application ds }kjk fofHkUUk shipping line ds document transmission dks T;knk vklku cuk fn;kA lkFk gh document esa fn;s x;s Data lgh gS ;g tkuuk Hkh vklku gks x;kA fofHkUu document tSls bills of loading,purchase order, advance ship notices,ao manifest clannish ds lkFk lkFk ,d vPNs resource management esa lgk;rk nhA Channel management:-electronic applications ds }kjk O;kikj ds fofHkUu partners dks fdlh Hkh cnyko ds izfr information rqjar izHkko ds lkFk ekywe gksrh gSA Electronic bulletin boards ds }kjk fofHkUu izdkj ds mRiknu dh dher] ml ij yxh yscj bR;kfn dh information rwjUr izHkko ds lkFk fn[kkbZ tk ldrh gSA fofHkUu izdkj ds products dks intenational distributers,,ao reseller ds lkFk electronically tksM+dj mudk ,d network cukdj dksbZ Hkh company information dks igqapkus esa labour esa yxs le; dks izHkkoh :i ls de dj ldrh gSA lkFk gh information dh searching dks T;knk lgh <ax ls crk ldrh gSA Payment management:-electronic applications ds }kjk suppliers ,ao distributers dks vkil esa tksM+ fn;k x;kA ftlds }kjk payment dks electronically Hkstuk ,ao receive djuk lHkao gwvkA bl izdkj dh electronic payment O;oLFkk esa clerical errors de gw;sA,ao billing dh speed c< xbZa lkFk gh bl izdkj ds transaction esa yxus okyh dher ;k fees Hkh de gwbZA Example: electronic data interchange us vktdy ds billing system, mailing system iquZLFkkiuk] tks fd cgwr gh le; ysus okyh [kphZyh ,ao dbZ xyfr;ksa ls Hkjh gwbZ Fkh ds izfr ,d alternative fd;kA bl O;oLFkk ds }kjk fdlh Hkh dEiuh dks vius midj.kksa dh fch dks tracking djuk vklku gks x;kA intra organization:-bl application dk mn~ns; fdlh company dks vius valuable customers ds lkFk vPNh service provide djkus ,ao vius bl izdkj ds izHkkoh fjrs dks cuk, j[kus esa lgk;rk iznku djrk gSA work group communication:-bl izdkj ds vuwiz;ksx }kjk ,d manager vius fofHkUu employees ds lkFk okrkZyki djrk gSA blds fy;s email, video conference bulletin board dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh rduhd dk mn~ns; lqpuk dks lqpk: :i ls forfjr djuk gSA rkfd izR;sd employ iq.kZ :i esa lqfpr jgsA electronic publishing:-bl izdkj ds vuqiz;ksx fofHkUu companies dks O;ofLFkr :i ls publish djus ,ao lqpuk ds izlkj.k esa tSls fd human resources manuals, products specification ,ao le; dks de djus ds tools dk iz;ksx djus esa lgk;d gksrh gSA tSls fd world wide web bldk mn~ns; fdlh Hkh firm esa lwpuk ds iz;ksx }kjk rdZlaxr fu.kZ; ,ao ,d vPNh vo/kkj.kk cukus esa lgk;rk nsuk gSA Benefits of electronic publishing: Paper saving

Time saving Decision making Out dating is less. Sales force productivity:-bl izdkj ds vuwiz;ksx production ,ao sales cost ds e/; ,ao mlds firm ds e/; lqpuk ds flow esa fodkl djrk gSA fofHkUu sales forces dks collect dj organization ds nwljs igyqvksa ds lkFk feykdj ns[kus ij gesa market dh intelligence ,ao competitive lqpukvksa ij vPNh idM+ izkIr gksrh gSA bldk mn~ns; fdlh Hkh firm dks market ds ckjs esa rsth ls voxr djkuk gSA lkFk gh T;knk l{ke :i ls analysis djus dh kfDr iznku djrk gSA Some types of information Human resource management Employers communication Product development and project management data Internal catalogue Sales support data Equipment and shipment tracking and accessing corporate database. Customer to business:-e commerce ds }kjk dksbZ Hkh customer e publish products dks ns[k ldrk gSA lkFk gh e cash dk iz;ksx djds fdlh Hkh product dks [kjhn ldrk gS blds lkFk lkFk secure payment, lkeku dh delivery dh lqpuk etc Hkh e commerce ds }kjk laHko Gsa Social interaction:-fofHkUu izdkj ds electronic application customer dks communication iznku djrs gSa tSls email, video conference , news group etc. vkil eas

Personal finance management:-electronic applications tSls fd quicken customers dks market esa investment djus ds lgk;d gSA Bhd blh rjg online banking tools yksxksa dks muds finance management dh lqfo/kk iznku djrsa gSA Purchaseing products and information:-electronic application }kjk dksbZ Hkh costomer fofHkUu izdkj dh lqpuk;sa dh <aq<usa o fofHkUu izdkj ds products ,ao services dks <qa,us esa l{ke gksrs gSA Intermediate of e commerce:-intermediatally dks e broker Hkh dgrs gSa intermediately ;k e broker bl izdkj ds economic agents gS tks contract bases party(transaction bases) ds e/; dke djrs gSa tsls fd buyer ,ao sales([kjhnnkj ,ao fosrk) ;s yksx contract dks iq.kZ djus dh krksZ dks iqjk djrs gSA Brokers in financial sectors:-bank, insurance company mutual funds ,ao venture capital firms blds vykok vU; intermediates broker agent, business man ,ao e?;LFk Example of event marketing in e commerce:Cuc(computer-user card):-online retailing information computer network dk use djrs gw;s information dks ,d= djus dk ,ao cell djus dk business cgwr vPNs ls pyk jgsa gSa online catalogue bl izdkj ds business dk cgwr gh lQy ,ao ljy(efficient) iz;ksx gSA bl izdkj ds business dk ,d successful example cuc gSA Cuc card ds }kjk customer computer ds ,d fokky database dks access dj ldrk gSa ftlls 250 ;s vf/kd brand names ds products miyC/k gksrs gSa tSls fd home application, luggage

and jewellery ;g 2 yk[k 50 gtkj ds products dk database manage dj ldrk gSA cuc ds }kjk fdlh customer ds order dks manufactural vc customer ls slip (delivery) ds fy;s ,ao [kjhnnkjh ds fy;s direct deal djrk gSA bl izdkj ;g system traditional ;k ikjLifjd retailers dh rqyuk esa de price ij O;kikj miyC/k djkrs gSA Electronic brokerage:-online market esa bl izdkj ds intermediaters dks electronic brokerage og lsok gS ftlds }kjk vyx vyx parties dks vkil esa tksM+us dk dke ;k mUgs dqN foksk izdkj dh lwfo/kk;sa miyC/k djkus dk dke djk;k tkrk gSA

Type of intermediatory Examples Equipment Server,client,router and networking cards Network access provider America online Netcom Information access provider Net scape adobe Microsoft(explorer) Payment transaction Visa and master card processors Information directing provider Yahoo Information rating services Consumer reports I way:- interactive super high-way (or) information super high way (or) multimedia super high way fofHkUu izdkj ds contents dks e commerce ds }kjk xfr djokus ds fy;s gesa ,d network infra structure dh vko;drk iM+h ftls interactive super high way ;k i way ;k multimedia superhigh way ;k information super high way ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA I way dks ge high capacity(broad band) dks interactive (2 way)electronic pipelines ds :i esa tkurs gSA tks fd ?kj office ,bank , etcdks fofHkUu izdkj dh miyC/k djokus ds fy;s tksM+rk gS ;g users dks fofHkUu user ls ,ao fofHkUu izdkj dh services ls interactive phone ds lkeku connectivity iznku djrk gSA Example: reliance at& t, bsnl, mts etc companirs us bl technology esa invest fd;kA Marke drives of i way: Understanding the requirements and demands:i way will support:-;gka fofHkUu consumer ;k xzkgd ,ao O;kikfjdrk fofHkUu izdkj dh lqpukvksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA ,ao bu products ,ao services ds iz;ksx ds fy;s iSlk nsrs gSA users tks fd lqpuk dk publication djuk pkgrs gSa fdlh online server ds lkFk setup djrs gSaA valueadded service provider, third party brokers, information provider ,ao vU; intermediates fofHkUu izdkj dh services dks vU; yksxksa dks miyC/k djokrs gSa ;s service miyC/k djkus ds fy;s budh packing ,ao building cukrs gSA information services provide djus okyh laLFkk;sa commercial, government private providers gks ldrs gSa vyx vyx fofHkUu user ,ao interprices i way esa vyx vyx sale vnk djrs gSa tsls consumer dk ,ao information ds producer dkA ;gka mi;ksfxrk ds vk/kkj ij role cny tkrk gSA vyx vyx communication ds e/; dh boudry ;gka [kRe gksrh utj vkrh gSA tSls:information as entertainment dh boundry ,communication dh boundry. Eg. Video information dk entertainment rFkk communication dk dke djrk gSA tsSls tele conferencing

vyx vyx equipments ds chp dh boundry Hkh rsth ls lekIr gks jgh gSA ex. vyx vyx companies information structure ds components dks support ,ao budks cukus ds fy;s izfrLi/kkZ esa dke dj jgh gSA tSls telephone company cable distributed, computers makers etc. pay per view services:-blds vUrxZr shopping djuk] bill payment fofHkUu encyclopedia media dks ns[kuk] stock prices dks check djukAcable industries audio,video ds fy;s vehicle iznku djrh gSA i way infrastructure and strategic alliance: i way ds ew[;r% rhu segment gSA;k Hkkx gSa communication information entertainment bUgs market drives ds }kjk pyk;k tkrk gSA strategic alliance dk use fuEu rhu dkj.kksa ls gwvkA reduce risk spreak cost allow firms to acquire costly expertise in different area instantly reduce risk:-group esa dke djus ls fdlh Hkh project ds failure dh laHkkouk de gks tkrh gSA spread cost:-group esa dke djus ls project ij vk;k [kpkZ caV tk;sxkA Allow firms to acquire costly expertise in different area instantly. Two important issue: Cut off industries lines:-forj.k ;g crkrk gS fd lnL; companies eas vyx vyx sales ckaV fn;s tkrs gSa TkSls fd phone companies phone cukrh gSAcable dh cable cukrh gS hardware dh hardware cukrh gSA International alliance:- ;g kw: ls gh tku iM+rk gS fd i way global :i esa dke djsxkA I way elements/components;- global information distribution network

Telecom based infrastructure

Commercial online infrastructure

Cable tv based infrastructure Back born communication and satellite network Consumer access equipment

Wireless infrastructure fofHkUu izdkj ds equipment ds fuekZ.k dh dEifu;k ex. modem, repeater, tv computer etc.

I way ds rhu components gSa Consumer access equipment:-fofHkUu izdkj ds equipment cukrs le; bl ckr dk foksk /;ku j[kk tkrk gS fd accessing point ij ,ao distributing point ij equipment ds e/; lkeatL; fcBkus ds fy;s foksk ifjp; dh vko;drk u iM+sA Local on ramp:-;g eq[;r;k linking provide djrk gSAvyx vyx communities ,ao communication network back born ds chp esa tSls(business, school, home) Local on ramp bls pkj izdkj dh Js.kh esa ckaVk x;k gSA Telecome based Cable tv based Wireless based Commercial/ computer based izR;sd category dh viuh viuh benefits ,ao limits gSa ;g lHkh back born access providers ,ao users dks tksM+rh gSA vFkkZr e commerce application provider ds lkFk link provide djkrh gSA global information distribution network:-blls fofHkUu nsk countries ,ao continents dks tksM+us okyk ,d infra structure iznku fd;kA i way esa dke esa fy;s tkus okys infrastructure cgwr gh cM+s gSa tSls fd fiber optical standard, coaxial wire ds tkys(spanning) tks fd global gS bl izdkj ds ifjorZu dks LFkkfir djus ds fy;s telephone dEifu;ka satellite internet etc dk dbZ nkdksa es /khjs /khjs fodkl gwvkA Infrastructure network access equipments:-bls ge ew[;rk rhu Hkkxksa esa ckaV ldrs gsS Cable to set top boxes

Computer based telephony Hub wiring closests and routers on(digital switches)(software based user interaction technology that can use data video, image and voice message. Information highway dk fodkl ;k mldh jpuk(design) lEiq.kZ nskksa esa igys telephone highway ds lekUrj gwvkA highway dk vFkZ gS communication djus ds rjhdsA ftuds }kjk ge ,d nwljs ls viuh information dks ckaV ldrs gSa ;k lEiq.kZ nwfu;k es viuh ckr dks igwapk ldrs gSa Routers:-routers intranet ij dke djus okys devices gSa routers og technology gS tks fd local area network dks wide area network ls backbone ds :i esa tksMrk gSA ;gka wide area network fofHkUu internet providers gSA Hub:-hub og device gS tks fd lan ds fy;s wiring center iznku djrh gSA ;g lan ij line failure dk irk yxkrh gSA traffic flow dks ukirh gSA ,ao manage djrk gS ,d cM+h lan esa ;g technology line failure traffic flow measurement or management dks lk/kkj.k cukrh gSA Linking switches:-linking swiching og technology gS tks fd hub dks bldh dk;Z{kerk c<kus ,ao fofHkUu leL;kvksa dks <qa< fudkyus esa lgk;rk djrh gS tks fd Ethernet dh lan topology ij vk/kkfjr gS Lan dks road dgrs gSA Links dks miles dgrs gSa Accessing network dks path dgrs gSa Multimedia and information dks traffic dgrs gSA m commerce:- fdlh product dks cspuk ;k [kfjnuk ;k fdlh Hkh izdkj ds data ;k fdlh Hkh izdkj dh lwpuk dk vknku iznku fdlh mobile devic ls djukA (wireless devices) vFkkZr dksbZ Hkh transaction tks fd viuh ,d fufpr value j[krk gS dk ;fn mobile communication network ds }kjk fd;k tk;s rks bls m commerce dgrs gSa devices of mobile communication pda(personal digital assistance) palm devices(mobile, pager etc) example of transaction banking stock trading mobile ticketing etc. driving forces of m commerce increasing rate of mobile devices:-vktdy ds le; esa mobile izR;sd O;fDr dh vko;drk gks xbZ gSA bls [kjhnuk vkSj operate djuk lkekU; O;fDr dh gn essa gSaA bldh rqyuk esa computer dks [kjhnuk vkSj operate djuk nksuks gh ewfdy gSA vFkkZr [kjhnus ds fy;s iSls yxrs gSa rFkk operate djus ds fy;s foksk trainning dh vko;drk gksrh gSA bl vUrj ds dkj.k lekt esa mobile devices dh la[;k dkQh c<h Arc fofHkUu companies us value added services ds }kjk m commerce dh kq:vkr dhA mobile ds }kjk fdlh Hkh oLrq dks [kjhnuk] cspuk T;knk vklku gSA

anywhere anytime:-vxj ge mobile dh ckr djsa rks bl rjg ds case esa user tc pkgs] tgka pkgs] ogk m commerce dk iz;ksx dj ldrk gSA bldk iz;ksx djrs gw;s user fdlh Hkh LFkku ls fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks fdlh Hkh le; iSls dk transfer dj ldrs gSa vktdy mobile devices user dh personal devices gks xbZA egRoiq.kZ ekSdk fn;kA ftlls iSls dk vknku iznku ,ao vU; izdkj dh commerce ;k O;kikj lEcaf/kr f;kvksa dh mobile }kjk dgha ls dHkh Hkh gksuss ds fy;s c<kok feykA 2G 3G e commerce m commerce

