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Shu Yang

Fire Engineering Department Chinese Peoples Armed Police Forces Academy Langfang, Hebei, PRC. 065000 Email:opalinmind@gmail.com

Chunhua Li

Research Institute Chinese Peoples Armed Police Forces Academy Langfang, Hebei, PRC. 065000 Email: lilyhh0422@gmail.com

AbstractPractical emergency routing plays an important role in emergency response for re forces. This paper present an enhanced static emergency routing method, combining Dijkstra algorithm and analytical hierarchy process (or AHP) for the emergency planning. Firstly, time length weighted model was build up based on minimum time-consumption criteria, with the consideration of seven important impedance factors that inuenced the re forces routing. Then AHP was employed to calculate weights of the impedance factors for the model parameters. And then using Dijkstra algorithm to solve the weighted time length model, a new improved routing has then been achieved. Finally the some citys GIS-based emergency routing map was taken as an example, experiments were carried out using the established model to produce the emergency routing for the re forces. Comparisons between the original Dijkstra algorithms results and the improved modes results for the emergency routing has been made, and with the real re forces routing experience acquired from age long experiences, improved models result shows the consistence with real situation. This research meets the urgent need of re forces, and can be of great help to the emergency planning for the re forces. Keywordsrouting; emergency plan; Dijkstra; AHP

I. I NTRODUCTION With the development of Chinese economy and society, such accidents as res and other disasters are more and more likely to cause devastating losses of life and property if they happen. And also those disasters need more and more employment of the emergency rescuers, especially the re forces emergency response. According to the 2008 annual statics, the total alarms in China, which re forces received, amounted to 514 thousand times, and the number of dispatched vehicles reached to 864 thousand, saving 5,424 million lives and 550 million Yuan [1]. As re forces are bearing more and more heavy burdens, and those emergency situations need a quick and focused response when human life and property may be involved in urban cities, Geographical Information Systems, or GIS, can provide both optimal routing path to the accident scene to shorten the arriving time for the re forces, but also can graphically present the valuable spatial information to evaluate the inuenced area for mass evacuation and further disposal, which may be of great help for re forces to carry out the emergency disposal. So

GIS could be used to produce useful emergency plans for re forces, which could accelerate emergency response processes and improve emergency response efciency. Roughly speaking, the current research of GIS usage can be divided into two categories: One is GIS in the common usage, such as GIS-based assessment [2] [3] [4], path routing under normal conditions [5] [6], and land planning [7] [8]; The other is in event-case usage. Recent trends towards the development of GIS have promoted researchers to investigate GIS applications for various emergency situations, which mainly involve the integration of GIS with multi criteria decision analysis, and has attracted signicant interest over the past 15 years or so [9]. And after 2010 Haiti earthquake GIS has been used to generate emergency route planner, and the UN Logistics Cluster is already using the service. And professor Zipfs working group previously supported the UNs relief units with a similar service in the wake of Hurricane Ikes catastrophic 2008 landfall in Haiti [10]. Those examples shown above imply the importance and urgency of employing GIS usage for emergency. The research of emergency routing, dispatching system and monitoring system fall into this latter category. In monitor usage GIS was used to monitor disasters such as forest re, earthquake and ood [11] [12] [13]. And the dispatching system with GIS was studied helping emergency resources dispatching in [14] and [15]. As for the emergency routing, much more studies has been carried out to improve the GIS application. Some have been presented in such papers as [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] etc., which mainly relate to the GIS usage for mass evacuation, not for rescuers guiding during emergency. Other researchers focused on the route planning for emergency, and several emergency routing algorithms have been theoretically and or practically investigated. Such as in [21] a 3D GIS based emergency routing approach in VGEGIS was presented with the capacity of 3D route nding in emergency situation. In [22] GIS was integrated into the colored Petri net model to judge the level of re alarm, and requirement of re brigades, and trafc of each street during different period of a day was also considered to result in the best route. In [23] with heuristic

