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Classical Mechanics Solutions

Solution 1 Conservation of energy given by the sum of potential energy due to gravity and kinetic energy can be used to determine escape velocity. In the case of Earth along the potential is given by: M m (r ) = G E r where m is the mass of the book. The book will escape if initial kinetic energy is high enough to overcome the potential at r = RE . Thus
2 2GM E mv E M m = 11km / s = G E thus v E = RE 2 RE In the Earth-Moon case the potential is MMm M m ( r ) = G E G r REM r where MM = ME. The potential is a symmetric double-well and in order to leave the surface of the earth the kinetic energy must be high enough to overcome a saddle point right in the middle between earth and moon. Thus the condition for escape velocity is 2 1 mv E 4GM E m 1 = GM E m + R RME 2 E REM RE

This equation solved for escape velocity gives v E = 7.7km / s.

Solution 2 Introduce the generalized coordinates as in the figure below.

The Lagrangian for this system will be given by L = Twedge + Tm V wedge Vm . and

(1)

Twedge =
Vwedge

1 &2 (2) Mx 2 2 = Mgy 2 = constant, since the wedge does not move in the y direction. (3)

1 & & m( x12 + y12 ) 2 Vm = mgy1 Tm =

(4) (5)

But x1 and y1 can be written as follows: x1 = x 2 + z1 cos( ) y1 = z1 sin( ) Substitute Eqs.6 and 7 in Eqs.4 and 5, then replace Ts and Vs in Eq.1, and rename x 2 =x, z1 =z for simplicity. The result is given by: 1 1 & && & & L = m x 2 + z 2 + 2 xz cos( ) + Mx 2 mg sin( ) 2 2

(6) (7)

(8)

The equations of motion are obtained by: d L L = 0 , where q= x, z. dt q q & We get: m&& + m&& cos( ) + M&& = 0 x z x && + m&& cos( ) + mg sin( ) = 0 mz x From Eq.11 solve for && , and then substitute in Eq.10 z mg sin( ) cos( ) && = . x m + M cos 2 ( )

(9) (10) (11)

(12)

Substituting the numerical values for different parameters, we get: m && = 1.9624 2 (13) x s m && = 6.82 2 (14) z s To find the acceleration of the mass m, derivate Eqs.6 and 7 twice and use the numerical values from Eq13 and 14 m &&1 = 3.85 2 (15) x s m &&1 = 3.58 2 (16) y s

Solution 3 We use energy conservation for this problem, so that the initial potential energy E=mg(L/2) becomes kinetic energy of rotation E = I 2 / 2. The rotation of the pencil takes place around its tip, thus the moment of inertia is: M L 2 L3 x dx = M . I= L 0 3 The velocity of the eraser is related to the angular velocity as v=L. From here we get v = 3gL which can be compared with the free fall speed of v free = 2gL .

Solution 4

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