Growth of infrastructure:-vkt dh nwfu;k esa data ds real transfer ds c<rs gw;s iz;ksx us 2g rFkk 3g TkSls network ds fodkl dks c<kok fn;kA ftlus user dks rsth ls data transmission ,ao geskk connect jgus dh lqfo/kk iznku dhA Simplicity(easy to use or way)

Limitation /chalanges of mobile computing Unpredictable media(vlqjf{kr ek/;e):-radio transmission dks coaxial cable dh rjg sealed ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA Internet protocols:-mobile communication network ij tcp/ip tSls protocol dks pykuk bruk vklku ugh gSa lkFk gh signal dk gksuk cgqr vko;d gSA Low band width:-2g and 3g mobile technology ds vkus ds ckn Hkh mobile communication wired communication dh rwyuk esa low band width(speed) nsrk gSA Shared medium and limited spectrum:-wireless connection geskk shared medium ij gksrk gS ftls cgwr ls user iqjk djrs gSaA vyx vyx users ds fy;s cells dks communication channels ds :i esa miyC/k djk;k tkrk gS users dh Ck<rh la[;k ds lkFk interfaring dh leL;k c<rh gS vFkkZRr ,d fLFkfr ,slh vk;sxh fd u;s connection miyC/k djkuk vklku ugha gksxkA bl fLFkfr esa quality of service tks fd mobile communication system eas cgwr egRoiq.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA mudks cuk;s j[kuk ewfdy gksxkA Security challenge:-mobile devices dks pqjkuk T;knk vklku jgrk gSA lkFk gh mobile device vDlj O;fDr Hkqy tkrk gSAvFkkZr nwljs user }kjk mobile devices ls lEcaf/kr lqpuk dk pqjkuk T;knk vklku jgrk gSA blds vykok mobile ds e/; communication [kqys ek/;e ls gksxkA tgk lqpuk dks pqjkus dk [krjk geskk cuk jgrk gSA Mobile technology dh bl deh ds dkj.k dksbZ Hkh O;fDr pan card no. bank password tSlh egRoiq.kZ lqpuk pqjk ldrk gSA gkykafd vktdy mobile communication dks ,slh leL;kvksa ls cpkus ds fy;s special encryption authentication other security mechanism bl technique dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Screen quality:-vPNh quality dh screen ds fy;s mobile cspus okys dh nwdku ij miyC/k facility ij fuHkZj djrk gSA e.g. of e commerce airtel m commerce pay any time any way make my trip any mobile ticket, books travelers allowance. Share kanan commerce share mobile services online trading transfer share trading payments R comm and hdfc m pay:-bu nksuksa us feydj media dk igyk virtual card cuk;k vkSj m.no. mldk card no. gSA card fudkykA ftlesa reliance dk mobile [kqn credit card no.gSA

Mobile computing:-mobile computing:-mobile computing ds okrkoj.k esa mobile device ,ao user xfrkhy gksrss gSa ;g Bhd mlh izdkj gksrk gS tSls fd fdlh gsm phone dk phone no, phone dh xfr ds lkFk xfr djrk gSA local ;k off line ,ao real time ;k remote computing environment user ds lkFk xfr djrs gSa A real time mode esa user vius lHkh izdkj ds dat dks ,ao lHkh izdkj dh services dks online iz;ksx es ysus esa l{ke gksrk gSA Anywhere any time information:-blesa lwpuk;as dgha Hkh fdlh Hkh lkFk miyC/k gks ldrh gSA Virtual home environment:- bl izdkj ds okrkoj.k esa user fdlh foreign network esa jgdj Hkh Bhd mlh izdkj mobile device dks pyk ldrk gS] tSls dh og vius ?kj ij cSBdj ;k vius business place ij pykrk gksaA Recognition of mo no of company Nomadic computing:-mobile computing environment nomadic gksrk gS ,ao ;g user ds mobile ds lkFk xfr djrk gSA ;g local and remote nksuksa gh izdkj dh services ds fy;s lR; gS lgh gSA blesa tks mobile network gksxk mldk uke ogh gksxkA pkgs og dksbZ Hkh network catch gksA Pervasive computing:-mobile computing dh izd`fr pervasive gS lkFk gh ;g fdlh Hkh izdkj ds environment esa vklkuh ls dke djrh gSA Global service protability:-fdlh Hkh izdkj ds okrkoj.k esa fdlh service dks miyC/k djkuk] mldh portability dgykrk gSA Bhd blh izdkj mobile computing esa dke vkus okyh lHkh services oSfod :i ls miyC/k gksrh gSA Applications and services of mobile computing:

news:-blds vUrxZr fofHkUu izdkj ds lekpkj yksxksa ds xfr djrs le; mUgs izkIr gksrs gSa vFkkZr mUgs fdlh physical connection ls tqM+us dh vko;drk ugha iM+rhA ,ao og dHkh Hkh dgha Hkh jgdj muds culture mudh community (lkeqnkf;drk) ds vUrxZr current affairs,breaking news bR;kfn ls geskk twM+s jgrs gSaA Weather:-gps system ds }kjk fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks locate djds mls ekSle lEcaf/kr tkudkjh ;k izkd`frd foink ds ckjs esa lqpuk nh tkrh gSA pkgs oks O;fDR viuh dkj eas lQj gh D;ksa uk dj jgk gksA mlds fy;s bl lwpuk dks ikuk],ao blds vuwlkj laHko gSA bl izdkj dbZ O;fDRk;ksa dh tku cpkbZ tk ldrh gSA Youth:-vktdy ds ;qokvksa ls market ds cnyus ds lkFk lkFk stylish cuus ,ao messaging dh nwfu;k ds izfr foksk vkdkZ.k ns[kk x;kA mobile computing }kjk dHkh Hkh dgha ls Hkh messaging, chating, dating etc. dks laHko cuk;k x;kA Personal:-vktdy mobile esa user ds }kjk mlds thou lEcaf/kr tkudkjh] medical reports bR;kfn dks vius lkFk j[kdj pyus dh izo`fr c<h gSA bls mobile computing }kjk laHko cuk;kA Perishable:-mobile computing }kjk sensitive ,ao vko;d tkudkjh dks de ls de le; ess fdlh Hkh LFkku ij igwpkuk laHko gwvkA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij] news,weather,sports,stocks exchange etc. Transaction oriented:-mobile computing }kjk dHkh Hkh dgha ls Hkh bank ls lEcaf/kr transaction, bill ds payment ls lEcaf/kr ,ao mobile shopping dks laHko cuk;k tkrk gSA Location specific:-mobile }kjk fdlh Hkh izkd`frd fLFkfr dh lqpuk dk vknku iznku laHko gS lkFk gh xyh dwpksa ,ao mudh fnkkvksa dk ekufp= mobile ij laHko gSA

Corporate application:-O;kikj ls lEcaf/kr lqpukvksa dk vknku iznku corporate esa vkrk gSA mobile }kjk corporate mail, address book appointments, schedulars making mis applications corporate internet bR;kfn dh lqfo/kk iznku dh xbZA Tele banking:-tele banking }kjk customer dks mldks account dgha Hkh jgdj miyC/k djk;k x;k gSA blls customer dks bank tkus ds fy;s ogka pydj ugh tkuk iM+kA vFkkZr user ;k customer dgha Hkh jgdj bank ls lEidZ cuk ldrk gS ,ao bank ls related physically cash fudkyus ds vykok lHkh izdkj ds transaction dj ldrs gSa bl izdkj dh lwfo/kk mobile computing esa miyC/k djk;h xbZA Digital interactive tv:-digital tv ds }kjk set top box dk iz;ksx dj internet dk iz;ksx on demand video ;k eupkgs program (communities) tSls health, communication, medical, shopping etc ns[ks tk ldrs gSaAmobile computing }kjk bl izdkj ds program dks user ds fy;s fdlh Hkh LFkku ij miyC/k djk;kA Emergencies:-emergency dh fLFkfr esa HkwdEi]ck< bR;kfn vkus ij wireless network gh dsoy lQy :i ls lapkfyr gksrk gS vFkkZr mobile computing }kjk emergency esa communication miyC/k djk;k tkrk gSA Mobile and wireless devices: Sensor Canoed controller wireless,keyboard, mouse Remote operated coffee machine, tv ,hair dryer Pager, mobile phones, personal digital assistance palm top and pocket computer Notebook, laptop Traking:-ups vkSj Xerox tSlh companies us vius parsel dh delivery ,ao under transaction dh fLFkfr dks nkkZus ds fy;s mobile computing dk use fd;kA

Remote data accessing:-laptop TkSlh mobile devices dk use djds fdlh vU; computer dks remotely login djds access fd;k tkrk gSA Remote communication:-nks mobile devices ds e/; vyx vyx LFkkuksa ij jgrs gw;s mobile computing }kjk communication fd;k tkrk gSA Framework and mobile computing:-mobile computing dks pkj fnkkvksa esa dk;Z dj ldrh gSA Wireless technology and switching method:-mobile computing wireless technology ij based gSa ijUrq blesa data dk flow switching dk use djrs gw;s gh gksr gSa Mobile information access device:-mobile dk vfodkj dsoy communication ds fy;s gh fd;k x;k FkkA ysfdu vkt mobile devices }kjk network ;k internet dk use dj vyx vyx types dh information dks access fd;k tk ldrk gSA Mobile equipments:-mobile devices esa technology ds c<rs fodkl ds lkFk lkFk iq.kZ:is.k digital calculator standard technology dks ftlds dkj.k mobile devices ds }kjk network esa data interchange vklku gwvkA Mobile computing:-blds }kjk corporate txr ds data banking bR;kfn f;kvksa dks simple cuk;k x;k dHkh Hkh dgha ls Hkh djus dh lwfo/kk nh xbZaA mobile computing eq[; :i ls wireless access protocol ij vk/kkfjr gSA Network security:-internet security:tcp/ip Tcp/ip need of 5 layer Application layer Transport layer

Network layer Data link layer Physical layer Osi model dh application layer,presentation layer ,session layer dh responsibility tcp/ip esa ,d gh layer dks ns nh xbZ tks fd application layer FkhA Original message

Tcp header

Original message

Frame Tp header Tp header

Tcp header

Original message

Tcp header Original message

Application layer }kjk data dks izkjfEHkd voLFkk esa cnyk tkrk gS ftls message dgrs gSa transport layer}kjk bl message dks NksVs NksVs segments esa ckaV fn;k tkrk gSA transport layer nks protocol ij dke djrh gSA Tcp(transmission control protocol) Udp(user datagram protocol) Transport layer izR;sd segement ds lkFk viuh lwpuk dks header ds :i esa tksM+ nsrh gS vkSj bls network layer dks ns nsrh gSAnetwork layer blesa ip header dks tksM+dj data link layer dks ns nsrk gSA data link layer viuk frame tksM+dj packet dks transfer djus ds fy;s physical layer dks ns nsrk gS vkSj physical layer actual bits dks voltage plus ds :i esa transmit djrk gSA ;g izf;k sender ij gksrh gS receiving end ij bldh mYVh izf;k gksrh gSA Tcp segment frame:-tcp dks network ds fofHkUUk izdkj ds properties dks ysus ds fy;s cuk;k x;kA lkFk gh tcp dks fofHkUu izdkj dh network dh failure dh leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djus ds fy;s rkdroj cuk;k x;kA;g iqjh rjg duplex ,ao point to point transmission dks support djrk gS ;gka sender ,ao receiver nksuks gh ds ikl viuk viuk socket gksrk gSA ftls end point socket dgrs gSa izR;sd socket dk viuk socket address no. gksrk gS ftlesa IP ,ao 16 bit dk local port gksrk gSA

Port no 25 21 23 80 69

Protocol Smtp(simple mail transfer protocol) ftp(file transmission protocol) telnet http(hyper text transfer protocol) Tftp(trival file transfer protocol)

79 Funger lookup information about user 110 Pop3 remote email access 119 nntp usenet news Tcp multitasking vkSj broad casting dks support ugha djrk gSA tcp connection byte streamdks dke esa ysuk gS uk fd message stream dksA Tcp protocol:-tcp connection esa tcp ds 32 bits gksrs gSa ,ao acknowledgement ds fy;s 32 bits dk sequence vyx ls j[kk tkrk gSA windows esa message send vkSj receive segment ds :i esa gksrk gS ,d tcp segment esa 20 bytes dk header vyx ls gksrk gSA tks fd 0 ;k vf/kd byte ds data ds lkFk gksrk gSA ;gka tcp ;g decide djrk gSA fd fdlh segment dh size fdruh gksuh pkfg;s ,ao mlds D;k D;k vf/kdkj gksus pkfg;sA End point connection Tcp used sliding window protocol Tcp header 20 bytes

Flag 1 bit for each flag 2 bytes source port 4 bytes sequen ce number Tcp 6 bit Header 32

Dest inati on port 2 byte



P S H Urge nt point er




Window size

Check sum

Options (o or more 32 bits words)