search algorithm the path planning scheme was realized with information extensible in road data for emergency system and vehicle navigation. And in [24] an improve genetic algorithm, combined with simulated annealing algorithm was employed to nd the best path of emergency decision on support system. In [25] a route planning ameliorating Dijkstra algorithm with radix heaps, heuristic searching and hierarchical searching was introduced to get an resolvent of shortcut searching based on data structure for emergency. Also fuzzy emergency network was used in [26], with the satisfaction factor function in symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers to nd the shortest path for emergency system. Although a number of papers have been published in this area, only a few work has been aided trying to meet the need for emergency rescuers. In [27] GIS was employed to analyze the factors that play a signicant role in deciding the optimizing travel time for emergency services. And in [28] GIS was used to route the re ghting dispatch and goods and materials distribution for earthquake emergency response. Also in [29] Analytic Hierarchy Process, or AHP was integrated into GIS to provide best path for emergency. As great progress has been made in theoretical researches, in real practice usage however, the above methods might not provide perfect practical routing for emergency routing due to the lack of consideration of some important factors, which remen encountered in emergency, and inuenced the real routing process. So, further research on GIS emergency routing for emergency rescuers, especially for re ghter, should be carried out to provide a practical way for the real emergency routing. In emergency routing for re ghting, the core problem lies in how to get to the accident scene from some place as soon as possible under complex emergency circumstance, which may involve shortest path model for routing. It is however true that the greatest effort in developing shortest path algorithms has been made, such as Dijkstra algorithm(Dijkstra 1959), Polygon Partitioning Shortest path, Dynamic BreathFirst Search(DBFS) [30], among which Dijkstra is used in some of the major proprietary mapping and GIS packages, and also in current re emergency guidance GIS systems. Given that any two nodes in a network, the Dijkstra algorithm can give the shortest distance between them, meaning the smallest possible sum of arc lengths along a route within the network from one node to the other node. But it makes no use of the geographical coordinates of the two nodes [17]. For emergency response, lacking of consideration of real road factors, such as volume of trafc, road width, road type, number of junction, etc. the present GIS applications with Dijkstra algorithm could just result in the improper guiding path , which could extend the arrival time to the scene and further worsen the emergency situation. Thus current routing guidance in GIS emergency usage for the re forces has been largely limited. With the conception of integration of GIS with AHP for multi criterion decision system [6] [29], in this paper, we introduce an enhanced routing method with Dijkstra algorithm in GIS-based emergency planning. Unlike the classical

Dijkstra algorithm, which just simplies the model as the nodes and the arc lengths in the network without consideration other important information, the enhanced Dijkstra algorithm of this paper combined with the AHP, considering some factors that could inuence the path selection for re forces emergency route, to generate proper guide route within GISbased emergency guiding systems. In this paper, an enhanced Dijkstra algorithm is presented for re forces emergency usage in GIS. This new approach is necessary since traditional theory is based on a particular hypothesis with little or a small number of impedance factors usually related to transport and labor costs, and classical Dijkstra model just focuses on the minimization of distances in the routing planning. In opposition to these conceptions, we propose a hierarchical and georeferenced data making possible a wider consideration of important variables which inuenced the route selection for re ghters, and then take the participation of those involved in the decision. In this paper, hierarchical stands for the levels of the decision structure using the AHP, which corresponds to ones understanding of the situation (goals,criteria, subcriteria and alternatives), and georeferenced data is related to the use of information in a geographical space, which can be of important for re forces routing. II. T HE E NHANCED D IJKSTRA WITH AHP A NALYSIS A. Classical Dijkstra Algorithm Dijkstras algorithm, conceived by Dutch computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra in 1959, is a graph search algorithm that solves the single-source shortest path problem for a graph with nonnegative edge path costs, producing a shortest path tree. This algorithm is often used in routing, especially for emergency [16] [27] [29] [24] [31]. For a given source vertex (node) in the graph, the algorithm nds the path with lowest cost (i.e. the shortest path) between that vertex and every other vertex. It can also be used for nding costs of shortest paths from a single vertex to a single destination vertex by stopping the algorithm once the shortest path to the destination vertex has been determined. For example, if the vertices of the graph represent cities and edge path costs represent driving distances between pairs of cities connected by a direct road, Dijkstras algorithm can be used to nd the shortest route between one city and all other cities. As a result, the shortest path rst is widely used in network routing protocols, most notably IS-IS and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). Let the node we are starting be called an initial node. Let a distance of a node Y be the distance from the initial node to it. Dijkstras algorithm will assign some initial distance values and will try to improve them step-by-step. 1) Assign to every node a distance value. Set it to zero for our initial node and to innity for all other nodes. 2) Mark all nodes as unvisited. Set initial node as current. 3) For current node, consider all its unvisited neighbors and calculate their distance (from the initial node). If this distance is less than the previously recorded distance

