You are on page 1of 38

Hunger in Africa

The responsibility to cooperate

Leadership and issues Final group paper


Tom Veldhuis (326526); Adriane van Houten (350254); Jente de Vries (350150) Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University September 2011 Word count: 6968

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................. 2 List of illustrations ................................................................................................................................... 3 List of abbreviations ................................................................................................................................ 4 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 5 Defining hunger ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Issue life cycle of Hunger ....................................................................................................................... 10 Literature review ................................................................................................................................... 12 Notes regarding the current literature.............................................................................................. 14 Responsibility attribution ...................................................................................................................... 16 Interests............................................................................................................................................. 16 Trade-offs and paradoxes.................................................................................................................. 17 Responsibility .................................................................................................................................... 17 Responsibility for causes ................................................................................................................... 19 Partnerships .......................................................................................................................................... 21 The necessity of cooperation ............................................................................................................ 21 Current partnerships and initiatives.................................................................................................. 22 Effectiveness...................................................................................................................................... 24 Leadership ............................................................................................................................................. 26 Desired leadership styles................................................................................................................... 26 Limitations ............................................................................................................................................. 31 Bibliography........................................................................................................................................... 32

Photo front page: Bryna (2011)

Executive Summary
Currently an estimated 239 million people in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from hunger. With 30% of the population this is the worlds largest proportion. In this paper hunger is defined as the state of persons, whose food intake regularly provides less than their minimum energy requirements. As hunger is caused by an institutional void where clear rules and regulations are lacking, it can be classified as an interface issue between market and civil society. Even though hunger issue impacts the lives of many on a daily basis, the public interest in the issue has been declining since 2008. This implies issue fatigue, which means that people have seen so many similar affairs that they are no longer impressed by and interested in news about the issue. The issue of hunger is thus in the post-maturity stage of the issue life cycle. According to academic literature there are various causes for hunger in Africa, including low agricultural productivity, infectious diseases, natural disasters and war. Scholars seem to largely disagree in regards to the causality between hunger and these causes, as well as about the importance of each cause. Therefore it can be concluded that it is likely that all the factors mentioned contribute to the issue to some degree. Literature falls short in assigning responsibility in regard to the issue and focuses more on discussing causes and solutions. As hunger is an interface issue, it is implied that the primary responsibility lies with the market and civil society. When looking at the separate causes of hunger, however, it is noticeable that not only the market and civil society are responsible, but also the state plays a major role. Therefore it can be concluded that all societal spheres are responsible for hunger and should collectively contribute to a solution. This notion can be supported by the fact that all three societal spheres have an interest in resolving hunger. This implies that all three societal spheres also have an incentive to contribute to the eradication of hunger, which is illustrated by various initiatives that are undertaken by the state, market and civil society. All three actors do however also face tradeoffs, for example between the short term and the long term. This makes coming to a solution more difficult, as each actor has its own interests in addition to its commitment to the cause. Regardless of who holds responsibility, cooperation on global, national and local level is necessary to solve such complex issues as world hunger. Not only because the responsibilities cannot be clearly attributed to one societal sphere, but also because no sector has sufficient resources and capabilities. Therefore it is no surprise that the use of partnerships to solve issues like hunger is increasing. In order for a partnership to be optimally effective, all partners need to share the analysis of the issue, the vision, and ambition. In the case of hunger, the vision is shared, but the analysis and ambition are shared only partly between different actors. There is therefore room for improvement. Lastly, the literature shows that cooperation between the societal spheres and structural change are necessary to resolve hunger. The leadership styles that match these needs are connecting, transformational and collective leadership. We therefore conclude that for leaders of all spheres these leadership styles are most important in solving the issue of hunger. It was concluded that an important barrier for increased effectiveness of partnerships and for structural changes, is issue fatigue. This impedes the collective efforts of all three societal spheres and results in the provision of only the most necessary aid. Therefore, the issue of hunger should be reframed in a positive way, emphasizing the opportunities that exist for all spheres in eradicating hunger. Transformational, connecting as well as collective leadership are necessary to make structural changes and to bring together key people of all spheres who can collectively solve the issue.

