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To make the most of the technologies we discussed the other day to provide a quality service to our customers, it is essential

that our training staff be equipped with portable computers which can be used at client sites. Over the next couple of weeks, please investigate the portable computers which would be most appropriate for our staff, and present your findings in the form of a formal management report. The selected machine needs to be compatible with the Windows software we are currently using. Other factors which should be considered when comparing the brands and models include:

Initial cost; Weight and size; Screen size; Clarity of the screen image; RAM and hard disk size; Speed of the CPU; Battery capability; and The availability of on-going service agreements and warranties.

With our training staff so often out at client sites, it would be useful if the machines also had modern facilities to enable staff to access their email. Please pass the report to me by the end of the month so I can read it over before discussing your recommendations with the equipment committee. Let me know if you have any questions. Freda

MEMORANDUM
The Memo of Transmittal notifies the client that the report has been completed as requested. It is placed after the Memo of Authorisation and before the Table of Contents.

MEMORANDUM
To: Freda Smith, General Manager From: Belinda Gibson, Training Coordinator

Subject

Usually, the subject is placed after the date in a memo. Subject: Portable Computers

Date
To avoid confusion with numbers, the date could be written: 26 March 2003. Alternatively, use a comma: March 26, 2003. Date: March 26 2003

The opening sentence should remind the client of the subject and date of the Memo of Authorisation. This sentence should read:
Here is the report you requested on January 29 on the use of portable computers by our training staff at client sites.

Here is the report you requested on the use of portable computers for our training staff to use at client sites.

This sentence briefly states what was done. The past simple tense is used here to describe completed actions. Two portable computers were reviewed for this report: the Micro-pro 8500 Series and the Hewlett Packard 3000CTX model 5/233, both suitable for business purposes.

This sentence briefly states what has been done. The present perfect tense is used here to describe actions which have a present impact. The analysis will lead to a choice of computer. The report has analysed standard features on both computers, taking your specifications into consideration.

This paragraph expresses confidence in the future benefits of portable computers. It adds a positive note to the memo.

(If you wish to acknowledge people who provided information or other assistance with the preparation of the report, you can do so before the closing sentence.) I am confident that with the use of portable computers our training staff will produce a higher standard of training presentations.

The courteous close is followed by a signature. I would be happy to assist with the implementation of the computers for our training staff to use at future courses. Belinda Gibson

Table of contents

Memo of authorisation
For consistency, these two headings should read:

i
Use Roman numerals for the preliminary pages of the report and number the Introduction page 1. i ii

Memo of Authorisation Memo of Transmittal Memo of authorisation Memo of transmittal

List of tables
iv

A Table of Contents should include a list of any figures or tables appearing in the report. In this report, a List of Tables is presented on a separate page following the Table of Contents. The page number is referenced within the Table of Contents before the Executive Summary. Alternatively, the List of Tables is sometimes presented as the last item within a Table of Contents. With this format, if the list is short, it is not necessary to use a separate page for the detailed list.

List of tables

Executive summary
The student uses a formatting style to highlight the structure of the report - major headings are bolded and numbered.

Executive summary 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Purpose
The decimal numbering system is used for each subheading 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Scope 1.3 Method 1.4 Limitations 1.5 Assumptions 1.6 Background 2 Findings 2.1 Micro-pro 8500 Series 2.2 Hewlett Packard 3000CTX 5/233 3 Discussion 3.1 Comparison of computers 3.2 Initial cost 3.3 Weight and size 3.4 Screen size 3.5 Clarity of screen image 3.6 RAM and hard 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4

disk size 3.7 Speed of the CPU 3.8 Battery capability 3.9 Service agreements and warranties 4 Conclusion 5 Recommendations and implementation 4 4

4 4 5

References
An unnumbered section heading is used for the References List. References

List of tables
The List of Tables contains the names and page numbers of all tables appearing in the report. If illustrations are used in a report, these are presented as a separate List of Figures.

List of tables
Table 1: Comparison of two portable computers

Executive summary
The Executive Summary is designed to give the busy executive a brief overview of the report. This Executive Summary includes:

a statement of purpose a brief description of what has been done in this report. a summary of the findings a recommendation

Executive summary
The opening sentence contains a statement of purpose, which is expressed in the past tense. The purpose of this report was to analyse two portable computers and recommend a suitable machine for training staff to use at client sites.

