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Tube well

Debt services; The debt service is, also known as "debt coverage ratio," is the ratio of cash available for debt servicing to interest, principal and lease payments. It is used in the measurement of an entity's ability to produce enough cash to cover its debt (including lease) payments. The higher this ratio is, the easier it is to obtain a loan. The utilization factor of private tubewells during the Kharif season is almost double than the Rabi season. Similarly operational hours of electric tubewells are nearly double than the diesel operated tubewells. The survey results indicate that as a result of high-energy cost, farmers are turning more and more towards the installation of diesel tubewells. This decreases the ability of the farmers to handle the loan amount and the interest ratio. As water supply is not separately owned by a single person. Excessive use of groundwater resources has resulted in serious environmental and land degradation problems. Excessive lowering of the water tables in many areas is making pumping more expensive and wells are going out of production. The secondary salinization associated with the use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation has further compounded the problem. Therefore salt-affected soils are becoming an important ecological entity in the Indus basin of Pakistan. These problems have questioned the sustainability of this resource for various uses especially for agriculture. Sunk cost: High cost of tubewells installation is risk for the profit generating system of agriculture. A sunk cost is an expense that you cannot recover. Increasing energy cost and high capital cost for the installation of electric tubewells are out of reach of many small farmers. From 1991 onward when farmers were asked to pay these amounts, the trend towards installing electric tubewells was further reduced. As a result, the ratio of electric motors to diesel pumps, which was 1:3 before 1991, has increased to 1:8 in 2001. This clearly demo nstrates the fast changing trend in the installation of diesel pumps in the Punjab, PakistanExcessive use of groundwater resources has resulted in serious environmental and land d egradation problems. Excessive lowering of the water tables in many areas is making pumping more expensive and wells are going out of production. The secondary salinization associated with the use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation has further compounded the problem. Bad Climatic conditions soil erosion lack of labor increasing the cost of tubewells and developing low outcome for the particular time. Land/labor The major reason for these unpleasant developments of groundwater problems is that the management of groundwater resources could not keep pace with its development. Around the world, only few examples can be found where both demand and supply-sideinterventions

have been practiced. Due to high cost of land and labor the farmers are not able to manage the cost of the ground water system. Reservoirs bad management and bad soil erosion is the main barrier to the cost of tubewells. The trickiest part of managing groundwater in Pakistan is the large number of smallscale users involved. Over 80% of groundwater exploitation takes place through small capacity private tubewells. These users are neither identified, nor registered; and there is no practical way to negotiate with, or set up a dialogue among, so many dispersed users of the resource

Taxes : Taxes are another barrier to the development of agriculture system and tubewell installation. The dependency of farmers on groundwater is not uniform but varies accordiorng to climatic conditions, cropping patterns and availability of surface supplies. High electricity charges is another problem for handling the situation. The utilization factor of electric tubewells is almost double than that of the diesel tubewells. The main reason for higher utilization factor of electric tubewells is the average number of days for which tubewells operate in a season (the number of operational hours per day are almost equal for diesel and electric tubewells. High taxes imposed and the price of disel and petrol results falling irrigation supplies and to cope with the vagaries of the surface supplies. However, the present uncontrolled and unregulated use of groundwater is replete with serious consequences as it is depleting the new installation of tubewells.