(innity in the beginning, zero for the initial node), overwrite the distance. 4) When we are done considering all neighbors of the current node, mark it as visited. A visited node will not be checked ever again; its distance recorded now is nal and minimal. 5) Set the unvisited node with the smallest distance (from the initial node) as the next current node and continue from step 3). With these steps, the shortest path from the starting point to the destination can be effectively achieved. And thus this algorithm has been widely used in routing systems, even in the current emergency route system, and an example will show the classical Dijkstra result in GIS application in the next section. B. The Concept of Enhanced Dijkstra Algorithm with AHP in GIS The routing services in GIS should be of great help in emergency situations. But as the existing road network in the city is unable to accommodate the present day heavy vehicular trafc. This poses a serious problem while deploying emergency services such as re services and ambulance using classical Dijkstra algorithm in GIS where time factor plays a crucial role. To nd optimal route between two given points, either the shortest path between them or the route having minimum travel time is to be selected. For emergency services, such as re services and ambulance, route having minimum travel time is to be preferred over the route having the shortest distance. Thus, classical Dijkstra was confronted with some problems in real situation usage. With the objective of optimizing travel time, the various impedance factors that play a signicant role in deciding the travel time such as volume of trafc, type of road, road width, number of junctions, turns etc., should be analyzed in determining the optimal route with the minimum travel time. Here we adopted the AHP to achieve this goal. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a structured technique for dealing with complex decisions. Rather than prescribing a correct decision, the AHP helps the decision makers nd the one that best suits their needs and their understanding of the problem. Based on mathematics and psychology, it was developed by Thomas L. Saaty in the 1970s and has been extensively studied and rened since then. The AHP provides a comprehensive and rational framework for structuring a decision problem, for representing and quantifying its elements, for relating those elements to overall goals, and for evaluating alternative solutions. It is used around the world in a wide variety of decision situations, in elds such as government, business, industry, healthcare, and education. And, AHP was already studied to help emergency decisonmaking shown as above. In this paper, AHP was also adopted for judgments in emergency routing for re services. In order to build the optimal travel time model for routing system, rstly, the most important factors that inuenced the re forces routing judgments were chosen through investigation on experienced remen. As it was difcult to

determine which impedance factor should be more important than the others, and also it was hard to quantify the factor to build the travel time model, the AHP was used to compare and calculate the weight factors to compromise the those inuences. And then with those weight factors the enhanced Dijkstra was integrated to create the optimal travel time model for emergency routing in GIS. C. Impedance Factor Selection For selecting the evaluation criteria the general rule is that they should be recognized with respect to the problem situation. No universal techniques are available for considering a set of criteria although the desirable properties of objectives can yield guidelines for selecting a set of evaluation criteria. For a particular problem, the set of evaluation criteria may be developed through an examination of the relevant literature, analytical study and opinions. As have mentioned above ,already some impedance factor have been discussed theoretically in previous works, such as road type, number of the junction, etc., and those factors have been comprehensively considered. In [28] a method was presented for decision making for re ghting dispatch during earthquake, which used AHP to consider the factors including building, road system and water supply system. In [31] the factors accident range, road situation and weather condition were included with Dijkstra algorithm to provide with the optimal dispatch path between the location of the incident and emergency response resource. And in [29] weather condition, road type and trafc jam situation were considered to create optimal path for emergency route. Here some most important factor were reused. And through further investigation with some experienced remen other important impedance factor which delays the re forces emergency were also selected. The seven factors shown in Table III were selected for further analysis in AHP. And the AHP was discussed in detail in the next subsection. D. The AHP Processing In the AHP the process starts with dividing the problem into a hierarchy model of issues which should be considered in the work. These hierarchical orders help to simplify the illustration of the problem and bring it to a condition which is more easily understood. In each hierarchical level the weights of the elements are calculated. The nal goal is achieved by considering the weights of criteria and alternatives. Based on the AHP analysis, the weights of impedance factors can be calculated for further processing. The procedure for using the AHP can be summarized as [32]: 1) Model the problem as a hierarchy containing the decision goal, the alternatives for reaching it, and the criteria for evaluating the alternatives. 2) Establish priorities among the elements of the hierarchy by making a series of judgments based on pairwise comparisons of the elements. 3) Synthesize these judgments to yield a set of overall priorities for the hierarchy. 4) Check the consistency of the judgments.