Data option Urg= urgent Ack=acknowledgement Psh=push

Rsh=reset Syn=synchronization Tcp header dh size 20 ls 60 bytes rd gks ldrh gSA vxj fdlh tcp segment esa dksbZ vU; option ugha gksrk rks bldh size 20 bytes rd gksrh gSA vU;Fkk 60 bytes gksrh gSA vFkkZr vyx vyx option dks crkus ds fy;s 40 bytes dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA Source port:-;g 2 bytes dk cuk gksrk gS ;g source computer dk tcp segment Hkstus ds fy;s iz;ksx dh tk jgh gS application ds vuwlkj source computer dk port no. crkrk gSA Destination port:- ;g 2 bytes dk cuk gksrk gS ,ao receiver ij fdlh tcp segment dks accept djus ds fy;s tks application dke vkrh gS mlds vuwlkjdestination computer dk port no. crkrk gSA Sequence no:-;g field 4 byte dk cuk gksrk gSA tcp segment ds data ds first byte dks fn;s x;s no. dks crkrk gSA tcp ,d connection oriented protocol gS tks packet dks source ls destination rd lgh lgh igwapus dk irk yxkus] ds fy;s blesa ,d sequence no. yxk nsrs gSA sequence no. yxk nsrs gSaA sequence no. field destination dks ;g crkrk gS fd tcp segment dh first byte ds compression esa vc dksulk segment izkIr gwvk tcp connection esa source ,ao destination nksuksa gh randomly vyx vyx no. generate djrs gSa Acknowledgement:-;fn fdlh destination host us sequence no. x receive fd;k gS rks ;g x+1 dks acknowledgment ds :i esa source dks okil Hkst nsxkA vFkkZr ;g 4 byte no. receiver dks ;g crkrk gS dh mls acknowledgement ds fy;s sender dks dkSulk no. generate djuk gS ftlls source dks ;g irk yxsa fd Hkstk x;k packet lgh lgh igqp x;k gSA Header length:-;g 4 bit dk cuk gksrk gS ,ao tcp header esa mifLFkr 4 byte ds word esa no. dks crkrk gSA Reserved :-;g 6 bit dk cuk gksrk gS ,ao Hkfo; ds iz;ksx ds fy;s lqjf{kr j[kk tkrk gSA Flag:-izR;sd flag 1 bit dk cuk gksrk gS ,ao ;gka dqy 6 flags gksrs gSa ftuesa nks flag cgwr vf/kd vko;d gksrs gSa Synchronization:-;g flag source dks destination ds le; connection cukus ds fy;s rS;kj gksus dks crkrk gSA Finalization flag:-;fn bl field dk bit set dj fn;k x;k gSA rks bldk eryc gksrk gS fd sender conniction terminate djuk pkgrk gSA Window size:-;g field sliding window dh size dks crkrk gS ftls transmission esa maintain djuk vko;d gSA Check sum:-;g 16 bit dk cuk field gksrk gS tks fd end destination vkSj connection ds iz;ksx esa vkrk gSA Urgent pointer:-;g tcp ip esa connection ds nkSjku data segment dks urgency dks indicate djrk gSA vFkkZr flow dj jgsa data segment eas fdl data segment dks first priority nsuh gS mlesa ;g bit set dj fn;k tkrk gSA Network security and firewall network security esa e commerce dks nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA Client server security:-bl izdkj dh security fofHkUu izdkj ds resources ,ao information (database) dks access djus ds fy;s fofHkUu authority dh method dke esa yh xbZ A vFkkZr fdlh Hkh pht dks access djus ds fy;s user dks foksk mechanism ls xwtjuk

iM+rk gSA ftls authentication method dgrs gSa ,ao bls mechanism dks access control mechanism dgrs gSsA Ex. password protection, encryption, bymatrics and firewall Data and transaction security:-bl izdkj dh security esa e mail, data packets ds lkFk network transaction ds le; remote user dks authentication nsuk iM+rk gSA mnkgj.k:-online payment client server security:-bl security esa rhu eq[; leL;k,a gSa physical security holes:-bl izdkj dh deh esa fdlh computer dks unauthorized person }kjk access djuk vkrk gSA tSls fd fdlh dk;Z {ks= esa dke dj jgsa computer dks dksbZ hacker reboot dj ns tcfd machine single user mode esa gksA rc og computer ds lHkh data dks access dj ldrk gSA ;fn iq.kZ esa gh lko/kkuh ugha cjrh xbZ gSA software security holes:-bl izdkj ds system software developer dh deh ds }kjk hackers,security dks rksM+ nsrk gS vFkkZr software cukus okyk software cukrs le; bldh security problem dks utj vUnkt dj nsrk gSA rc hackers bl fLFkfr dk Qk;nk mBkdj database dks access dj ldrk gSA ex. 1988 esa send mail dk software ibm rs 6000 work station esa r login problem, bl r login hole hacker ,d root cell create dj ldrk gSA lkFk gh super access user mode esa dke dj ldrk gSA bl deh ds dkj.k cgwr cM+s uqdlku gksus dh laHkkouk cuh jgrh gSA incosistence user in hole:-fdlh O;fDr }kjk software vksSj hardware assemble djds le; combination dh leL;k;sa vkrh gSA bl izdkj dh leL;k;sa security ds view ls cgwr gh xEHkhj gksrh gSA bl izdkj dh leL;k;sa dks pyrs gw;s system esa ls gVkuk eqfdy gSA security threads dks nwj djus ds fy;s fofHkUu izdkj ds protection system use es fy;s x;sA tSls file dks access djus ds fy;s operating system }kjk fofHkUu users dks authorize cuk;k tkrk gS bl izf;k esa user ls specific information yh tkrh gS tSls password and etc. security system: trust based security:security throw obsecurity:-bl izdkj dh security esa Bhd mlh izdkj dke gksrk gS tSls dksbZ O;fDr vius room dh pkch foksk txg j[kdj pyk tk;s vkSj og mUgh O;fDRk;ksa dks crk;s ftudks mldh t:jr gSA bl izdkj ds method stand alone system ds fy;s dke djrs gSa tgk ij fd dksbZ O;fDRk mls maintain djrk gSA ysfdu cM+s network ij ;g larksktud ugha gSA D;ksfd ;gka nwljs O;fDr;ks }kjk vDlj ;g vuweku yxk fy;k tkrk gSA Password scheme:-bl scheme esa fdlh foksk O;fDr }kjk foksk uke ,ao selected password nsdj system dks access fd;k tkrk gS bl izdkj ds system es hackers vDlj dictionary of encrypted common word tSlh lqfo/kkvksa dks dke esa ysdj vDlj password rksM+ nsrk gSAblds fy;s password dks foksk le; vUrjky ls cny cny dj use esa fy;k tkrk gSA ,slk gksus ij Hkh network ij foksk hardware dh lgk;rk ls password dks record fd;k tkrk gS bl izdkj dh scheme ls cpus ds fy;s online password, smart card randomization token and challenge response scheme tSlh O;oLFkk dke esa yh tkrh gSA

Bio matric system:-;g lcls vf/kd secure method gS blesa fdlh O;fDr dk finger print, palm print, ratina pattern, voice recognition bR;kfn method dks dke esa fy;k tkrk gS bl izdkj dh security dkQh egazxh iM+rh gSA,ao bls dk;Z dkjus esa le; T;knk yxrk gSA Emerging client server security threats:-client server security lEcaf/kr threats nks eq[; category esa ckaVk tkrk gS mobile software ds }kjk local environment esa computer esa ik;h tkus okyh threat Threats to local computing environment for mobile software Access control and threats to servers the include Impresonation Eaves dropping Denial of services Packet replay Packet modification Software agents and malicious code threats:-client ij py jgs software programs eas threats vkus dk eq[; dkj.k internet dh izd`fr gSA tSls fd internet ij dke djrs le; tc client program server ls interperet djrk gS rks client ij data download gksrk gS bl data ds check uk gksus ij bl downloaded data esa fdlh program dks system esa pykus dh {kerk gksrh gSA ;gka security threat rc mRiUu gksrh gS tc downloaded data local interpreter tSls fd(post script) dk iz;ksx djrs gw;s client system dh user dh knowledge esa uk vkdj direct execute gks tkrk gS vFkkZr laf{kIr esa ge ;g dg ldrs gSa fd client threat malicious data ls ;k code ls mRiUu gksrh gSA malidicious code dk eryc virus,worms,Trojan horse,logic bombs vkSj vU; deviant software programs. Virus:-virus ,d ,sls code dk fgLlk gSA tks fd fdlh executable file ds lkfk Loa; dks tksM+ nsrk gSA ,ao replicate djrk jgrk gSA fdlh virus dh ubZ copy rHkh curh gS tc user vius system ij fdlh program dks execute djkrk gSA virus vius lkFk extra payload j[krk gSA tks fd lgh ifjfLFkfr;ka feyus ij viuk dke kq: djrk gSA Trojan horse:-;g ,d ,slk program gS ftlds lkFk fdlh foksk mn~ns; dks iq.kZ djk;k tkrk gSA ysfdu bleas bl izdkj ds function dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks fd vupkgs gksrs gSsaA Example:-fdlh muti user system ij fdlh editing program }kjk dk;Z djus ij fdlh ,d user dh file delete gks tkukA Worms:-;g ,d bl rjg dk program gS tks Loa; vius vki replicate djrk jgrk gSA blds fy;s host program dh vko;drk ugh iM+rh gS ;g program[kqn dh copy cukrk gS vkssj bls execute djrk gSaA ,slk djus ds fy;s bl program dks fdlh izdkj ds user intervention dh vko;drk ugha gksrh gSAworms vf/kdrj network services dk iz;ksx dj fdlh vU; host system rd igqprsa gSA bl izdkj ds Lao; pyus okys program dk vDlj irk yxkuk vklku ugh gksrk gSA blfy;s computer science dh Hkkkk esa bUgs halting problem dgk tkrk gSA bu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls cpus ds fy;s user dks malicious data ds fy;s ckj ckj scanning djuh pkfg;sA threats to server:-bl izdkj dh threats esa server ds data dks unauthorized :i ls modifydjuk],aoe fdlh server program dk fofHkUu bugs dks vkus ds fy;s compromise djuk vkrk gSAfdlh Hkh server esa lgh configuration ugha gksus ij ;k ,sls program ftuesa

security hole gSA buds dkj. Fdlh hkh hacker dks server access djus dk vkea=.k feyrk gSA hackers unique ds popular program tSls fd finger rsh(r user) bR;kfn dk iz;ksx djds fdlh account dk password hack dj ldrk gSA hackers electronics eaves dropping dk iz;ksx djds username ,ao password dks fdlh Hkh network ij trap dj ldrk gSA fdlh hacker ds }kjk server ij ,d vU; system ds :i esa configuration fd;k tk ldrk gSA rkfd dksbZ unauthorized O;fDr server ds resurces dks ;k bldh information dks access dj ldrk gSA blesa server unauthorized person dks gh authorized person ds :i esa gh treat djrk gSA hackers ds }kjk fdlh network ij Hksts tkus okys packets dks software ds }kjk eaves drops fd;k tk ldrk gSA cgwr ls network program TksSls telnet,ftp vkfn esa eaves dropper dh lgk;rk ls network ij Hkstk tk jgk unencrypted password receive fd;k tk ldrk gSAblds }kjk hackers networkij py jgh lHkh activity dh sensitive information ys ldrk gS tSls password data and procedure (ftudk dke fdlh function dks pykuk gSA)bR;kfnA vf/kdrj case esa eaves dropping dk irk yxkuk cgwr eqfdy dke gSAencryption}kjk fdlh unsequence network ij tk jgs data dks eaves dropper ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA remote file transfer tSls program dh lgk;rk ls eaves dropper fdlh Hkh file ds contents dks access dj ldrs gSAserver dks denial of service ds tSlh threats ds attack gks ldrs gSa ftlds dkj.k lgh user ds fy;s system server vuwi;ksxh gks tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh izf;k esa fdlh resource dh hogging dh tkrh gSA ;k blds resources dks uV dj fn;k tkrk gSA ftlls bldk iz;ksx uk fd;k tk ldsA example: services overloading, and message flooding message flooding ;k overloading dks jksdus ds fy;s vyx vyx programs dks vyx vyx area miyC/k djkuk pkfg;sA,ao failure dh fLFkfr esa fufpr provision cukuk pkfg;sA ;|fi service attack dks jksduk dkQh eqfdy gS fQj Hkh bls restrict access de fd;k tk ldrk gSAvFkkZr dsoy auhorized user gh fdlh foksk account dks ;k resourcedks ;k file dks access dj ldrk gSA vU; sophisticated threat eas packet reply ,ao modification bR;kfn vkrs gSa packet reply dk eryc network ij fdlh message ds packet dh recording ;k budk retransmission gksuk gSA bldks jksdus ds fy;s packet time stamping ,ao sequence counting dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA client server esa c<rh gwbZ threats dks jksdus ds fy;s network security esa ,d u;k concept vk;k ftls firewall ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA firewall and network security:-firewall dk eryc ml protected device ls gS tks fd ,sls areadks shield dj ds j[krh gS ftles ckgj ds [krjksa }kjk [kjkc gksus dh lHkkouk vDlj cuh jgrh gSA internet ds case esa firewall og system gS tks router presonnal computer host ;k collection of host esa ,d specific shield cukrk gSAftlds }kjk fdlh site ;k subnet dks ckgjh host ;k subnet ds }kjk nh xbZ [krjukd services ,ao protocol ds iz;ksx ls lqjf{kr j[krk gSA firewall vf/kdrj gateway point ij yxk;k tkrk gSA firewall }kjk fofHkUu izdkj dh security miyC/k djkbZ tkrh gSA lk/kkj.kr;k% firewall blesa ls xqtjus okysdata packetsdh screeningdjrk gSA ;k blesa ls xwtjus okyh applications dh screening djrk gSA bl rjg network traffic dks filter djds firewall }kjk fofHkUu application dks restricated access nsrk gSa ,ao vU; dks iqjh rjg block dj nsrk gSA firewall dh mechanism dks eq[;r;k ,d pair esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA blocking of incoming packets permitting of outgoing traffic

dqN firewall rks blocking dks egRo nsrh gsSa ,ao vU; traffic permission dks egRo nsrh gSa ip screening routers:-blds vUrxZr static traffic routing services dks network sevices provider router ,ao internal network ds e/; j[kk tkrk gSA traffic putting esa fofHkUu izdkj ds packets dks ip level ij implement fd;k tkrk gS ,ao screening rules dk iz;ksx dj router esa seam rule fd;k tkrk gSA fofHkUu application level ij proxy gateway ,ao services dk use fd;k tkrk gSA scraning rules router essa fn;s gksrs gSaA ;s automatic dk;Z djrs gSa izR;sd packet dks routing ds fy;s packet esa source ,ao destination address ds lkFk fofHkUu protocol dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA router }kjk incoming packets ij target interface ,ao protocol scaning djds packet dks vkxs ys tkrk gSA bles iz;qDr dqN protocol ds uke gSa Tcptransmission control protocol Udpuser datagram protocol Icmpinternet control message protocol Www Ftp Usenet Server Clients Clients


Ip packet screening router

Public internal

Sample screening rules Protocol(tcp,udp,icmp) Source ip address(domain .edu) Target tcp and ip www (only)

bl izdkj dh firewall esa dqN dfe;ka (security holes) gsS router esa fn;s x;s screening rules cukuk dkQh eqfdy gksrk gSA lkFk gh ;gk user dh fofHkUu vko;drkvksa dk Hkh /;ku j[kuk iM+rk gSA screening routers dks ,d okrkoj.k ls nwljs okrkoj.k esa ys tkus ij mUgs vklkuh ls set ugha fd;k tk ldrkAD;kasfd ;g fuekZrk }kjk cuk;sa x;s program ds vk/kkj ij dk;Z djrs gSa ,ao blesa ifjorZu dh flexibility ugha jgrh gSA vxj screening router dks hacker }kjk dCts esa ys fy;k tkrk gS rks blls twM+k network attack ds fy;s open gks tkrk gSA

proxy application gateways:-proxy application ,d fokskserver gS tks fd firewall machine ij dke djrk gS bldk izkFkfed dk;Z www TkSlh application dks secure parameter esa jgdj access djuk gSA ;gka client }kjk nh xbZ izR;sd request external www server ls lh/ks ckr djus dh ctk; igys user }kjk firewall esa fn;s proxy ds ikl tkrh gS proxy dks ;g irk gksrk gS fd firewall dks dSls dke djuk gS application level proxy fdlh organization dh fofHkUu users dh firewall esa ls safely dke djus dh vuwefr nsrk gS ;gka mifLFkr security ds dkj.k fdlh Hkh hacker ds fy;s corporate network rd igwqpusa dk dksbZ y{; ugha jgrkAlk/kkj.kr;k ,d subnet esa dke djus okys lHkh client same proxy ij dke djrs gSa blh dkj.k proxy }kjk fofHkUu clients }kjk ekaxas x;s fofHkUu izdkj ds document dh catching djuk vklku gks tkrk gSA