List of illustrations
Table 1: Methodological information ...................................................................................... 10 Table 2: Causes that contributed to the peaks .......................................................................... 10 Table 3: Different causes of hunger in Africa .......................................................................... 12 Table 4: Responsibilities for the causes of hunger ................................................................... 19 Table 5: Partnerships in tackling the issue of hunger in Africa ............................................... 22 Table 6: Overview of leaders from each societal sphere ......................................................... 27

Figure 1: The Issue Life Cycle of Hunger (ILC)...................................................................... 10

List of abbreviations

AAHM BAACH FAO FIVIMS IFAD IFPRI ILC MDGs NGO OPEC THP UN UNICEF UNDP UN CERF WEF WFP

Alliance Against Hunger and Malnutrition Business Alliance Against Chronic Hunger Food and Agriculture Organization Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Mapping Systems International Fund for Agricultural Development International Food Policy Research Institute Issue Life Cycle Millennium Development Goals Non-Governmental Organization Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries The Hunger Project United Nations United Nations Childrens Fund United Nations Development Programme United Nations Emergency Response Fund World Economic Forum World Food Programme

Introduction
No one really knows how many people exactly suffer from hunger, but the most recent estimate by the FAO released in 2010 counts 925 million people being undernourished (FAO, 2010). This is 13.6 per cent of the estimated global population of 6.8 billion (World Hunger, 2011). Of this amount, around 239 million people live in sub-Saharan Africa, where they suffer from acute, chronic or hidden hunger. Even though the number of undernourished people in Africa is smaller than in Asia and the Pacific (578 million), with 30 per cent of the population, the proportion is highest in the world (FAO, 2010)(see Factsheet: Hunger in Africa below). Therefore the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations called for special attention to Africa and its needs to develop (United Nations, 2000). Overall, to tackle the issue of hunger in Africa and other continents, the target of Goal 1 of the United Nations (UN) Millennium Development goals (MDGs) to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger envisions to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger (UNDP, 2011). However, so far, the goal has not been reached and the issue is not solved yet. It remains very urgent as acute hunger crises, such as currently the famine in the Horn of Africa, show. The cause of this crisis is the worst drought in 60 years which has hit the areas of northern Kenya, south-eastern Ethiopia, southern Somalia and Djibouti, leading to 10 million people in need of food aid (The Economist, 2011). These urgent crises are only the top of the iceberg compared to the largely invisible problem of chronic hunger (Sanchez et al., 2005). The aim of this paper is to provide insight in the issue of hunger and give suggestions on the actions that could be taken to address the issue in de coming years. In order to do this three questions have been developed that will be answered in this paper: 1. What are the causes of hunger and how are they linked to the responsibilities of various stakeholders? 2. What are the current efforts that exist in addressing hunger?

3. How should hunger be addressed in the coming years? The questions will be addressed by firstly looking at which societal sphere (governments, firms, and/or civil society) holds responsibility and secondly by analysing initiatives and partnerships where responsibility is being taken. Chapter one builds the basis for describing the complexity of the issue by bringing the related keywords into a context. Moreover, these keywords are analysed based on their presence in the media to depict the issue life cycle of hunger and define the stage the issue is currently in. Chronic hunger for example receives much less attention in the media than for example acute famines (Sanchez et al., 2005), which are more prominently discussed. Chapters two and three depict how in literature scholars have extensively discussed causes and have to a certain extent defined who holds responsibility in solving them. Attributing the responsibility of stopping hunger can be done by linking responsibilities to the many causes leading to not only acute hunger, as currently in the Horn of Africa, but also to more long-term chronic hunger. Moving from the description of who holds responsibility in solving this issue, the paper shifts to analysing current activities where responsibilities are taken. Different actors have taken on leading roles in addressing the issue and raising awareness, and others have formed partnerships to tackle the issue on a global, national, and local level. However, as the current number of hungry people in Africa is not declining and in many countries the MDGs are unlikely to be achieved, it is important to continue looking for solutions. Therefore, this paper finishes with suggestions of directions in which solutions should go.

Factsheet: Hunger in Africa


Global Hunger Index 2010

Sources: WFPe 2010, FAO 2010, IFPRC 2010

Note: The Global Hunger Index is composed of the proportion of the undernourished as a percentage of the population, the prevalence of underweight children under the age of five and the mortality rate of children under the age of five (calculated average, in percentage).