for each pair of alternatives, a matrix of pairwise comparison ratios, or matrix A, is obtained. 3) Priorities Calculation: The AHP method employs two different techniques to determine the weights, or the priorities: one is Lambda Max (max ) technique and the other is geometric mean method [32] [34] . Here geometric mean method was adopted, and the weights or priorities in a pairwise comparison matrix, A, are calculated by following (1) and (2):

Figure 1. The hierarchy of emergency routing

TABLE I S CALES IN PAIRWISE C OMPARISONS Intensity of Importance 1 3 5 7 9 2,4,6,7 Verbal Judgment of Preference Equally Importance Moderate Importance Strong Importance Extreme Importance Extremely More Importance Intermediate Values Between Adjacent Scale Values

ri = and then

j=1

n Y

(aij )1/n

(1)

5) Come to a nal decision based on the results of this process. These steps are more fully described below [32]. 1) Model the Problem as a Hierarchy: The rst step in the AHP is to model the problem as a hierarchy. In doing this, the aspects of the problem at levels from general to detailed were explored, which can help to increase the understanding of the problem, of its context, and of each others thoughts and feelings about both. Then it was expressed in the multileveled way that the AHP requires. The hierarchy consists of an overall goal, a group of options or alternatives for reaching the goal, and a group of factors or criteria that relate the alternatives to the goal. The criteria can be further broken down into subcriteria, sub-subcriteria, and so on, in as many levels as the problem requires. Similarly, the hierarchy of the impedance factors for emergency routing in GIS was rstly established. According to the logical relationship between impedance factors, the hierarchy was created as the following Fig. 1. 2) Pairwise Comparison: In the AHP method, obtaining the weights or priority vector of the alternatives or the criteria is required. For this purpose Saaty (1980) has used and developed the Pairwise Comparison Method (PCM) [32]. After the hierarchy was created, comparing the alternatives or criteria in the hierarchy, and dening their importance over each other are done using the PCM. Here a system of numbers to indicate how much one criterion is more important than the other, was employed and listed in Table I [32]. In order to compare homogeneous elements whose comparison falls within one unit, decimals are used [33]. If the elements of the pairwise comparison matrix are shown with cij , which indicates the importance of ith criterion over jth, then cji could be calculated as 1/cij . Giving importance ratios

at which aij (i, j = 1, n) are the comparison ratios in the pairwise comparison matrix and n is number of alternatives. 4) Consistency Verication: The comparison matrix A is called consistent if and only if aij ajk = aik at which aij is the ijth element of the matrix [34]. However in practice it is unrealistic to expect the pairwise comparison matrices are exactly consistent especially in the cases with a large number of alternatives. Expressing the real feelings of the decision makers generally lead to matrices that are not quite consistent. However some matrices might violate consistency very slightly by only two or three elements while others may have values that cannot even be called close to consistency. A measure of how far a matrix is from consistency is performed by Consistency Ratio (C.R.). Han and Tsay (1998) [35] explained that having the value of max is required in calculating the consistency ratio by the following (3) . C.I. (3) R.I. Here, C.I. is the Consistency Index, and C.I. is introduced as (4): C.R. = C.I. = max n n1 (4)

ri wi = P

j rj

(2)

of which n is the number of criteria and max is the biggest eigenvalue, and is calculated as the following (5): max =

n X (B)i i=1

ni

(5)

And Random Index, or R.I. is the consistency index of a pairwise comparison matrix which is generated randomly. Random index depends on the number of elements which are compared and as it is shown in Table II; in each case for every n, the nal R.I. is the average of a large numbers of R.I. calculated for a randomly generated matrix. The nal consistency ratio C.R. is calculated by comparing the C.I. with the R.I.. And if C.R < 0.1, then the consistency is acceptable, otherwise the comparison matrix should be modied and all calculation should be performed again, until the consistency ration meet the need.