Secure subnet inside the firewall security perimeter

Public internet


Ftp Network protocol Web http server Clients in side the firewall Proxy server on the firewall machine that connects to the external internet

Ftp server

Telnet Gopher

Gopher server

Nntp Telnet server

Use net news

Proxy server on the world wide web Advantages of proxy gateways:;g browsers programmers ds izR;sd firewall protocol dks support djuss okys networking code dks ignore djds client issue ij dsfUnzr gksus dh vuwefr nsrk gSA Proxy ds }kjk networking dks manage fd;k tk ldrk gSA client ds fofHkUu transcation dks ftlesa client dk ip address , date and time,byte count ,aoaccess code kkfey gks ldsAaudit trials ds fy;sproxy dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA meta information gsrq login dh izf;k esa proxy } kjk pquko fd;k tkrk gSA individual method ds fy;s fofHkUUkservices ds access djus ds controls proxy }kjk fn;s tkrs gSa lkFk gh host ,ao domain services dk contol proxy }kjk fd;k tkrk gSAproxy dh e/;LFkrk fuEu lqj{kk ds fy;s enn djrk gSA http protocol ds [krjukd subset dks lhfer djdsA client vkSj server ds e/; lgh designation dks access djus ds fy;s vuwcaf/kr djrk gSA fofHkUu network services tks fd proxy ds installation ds le; lost gks tkrh gSAmuds fy;s access control dk implementation djrk gSA(firewall ds }kjk ekaxh xbZ security dks iqu% LFkkfir djrk gSA tkus ekus commands ds fy;s fofHkUu protocol dh checking djrk gSA hardened firewall hosts:-;g security dks c<kok nsus ds fy;s configure dh xbZ stripped/down machine gS bl izdkj dh firewall vkUrfjd ,ao ckg~; user dks fdlh fooluh; application ls twM+us ls igys firewall machine ls tksM+rh gS mlds ckn vkxs connection miyC/k djkrh gSA lkekU;r;k bl r; ds firewall rFkk configuration ckgjh nwfu;k ds }kjk unauthenticated interactive logins dks jksdrh gSA(login ds izfr lqj{kk djrh gS) hardened firewall cukus ds step:

firewall operation ds fy;s vko;d account dks NksM+dj ckdh lkjs user dks account gVk fn;k tkrk gS blds ihNs logic ;g gS fd vxj dksbZ user firewall host esa login ugha gks ldsxkA rks og mldh security ugha rksM+ ldrkA lHkh vko;d files dks gVkdj ,ao ,slh executable file tks fd network server program ,ao client program tSls fd (ftp, telnet) ds fy;s dk;Z djrh gSA remote access dks check djds ,ao traffic login dks c<kdj lqj{kk nh tkrh gSA enterprises network ,ao internet ds e/; ip forwarding dks disable djds firewall dks unauthorized packet Hkstus ls jksdk tk ldrk gSA advantages of it:concentration of security:-firewall system esa login ,ao software esa ifjorZu djds cgwr ls host ij distribute gksus ls jksdk tkrk gSaSA information hiding:-firewall ds }kjk internal system ds uke ,aoe~ e-mail address dks Nwik;k tk ldrk gSA rkfd ckgj ds host dks de ls de information feysA centralized and simplified network services management:-ftp,email, gopher, ,ao ,slh vU; services firewall system ds lkFk gksrh gSA rkfd bUgsa vyx vyx system ij maintain ugha djuk iM+rkA data and message security:-O;kikfjd fLFkj ij fofHkUu transaction djus ds fy;s credit facility tSlh lqfo/kk;sa dke es yh tkrh gSA lkFk gh internet banking tSlh lqfo/kkvksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;gka security ds :i esa no. ;k specific code dk data dks network ls pqjk;k tk ldrk gSA vr% network data security dh vko;drk iM+rh gSA O;kikj ls lEcaf/kr dk;Z esa fofHkUu egRoiq.kZ lqpukvksa dk vknku iznku message ds }kjk djrs gSa bl message dh viuh importance gksrh gSA vr% bls Hkh security dh vko;drk gksrh gSs vr% transaction security dks eq[; :i ls nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA Data security Message security Data security:-bl izdkj dh security esa banking ,ao financial transaction vkrsa gS ;gka lkjs transaction electronically fdlh pc }kjk ;k mobile computer }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA;gka eq[; :i ls unauthorized network monitoring dh threat gksrh gS ftls package sniffing dgk tkrk gSA Sniffer attack dh kq:vkr rc gksrh gSA tc dksbZ computer fdlh cracker dks sniffing program install djus dh vuwefr ns nsrk gSA;g program network traffic dks watch djrk jgrk gSA ;g foksk rkSj ij telnet ftp ;k rlogin tSls program ds session esa mlds first part dks watch djrk gSA D;ksfda first part esa authorized user }kjk login id ,ao password dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA;gh information fdlh sniffer dks vU; computer ij login djus dh lwfo/kk nsrh gSa bl izf;k esa user dks vius session ds nkSjku sniffing dk irk ugha yxrkA Message security:-blesa eq[;r;k rhu izdkj dh securities dks j[kk x;k gSA Confidentially Integrity Authentication

Confidentially:-sensitive data ds iz;ksx esa confidentially cgwr egRoiq.kZ gS tSls fd credit card no. and nwljh rjg ds data tSls employee records, government files ,ao social security no. etc Confidentially dk eryc mijksDr data ds network ij travel djrs le; unauthorized user}kjk information ds access dks jksduk gSA bl dk;Z ds fy;sa communication link dks secure cukus ds fy;s encryption dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA integrity:-dksbZ Hkh Hksth xbZ information receive djrs le; blesa fy[kk content ,ao information dh cukoV oSlh gh jguh pkfg;sA tSls fd Hkstrs le; FkhA;g /;ku esa j[kuk pkfg;s fd message esa fdlh ds }kjk dqN tksM+k uk x;k gks vkSj uk gh dqN delete fd;k x;k gksA message dks nsrs le; ;k validate djrs le; ;k process djrs le; ;k delivery ds le; fdlh Hkh le; unauthorized message dk tqM+uk ;k mix gksuk ugha gksuk pkfg;sA integrity dh mechanism data ifjorZu ls lEcf/kr attack ugha gksuk pkfg;sAblds fy;s error detection code check sums,sequence no. encryption techniquesdk iz;ksx djds fdlh lqpuk dh integrity dks cuk;k tk ldrk gSA error detection code dk iz;ksx iqjs message ;k message ds fdlh selected field ij fd;k tkrk gSencryption technique dk iz;ksx djds message esa gq;s ifjorZu dks <qa<k tk ldrk gSA authentication/identification:-ecommerce esa ;g cgqr vko;d gS fd izR;sd client LOka; dks server ij authenticate djs server client dks authenticate djsAvkSj nksusk ,d nwljs dks authenticate djsA authentication og mechanism gSA tgka fdlh transaction esa receiver ;k fdlh message esa sender dh igpku ,ao message dh integrity dks cuk;s j[kk tkrk gS ,aoe confident j[kk tkrk gSA nwljs kCnksa esa sender ls receiver ij Hksth xbZ encrypted information dk iz;ksx djds fdlh entity(a user or a service) dh igpku dks verify fd;k tk ldrk gSA data encryption:-encription as the basic for data and message security sensitive data dks Hkstus ds fy;s bls encrypt djds Hkstk tkrk gSAreceiver }kjk key dk use djds decrypt djds izkIr fd;k tkrk gSa bl key dks cryptographic key dgrs gSaA ;fn bldk iz;ksx ,d ckj key nsus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA rks bls single key cryptographic dgrs gSaA unencrypted text dks plain text dgrs gSa bls encryption key ds }kjk tksM+us ij cipher text dgk tkrk gSA eq[; rkSj ls nks rjg ds encryption iz;ksx esa fy;s tkrs gSA secret key cryptography public key cryptography



Encryption key Secret key encryption

Cipher text

Internet Plaintext
Cipher text Decrypt by secret key

Cipher text Encrypt by secret key

Cipher text



Scrambled text Cipher text Decrypt by private key Cipher text Encrypt by public key

Plaintext Cipher text

Internet Cipher text Plaintext

Comparison between secret key and public key

Sno 1 2 3 4 5

Feature Number of key Types of key Key management

6 7

Secret key Public key Single key Pair of key Key is secret One key is private one is public Simple but difficult to Need digital certificate and manage tusted third party Relative speed Very fast Slower Usage Used for bulk data Used for less document encryption application such as encrypting small documents or to sign message Size of resulting encrypted text Usually same or less than More than the original clear text the original clear text size size Number of keys required as Equal about the square of Same as the no of participants compared to the no of the no of participants so so sales up quite well participants in the message socalability is an issue exchange. Used method Data encryption standard Rsa and public key cryptographi

Encrypted document and email:-fofHkUu izdkj ds internet users dks dHkh uk dHkh e mail Hkstus dh vko;drk iM+rh gSAlHkh izdkj ds network esa bl izdkj ds correspondence snapping dk [krjk cuk jgrk gS vr,o email system poster (post office)system dh rqyuk esa de lqjf{kr gS ;gka rd dh phone line ij fd;s x;s fax ;k vU; communication Hkh bl vlqj{kk

dks nkkZrsa gSaaA,d email message source ls destinationrd igqapus esa ftrus nodes ls gksdj xqtjrk gSA lHkh txg snapping dk [krjk cuk jgrk gS vr% ,ao bl vlqj{kk ls cpus ds fy;s encryption dk iz;ksx fd;k x;kA vkt eq[;r% nks izdkj ds encryption dke esa fy;s tkrs gsS Privacy enhanced mail standard(pem) Pretty good privacy(pgp) Privacy enhanced mail standard:bl vf/kdrj internet ij secure email ds fy;s officially Lohdkj ugha fd;k x;kA bldk fuekZ.k current email format ds lkFk dk;Z djus ds fy;s fd;k x;k];g pem esa encryption authentication ,ao key management tSlh lqfo/kk nh xbZ pem public key ,ao secret key nksuks izdkj ds cryptography system ik;s tkrs gSa ;g system multiple cryptographic tool dks support djrk gSA fdlh email dks encrypted djus ds fy;s foksk encryption algorithm digital signature algorithm hash function dk iz;ksx header esa djds encryption fd;k tkrk gSA pem ds }kjk dqN gh cryptographic algorithm dks support fd;k x;kA tSls des,rsa,algo. Preety good privacy(pgp):-;g Rsa ij based public key cryptography dk gh ,d :i gSA ;g software package phillip zimmerman }kjk develop fd;k x;k ,ao free miyC/k djok;k x;kA ;g rduhd united state esa cgwr rsth ls QSyhA lkFk gh iqjs foo esa ;g ,d standard cu x;kA ;g technology dos,machintosh,aniga,bms atari, ,ao os/2 system ds lkFk miyC/k gqbZA pgp encryption ds }kjk fdlh Hkh document ;k data file dks bruk encrypt dj fn;k tkrk gS fd ,d advance syper computer }kjk Hkh bls crack djuk vklku ugha gksrkA bldk process bruk simple gksrk gSA fd dksbZ Hkh O;fDr fcuk iz;kl ds vklkuh ls encrypt dj ldrk gSA authentication ds fy;s pgp rsa public key encryption key ,ao (mdv) message digest version5 file dks iz;ksx dj ldrk gS bl f;k esa digital signature cukus ds fy;s iz;ksx esa fy;s tkus okys one way hash function dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Process of pgp:-tSls gh dksbZ sender email type djrk gS ,ao md5 bl email ds fy;s digital signature cukrk gSa vc sender dh private key dk iz;ksx rsa ds }kjk digital signature dks encrypted dj fn;k tkrk gSA ifj.kkeLo:i encrypted email rS;kj gks tkrk gS receiver rsa ds iz;ksx ds }kjk sender dh public key yxkdj decrypt djrk gS ,ao digital signature dks iqu% izkIr djrk gSA vc receiver ,d u;k digital signature cukrk gS ,ao blds iz;ksx }kjk email dks recover djrk gSA bl recover email dks decrypted digital signature ds lkFk ns[kk tkrk gSA ;fn nksuksa match [kkrs gSa rks message accept dj fy;k tkrk gS ;g lkjh izf;k software automatic gksrh gSA md5 ,ao rsa dk combination digital signature dks T;knk effective cukrk gSA bl izdkj pgp transmit fd;s tkus okys message dks encryption ds }kjk confidentially miyC/k djkrk gSA ;g locally store dh xbZ files dks Hkh dke esa fy;k tk ldrk gSA bl izdkj dh encryption algorithm dks idea ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA
Third party services Www server function

World wide web as the architecture

Client browser

Information retrievel Digital library of document data server

Secure messaging Local or company specific data

Third party information processing tools servers Data and transaction management Mosaic/ www browser