Defining hunger
There are several definitions of hunger and related concepts, such as malnutrition, undernourishment, and food insecurity (FAO, 2011a). Hunger itself has been defined as an uncomfortable or painful sensation caused by insufficient food energy consumption (FAO, 2011a). Taking into account that everyone feels hungry occasionally, in this context hunger refers to the manifestation of hunger over a longer time period, also called chronic hunger or undernourishment (FAO, 2011b). This is defined as The state of persons, whose food intake regularly provides less than their minimum energy requirements. The average minimum energy requirement per person is about 1800 kcal per day. The exact requirement is determined by a persons age, body size, activity level and physiological conditions such as illness, infection, pregnancy and lactation (FAO, 2011b). This definition already shows the difficulties in measuring hunger (Mason, 2002; FAO, 2000a), which also results in the diverging numbers of people suffering from hunger. Of people suffering from hunger, 90 percent suffer from chronic hunger, and despite the global attention during famines and starvations, this acute hunger only represents a small part (Sanchez et al., 2005). The third type of hunger is hidden hunger (Sanchez et al., 2005) and has been related to the term malnutrition, which is defined as a broad term for a range of conditions that hinder good health, caused by inadequate or unbalanced food intake or from poor absorption of food consumed (FAO, 2011b). This implies undernutrition (food deprivation) as well as overnutrition (excessive food intake in relation to energy requirements), characterized by an inadequate intake of protein, energy and micronutrients (FAO, 2011a; FAO, 2011b). Malnutrition can be an outcome of food insecurity, but can also be caused by insufficient health services or an unhealthy environment (FAO, 2011a; UNICEF, 2002). Food insecurity again exists when people lack access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food (FAO, 2011b). As the opposite, food security, is defined as access
8

to food at all times (World Food Summit, 1996), insecurity may also include the limited and uncertain ability of securing food (Anderson, 1990). Not all people that are food insecure are at that point hungry (FAO, 2011a) as food insecurity has other causes than direct hunger (FAO, 2011a). Food insecurity can be chronic, seasonal or transitory (FIVIMS, 2011) and it can occur at household, regional or national level. As in the report of the United Nations MDGs (Sanchez et al., 2005) in this paper we use the word hunger to encompass both food and nutritional insecurity. As this paper focuses on hunger in Africa, overnutrition however is excluded.

Issue life cycle of Hunger


An issue can be classified into different stages using the Issue Life Cycle (ILC) of the issue hunger. An analysis of the ILC can help to see whether the issue is a growing topic in the media. In order to create the ILC, the newspaper database LexisNexis was consulted. Some methodological information can be found in table 1; the results of all the search attempts were combined and are presented in Figure 1 and an analysis of the peaks in table 2. Figure 1: The Issue Life Cycle of Hunger (ILC)
700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Articles

Table 1: Methodological information


Key words used Worlds excluded Analyzed newspapers Hunger and Africa, Famine, World Hunger drugs, feast, coal, mortgage, oil, energy, fuel, raw materials, rare earths Financial Times, New York Times, Washington Post, International Herald Tribune

Table 2: Causes that contributed to the peaks


Year of peak 1985 1991/1992 1997/1998 2002/2003 2005 Causes that contributed to the peak Efforts of Band Aid (i.e. releasing the song Do they know its Christmas, Live Aid concerts etc.), (Financial Times, 1985) Famine in Somalia UN International Conference on Nutrition in Rome (Financial Times, 1992) Amartya Sen, known for his work on famines, won a Nobel Prize (Financial Times, 1998) Action related to the FAO World Food Summit of end 1996 (Financial Times, 1997) Famines in North-Korea and Sudan World Food Summit in June 2002 (Financial Times, 2002) Famines in Africa Live 8 concert (BBC, 2006) G8 summit (ibid) Famines in North-Korea, Somalia and Zimbabwe Increases impact of climate change and financial crisis

2008

10

After 2008, media attention is declining, even though at the moment a major famine in the horn of Africa is taking place. This implies issue fatigue, which means that people have seen so many similar affairs that they are no longer impressed by and interested in news about the issue (Schoonman, 1995; Van Tulder and van der Zwart, 2006). Especially in a time where other issues such as the global economic situation and global warming seem to gain importance, it is not surprising that an old issue like hunger moves to the background. We therefore conclude that the issue hunger is in the post-maturity stage. A potential problem with the ILC is that the newspapers that were chosen are all English and have a primary focus on the West (in particular on the US since most newspapers are American).Taking this into account, one has to be careful to generalize the results of the ILC to other parts of the world other than the West (presumed that the US shares largely the same interests as Europe).

11

Literature review
In order to shed some light on the causes of hunger, a literature review is needed. The aim of this literature review is to see how wide the explanations of hunger go and to what extent there is consensus amongst scholars regarding this topic. Table 3 presents an overview of different causes encountered. Table 3: Different causes of hunger in Africa Agricultural productivity Bryceson & Fonseca (2006); Green (1986); Sanchez & Swaminatha n (2005); Sanchez et al. (2005) Infectious diseases Bryceson & Fonseca (2006); Sanchez et al. (2005) Politics Bryceson & Fonseca (2006); Clemens et al. (2007); Clover (2003); Green (1986); Misselhorn (2005) War / conflict Baro & Deubel (2006); Clover (2003); Green (1986) Infrastruct ure Green (1986); Sanchez et al. (2005) Socioeconomic Natural factors disasters Bryceson & Baro & Fonseca Deubel (2006); (2006); Green Green (1986); (1986); Misselhorn Misselhorn (2005); Sen (2005); (1981); Verdin et Verdin et al. al. (2005) (2005)

