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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY HS 11 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SS30503 PEMONITORAN DAN PENILAIAN SEKITARAN EIA

PRACTICAL 4
NAME ANDREW LOH JIN YI NG SOH CHIEN NORANIZA BINTI EDWARD PHONG WAI KWAN RAHEMA SALAZAR UMI NOORSUZIHANI BINTI ITHNIN NO.MATIRC BS09110342 BS09110358 BS09160596 BS09110205 BS09110308 BS08110328

Title: Water Quality Assessment of Soil Erosion Case Study: Proposed Logging at Pinangah Forest Reserve, Sabah.

Introduction: Since destructive logging practices have created a more heterogenous patchy structure and the proliferation of undesirable weed species such as vines (climbers and bamboo) at Pinangah Forest Reserve, Sabah, it is also causes soil erosion. Soil erosion is a natural process, occurring over geological time, and may be caused by water or wind. Most concerns about erosion are related to accelerated erosion, where the natural rate has been significantly increased by human activities such as changes in land cover and management. Logging activities such as road construction, felling and extraction are among the major contributors to soil erosion and sedimentation to the receiving watercourses. Soil erosion is an important economic and environmental concern throughout the world. Soil erosion is a complex process that is related to soil properties, topography, land cover, and human activities. In order to estimate soil erosion and optimize soil conservation management, many soil erosion models have been developed. In order to assess soil erosion risk and conserve water and soil resources, soil erosion modeling at the watershed scale is urgently needed. This assessment integrated the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) to assist soil and water conservation agencies in soil erosion risk assessment and prioritization of critical areas for soil erosion control practices.

Objectives I. II. III. IV. To assess the impact of coastal reclamation on water quality by impact of suspended solid To identify high risk siltation for fine medium, and coarse particles during flood and ebb To identify risk to the sensitive receptors especially coral reefs and sea grass To identify mitigating measures

Methodology i. ii. iii. The impact of water quality is identified. The existing water quality environment condition id described. Relevant legislation and requirement is listed for procurement.

iv. v. vi. vii.

The impact is predicted. Impact significance is assessed. Mitigation measures is identified and incorporated. Environmental management plan is proposed.

Discussion

1. The mean feature of the topography of the area is mountainous. According to the topographic map, the most elevation range of this area is about 1750m to 2000m and 2000m to 2250m which are 33.5% of the proposed project area. The less elevation ranges of this area us about 3250m to 3500m and 3500m to 3750m, which are only 2.0% of the proposed project area.

2. The features of hydrology of the area are Sungai Bululong, Sungai Susui, Sungai Sasakal, Sungai Likowon, Sungai Molosok, Sungai Andikapan and Sungai Pinangah.

3. The sensitive receptors of the area are the residential of Kampung Likowon and residents of Kampung Tambunan 2.

4. Where are the steep slopes? YK 5/99, YK 3/99, YK 2/99, YK 1/99 5. Where are the high-erosion risk areas? YK 5/99, YK 4/99 6. Where are the most affected areas with siltation?

Basically siltation defines as the sedimentation or erosion of particulates most commonly by silt or clay as it is small in particle size and is being carried down by runoff and thus causing the effect of undesired sediment concentration. This effect is also known as sediment pollution, where the concentration of sediment increases as it is accumulated at lower streams. Thus in this case, it is most common for siltation to occur at lower stream areas or lower elevation areas when higher elevation upstream soils are being eroded and being washed down. In this assessment, the highest chance for siltation is located all along the East of the entire proposed area as it has the lowest elevation. 7. What are the potential impacts of siltation? There are many possible impacts that could take place when siltation occurs, as the increase in the concentration of fine sediments or fine particles, the total suspended matters increases thus causing the water to have high suspended matters and high turbidity. This decreases the quality of water and also causing organisms at the bottom of rivers to being affected. With increase in turbidity as well as rich in particles, it decreases the ability of sunlight to hit the bottom of rivers, also affecting the presence of plants or photosynthesis dependant organisms. Other potential impacts may also cause to human health as human daily routine for those whom are dependent on sources of the polluted river. It also increases higher chance for flooding as well as transporting of pollutants to other places. 8. How significance are these erosion rate values? Based on a study done by researchers, on the steep slopes of the east coast of peninsular Malaysia where the rainfall pattern is monsoonal, the slope was at a 18% and with large well-defined flow path, soils were largely eroded due to disturbance of soil and very well defined pathways. High values for chemical enrichments were also obtained that implicates to the decrease of soil quality due to important soil nutrient loss (Hashim et al. 1995). Based on a study done by researchers on the soil erosion from shifting cultivations and several other activities in Sarawak, a research using soil sampling based on concentration of carbons as well as other substances being sedimented