Electronic payment servers Browser extension

Block Diagram Depicting And E Commerce Architecture Electronic commerce ds frame work esa building block ds :i esa last section www architecture dk gSA Electronic commerce dks lqpk: :i ls dk;Z djus ds fy;s iq.kZ functionality (f;kRedrk) miyC/k djkus okyk architecture www gSSA e commerce ,d vudgs rF; ij dk;Z djrk gS fd izR;sd computer dks lqpk: :i ls ,d nwljs ds lkFk information sharing ds fy;s co operate djuk pkfg;s nwHkkZX;iq.kZ ,slk djuk technically vklkuh ls laHko ugh gSaA bl dk;Z ds fy;s cgwr ls technical persons product implementation ,ao compiting vendor(izfrLi/kkZ esa dk;Zjr companies) fey dj dk;Z djrh gSa okLro esa computing ls data sharing dks incompatible cuk;k tkrk gS ;gka fofHkUu izdkj architecture data format ,ao communication protocol ij dk;Z djrs gSA bl izdkj dh fofo/krkvksa esa vkus okyh leL;kvksa ij dk;Z djus ds fy;s web leqnk; fodflr djus okys yksx ,ao mldks iz;ksx esa ysus okys yksx lkeUtL; LFkkfir djrs gSA web dh kq:vkr ekpZ 1989 esa tem burners lee }kjk ;qjksi esa high energy physics ij research ds fy;s(bls cern ,ao r&d ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS) ,d lkFk [kkst f;k dk vknku iznku djus ds fy;s web project dks fn;k x;kA ;gka information dh sharing gh eq[; mn~ns; FkkA ysfdu ;gka fdlh Hkh izdkj dk sound,video ;k image ds fy;s dk;Z ugha gksrk FkkA1990 ds vUrxZr cern esa ,d next machine ij web dh kq:vkr dh xbZA ;g software intenet ij fofHkUu izdkj document yksxks esa Hkstus esa l{ke FkkAlkFk gh document dks edit Hkh fd;k tk ldrk FkkA ;gka izkjfEHkd :i ls online browsing dh kw:vkr gwbZA bl project us cgwr rsth ls fodkl fd;k] tSls tSls yksxkssa dks global information sharing dk egRo le> esa vkus yxkA oSls gh yksxksa us web ls lEcaf/kr software ds fodkl esa viuk fodkl fn;kA 1993 esa NCSA mosaic ds vkus ds ckn web ds fy;s multimedia front end dh kw:vkr gwbZA www ds architecture dks eq[;r;k rhu entities esa ckaVk tkrk gSA client browser web server third party services

client browser:-;s lk/kkj.kr;k www ds lkFk interact djrk gS web server:-,d e/;LFk dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA ,ao third party services ls interaction djrk gSA Client browser user ds pc ;k work station ij miyC/k gksrk gSA ;s web server ds lkFk interaction djus ds fy;s tool dh rjg dke vkrk gSA browser bl ckr dks le>us dh {kerk gksrh gSA fd fdl izdkj dh file download gks jgh gSA ,ao browser esa fdl izdkj dk extension iz;ksx dj fle dks fn[kk;k tk ldrk gSAA web server dk dk;Z fofHkUu izdkj dh lqpukvksa dks <q<adj fn[kkuk] data ,ao transaction dk management djuk] ,ao security miyC/k djkuk gh third party services vU; web server gks ldrs gSaA tks fd digital library,information processing tools ,ao electronic payment system dks cuk;s j[kr gSsaA Web dh {kerk;sa(en compass) Global hyper text publishing concept:-blds }kjk iq.kZ lalkj esa online information access miyC/k djk;k tkrk gSA ;g bl mn~ns; ds vuwlkj fofHkUu izdkj ds data dks address djus ij (image, sound file,animation) fn[kkbZ nsaA Universal readership concept:-;g bl ckr dks izsfjr djrk gS fd vyx vyx applications ds fy;s lkoZHkkSfed :i ls ;k common :i ls ,d application ds iz;ksx }kjk user interface miyC/k djk;k tk;sA bl concept ds dkj.k ,d ckj publish dh xbZ information iqjh nwfu;k es dgha Hkh fdlh Hkh authorized person }kjk mldh vko;drk vuqlkj access dh tk ldrh gSA ;g browsers ds }kjk laHko gwvkA Client server concept:-;s concept fcuk fdlh centralized control ds cukrk gSA dksbZ Hkh viuh information publish dj ldrk gS user bl information dks i< ldrk gSA;k download dj ldrk gSA server program dh vko;drk gSA ,ao data dks i<us ds fy;s kjk ,d nqljs ls tqM+s gw;s gksrs gSaA web dks c<us ds fy;s l{ke ,ao dksbZ Hkh (authorized) information publishing ds fy;s client ,ao server interact ds }

Consumer oriented e commerce:-technology ds fodkl ls lkFk lkFk vkt O;fDr dh O;kikj lac/kah lk/kkj.k izf;k tsls personal finance management(remote banking), home, shopping ,ao home entertainment etc f;kvksa ds fy;s e commerce dk use djus yxsAbl izdkj value added services dk tUe gwvk ftlesa network ds }kjk O;kikj ls lEcaf/kr izf;kvksa dks dqN iSlk ysdj consumer dks miyC/k djk;k x;kA bl izdkj consumer oriented e commerce dh kq:vkr gw;hA Consumer oriented e commerce dks tkuus ls igys fuEu ckrksa dks tkuuk t:jh gSA E market esa fdlh Hkh product dks ,ao service dks cspus ,ao [kjhnus ds fy;s fdlh standard business process dks LFkkfir djuk t:jh gSAS Retail ,ao credit card based transaction ds fy;s fdlh Hkh order dks ysus ds fy;s online payment ds fy;s service delivery ds fy;s ,d ,sls O;kikfjd protocol dh vko;drk gS tks dkQh cM+s Lrj ij ,ao vklkuh ls dke esa fy;k tk ldrk gSA ,d lqjf{kr izf;k ds fy;s ftlds }kjk fofHkUu parties tks fd ,d nwljs ij fookl ugha djrh Abu parties ds e/; transparent ,ao privacy ds rjhdksa dk fodkl dh vko;drk gSA Consumer oriented application:-O;kikfjd Lrj ij consumer ls lacaf/kr application dks eq[; :i ls fuEu Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA Entertainment, financial services,information access services,education,,ao training ls lEcaf/kr services

;gka fodkl dk dkj.k lh/kk fn[kk;h nsrk gSA physically fdlh Hkh dk;Z dks djus dh rqyukdigital transmissionls bl dk;Z dks djuk T;knk rsth ls de iSls esa vklkuh ls lEHko gSA ew[; :i ls pkj izdkj ds application e commerce esa j[ks x;s gSa Personal finance management or(remote banking) Home shopping Home entertainment Micro transaction of information Personal fineace management or (remote banking):-blds vUrxZr e commerce iz;ksx }kjk fofHkUu phone bills, elcectricity bill, home banking, fdlh Hkh le; dgha Hkh lEHko gwbZA home banking ds vUrxZr fund dk transfer bill dk payment balance check djuk] ,ao stop payment dh request djuk bR;kfn vkrs gSA Entertainment services ds vUrxZr intracted television on demand culture ,ao personal digital assistance tSlh lqfo/kkvksa dk fodkl gwvkAdqN consumer services fuEufyf[kr gSsa Entertainment:- movies on demand, video catalogue,interactive ad,multiuser game,online discussion. Financial services:-home banking, financial services, financial news. Essential services:-home shopping,electronic catalogue, telemedicine, remote diagnostics. Education, services:-interactive education video conference on line database blds rhu Hkkx gSaA basic services intermediate services advance services
Inter Association switching center Association switching center Bank switching center Association switching center Bank switching center Bank switching center

basic services:-bl services es eq[;rk ATM ls lEcaf/kr services vkrh gSA1970 esa igyk ATM vk;k FkkA ftldk dk;Z dsoy deposit ,ao cash fudkyuk FkkA citi corporation uke dk igyk ATM FkkA ftls low balance okys yksxksa ds fy;s install fd;k x;k yksxksa ds chp ATM ds c<rsa gw;s egRo dks ns[kdj ATM dks bl :i esa fodflr fd;k x;k fd yksx mls dgha Hkh ,ao fofHkUu izdkj ds dk;ksZ esa dke esa ys ldrs gSAATM network dks intenet network ds :i esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ATM esa customer ,ao bank ds e/; interface dk ,d u;k v/;k; kw: fd;kA

Bank switching center

Structure of atm network Intermediate services:1980 dh kq:vkr esa home banking djuk cgwr eqfdy ekuk tkrk FkkA ftldk dkj.k blds fy;s iz;qDr egaxas lk/ku Fks tSls pc, modem ,ao special software tSls tSls pc ,modem ,ao special software tSls equipment lLrs gksrs x;sA bank ds fofHkUu izdkj dh services home banking ds }kjk miyC/k djkbZ xbZA tSls insurance paying bills,fund transfer ,ao u;saccount dks [kksyuk blds vykok Hkh dbZ non bank services vkbZA tSls entertainment travel ,ao business news vkfnA cM+s O;kikjh customers dks bank ls lacaf/kr iSls ds vknku iznku ds fy;s sophisticated cash management software package miyC/k djk;k x;kA bl izdkj fofHkUu izdkj ds transaction ds fy;s fofHkUu izdkj ds software packages miyC/k djk;s x;s ftUgsa intermediate services esa j[kk x;kA check processing ds fy;s miyC/k djk;s x;s software ds step step and check clearing process Federal Reserve

Check for payment Request for fund transfer

Inter bank clearing home

Debit from payer account and credit payee account Bank of payer Bank of payer Bank of payer

Check for deposit credit information

Debit information

Payer Payer

Advance services:-bl izdkj dh services dk iz;ksx dj consumers dks laiq.kZ thou ds fofHkUu mn~ns;ksa ds fy;s online lsok miyC/k djkuk bl mn~ns; dh iqfrZ ds fy;s fofHkUu vojks/k uk dsoy customer dh rjQ ls gSAcfYd financial services dh rjQ ls gSA Advance services dks support djus ds fy;sbanking,ao brokerage community us ,d system develop djus ds fy;s ,d lkFk iz;kl fd;sAbl izdkj dh services ds }kjk online shopping dks iq.kZ foo esa dgha ls Hkh real time ij dk;Z djus esa l{ke cuk;k x;kA buesa ls dqN services dke eas vk jgh gS ,ao dqN dks develop fd;k x;kAdqN lk/kkj.k services ds uke fuEu gSa online shopping, third party services(like purchasing), travelers check services(airline tickets)Bill payment real time financial statement, stock ticker(stocks , bonds, mutual funds,features and commodities). bl izdkj services esa computers esa extra ordinary integration dh vko;drk gksrh gSAvFkkZr eq[; ekhuksa dks T;knk advance izdkj cukuk iM+rk gSA lHkh izdkj dh services esa customer dk cgqr /;ku j[kk x;kA ;g ckr t:j gks ldrh gS fd level of customers vyx vyx gksrs gSa eq[;r% lHkh services customer ij depend djrh gSA ;k customer oriented gksrh gSA

Real time financial information (stock ticker) Bill payment super bank clearing house Third party services(purchasing travelers checks,airline tickets Online shopping services

Bank server

Investment vehicles (stock, bond, mutual fund future and commodities

Advance service of home shopping Anatomy of e commerce application fofHkUu izdkj dh e commerce application vkt dke esa yh tk jgh gSA ge blds vUrxZr multimedia contain ,ao multimedia storage server tks fd information delivery system ds lkFk gSA network service provider tks fd access point miyC/k djkrs gSa ,ao fofHkUu izdkj functions miyC/k djkrs gSa ,ao fofHkUu izdkj functions miyC/k djkus ds fy;s foksk izdkj dh devices dke esa yh tkrh gSA e commerce application ds fy;s multimedia contain

Component of multimedia Multimedia content e commerce application ds fy;s fuel ,ao traffic nksuksa :i es dk;Z djrk gS] multimedia dk eryc digital data eas ,d ls vf/kd formet dk iz;ksx djuk gSA tSls text,audio,video,animation,ao graphics dk fdlh computer dh file esa iz;ksx ysuk gSA multimedia yksxksa ds e/; izkd`frd communication dks computerized :i esa izkIr djus dh dksfkk gSA bldh lgk;rk ls fofHkUu izdkj ds contains ds fy;s multimedia }kjk user friendly interface miyC/k djkrk gSA bl mn~ns; ds fy;s multimedia }kjkcomputer, television ,ao telephone dh capability dks combined :i ls single device ds :i esa dke es fy;k tkrk gSApqafd vf/kdrj yksx fdlh business system esa nh xbZ information ;k vko;d information ds ,d fgLls dks gh T;knkrj iz;ksx esa ysrs gSa multimedia }kjk bl izdkj dh information dks vf/kdrj mi;ksxh cukus ds fy;s ,d u;s :i esa process o distribute fd;k tkrk gS tsls fd audio and video. Multimedia vkus okyh ih<h esa dke es fy;s tkus okys foksk computing software gSA multimedia fdlh Hkh izdkj ds business esa fdlh u fdlh rjg ls kkfey djuk gh iM+rk gSaAmultimedia us ijEijkxr business dks gVkdj viuh ,d ubZ txg cuk yhA multimedia dk dk;Z djuk customers dh machine dh hardware dh capability ij dke djrk gSA Multimedia ds industrial dk ijEijkxr :i ls foHkktu Multimedia ds dk;Z {ks=(contents)

Sr no 1 2 3 4

Industry Entertainment producers Broadcast tv production Print publishing Computer software

Content produced Cartoon,games,movies etc Game shows, documentaries entertainment programs Books reference collections dictionaries,catalogues Software programs, animation,games productivity,enhancing tool.

Multimedia dh lQyrk ij gh fofHkUu e commerce application dh lQyrk fuHkZj

djrh gSa vFkkZr fdlh Hkh e commerce application esa multimedia dks iz;ksx fdrus izHkkoh <ax ls fodflr :i ls ,ao lQy :i ls fd;k x;k mlds vuwlkj dh e commerce application enduser dks lQy :i ls izHkkfor djrh gSA Multimedia storage servers and electronic commerce application E commerce es fofHkUu izdkj ds dk;Z ds fy;s cgwr gh rkdroj server dh vko;drk gksrh gSA rkfd user ds fy;s vko;d information dks vklkuh ls miyC/k djk;k tk ldrk gSA bl izdkj ds servers dks multimedia storage server dgrs gSaA Client server architecture in e commerce result Processed request Multimedia content Application logic Presentation logic Application logic

Distribution of processing in multimedia client server E commerce ds fofHkUu application c/s modelij vk/kkfjr gSA ftlesa client ds ikl esa devices ,ao software dk combination gksrk gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls client server dks information ds fy;s request Hkstrk gS ,ao server bl request dks iqjk djus ds fy;s back end ds :i esa dk;Z dj process generate djrk gSA c/s model client dks request reply sequence ds vk/kkj ij server ls interaction miyC/k djkrk gSA ftls message passing ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gSA server fofHkUu application task ds storage dks security ds ,ao ubZ pht ds tqM+uk (scalibility) dks handle djrk gSA internal process of multimedia server e commerce dh fofHkUu application esa multimedia ds daa object kkfey gksrs gSa bu objects dks dke easa ysus ds fy;s multimedia server ij vkUrfjd :i ls store,retrievel, management of multimedia data objects vkfn process gksrs gsa multimedia server hardware vkSj software dk confirmation gSaA tks raw data dks usable information esa cnydj user dks vko;drkuqlkj nsrk gSa A bl izf;k dks dishes process dgrs gSA fdlh server dks multimedia ds lkFk okLrfod intractive lsok nsus ds fy;s fuEu dk;Z djus iM+rs gSA cgwr ls user dks ec) handle djuk ,ao bu users ds fofHkUu transactiondks manage djuk lkFk gh user dks mudh effordable cost ij information miyC/k djkuk gSA bl dk;Z esa nks eq[; dfBukbZ;ka vkrh gSA

user dk ijEijkxr rjhds dks u NksM+ ikukA ge eq[;rk table format dk iz;ksx ugh dj jgsa gS cM+sa iSekus ij data accessing gksrs le; computing platform ds fy;s bottom lan dk dk;Z djrk gSAcomputing platform esa bottom lan dh leL;k dks gVkus ds fy;s parrellel system yxk;k tkrk gS vc vr%lcls cM+k rduhdh challenge bl fokky storage dks manage djuk] ,ao manipulate djrk gSA ftlds fy;s ubZ rduhd ds server develop fd;s x;s gSA video server and electronic commerce: Video server (wholesales or distributers)