In Africa, most agriculture is organized within family spheres and is on a small scale; rural families are to some extent self-sufficient (Bryceson and Fonseca, 2006). The problem is that people usually are unaware of specific techniques and knowledge to increase productivity (Green, 1986). The agricultural productivity therefore is closely related to the issue of poverty (Misselhorn, 2005). However, poverty is not taken as a separate cause of hunger, since many authors treat hunger and poverty as a single issue: they represent different sides of the same coin (Misselhorn, 2005; Sanchez et al., 2005; Sanchez and Swaminatha, 2005). Other factors that contributed to hunger (and relate to productivity too) are a variety of different infectious diseases (Sanchez et al., 2005). Bryceson and Fonseca (2006) mention HIV/AIDS specifically as an important cause. In rural areas, AIDS is putting a heavy burden on the local (family tied) workforce. With just a very thin labor force in operation, it is

12

difficult to keep harvests at a constant output level, let alone increase them (Bryceson and Fonseca, 2006). Next to this, politics is an important aspect. This factor is a shared name for initiatives which national and local governments have undertaken in order to address the issue, but also includes corruption and kleptocracy. Green (1986) for instance, mentions the tendency to go along with international fads. As a consequence, national-and local policies are introduced or revoked at a pace nobody can adjust to, making the regulatory environment unfavorable for development (Clemens et al., 2007; Misselhorn, 2005). Closely related to politics is the factor of war/conflict. War and conflicts basically knock out the entire production system in the area of impact causing immediate need for food, water and supplies. According to some authors, conflicts can be seen as a direct cause of hunger (Baro and Deubel, 2006). Others take a more cautious approach by naming it a factor that has contributed to the issue (Clover, 2003; Green, 1986). It should be noted that these conflicts do not have to be between nations. Severe civil unrest and ethnical conflicts are just as well likely to emerge within a country or specific region (Green, 1986). Moreover, infrastructure, or better the absence of it, contributes to the issue to some extent. In this sense, infrastructure means the availability of transportation and storage, supply networks and ease of access to remote areas (Sanchez et al., 2005). Additionally, Green (1986) includes the effective use of inputs and production systems. The socioeconomic factors are mainly trends on a national-or global level. One of the main current shifts in rural Africa is that the emphasis on self-sufficiency is being pushed to the background (Bryceson and Fonseca, 2006). Labor markets are equally changing: people choose short term gains in favor of longer term sustainable options (Green 1986). Former selfsufficient families for instance, might rent their land to others in exchange for money or goods, but as a consequence they cannot use the land for farming purposes causing them to

13

get into severe food problems (Bryceson and Fonseca, 2006). Finally, the price of food is a major concern (Verdin et al., 2005; Sen, 1981). Food prices are often too high for ordinary people and are therefore unable to buy food. This in turn is closely related to other issues such as poverty (Misselhorn, 2005) and low agricultural productivity (e.g. Sanchez and Swaminathan, 2005). Lastly, natural disasters can cause hunger. Baro and Deubel (2006) argue that there is a causal relationship between droughts in certain areas and the emergence of hunger in that particular area. Verdin et al. (2006), Misselhorn (2005) and Green (1986) see natural disasters only as a contributing factor to the issue, since they cannot be considered structural and are manageable to some extent. In addition, natural disasters can be linked to global climate change. The frequency with which natural disasters occur increases, as is their severity and impact (van Aalst, 2006). This links the issue of hunger to global climate change and extreme weather conditions that follow as a consequence (van Aalst, 2006). As a conclusion it can be said that there is no clear answer yet as to what the main cause of hunger is. It is likely that all the factors mentioned by the scholars to some degree contribute to the issue. Therefore, most authors present multiple reasons for the existence of hunger.

Notes regarding the current literature


The most important observation is that hunger is not a stand-alone issue. Many authors believe that the issue of hunger is closely related to poverty, politics, war/conflicts and climate change (Sanchez et al., 2005). This is important to realize since this implies that these other issues have to be addressed as well when trying to tackle hunger. However, at the same time it makes the issue of hunger far more complex than it might seem at a first glance.