according to its depth is used. The steepness is averaging 25% to 50%. The results obtained respectively were used to explain the possible cause of leaching, erosions, runoffs and more (Neergaard et al. 2007). The guidelines for erosion control based on Appendix B are as such: 41. Urban Drainage Design Standards and Procedures in Malaysia, 1975, Federal DID. 42. Guidelines on River Front Development, Federal DID 43. Guidelines on the Prevention and Control of Soil Erosion and Siltation in Malaysia, 1996, DOE 44. Use of Flood Detention Ponds as Part of Open Space, JPBD 1997. 45. Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia, 2000, DID Malaysia. 46. Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia, Second Edition, 2010, DID Malaysia. If with fulfillment of requirements, it is then acceptable to carry on with the proposed project. 9. Where are the possible mitigating measures to minimize soil erosion? Prevent soil erosion by planting vegetation, trees, ground cover, shrubs and other plants. Roots from these plants will help hold soil in place on the ground. Soil will not blow away due to wind, or be washed away from rain as easily. Create windbreaks, which are barrier rows planted along the windward exposure of a plot of land. Windbreaks made out of trees, such as evergreen trees or bushes help prevent erosion by preventing wind from blowing across your land. Grow cover crops on farm land. When land is not being used during the off season, cover crops can help prevent soil erosion due to wind and rain. Legumes (beans) are often used as cover crops. Apply mulch to retain moisture and also help prevent soil erosion. Topsoil is not as likely to be washed or blown away when it is covered by mulch. Mulch is often used in flower beds.

Construct surface runoff barriers, such as edging made of bricks or stones, can help prevent soil erosion by minimizing runoff. If runoff is minimized, soil is less likely to be carried away by groundwater runoff. Conclusion In general, the background erosion will remove the soil at approximately the same rate as soil is formed. But the 'accelerated' soil erosion which is the loss of soil at a much faster rate than it is formed is a far more recent problem. It is always a result of mankind's unwise actions, such as overgrazing or unsuitable cultivation practices. These will leave the land unprotected and vulnerable. Then, during times of erosive rainfall, the soil may be detached, transported, and deposited. Based on the discussion, the mean feature of the topography of the area is mountainous. The impact of logging activity on soil erosion water quality from the proposed project is assessed. . There will be a decrease in the quality of water and will also cause the organisms at the bottom of rivers to being affected. Other potential impacts may also cause to human health as human daily routine for those whom are dependent on sources of the polluted river. It also increases the higher chance for flooding to occur as well as transporting of pollutants to other places. The high risk erosion area based on slope analysis was analyzed which is the YK 5/99, YK 4/99. Whereas in this case, the high risk of siltation is at lower stream areas or lower elevation areas. This is because the siltation will occur when higher elevation upstream soils are being eroded and washed down. In this assessment, the highest chance for siltation is located all along the East of the entire proposed area as it has the lowest elevation. The mitigating measures have been identified as there are many things could be done such as growing cover crops on farm land. When land is not being used during the off season, cover crops can help prevent soil erosion due to wind and rain. Next, the mulch could be applied to retain moisture and also help prevent soil erosion. Topsoil is not as likely to be washed or blown away when it is covered by mulch. Mulch is often used in flower beds. In conclusion, soil erosion is a complex process that is related to soil properties, topography, land cover, and human activities.