This sentence gives a brief description of what has been done in this report. The present perfect tense is used here to describe actions which have a present impact. The analysis has led to a choice of computer. Note that the student has summarised the principal portable computer requirements stated in the Memo of Authorisation. This report has considered two machines suitable for corporate use that can accommodate modern facilities such as e-mail, video conferencing and assist staff with training courses.

A summary of the findings is presented in the next two paragraphs. Note that information included in the executive summary is not usually referenced since the source has been acknowledged in the body of the report. The Hewlett Packard Omnibook 3000CTX model 5/233 is a well made portable computer with a good size screen and keyboard. For the price of this model you would expect to see more memory, a CD drive and a Windows based power management set up. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, 'PCs and Notebooks - Reviews', p.82)

Like the Hewlett Packard model the Micro-pro 8500 Series has a good size screen and keyboard but also comes witha numeric pad. This machine is ideal for the business user who wants usability, comfort and performance. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, 'PCs and Notebooks - Reviews' , p.81)

A recommendation is presented in the final sentence. Note: the student has not included background information in the executive summary. Such information belongs in the introduction. After taking both machines into consideration, it is recommended that the Micro-pro 8500 Series would be the most suitable computer due to its value for money, durability and standard features.

1 Introduction

1.1 Purpose
The Introduction provides essential background information, including why the study or project was undertaken and what methods were used to gather the information. The sections required in the introduction vary, depending on the type of report and the department to which you belong. Purpose: The purpose is usually stated in one sentence.

1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this report was to analyse two portable computers and recommend a suitable machine for our training staff to use at client locations.

1.2 Scope
Scope: This tells the reader the extent of the research. Here, two portable computers were investigated and four features were considered.

1.2 Scope

While investigating these two computers it was important to consider their suitability for corporate use, standard features, optional benefits and warranties.

1.3 Method
Method: This describes how the information was gathered. The student consulted a computer journal and contacted individual companies for more detailed information.

1.3 Method
The information used in this report was collected by consulting an independent review by the Australian PC Authority magazine and contacting the individual companies for additional information on the technical specifications and warranties on the machines.

1.4 Limitations
Limitations: This tells the reader what the researcher was not able to do, due to lack of time and resources. The student has pointed to unavailability of information as a limiting factor.

1.4 Limitations

Local computer stores did not stock either machine. Additional information difficult to locate. Software packages included with the machine not specified.

1.5 Assumptions
Assumptions: 'To assume' is to accept as being true without proof. This student has assumed that the Microsoft Office software will be used, that delays will be minimal and that an extended warranty can be purchased.

1.5 Assumptions
It has been assumed that the Microsoft Office software package will be installed on the computers to ensure our training staff have access to PowerPoint. This program will enable them to present effective teaching media. As our staff regularly use computer applications it has been assumed that the implementation of portable computers will cause little delays for the company.

As most computer companies offer clients an extended warranty, it is assumed that All Purpose Training Company will have the option to purchase an extended warranty for a period of one year.

1.6 Background
Background: This is closely related to the Purpose. It may include information about the company for whom the report has been prepared and the factors leading to the need for the report.

1.6 Background
The first paragraph of this section briefly sets the scene, pointing to the company's plans for expansion. The All Purpose Training Company is a well respected supplier of quality executive training courses for the business community. The All Purpose Training Company has statewide representation with plans to expand interstate within the next 12 months.

The second paragraph explains the new requirements which have made this report necessary. All Purpose Training Company has a demand to supply new clients with numerous training courses. With such demands it is crucial that training staff can have computer access for training presentations and be able to complete day to day operations while mobile.

2. Findings

2.1 Micro-pro 8500 Series


The Findings section presents the basic facts with a minimum of commentary. The implications of these facts are examined in the Discussion section. In this report the comparative findings are presented in two bulleted lists.

(In a different context it may be more appropriate to use numbered paragraphs rather than bullet points, particularly if the information being presented is more complex or more detailed than that in this report.) The section could have been improved by including some additional comments (in paragraph form) to introduce the comparative findings, and to highlight in a general way where the differences were most evident. Table form is another useful way to present comparative findings in a report.