14

A possible weak point of the existing literature is that almost all authors share a similar background: they were raised and educated in the developed Western world. Science, as most people know it, is something developed and shaped mainly by Western cultures (Ogunniyi, 2007). However, the particular way of Western scientific thinking may not be appropriate in all situations: another perspective taken on the same phenomena might generate different outcomes (Ogunniyi, 2007). Regarding the issue of hunger, it is important to realize that this literature overview represents a Western vision on the issue and therefore might not be entirely complete. For instance, Holt-Gimnez and Patel (2009), state that hunger is a distribution problem caused by capitalism. Another possible problem might be that some authors (e.g. Baro and Deubel, 2006) presuppose causality. This can be problematic in the case of conflicts as the cause of hunger. Causality implies a temporal order: the cause must take place before the effect does (Hak, 2010). So in this case: conflicts lead to hunger. One can however, argue for a reversed relationship: hunger leads to conflicts. Additionally, most other authors that used a quantitative study only uncovered a statistical relationship. Most authors see all the causes as contributing to the issue to some extent, instead of trying to identify one single cause.

15

Responsibility attribution
Interests
All three societal spheres have a certain interest in resolving the issue of hunger. On national level, it is in the interest of national governments to protect their people from hunger as hunger reduces labor productivity (WFP, 2011c), can cause conflicts and unrest (Messer et al., 1998), leads to migration, and reduces the population, (international) trade and global economic competitiveness. On a global level it is in the interest of other governments as well to prevent and stop hunger in the world as it impacts the global economy and political stability. The main interest that firms have for solving the issue is reputation and connected to this, profits or prevention of losses. Taking social responsibility leads to a better reputation for the firm and indirectly to financial value (Fombrun and van Riel, 2004; Fombrun and Gardberg, 2000). The creation of future markets for the firms products (Newell and Frynas, 2007) is also of interest to firms. This is closely related to the idea that Africa represents a huge potential market, called the bottom of the pyramid principle (Prahalad and Hammond, 2002). This concept might offer interesting opportunities for businesses, since addressing the issue unleashes a large potential market. Lastly, if hunger is an issue among the employees or potential employees of the company, fighting the issue may help to increase labor productivity. The primary interest of many NGOs in the issue of hunger lies primarily in upheaving the living and health conditions in areas that suffer from this. Another interest of NGOs is to create what Buttel (2000) calls: moral commitment and social activism to such an extent that other actors will pay (more) attention to the issue. NGOs also try to increase attention (campaign) for the often underestimated problem of chronic hunger, as now acute hunger has a much stronger presence in the media and receives more funding (Loewenberg, 2010).
16

Trade-offs and paradoxes


Though all actors have an interest in solving the issue, they also face certain trade-offs and paradoxes. National governments of developing countries face the trade-off of allocating financial resources to shared public goods or food which is a private good. The trade-off further extends between inferring or leaving the responsibility with the market and civil society. On an international level, all governments face the trade-off of whether to allocate financial resources to projects in their own countries or invest it in projects attempting to stop hunger in other states. Businesses are facing a paradox with profit maximization and hunger minimization on the axes, as out-of-the-box solutions can lead to value creation for all parties involved. It is however not always possible to create value and firms are also confronted with trade-offs. The main trade-off exists between short term and long term profits. Solving hunger may lead to higher long term profits due to productivity gains, economic development in the country and reputational gains, but in the short term investments are needed. Some NGOs seek cooperation among each other and with other actors in the field, in particular with governmental institutions. As a consequence, at the level of the individual actor, the NGO faces a trade-off between satisfying their own interests and satisfying the interests of other actors (for instance governments/donors). Additionally, NGOs struggle with the trade-off between short-and long term solutions. On the one hand they (and their supporters) would like to see results within a limited amount of time, but it is hard to reach structural and sustainable solutions on the short term.

Responsibility
There is limited information in the literature about the questions who is responsible for the issue hunger. Most authors seem to focus on the causes and solutions of the issue. According
17

to Baro and Deubel (2006) it is a responsibility of intergovernmental organizations and states to guarantee human rights, including the right for food. They also mention that more research needs to be done to assigning responsibility for the issue. Bryceson and Fonseca (2006) state that human beings (i.e. civil society) are primarily responsible for the issue. They also suggest, however, that it is more important to identify who is vulnerable and needs protection than to assign responsibilities (ibid). When it comes to responsibilities it is important to notice that hunger is an interface issue between the market and civil society (Van Tulder and van der Zwart, 2006). Currently, there are no rules of the game in place to manage/solve the issue, this is called an institutional void (Van Tulder and Van der Zwart, 2006). This implies that these two stakeholders are the main responsible for solving the issue. The states however, also take considerable responsibility. We will shortly discuss the responsibilities of all three actors. Since food is a private good and not a public good (Investopedia, 2011) the primary responsibility is not held by the national governments or the intergovernmental institutions. However, national governments are empowered by their people and need to act in the interest of their people and take responsibility accordingly. For firms it is important to distinguish between firms that play a major role in causing hunger and thus hold direct responsibility and firms that are not related to the issue and therefore do not hold responsibility. Firms that have caused hunger are for example chemical, oil and mining companies that pollute the environment and make local food production impossible or difficult. Companies of both types take some responsibility (the level of responsibility differs of course per company). As mentioned, civil society can be held responsible for the issue of hunger. NGOs realize that civil society as a whole does not take up responsibility. Therefore, NGOs targeted on combating hunger take up responsibility to only some extent: they realize that other actors