Video encoder(data compression unit)

subsciber subsciber subsciber Billing and accounting server Cabele tv telecome, satellite based or other hybrid delivery and router system

Program or services selection interface(eg. Set top selectors)

Block diagram of generic video on demand Electronic commerce ds vUrxZr os lHkh izdkj ds information vkrh gS tks fd digital video ds :i esa iz;ksx esa yh tkrh gSA tSls fd telecommunication video conferencing, geographical information sytem(google earth) fdlh map ds ckjs esa fofHkUu voLFkkvksa dks nkkZuk studio esa cukbZ xbZ fim bR;kfn ls igys fn;s tkus traler and multimedia server. Interactive tv tSls application ds vuqiz;ksx ds fy;s cgwr vf/kd storage dh vko;drk gqbZ vr% media company vkSj technology ds e/; partnership cukbZ xbZ ftlus O;kikj ds u;s

vk;ke dks tUe fn;kA tgka customer telecommunication cable network ;k wireless network dh lgk;rk lsA bl izdkj ds dk;Z ds fy;s foksk izdkj ds hardware and software dh Hkh vkOk;drk gwbZA ftldh lgk;rk ls ,d ls vf/kd users dh demand dh ;k rks ,d ds ckn ,d ;k le; ds foksk vUrjky ds lkFk ns[kk tk ldrk gSA izR;sd processor video dome ds :i esa dk;Z djrk gS vkSj film ds ,d fgLls dks distribute djrk gS rkfd ,d film cgwr ls ?kjksa esa ,d lkFk ns[kh tk ldsA;gka processor interlink :i esa dk;Z djrs gSaA Information delivery and transport and ecommerce application

Sr no 1 2 3 4

Information transport providers Telecommunication companies Cable television companies Computer based online services Wireless communication

Information delivery methods Long distance telephone lines local telephone lines Cable tv co axial fiberoptic and satellite lines Internet, commercial on line service providers Cellular and radio network paging systems

Architecture framework of e commerce: Framework dk rkRi;Z blls gS fd e commerce dh application dks cukus ds fy;s ,ao bldk fodkl djus ds fy;s fdl rjg ds tool dk iz;ksx fd;k tk;s ,ao fdrus rjg ds tool dks cuk;k tk;sA architecture bl ckr ij dsfUnzr gksrk gS fd fdlh corporation esa dk;Zjr resources bl izdkj cuk;k tk;s fd data dk integration ,ao software dk vPNs ls vPNk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldsA e commerce application architecture dks 6 dk;Zjr layer ;k services esa ckaVk tkrk gSA Application Brokerage services data or transaction management Interface and support layers Secure messaging, security and e document interchange Middleware and structured document interchange Network infrastructure and basic communication services ;s lkjh layer feydj vkt ds computing resources ds e/; seamless transaction miyC/k djkrh gSa

Sr no 1 2 3 4 5 6

Services Application services Brokerage and management Interface layer Secure messaging Middle ware services Network interface data

Work Customers to business,business to business intra organization Order processing,mail order hours paymen schemes electronic cash clearing home or virtual mall Interactive catalogue software agents, directory support function Secure hypertext programming transfer protocol encrypted email edi remote

Structured document (sgml, html) compound document(ole open) Wireless- cellular radio pcs wireline pots,co axial, fiber optics

Electronic-commerce application services:-;g services eq[; :i ls rhu classes esa ckaVh tk ldrh gSA

Consumer to business transaction Global suppliers

Classic edi

Procurement, distribution and logistics

Accounting finance and management Manufacturing and production Private commerce Endigneering and research

Internal publishing



customer services

Consumer oriented e commerce


Different type of e commerce applications

ge bl category dks market place transaction esa j[k ldrs gSaA tgka consumer fofHkUu izdkj ds products ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djrk gSa bl dk;Z ds fy;s e publishing dk customer dks electronic cash ,ao secure system nsuk ,ao ,d i`Fkd :i ls customer rd delivery igqapkuk vkrk gSA bl izdkj esa dksbZ Hkh organization bl ckr dks accept djrh gS fd brand concept ls gVdj ,d u;k vk/kkj nsuk gSAftlesa quality ds vius i`Fkd vFkZ gksxsaA ftlesa content dk vFkZ product ls uk fy;k tk;s]ftlesa distribution dk vFkZ Lor% physical transport ls uk fy;k tk;sA bl izdkj brand equity d cktkj dks rsth ls gVk;k x;k o ,d u;s okrkoj.k dk fodkl fd;k x;k ftlesa business djus dk ,d u;k rjhdk fn;k tk;sA Business to business transaction:-ge bl category dks market link transaction ds uke ls tkursa gSa ;gka cgwr ls business ,government ,ao vU; organization, computer to computer, communication ij fuHkZj djrh gSA D;ksfd ;g rjhdk lcls rst xfr ls communication, economical ,ao vU; business ls lEcf/kr transaction dks dj ldrh gS b to b transactionds vUrxZr edi ,ao email dk iz;ksx fuEu dk;ksZ esa fd;k tkrk gSAlkeku [kjhnuk]lsok;sa [kjhnuk] lqpuk [kjhnuk] fopkj foekZ djuk](consulting)fdlh proposal ;k izLrko dh request submit djuk ,ao fofHkUu izLrko dks Lohdkj djukA Intra organization transaction:-bl category dks market driven transaction Hkh dgrs gSa dksbZ Hkh company market driven rHkh dgykrh gS tc company ls lEcaf/kr lqpuk(tks fd customer ,ao vusd compatitors ds ckjs esa gksrh gS) dh strategic ,ao tactical decision ds ckjs esa lqpuk dks dk;Z{ks= esa QSyk;k tk;s vFkkZr company ls lEcf/kar izR;sd vko;d lqpuk le; ij feyuh pkfg;sA bl izf;k ds }kjk fdlh computer esa vyx units customer dks fn;s x;s commitments ;k okns dks vkxs ls vkxs customes satisfaction dks iqjk djus ds fy;s ,d lkFk iqjk dj ldrh gSA;g izf;k fdlh Hkh organization ds valuable ;k egRoiq.kZ customer dks management O;fDr }kjk vPNh services miyC/k djkus esa lgk;d gksrh gSA ;g izf;k eqy :i ls customer ls lEcaf/kr business dh le> dks Ck<kok nsrh gSA,ao ;g crkrh gS fd fdl izdkj fdlh Hkh customer dks lgh market value rqjar izHkko ds lkFk dSls izkIr gksA ;g transaction eqw[; :i ls rhu Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA Customer orientation through product and service customization. Cross funcational co orientation through enterprise integration Advertising marketing and customer services Information brokerage and management:-information brokerage }kjk ;g layer services integration miyC/k djkrh gSA bldk fodkl important resources fragmentation brokerage dks ge intermediate ds :i esa tkurs gSa ;g customer ,ao information provider ds chp dh dM+h gSA;g service dqN izfrca/k LFkkfir djkrh gSA tSls client ds fy;s low price,fast services ,ao vf/kdre profit. Example of information brokerage work: Consumer dh information mi;ksfxrk ds fy;s database migration 2. Consumer information professionals ds e/; ,d system LFkkfir djrh gSA vFkkZr fu/kkZfjr djrh gS fd a. fdls D;k feys\ b. vki bldk iz;ksx dSls djs\

blds fy;s charges D;k yxkosa\ 3. ;g information <aw<us ds lkFk lkFk receive dh xbZ information dh value Hkh fu/kkZfjr djrh gSA 4. ;g data management ,ao vknku iznku (transaction) ds ikSjkf.kd rjhds dks Hkh support djrh gSA 5. Communication gap dks de djus o internet ij vkus okyh problem solve djus ds fy;s tools nsrh gS tSls fd software agents,distributed query generator, distributed transaction generation a,o delecrative resources constraints. 3.interface and support services:-;g service fofHkUu e commerce application ds fy;s interface miyC/k djokrh gSA tsls fd interactive catalogue ,ao support directory service interactive catalogue ikSjkf.kd catalogue dk gh fodflr mnkgj.k gS ftlesa audio,video,,ao graphic tSls features tksM+ fn;s x;sAdirectory fdlh Hkh scheme ds ihNs dk;Z djrh gS ,ao fofHkUu izdkj dh informationdks ,ao transaction dks lgh :i ls cuk;s j[krh gSA rkfd internet ij fdlh Hkh database dks locate djus esa vklkuh gksA

Secure messaging securing and e document interchange:-bl layer dk dk;Z message dks security miyC/k djkuk gSA electronic message ds mnkgj.k email, enhanced fax ,ao electronic data interchange Messaging services unstructured data tSls letter memo.recored vkfn ds lkFk structure ;k formatted data tsls fd purchase order shipping notices ,ao invoices vkfn dks communication ds fy;s solution miyC/k djokrh gSA Advantages of messaging services:-;g symmetric ,ao asymmetric nksuks rjg ls message dh delivery vkSj mldh processing dj ldrk gSA ;g store ,ao forward method dks use djrk gS messaging services fdlh particular protocol ls tqM+h ugh gksrh gS fdlh izdkj preprocessing dh vko;drk ugha gksrh gSA messaging services client and server,ao peer to peer computing model nksuksa dks support djrh gSA distributed system esa message ,ao object dh rjg dk;Z djrk gS message tools dh lgk;rk ls yksx dgha ls Hkh efficative communication dj ldrs gSa fdlh message dk ,d ds ckn ,d yksxksa ds ikl flow djuk message enable work flow solution dgykrk gSA Disadvantages of messaging services: ;g ,d ubZ rjg dh application gSa ftlesa dbZ standart dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ysfdu ;g fdlh foksk standard ds fy;s lefiZr ugh gksrh gSA vr% ikSjkf.kd programmes ds fy;s ;g dkQh complex izf;k gS 2. ;g security, privacy ,ao confidentiality ds fy;s encryption ,aoauthentication techniques dk fodkl vko;d gSA Middleware services:-;g ,d u;k standard gS tks gky gh esa fn;k x;k gSA bldk eq[; iz;ksx heterogeneous system(different software and software) esa communication ds fy;s gSAmiddleware services ds system dks data contric system esa shift djuk gSaA vFkkZr ;g fdlh network esa fofHkUu application ds e/; application controlling data dh ctk; lHkh application ds fy;s remote data controlling nsrh gSA

Data contric computing d fy;s rhu vo;o mrjnk;h gSa Transparency Transacation security and management Distributed object management of services Transparency:-bldk eryc gS fd user dks bl ckr dk irk ugh yxkuk pkfg;s fd og multiple system dks access dj jgk gSA transparency middle ware ds iz;ksx }kjk miyC/k djokbZ tkrh gSA

Tkks fd ,d distributed computing environment miyC/k djokrh gSA ;g multi vendor heterogeneous ds e/; data accessing computer ,ao resources dk iz;ksx djus esa user dks application transparency nsrh gS vFkkZr user dks viuk le; bl ckr ij ugha crkuk iM+rk gS fd dkSulk data dgka iM+k gSAlkFk gh resources locate djus ds fy;s specific ;k special code ugha nsuk iM+rk gSA vFkkZr bldk eq[; mn~ns;middleware layer dks request Hkstuk gSA middleware layer bl request dks iqjk djus ds fy;s gj laHko iz;kl djsxhA Transaction security and management:-;g transacation processing ds fy;s mRrjnk;h gSA ;gka authentication ,ao authorization dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA;g e commerce application dk eq[; Hkkx gSA transaction processing system esa lHkh ACID properties gksrs gSAA atomcity,constistency,isolation and durability Distributed object management services:-object dks ge data ,ao data ij fd;s tkus okys dk;Z ds instruction ds combination ds :i esa tku ldrs gSa dksbZ Hkh object function ,ao procedure dks develop :i gSA e commerce ds case esa object dk eryc fdlh document ls gSA document data dks ys tkrk gSA lkFk gh bleas data ij dkSu dkSuls dk;Z djus gSAblds instructions dgrs gSa bl izdkj dh computing dks document oriented computing dgrs gsSa document esa text ds lkFk lkFk picture,audio,video Hkh gks ldrk gSA bl izdkj ds document dks vU; LFkku ij ml document esa nh xbZ application ds fcuk Hkh ns[k ikuk gSAdocument orientation gesa applets ds }kjk fofHkUu application dks develop djus dh lqfo/kk nsrk gSA distributed object management services fofHkUu izdkj ds protocol dk iz;ksx djrh gSA Tcp/ip Open software foundation distributed computing environment Engineering distributed object computing finance work for creating document as corba(common object request brocker architecture) ole(object linking and embedding) and open documents. EDI:-electronic data interchange bldk fodkl 1960 esa fd;k x;kAml le; bldk iz;ksx shipment ,ao transportation ls lEcaf/kr documents ds electronically interchange ds fy;s tkrk gSA 1980 ds nkd rd organization ds e/; formal communication ds fy;s bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkus yxkA EDI rduhd dk eq[; mn~ns; O;kikjh]suppliers ,ao customers ds e/; boundries dks gVkdj ,d nwljs ds lkFk communication ,ao business dks djus dh lqfo/kk nsuk gSAvFkkZr ;g boundry less relationship developdjrk gSaA blesa lkjh izf;k gS email }kjk ;k vU; p to p connection }kjk gksrh gSA Defining EDI:-EDI dh dksbZ fufpr definition ugha FkhA D;ksafd EDI ds implementation esa dbZ rjhds dh ;qfDr;ka dke esa yh xbZZA ,ao bls dbZ :i esa develop fd;k x;kA vr% bldh dqN definition fuEu gSaSA Electronic data interchange is the transmission in a standard syntax of unambiquos of independent organization,(the accredited standard committee for edi of American national standard institute) EDI is the interchange of standard formatted data between computer. Of commercial system of trading partners with minimal intervention(UN/ EDIFACT TRAINING) Edi is the e transfer from computer to computer of commercial and administrative data using an agreed standard to structure an edi message(European model edi agreement) Edi is the e transfer from one computer to another computer processable data using an agreed standard standard to structure data (international data interchange) Benefits of edi