2.1 Micro-pro 8500 Series

When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, only the author, date, and page number should be included. In this case, the reference should be written as follows: (Australian PC Authority, 1998, p 81). In this example, the author is an organisation. Note that the full stop should be placed after the reference, not before.

When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, only the author, date, and page number should be included. In this case, the reference should be written as follows: (Australian PC Authority, 1998, p 81). In this example, the author is an organisation. Note that the full stop should be placed after the reference, not before.

Cost: $7895 RRP Weight: 4.5 Kg Size: (W x D x H) 357 x 275 x 50mm Screen size: 15.1" Clarity of screen image: Resolution could be higher, set at 1,024 x 768 you can see the pixels, but very easy on your eyes. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, 'PCs and Notebooks - Reviews, p. 81) RAM: 64 Mb, RAM can be raised to a maximum 128Mb for $1140 Disk Drive: CD-ROM and 3.5" FDD Speed of the CPU: Pentium processor

Battery capabilities: Lithium-ion battery, smart battery option available. Lithiumion battery lasts 2.5 hours without smart battery upgrade. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, 'PCs and Notebooks - Reviews, p. 81) Service agreements and warranties: Two year parts and labour warranty

2.2 Hewlett Packard 3000CTX 5/233

When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, only the author, date and page number should be included. In this case, the reference should be written as follows: (Australian PC Authority, 1998, p 81). In this example, the author is an organisation. Note that the full stop should be placed after the reference, not before.

When reference is made to a personal communication, the surname of the person concerned should be included and the reference presented as follows: (Smith, S. 1998, pers. comm., 7 May)

Cost: $8245 RRP Weight: 3.1 Kg Size: (W x D x H) 304 x 238 x 47mm Screen size: 13.3" Clarity of screen image: Resolution is set at 1,024 x 768. Reasonably easy to read... with normal working conditions. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, 'PCs and Notebooks - Reviews, p. 81) RAM: 16Mb, upgrade available, $242 for 16Mb. Disk drives: 3.5" FDD, CD-ROM available for $570 Speed of the CPU: Pentium processor Battery capabilities: - 2.5 hours from a lithium-ion battery Service agreements and warranties: All Hewlett Packard Omnibooks come with a 3 year parts and labour warranty. (Stephen, 7/5/1998, Telephone Interview, Customer Service Officer, Hewlett Packard Information Centre, Hewlett Packard)

3 Discussion

The Discussion section comments on the significance of the Findings in relation to the research question.

3 Discussion
3.1 Comparison of computers
The following table summarises the important points of comparison between the two portable computers - Hewlett Packard Omnibook and Micropro 8500 Series. Table 1: Comparison of two portable computers Hewlett Packard Omnibook Initial cost Weight $8245 3.1 Kg Micropro 8500 Series $7895 4.5 Kg 357 x 275 x 50mm 15.1" 64 Mb 2.5 Hours 2 Years

Size (Dimensions WxDxH) 304 x 238 x 47mm Screen Size RAM Battery Time Warranty Period 13.3" 16 Mb 2.5 Hours 3 Years

3.2 Initial cost


In sections 3.2 - 3.9, the student discusses the differences between the two models and points to their relative advantages and disadvantages. The comparison is based on the eight criteria listed in the Findings section.

3.2 Initial cost


There is a RRP difference between the two computers of $350. In order to have the computers ready for staff use, upgraded memory size would be required on the Hewlett Packard model.

3.3 Weight and size

The Micro-pro computer weighs an extra 1.4 Kg. This is substantially heavier, but the Micro-pro is a larger machine with each dimension larger than the Hewlett Packard computer. Micro-pro measures 53W x 37D x 3H mm larger.

3.4 Screen size


There is a notable gap between screen sizes. Micro-pro has a 14.1 inch screen compared with Hewlett Packards 13.3 inch screen. When using over long periods a larger screen is preferred to avoid eye strain.