18

are responsible too and should be involved as well. The main strategy of these NGOs is to seek cooperation with other actors: equal partnerships and philanthropic partnerships are the most likely options (Van Tulder, 2011). NGOs also tend to partner with other NGOs in order to support each other and share resources when it comes to service delivery and campaigning (Van Tulder and Meijs, 2011).

Responsibility for causes


In the previous paragraphs we have analyzed the responsibilities by looking at hunger as one single issue. When we look at the different causes of hunger and the responsibilities that stakeholders have in these causes (which are generally issues themselves), the image could be different. We therefore analyze which actors are the main responsible for each cause. In Table 4 the issues related to each cause, the classification of each issue and the responsible stakeholders are depicted. Table 4: Responsibilities for the causes of hunger
Issue Productivity Access to credit Innovation Education Infectious diseases Health Politics Kleptocracy Governance Repressive regime War/conflict War Civil war Infrastructure Infrastructure Socioeconomic factors Income inequality Unemployment Gender issues Natural disasters Climate change/ global warming (based on: Van Tulder and van der Zwart, 2006) Cause Low agricultural productivity Classification of the issue Growth regime issue / interface issue Responsible actors State, civil society & market / State & civil society Market & civil society State

Interface issue Primary responsibility issue

Primary responsibility issue Primary responsibility issue Primary responsibility issue Primary responsibility issue

State Civil society State State

Growth regime issue

State, civil society & market

As it is difficult to determine the relative importance of each cause for the issue hunger, one cannot just add up the number of times each stakeholder is responsible for a particular cause. A conclusion that we can draw however, is that not only the market and civil society are responsible for hunger as we stated earlier, but that a large role should be played by the state,
19

as this actor is (partly) responsible for many of the individual causes of hunger. In looking for a solution, one should therefore involve all three societal spheres.

20

Partnerships
The necessity of cooperation
The causes of hunger are manifold and so are the initiatives to fight hunger with preventive measures, tackling the causes of hunger and as relief activities after disaster situations. As the responsibility of world hunger is shared, these activities are often initiated by entities of the different societal spheres which engage in partnerships at global, national and local level (Sanchez, 2005). Cooperation on all three levels, such as through cross-sector partnerships (Googins and Rochlin, 2000), is necessary to solve such complex issues as world hunger (Sachs, 2008). Not only are partnerships needed because the responsibilities cannot be clearly attributed to one societal sphere, but also does no sector have sufficient resources and capabilities to resolve such complex issues as hunger (Googins and Rochlin, 2000; Sachs, 2008). Partnering can moreover be seen as necessity to overcome the three forms of failure (government failure, civil society failure, and market failure) which occur with unilateral approaches to tackling development challenges such as hunger (Van Tulder and van der Zwart, 2006). Therefore finding ways to complement each other in competencies is crucial, as is the necessity to clearly divide the roles and tasks (van Tulder, 2011 forthcoming). While governments have already been active for some time in its cooperation with the market and civil society sectors, corporations have only started to form partnerships with NGOs recently and are now searching for effective ways to cooperate (Googins and Rochlin, 2000). This progress in partnerships was also confirmed by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, where he stated that "The summit represents a major leap forward in the development of partnerships, with the UN, governments, business and civil society coming together to increase the pool of resources to tackle global problems on a global scale" (UNDP, 2002). Yet governments, firms and NGOs

21

can be active or rather reactive in their approach to partnering with other actors (Van Tulder, 2011 forthcoming). Platforms such as the United Nations and the World Economic Forum (WEF) can be seen as important to discuss and partner up for taking action in solving this global issue. Both platforms have a global impact and draw considerable attention. As the WEF states, it aims at bringing together all the different types of major stakeholders in global society to discuss global issues and come up with ways of solving problems (Pigman, 2006).