Shortend ordering time Cost culting Elimination of errors Fast response Accurate invoicing Edi payment Reduce stock holding Cash flow Business opportunities Customer lock in Edi application in business:-edi dk mi;ksx vktdy dkQh {ks=ksa esa fd;k tkus yxkAtSls railway, rolling,stock,monitoring,cargo planning for containership shipment, scheduling notice,notification, of prerench of dangerous and hazardous (tkuysok) goods dh ship, train,plain etc esa mifLFkr ds fy;s psrkouh ds :i esaA Cad cam ls lacaf/kr exchange ds fy;s Tender tracking ds fy;s U;k; lEcaf/kr document file ds fy;sA Ship, airline ;k railway etc esa ticket booking ds fy;s EDI system vius limited :i ls c<dj vkt gj {ks= esa egRoiq.kZ document a,ao lqpukvksa ds vknku iznku esa iz;ksx es fd;k tkrk gSA Edi dks eq[; :i ls pkj Hkkxksa esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA International ;k cross border O;kikj esa nwljk Electronic fund transfer Insurance claim ls lacaf/kr ,ao (health care ls lcaf/kr) Manufacture or retail esa iqoZ security ds lkFk order booking ds fy;s (procurement). Organization that use edi Bhs:-uk and European retail shopping center having 400 supliers work as back end to end integrated merchandising front end for user Lucas risk:-all volume are can manufacture and part suppliers Tele ordering:- a system that link to the Whitakers catalogue book in permit. It representing whole sale book suppliers. Types of EDI
Export Import

International ;k cross border business:-


Buyer Seller

Public official Public official

Insurer Bank Insurer


Frieght fowarder Frieght fowarder

Transparent Custom Transparent


Storage and container ware house Storage and container ware house

Internals of international trade Establishment of commercial agreement command Arrangement of payment(financial)

Arrangement of transport(intromediatory) Arrangement of insurance(insurance) Export clearserver(custom) Import clearenes(custom) EDI dh kq:vkr okLro esa O;kikfjd n`fVdks.k ls gh gwbZA1948 esa cfyZu airlift esa eky dk okgd aircraft esa fofHkUu Hkkkk esa fn;s x;s eky ds co ordination ds fy;s bldh kq:vkr dh xbZA fiNys dqN lkyks esa blds fy;s foksk standard crk;s x;sA ftls gatt ds uke ls tkuk x;kA bldk iqjk uke (general agreement of terrifs and trade) gSA blh izdkj ds argument united states Canada, ,ao maxico ds lkFk ;qjksfi;u union ds chp esa fd;k x;kAftls nafta(national agreement for trade argument) dgk x;k gSA bl izdkj ds agreement esa nskksa esa e/; lhek dks [kRe dj fn;kA ,aoe O;kikj dks T;knk rsth ls vklku :i esa vPNs ls ,aoe de cost esa djuk]lHkao cuk;k vr% EDI global transaction ds ek/;e esa mHkj dj lkeus vk;kAEDI system dk iz;ksx gksus ls fdlh Hkh lqpuk dk lapkj dkQh vklkuh ls fd;k tkus yxk blds vUrxZr fofHkUu izdkj ds igyw j[ks x;s tSls fd fdlh lkeku dks Hkstuk]container dh xfr]vehicle dh xfr] shop ,ao aircraft dh xfr vkfn dks le; le; ij trace fd;k tk ldrk FkkA ;gka information handling ds fy;s electronics document dk iz;ksx fd;k tkus yxkA ;gka information flow dk mn~ns; data miyC/k djkus ds lkFk lkFk mls lgh :i ls ,ao lgh le; ij nsuk gh gSA edi us eq[; rkSj ij O;kikj esa paper work dks djhc djhc [kRe dj fn;kAftlls ikSjkf.kd :i ls [kpZ gksus okys le; ,ao iSlk cpkAlkFk gh manual errors dh lHkkouk;sa cgwr de gks xbZA Benefits of international trade Transaction ds [kpsZ dks de djukA Import export ds lkeku dk rsth ls xfr djukA Customer service es lq/kkj vFkkZr trag and tras ds program }kjk fdlh O;kikfjd deal esa companies, customers. Banks, insurance, transport agents etc dh vko;drk iMrh gsSAmu lHkh ds fy;s rsth ls igpku miyC/k djkukA rsth ls customer clearance miyC/k djkuk ftlesa corruption dh laHkkouk de dh xbZA component of international trade internation O;kikj esa fofHkUu izdkj ds component kkfey gksrs gSa exporter importer buds e/; gksus okys dk;Z dks fright forwarder(ftls middleman ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gSA customer clearance :insurance companies etc. customer and internation trade:-internation O;kikj esa custom department ,d egRoiq.kZ Hkqfedk fuHkkrk gSA fdlh Hkh import export esa de ls de nks clearance kkfey gksrs gSA import and export custom department esa vkus okyh dfBukbZ;ksa ds vk/kkj ij edi system dk use fd;k tkus yxkA og fuEu gSa

c<rh gqbZ global economic es lkeku dk volume O;kikj eaaas rsth ls c< jgk gSA fofHkUu izdkj dh industries }kjk cM+h gh rsth ls transport dh vko;drk c< xbZ gSA custom activities dk scope fofHkUu areas esa c< x;k gSA tSls diverse as intellectual property right toxic wastes ad endangered speices economic planners }kjk rst ,ao lgh statics ds lkFk le; ds lkFk c<rs demand esa customer department dks data business processing dh gksrh gS vFkkZr customer department dks dkQh complex test dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA ysfdu EDI us bls ljy :i ls djus esa cgwr egRoiq.kZ Hkqfedk fuHkkbZA hogistics and transport:-fdlh Hkh lkeku dks import ;k export djus ds fy;s logistic companies egRoiq.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSA;gka just in time ds vk/kkjij transport ls lEcaaf/kr izR;sd lqpuk dks lHkh egRoiq.kZ destination rd igqapk;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dh rduhd ds fodkl ds dkj.k dbZ NksVh NksVh companies market ls ckgj gks xbZA,ao ,slh company tks mudk transport (tSls air craft, ship) tks [kqn dk transport j[krh gSa ,ao EDI dk iz;ksx dj just in time dk iz;ksx djds lkeus vkbZ tSls universal parsel service(ups). buds fodkl dk eq[; dkj.k fdlh Hkh delivery ds le; gksus ls feyus okys Qk;ns jgsaA vr% tks dEifu;ka lkeku lgh le; ij ugha igqapk ikrh]Lor% gh compitation ls ckgj gks xbZA trade point global network / the future of trade: vkt industrial nskksa esa EDI system dk iz;ksx 7 ls 10% rd ls de gksrk gSA Hkfo; esa ,d ,slk sport cuk;k tk;sxk ;k LFkku fn;k tk;sxk ftlesa ,d gh Nr ds uhps O;kikj ls lEcaf/kr lHkh lqfo/kk;sa gksxhA(tsls import &export customer, insurance logistic companies banking etc) vFkkZRk vxj online site Hkh miyC/k gSA rks ,d gh spot ij lHkh link miyC/k djk;k tk;sxkA tSls importer,exporter,commercial,banks,freight,forwarder,banks,insurance,chamber of commerce,govt departments,customer,authorities etc.) trade point lHkh izdkj ds O;kikj dh xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy;s market ds volj miyC/k djok;sxkA lkFk gh trade point ,d global network ds fy;s gateway dk dk;Z djsxkA financial EDI:- blesa electronically payment dk transfer gksuk vkrk gS ftlds vUrxZr payer ,ao payee ,ao muls lEcaf/kr bank ds e/;payment ;k remittance dh lqpuk dk lapkj gksrk gSA bl izdkj esa business to business transaction eq[; :I ls ns[kk tkrk gSAEDI system }kjk ;g lqfo/kk nh tkrh gS fd ftl le; dksbZ account credit gksrk gSABhd mlh le; vU; account debit Hkh gks tkrk gSA vFkkZRk same day transaction laHko gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh firm }kjk customer dks dkxth :i ls invoice cukdj nsus cheque cukdj nsus dh izf;k esa labour ,ao transportation dh cost ds lkFk lkFk le; dk Hkh cgqr vf/kd uqdlku gksrk gSAbl izdkj ds uqdlku dks Edi }kjk [kRe dj fn;k x;kA Types of financial EDI Edi dk eq[; :i electronically fund transfer(TFT) ,ao automatic clearing house(ACH) ds lkFk domestic ,ao internation fund transfer esa fd;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj ds transfer dks eq[; :i ls rhu Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA Bank cheques Electronic fund transfer Automatic clearing house

Bank cheque:-cheque dk iz;ksx debit transfer eas fd;k tkrk gSA tgka bank }kjk fund dk transfer payer ds account esa transfer fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn payer ds account esa sufficient fund uk gks rks bank }kjk cheque dks reverse dj fn;k tkrk gSA fdlh business esa cheque }kjk payment nks dkj.kksa ls fd;k tkrk gSA ;g ,d tkuk igpkuk rjhdk gS ftlds }kjk payment ds finaly receive gksus dh fufprrk c< tkrh gSA Cheque }kjk iSls dh feyus dh izf;k es yxk le; businessman }kjk vius Qk;ns ds fy;s iz;ksx esa fy;k tk ldrk gSA Cheque clearance esa gksus okyh nsjh dks float ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bl nsjh dk eq[; dkj.k banks ds e/; payment collection change dh izf;k esa human handling dh vko;drk gSA Info bank electronic fund transfer(EFT); bl izf;k esa cSdksa ds e/; credit transfer gksrk gSA ;gka fund dk flow payer dh bank ls lh/ks payee dh bank esa fd;k tkrk gSA bl izdkj dk payment same day and instanteus gksrk gSA bl izf;k ds fy;s united states nks lcls cM+h fund transfer services iz;ksx esa ysrk gSA federal reserve system(fed wire) clearing house inter bank payment(chips) igyh service ds vUrxZr receiving bank }kjk resource bank dss credit gksus dh lqpuk nsus ds ckn fund dks iqu%ugh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA tcfd nwljh service esa igys fund transfer ds statement dks confirm fd;k tkrk gSaA ijUrq bldks vfUre :i close of business ds le; fn;k tkrk gSA automatic clearing house transfer:-bl izdkj ds transfer dk iz;ksx NksVs NksVs dollar ds payment dk statement ,d ;k nks fnu esa djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gsA ach fuEu izdkj dh service provide djokrk gSA preauthorized credits( as direct deposit payrolls) preauthorized debit( as repeatative bill payment) customer initiated(called giro in banking circles) two types of ach credit transfer debit transfer credit:-credit transfer dh rqyuk large dollar fund transfer ls dh tk ldrh gSA ftlesa payer cSad ls fund flow lh/ks payee bank esa gksrk gSaA ;g payment business ds full statement gksus rd provigional ekuk tkrk gSA dksbZ Hkh vO;OkLFkk gksus ij transaction reverse dj fn;k tkrk gSA debit:-ach debit transfer ds vUrxZr payee bank igys payer ls iqjk iSlk ys ysrh gSA tSls fd cheque clearance ls igys gksrk gSA Remittance information Remittance information

payment of remittance information flowing together Bank y Bank x Company x (Payer) Bank y Bank x Company y (Payee) Company x (Payer)

Transfer of fund Clearing house Transfer of fund

Value added network (van)

Payment and remittance information flow seperatly Company y (Payee)

Payment sattlement Payment authorization

Health care and insurance:-EDI insurance ds ikSjkf.kd system esa company agent customer ds chp dkxth vknku iznku dkQh gksrk FkkA lkFk gh insurance dh claim dh izf;k cgwr gh complex Fkh ftls djus esa de ls de ,d lIrkg dk le; yxrk FkkA ,ao dkxth dk;Zokgh dkQh gksrh FkhA Edi system }kjk izR;sd company dh lqpuk] ,ao customer ls lEcaf/kr data online miyC/k djk;k x;kA lkFk gh claim dh lqfo/kk Hkh online nh xbZA vr% fdlh Hkh izdkj ds insurance esa dk;Zokgh djuk 24 ?kaVs ds vUnj vUnj laHko gks x;kA bl izdkj dkxth

[kpsZ dks vR;ar de dj fn;k x;kAlkFk gh clearance esa yxk le; cgwr de gks x;kA bl izdkj dh lqfo/kk es insurance field esa EDI system dks c<kok fn;kA Manufacturing/retail procurement using EDI Edi system esa bl field ds vUrxZRk just in time ds O;ogkj dks support fd;kAEDI system us lkjs manufacturing okrkoj.k dks cnydj j[k fn;kAblds vUrxZr v/k manufacturing company, mRiknu dh kq:vkr ij igys electronically nh xbZ demand dk irk yxkrh gS rc mlds vuqlkj production dh izf;k kq: gksrh gSA just in time ,ao EDI dk eq[; Qk;nk stream line cash flow gSa ;gka lcls cM+k Qk;nk ;g gS fd tc company dks fdlh demand dk bill feyrk gS rc og iz;ksx esa gksus okys parts dh [kjhnnkjh djrh gSA vr% ;gka cM+s iSekus ij ,ao T;knk costly items ds fy;s investment igys mldh iq.kZ security feyrh gS EDI system dh popularity mlds quick response ds dkj.k T;knk c< tkrh gSA Electronic lqpuk esa gksus okyh gkfu;k: Lack of information Stolen a information Compulsory corrupted information Miss used information Information dks pqjkus okys intruders dgykrs gSa ;g confidential information dks miss use dj ldrk gSA ;g information esa NsM+NkM+ dj ldrk gSA bl izdkj dh izf;k esa D;kasfd foksk lcwr ugha jgrs ,ao iqfyl }kjk idM+s tkus dh laHkkouk Hkh de jgrh gSA blfy;s bl izdkj dh ?kVuk;sa gksrh jgrh gSA Information useful for intruders Hardware and software used System configuaration Types of network connection Phone numbers Access and authentication processures Intruders can be three types Hackers Crackers Freakers Hackers:-;g djhc djhc uqdlku ugha igqpkrs gSa A budk eq[; mn~ns; lqpuk gkfly djuk gksrk gS uk fdlh dks uqdlku igqapkukA budk eq[; mn~ns; ;g Hk gksrk gS fd dksbZ foksk site iqjh rjg secure ugha gSA Crackers:-;g eq[; :i ls uqdlku igqapkus okys gksrs gSa ;g fdlh site ij miyC/k data dks lekIr djds ;k mlds lkFk NsM+NkM+ djds uqdlku igqpkrs gS Freakers:- ;g yksx telephone network dks break dj nsrs gSa ,ao mlds lkFk NsM+NkM+ djds cgwr cM+k uqdlku igqapk ldrs gsSa Internet ij cgwr lh la[;k;sa intruders dk fkdkj gks ldrh gSa tSls bank financial, companies,insurance companies, brokerage houses, consultance,Network service provider textile business,wholesalers , retailers merchants, cobut contracters,universities etc.
1. 2. 3.