TABLE II R ANDOM I NCONSISTENCY I NDEX (RI) FOR N =1,2. . . 6 n R.I. 1 0.00 2 0.00 3 0.58 4 0.90 5 1.12 6 1.24

TABLE III T HE W EIGHTING FACTOR OF I MPEDANCE FACTORS Road Length 0.480 Mass Density 0.065 Road Width 0.195 Velocity Limit 0.030 Road Type 0.075 Junction Delay 0.015 Trafc Volume 0.140 Figure 3. The classical Dijkstra algorithm routing result in GIS

Figure 2. routing

5) Weighting Factors Calculation: The weighting factors is the overall priorities of the impedance factors to the emergency routing problems. Let ai (i = 1, 2 m) represent the ith criterions priority at the second layer to the top goal at the rst layer of the hierarchy, and bij (i = 1, 2 m, j = 1, 2 n) be the ith alternatives priority at the third layer to the jth criterion at the second layer of the hierarchy. The third layer alternatives overall priorities to the top goal at the rst layer can be dened by the following (6): i =

m X j=1

Figure 4.

III. E XPERIMENTS A NALYSIS In order to test the enhanced Dijkstra in real GIS usage for re forces in emergency situation, an assumed re scene was set in some location in the Liaoyang city of northeast liaoNing Province of China, which would result in the re services virtual emergency response, and emergency routing test followed. The following experiments were carried out according to the Liaoyang 119 emergency response system. A. Classical Dijkstra Algorithm Used in GIS As have mentioned before, classical Dijkstra algorithm was widely used in current GIS application. And according to the classical Dijkstra algorithm procedure, the routing scheme in GIS was presented as the following Fig. 3. Although this result acquired by the classical Dijkstra algorithm is the shortest path from the re station to the re scene, but due to the lack of consideration of real road situation, this routing scheme will not be adopted by the re forces when judged by years experiences, as the re forces would be delayed by the narrow road width and long junction delay, the school and other high mass density places would also inuence the velocity. So they would rather take the other route to the destination shown by the next subsection. B. The Enhanced Dijkstra Algorithm within GIS With the AHP analysis to enhance the Dijkstra for emergency routing, the experiment was carried out under the same assumed condition, and the result compared with the classical Dijkstra was presented as the following Fig. 4.

aj bij

(6)

of which, i is the ith alternatives overall priority. Also, the overall C.R. should be checked by (7): Pm j=1 aj C.I.j C.R. = Pm j=1 aj R.I.j (7)

Then the weighting factors can be achieved, and the results were presented as the following Table III. E. Integration of AHP with Dijkstra To combine AHP weighting factors with Dijkstra into GIS, each road length should be redened in the minimal travel time model for emergency routing. And the combination of the weighting factors with the road length, or arch length in Dijkstras graph, is to compromise the impedance factor for the emergency routing, which results in the minimal travel time model. The concept of integrate AHP into classical Dijkstra in GIS was presented as the following Fig. 2.

The difference between two routing schemes lies in the consideration of impedance factors, such as road type, junction delay, mass density and other factors selected in the paper. According to the investigation on some remen with years experiences, the route produced by the enhanced Dijkstra algorithm in GIS was in accordance with the re forces real route when the re event would happen in this case. Thus the AHP enhanced Dijkstra algorithm routing method can provide more preferable route for emergency response, as compared with the classical Dijkstra in GIS. IV. C ONCLUSION Through AHP enhanced Dijkstra algorithm in GIS for emergency routing, a preferable route scheme can be achieved, which have signicant meaning in real emergency response for re forces. And further research should be focused on more realistic impedance factors to create more accurate routing model, and more widely experiments should be carried out to verify the accuracy and applicability. R EFERENCES

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