Current partnerships and initiatives


Partnerships that have been built to tackle the issue of hunger are being created through such platforms as the United Nations and the WEF. The current partnerships are being initiated and led by the governmental sphere (WFP and FAO as UN agencies), the societal sphere (NGOs as Action Against Hunger and the non-profit organization The Hunger Project), and the market sphere (BAACH as an initiative of the WEF). Table 5: Partnerships in tackling the issue of hunger in Africa
WFP Government USA, Canada, Japan, Australia etc. Market TNT, Cargill, Unilever, LG, etc. Civil Society Private donors and NGOs (3000) Other UN CERF, OPEC fund, FAO, IFAD, African Development Bank -

(See WFP, 2011a) WEF- BAACH (WEF, 2011a) FAO-AAHM (AAHM, 2011)

Government of Kenya Only at national or local level

General Mills, Monsanto, TNT, Nike, etc. -

Local organizations

FAO-1 Billion Hungry (Website, 2011) Action Against Hunger (Action Against Hunger, 2011) The Hunger Project (THP, 2011)

Communication companies Hogan Lovells, Carluccios, Restaurant Magazine etc. -

Institutional donors

NGOs such as Oxfam International, Caritas etc. Initiative by the FAO, supported also by the WFP Private donors, foundations

Various governments

Multiple other NGOs

UNDP

22

A small selection of the many partnerships with initiatives against hunger in Africa is displayed in Table 5. Global initiatives of the WEF related to the issue of hunger include a New Vision for Agriculture Initiative, which is led by the Consumer Industries Community of the WEF (WEF, 2011b). 17 global companies of the WEF are engaged and provide strategic leadership and championship of the initiative (WEF, 2011b). As for the efforts of the national initiative in Kenya, the Business Alliance Against Chronic Hunger (BAACH) is a public-private partnership managed by the WEF and the first private-sector-led alliance focusing on hunger reduction and sustainable food production in Africa (WEF, 2011a). The partnerships displayed in Table 5 however vary in their partnering activities and the extent to which they actively incorporate partners. Whereas the BAACH is directly aimed at finding business-led solutions to the issue together with the corporate partners (WEF, 2011a), Action Against Hunger only receives a small percentage (1.1 percent in 2010) of their funding from corporate partners (Action Against Hunger, 2010). Also do the partnership activities differ on a global, national or regional level, which also impacts the nature of the partnership. The WFP is globally organized and has global partners on this level; however, initiatives on national or local level are supported by local partners. The contributions of the WFP are also divided to serve several programs. The majority goes to Protracted Relief and Recovery Operations and emergencies (WFP, 2011b). Initiatives as the BAACH focus only on tackling hunger in a region of Kenya (WEF, 2011a). Moreover are there three different partnership rationales, bipartite (Public-Private Partnership), bipartite (for profit/ non-profit partnerships), and tripartite partnerships which include all three actors (Van Tulder and Van der Zwart, 2006). As one can see in Table 5, the latter is most occurring which is typical for an interface issue as hunger occurring in an institutional void (Van Tulder and Van der Zwart, 2006).

23

Effectiveness
Global initiatives to end hunger can be traced back to FAOs Freedom from Hunger Campaign in 1960 (Gupta, 2003), and nowadays there exist many partnerships and initiatives to tackle the issue of hunger. This integrated and cooperative approach is also what many see as necessary in tackling the issue of hunger in Africa (Baro and Deubel, 2006). The consecutive question is however whether they are effective in ending hunger in Africa. To address this question, one can look at preconditions for success of NGO-business partnerships as they have been identified by van Tulder (2011 forthcoming). First and foremost the analysis, vision and ambition regarding the issue must be shared (Van Tulder, 2011 forthcoming). The problem is that different causes, their causality and their respective impact on the issue of hunger are disputed and prevent a unified and standardized approach by the different partnering entities (Global Issues, 2010). Therefore, the precise analysis of the issue is not necessarily shared by all stakeholders involved. The partnering entities do share the vision of eradicating extreme hunger in the world and have formulated or recognized the MDGs. As for the shared ambition, the positions between the different actors in all three spheres are divided and largely depend on the context and locality of the implementation of an initiative. For example firms can have the incentive to engage in a partnership because they are (partly) responsible for some of the causes of hunger, because they want to build relationships with governments or actors in civil society, or in some cases also recognize the opportunities at the bottom of the pyramid and the connected growth opportunities (Van Tulder, 2008). Governments and civil society however do not necessarily share these ambitions. The fact that the analysis and ambitions are shared only partly, impacts the effectiveness of partnerships negatively (Van Tulder, 2011). This is however inherent to a complex issue as hunger and effective partnerships are still possible when the partners realize the necessity to complement each other effectively.