3.5 Clarity of screen image

When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, only the author, date, and page number should be included. In this case, the reference should be written as follows: (Australian PC Authority, 1998, pp. 81-82). In this example, the author is an organisation. Note that the full stop should be placed after the reference, not before. The resolution on both machines is set a 1,024 x 768. Pixels can be seen on the Micropro model, while the Omnibook is reasonably easy to read. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, PCs and Notebooks - Reviews, p. 81 - 82)

3.6 RAM and hard disk size

When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, only the author, date, and page number should be included. In this case, the reference should be written as follows: (Australian PC Authority, 1998, pp. 81-82). In this example, the author is an organisation. Note that the full stop should be placed after the reference, not before

This is a report, not a personal letter, and the word 'you' is not appropriate to the formal tone you need here. Change this phrase to "will cost $242"

Again, to maintain a formal tone, better not to use 'you' - use the passive instead: "for the Omnibook this must be bought as an extra, for a cost of $570." RAM between the two machines varies greatly. The Australian PC Authority states that the Micro-pro comes with 64 Mb of RAM standard, with an option of buying the maximum 128 Mb for $1140. They also state Hewlett Packards Omnibook comes with 16 Mb RAM, but as most computer applications require 32 Mb, this extra memory will cost you $242. Both machines come with a standard 3.5" FDD. Only the Micro-pro machine comes with a CD-ROM drive, you must buy this as an extra for the Omnibook for a cost of $570. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, PCs and Notebooks - Reviews, p. 81- 82)

3.7 Speed of the CPU


With 32 Mb of RAM fitted the Omnibook is one of the fastest portable computers the Australian PC Authority magazine has ever seen, They also found that with 64 Mb RAM the Micro-pro was not exceptionally quick but for word processing and other office tasks it was quite acceptable.

3.8 Battery capability

When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, only the author, date, and page number should be included. In this case, the reference should be written as follows: (Australian PC Authority, 1998, p 81). In this example, the author is an organisation. Note that the full stop should be placed after the reference, not before. Both machines come with a standard lithium-ion battery which can support the computers for up to 2.5 hours. The computers come with power management tools that will save battery power. A smart battery option is available on the Micro-pro for $60. (Australian PC Authority, April 1998, PCs and Notebooks - Reviews, p. 81)

3.9 Service agreements and warranties


Micro-pro supplies their clients with a two year part and labour warranty, while Hewlett Packard supplies a three year parts and labour warranty. It is assumed that when the machines are purchased a service agreement will be negotiated with the option to extend the warranty.

The Conclusion sums up the main points which have emerged from the Findings and the Discussion. In some reports, it may be combined with Recommendations.

4. Conclusion

This conclusion begins with a general statement summing up the Findings. After investigating the Hewlett Packard Omnibook 3000CTX 5/233 and the Micro-pro 8500 Series portable computers, it was found that both models are suitable for corporate use and would meet All Purpose Training Company requirements.

The next two paragraphs refer briefly to the requirements stated in the Memo of Authorisation. It is important to consider the long term benefits to the company when considering which computer was best suited. Apart from initial purchasing expenses, warranty, speed, size and memory were some factors which have been taken into account. Software suitability was also considered. The computers had to be easily adaptable for new technology such as e-mail, video conferencing and presentation aids, for future company requirements.

The final paragraph states a preference for one of the computers. Both computers are distinct from each other and, although both companies have the corporate user in mind, Micro-pro appears to be offering an exceptional package.

5. Recommendations and implementation


The Recommendations section lists the suggested actions in order of importance. The Implementation states how and when these actions are to be taken.

5. Recommendations and implementation


The findings and conclusion in this report support the following recommendations:

The recommendation placed first is regarded as the most important.

This should be rephrased as ' should be purchased'. The same comment applies to Recommendation 2. In a list such as this all items should be parallel in grammatical structure. This should be rephrased as ' should be purchased'. The same comment applies to Recommendation 1. In a list such as this all items should be parallel in grammatical structure. This should be rephrased as ' Staff could have the option of ...' to match the grammatical structure of the other item in Recommendation 5. 1. The Micro-pro 8500 Series portable computer is purchased at a rate of one computer per training staff member. 2. The smart battery option is purchased with each computer; this will assist with heavy workloads and long training programs. 3. Staff must have e-mail access on their computers to enable them to be in contact with the company. 4. All Purpose Training Company should negotiate price, warranty and on going service agreements with Micro-pro direct. 5. To reduce company long term expenses: o The company could investigate the viability of staff leasing the computers o A staff option of buying the computers for personal use after the warranty period expires. 6. Computers should be available to staff after a maximum of 6 weeks.