Intruders }kjk vke.k djus ds fuEu rjhds gks ldrs gSA

User ds account dks access djuk User ds account dk previliges access fdlh fkdkj fd;s x;s system dk nwljh sites dks attack djus ds platform ds :i esa use esa ysukA manually mijksDr dk;Z dks djus ds fy;s45 sec ls Hkh de le; yxrk gSA automated system esa ;g le; vkSj Hkh de gks tkrk gSA security concept internet esa security miyC/k rhu izdkj dh lqpukvksa dks miyC/k djok;h tkrh gSA confidential information integrated information availability information information ds case ds fy;s rhu izdkj dh O;oLFkk;sa dh tkrh gSA authentication authorization non repudiation important security standard

Standard Ssl(secure socket layer) s-http Prp(preety good privacy)

Function Provides security for the data packets at network layers Security of the web transaction level Providers encryption and weak authentication for email transmitted access the internet Security for email attachment errors various platforms Security for credit card transaction

E commerce Application using browsers,web servers,and internet system Application using browsers,web servers,and internet system Secure email application encryption and digital secure Secure email application encryption and digital secure with

S Mime(secure multiple internet mail extension) set Mime(secure multiple internet mail extension)


E commerce payment and debits

Digital library

Digital library e commerce ls fofHkUu izdkj ds task vklkuh ls djus ds fy;s mRrjnk;h gksrh gSA digital library dks cukuk vius vki esa fdlh challenge ls de ugha gSA bls cukus ds fy;s eq[; rkSj ij rhu process dh vko;drk iM+rh gSA ,d digital modem cukus dh vko;drk tks gesa ,ao organization ;k schema miyC/k djk;saA bl izdkj dh dk;Ziz.kkyh tks fd model dks data ds lkFk fodflr djus ds fy;s vko;d gSA users dks bl izdkj dk jkLrk miyC/k djok;k tkrk gSA rkfd og egRoiq.kZ lqpuk dks vklkuh ls ik ldsA fdlh Hkh organization dks cukus ds fy;s document management cgwr egRoiq.kZ Hkkx gSA bl izf;k }kjk consumer dks mldh vko;drkuqlkj support miyC/k djok;k tk ldrk gSA fdlh organization ds fy;s document management fuEu dk;Z djrk gSA og fdlh enterprise ds fy;s thus ds fy;s vko;d [kwu dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA fdlh enterprise dk ;g egRoiq.kZ mission gksrk gS business ls lEcaf/kr lHkh izf;kvksa dks ,d= :i esa fn[kkus dk rjhdk gksrk gSA blesa factory ds revenue dk 12 ls 15% ,ao labour cost dk 20 ls 50% [kpZ gks tkrk gSA functions by document management document authority and scanning repository archiving

document distribution and delivery document processing along the work flow information search and retrievel document browsing and viewing mercantile process model:-online commerce ds fy;s customer ,ao merchant ds e/; interaction miyC/k djkus okyk model gSA mercantile process model dgykrk gSA bldk eq[; mn~ns; [kjhnnkj]fosrk ,ao vU; parties ds e/; ,d standard business process miyC/k djkuk gSA lkFk gh I way ij fofHkUu izdkj ds business ij ,d common jkLrk nsuk gSAizR;sd customer ,ao O;kikjh ds e/; ,d common i)fr ds fodkl us customer dks foksk lqfo/kk dk vkHkkl fnyk;kA ftlls og internet ds }kjk [kjhn csp ds fy;s vkdfkZRk gq,A vc ge mercantile process model ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dk v/;;u djsxsa mercantile model from consumer prespective dksbZ Hkh online consumer vPNh quality,lqfo/kk]value,low price ,ao fu;a=.k ds lkFk [kjhn csp djuk pkgrk gSAbu lHkh vko;drkvksa dh iqfRkZ ds fy;s gesa ,d business process model dh vko;drk iM+rh gSA tks gesa [kjhn csp ds n`fVdks.k ls interface service miyC/k djkrk gSA consumer dh vksj ;g lkr izdkj dh izf;k nkkZrk gSA ftUgsa ge rhu phases esa ckaV ldrs gSsa prespective phase purchase consumtion phase post purchase interaction phase

Product/service search and discovery in the information space

PostPurchase interaction Purchase consumption Prepurchase determination Comparison shopping and product selection based on various attributes

Negotiation of terms eg price delivery times

Placement of order

Authorization of payment

Receipt of product

Customer service and support(if not satisfied in x days return product)

Step taken by customer in product/service purchasing Prepurchase preparation phase:-blds vUrxZr customer viuh vko;drkuqlkj miyC/k lqpukvksa esa product dk pquko djrk gSA blds fy;s og fofHkUu izdkj dh search ,ao fofHkUu product ds xq.kksa dh rqyuk djrs gSA Purchase consumption phase:-blesa fofHkUu mercantile protocol kfkey gSa blds vUrxZr O;kikjh ,ao consumer ds chp [kjhnnkjh lEcaf/kr document ,ao lqpukvksa dk vknku iznku gksrk gS tSls fd price,miyC/krk,suitable terms and condition, delivery,data and electronic payment Post purchase interaction:-blds vUrxZr customers services ,ao support vkrk gSA ftlesa customer complain, products return ,ao product defect tSlh izf;k kkfey gSA ;g model customer ,ao O;kikjh ds e/; ,d foksk le> fodflr djrk gSA ftllsa basic lokyksa dk mij fn;k tk ldrk gSA tSls ,d customer fdl vkdkj dk lkeku [kjhnuk ilan djsxk] ,ao D;kasa ilan djsxk fdruh ckj [kjhnuk ialn djsxk vkSj fdl izdkj customer dks izksRlkfgr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bR;kfn

Customer enquiry and order planning generation Mercantile model from the merchants perspective Presales intraction

Cost estimation and pricing of product services

Order receipt and entry

Product services production and delivery Order selection and prioritization

Order scheduling

Order fulfillment and delivery

Post sales interaction Order billing, and account payment managenent

Customer service and support

Order to delivery cycle esa merchants ds }kjk standardization ,ao cost dks /;ku esa j[kdj dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA ;g bl ckr ij vk/kkfjr gS fdlh organization dh service ,ao productivity ds fy;s ,d set of operating standard gksuk pkfg;sA rc bu standard dk iz;ksx dj cost minimization ij dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSAfdlh Hkh izdkj dk service standard bl ckr ij vkk/kkfjr gksrk gSA fd fdlh Hkh order dh iqfrZ ds lkFk eky dh delivery rd vk;s gq, [kpZ dks de djus esa fd;k tk ldsA ;g eq[;r rhu vk/kkj ij dk;Z djrk gSA Company ability to take the position of low cost provider Its stress on benchmarking services. It emphasis on responsives as well as continous improvement fdlh Hkh organization dh nature of product ,aao services dkQh gn rd vU; organization ls vyx vyx gks ldrh gSA vr% gesa customer dh vko;drk ij /;ku nsus dh ctk; bl ckr ij vf/kd /;ku nsuk pkfg;s fd dkSu dkSu ls products fdl cost ij vf/kd :i ls shift fd;s tk jgsa gS online okrkoj.k dks le>us ds fy;s ,ao cuk;s j[kus ds fy;s order to delivery cycle ij vf/kdre /;ku nsuk pkfg;sA lkFk gh order management cycle dks le>uk pkfg;sAbu cycles dk izHkko eq[;r;k industry ds products ,ao services ij fuHkZj djrk gSA lkekU;r;k bls picture/diagram dh cycle esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA order planning and order generation blds vUrxZRk customer }kjk nh xbZ order dk collection vkrk gSA lkFk gh bl izdkj dh planning dh tkrh gS fd customer ls vf/kdre order izkIr fd;k tk ldsA ;gka ;fn internal communication esa deh jg tk;s rks vkus okys ifj.kke vko;drk ds vuqlkj ugha fey ik;ssxsaA e commerce ds okrkoj.k esa order dbZ :i ls izkIr gks ldrk gSA cost extimation and pricing:-customer dh vko;drk ,ao company dh {kerk ds chp ,d bridge dh rjg dk;Z djus okyk ,d factor pricing gksrk gSA ijUrq vf/kdrj dEiuh ;g le>us esa vlQy gksrh gS fd online market esa order based processing D;k gksuh pkfg;sA,ao dSlh gksuh pkfg;sA ;gka pricing eq[;r;k customer }kjk fn;s x;s order dh valuation ij fuHkZj djrh gSA vr% bl izdkj ds system dh vko;drk gksrh gS ftlls izR;sd order ds izfr value ,ao cost dk fu/kkZj.k fd;k tk ldsA order reception and entry:-customer }kjk price ds ekuus ds ckn esa order(omc dh)receipt ,ao entry kq: gksrh gSA bl department esa eq[; :I ls customer service representative dk;Z djrs gSa fdl Hkh gkyr esa ;g representative vius customer ds lkFk tqM+k jgrk gSA,ao order dh izkfIr dk dk;Z djsA order selection and privilization:;g customer service representative }kjk bls order dk pquko djuk gS ,ao fdldk ugha djuk gSA bl ckr ij dk;Z fd;k tkrk gS ;gka company dh capability ,ao vkkk vuq:i model dks /;ku es j[kdj dk;Z fd;k tk ldsA ,ao vPNs customer satisfaction dks izkIr fd;k tk ldsA ftlesa customer demand dks cuk;k tk ldsA bl izdkj ds {ks= dks sweet spot dgrss gSA Order scheduling:-sales,marketing customer sevices operation ,ao production ds mn~ns; dks /;ku esa j[krs gw;s fdl izdkj ,ao fdl e esa order dks iq.kZ djuk gSA Order fulfillment an delivery:-blds vUrxZr product ;k service ls lacaf/kr okLrfod prevision cuk;k tkrk gSA bldh dk;Ziz.kkyh dh detail vyx vyx industry ds vuqlkj cnyrh jgrh gS ,ao bldh complexity Hkh company ds vuqlkj cnyrh jgrh gSA order fulfillment dh izf;k esa dbZ izdkj ds function ,ao location kkfey gksrh gSA tSls vyx vyx site ls fdlh order ls vyx vyx part dks cukdj warehouse eas yk;k tk;sA ,ao blds installation dh

izf;k vU; fdlh txg ij dh tk;s ftruk completed task gksrk fdlh organization }kjk mls iqjk djus ds fy;s mruk gh vf/kd co ordination vko;d gksrk gSA lkFk gh ;gka order esa nsjh dh laHkkouk vf/kd gksrh gSA Ordering billing and payment account management:-fdlh order ds iqjs gksus ds ckn ,ao mldh delivery ds ckn finance ls lEcaf/kr staff }kjk billing dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA ;g mudk mRrjnkf;Ro gksrk gS fd mldk collection rsth ls fd;k tk;sA vr% ;gka iqjh rjg company dh :fp jgrh gSA uk fd customer dhA vr% customer dks bill nsrs le; izR;sd charge dk LiV :Ik ls ,ao lgh lgh mYys[k gksuk pkfg;sA Customer biling and payment account management:-company ds ykHk ds izfr gksus okys lHkh element es als ;g lcls egRoiq.kZ gSA ;g customer value price ,ao cost dk larqyu cuk;s j[krk gSA blds vUrxZr vyx vyx business ds vuqlkj product installation repair maintenance customer training equipment and disposal kkfey gSA Mercantile model from the customer prespective Purchase preparation:-categorized customer Buyers:-tks product dks kh?kz gh [kjhn ysrs gSA Patient buyers:-tks product dks dqN comparison ds ckn [kjhnrs gSA Analytical buyres:-tks decision ysus ls igys iq.kZ research djrs gSA Marketing research ds vk/kkj ij purchasing dks fuEu :i esa j[kk tkrk gSA Specifically planned purchase vko;drk dk iq.kZ irk gksrk gSA Generally planned purchase:-vko;drk dk irk gksrk gSA Reminder purchase:-foKkiu vkfn ls izsfjr Entirely unplanned purchase:-store esa tkus ls igys D;k [kjhnuk gS ;g irk ugh gksrk ij store esa tkdj dqN u dqN [kjhn ysrs gSA Consumer information search process:-consumer products ds ckjs esa iq.kZ tkudj dks ,ao T;knk ls T;knk tkudkjh izkIr dj [kjhnus dk fu.kZ; ysrk gSA The organization search process:-buyer organization ls lEcaf/kr fofHkUu igywvksa dks tkudj fu.kZ; ysrk gSA ;gka le; ds vuwlkj company dh LFkyh dh lqpuk cnyrh jgrh gSA Consumer search experience ;g nks fact ij vk/kkfjr gSSA Consumer shopping D;ksa djrk gSA Shopping ls lacaf/kr oLrq esa D;k fokskrk gSA Online shopping dks nks :I esa ns[k ldrs gSaA Utilization Hedonic value Customer ds intersect dks /;ku esa j[krs gSA Product o marketing dks T;knk egRo nsrs gSaA

Information brokers and brokerage:-consumer of organization dks vPNh ls vPNh facility nsus ds fy;s dke djus okys intermediates bUgsa fuEu dkj.kksa ls vko;d ekuk x;k Comparison shoping nsrs gSA Search cost dks ?kVkrs gSsaA Purchase consumption:-mercantile transaction dk vfHkizk; buyer and seller ds e/; lqpuk ds vknku iznku ,ao vUrr% vko;d payment gksus rd dh izf;k gSA mercantile transaction dks fn[kkus ds fy;s mercantile model fn;s x;s gSaA D;ksafd ,d model }kjk lHkh izdkj dh organization dks fn[kkuk laHko ugha gSA Payment institution Remitance Request

Buy Request

Merchant Customer with need

Monthly statement



Simplified on line mercantile model Mercantile processing digital cash ;gka e cash dks c<kok fn;k x;kA tks pksjh o cash ykus ys tkus dh risk dks de djrk gSA e cash ij vk/kkfjr protocol fuEu gS Issuing bank ls buyer Lor ifjofrZRk eqnzk izkIr dj ldrk gSA Buyer, seller ls [kjhnnkjh ds fy;s contect djrk gSA Seller viuh price j[k ldrk gSA

Buyer seller dks e cash Hkst ldrk gS Seller e cash gsrw bank dh lgk;rk ys ldrk gSA Bank seller dks e cash ds lgh :i dh tkudkjh ns ldrh gSA Buyers dks seller }kjk product delivery Seller vUrr% bank dks okafNr currency ds payment dks e cash ds :i confirm djrk gSA Mercantile transaction using credit card:-electronic automation gksus ls credit card }kjk [kjhnnkjh c<h] ;g ,d step by step process gS tks point of sale ls dial up telephone access }kjk Tpp network esa dk;Z djrk gSA ( ex. Gels or advantes network) Cost of electronic purchasing:-e cash ds iz;ksx ds }kjk cash dh rqyuk esa gj izdkj ds transaction esa yxs oDr ,ao [kpsZ esa deh gwbZAlkFk gh card ds iz;ksx gksus ij consumer T;knk [kjhnnkjh djus esa interest fn[kkrs gSa Post purchase interaction:-blds vUrxZr customer affairs vkrs gSA tsls refund customers services ;k seller a customer ds chp [kjhnnkjh ds ckn gksus okys erHksn vkfnA blds eq[; issue fuEu gSa Inventory issue Database issue and compatibility issue Custom service issue