24

Complementarity and the attribution of roles within a partnership is another element contributing to the effectiveness of a partnership. According to the A New Vision for Agriculture of the WEF (2011b), this attribution should be mainly based on the experience and skills of the respective sphere. Also the FAO selects partners based on fit and complementarity, specifically laying out the areas and principles of partnering with the organization (FAO, 2000b). In order to do so however, it is necessary that all three spheres work together to address such an interface issue as hunger, as otherwise one sector needs to substitute the roles of the lacking one (Selsky and Parker, 2005) and is less effective.

25

Leadership
The discussion on partnerships and their initiatives aimed at solving the issue of hunger does not only involve the topic of partnerships and platforms such as the World Summit where potential and existing partners meet. It also includes the topic of leadership, as leadership is closely connected to human development (Safty et al., 2003). Effective leaders have the ability to look beyond national or corporate interests at the larger picture of human development. This also counts for corporate leaders who not only look at their business models but at the global picture (ibid). Yet, in tackling the issue of hunger, important people from all three societal spheres, have taken leadership in bringing attention to the issue and partnering up with entities from the other spheres. As an example one can look at Peter Bakker (market), Bob Geldof (civil society), and Kofi Annan (state) who all have taken a leading and constructive role in the issue of hunger, however in different ways. Their role can be analysed in terms of their background, their efforts in tackling the issue of hunger, and their leadership style (see Table 6).

Desired leadership styles


In this part we will look at the leadership styles that we consider necessary and most effective for solving the issue. First of all there is a call for structural change in the literature (Bckstrand, 2006; Sanchez et al., 2005). According to Bckstrand (2006, p. 191), intergovernmental diplomacy alone cannot grapple with the pressing problems and complex dimensions of sustainable development. Sanchez et al. (2005) also mention that policy reforms and other changes need to take place in order to reach the first Millennium Development Goal. Transformational leadership is the style that could achieve structural change, since this style is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social systems (Bass, 1998). Transformational leaders search for out-of-the-box solutions and take a proactive approach.
26

Table 6: Overview of leaders from each societal sphere

Name Societal sphere Background

Kofi Annan State Degrees in economics, international affairs and management. Various roles in UN UN Secretary-General Initiated reforms within UN Brought attention to development of Africa Set up Kofi Annan Foundation to promote food and nutrition security. Founder of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa Transformational as UN Secretary-General Visionary and connecting when related to the issue

Peter Bakker Market Business school Worked in market sphere CEO of TNT

Bob Geldof Civil society No formal education Difficult youth Singer in Rock band

Initiatives

UN Ambassador Against Hunger Initiator partnership TNT and World Food Programme Advocate of partnerships between private sector and humanitarian world

Founder Band Aid Organizer Live Aid and Live 8 concerts Other initiatives against hunger

Leadership style

Motto

Transformational within his role as CEO of TNT Steward leadership for sustainable initiatives Sure, we can!

Visionary leadership in his quest against hunger

Feed the world!

Sources: (Bass (1998); BoardEx (2011); Dubrin et al. (2006); Financial Times (1985); Kofi Annan Foundation (2011); Leader Values (2011); Mirvis et al. (2006); TNT (2011); United Nations (2011); Westley (1991); Westley and Mintzberg (1989); World Food Programme (2011d))

In addition, the literature clearly shows that cooperation between societal spheres is highly important to advance in the fight against hunger (Googins and Rochlin, 2000; Sachs, 2008). In practice however, parties often focus on their own interest and thus end up with suboptimal solutions, a so called prisoners dilemma (Van Tulder, 2011). Connecting the different societal spheres and different stakeholders in the issue, could lead to improved cooperation between them and to reaching optimal solutions. In order for this to happen, connecting leaders need to establish the links between the different spheres and stimulate their collective search for better solutions. In addition, transparency may be needed to stimulate trust and display the real intentions of others.
27

Closely connected to both transformational and connecting leadership is collective leadership. The Collective Leadership Institute (2011) defines this leadership style as follows: Collective Leadership for Sustainability is the capacity of a group of leaders to deliver their contribution to a more sustainable future through assuming joint and flexible leadership in service of the common good. At the core of collective leadership is the human capacity to dialogue and transform differences into progress. It enables the transcendence of self-centered views, a prerequisite for successfully addressing the challenges of globalization and sustainability. This leadership style thus focuses on both cooperation and taking a perspective beyond ones own interest on the one hand and transformation on the other hand and could therefore be of great importance for solving the issue hunger. Other leadership styles, such as responsible leadership and visionary leadership, can of course also play a role in solving hunger. As both structural change and intense cooperation are currently so important, we consider transformational, connecting and collective leadership as the main priorities to focus on. These types are important to use in all three societal spheres.

28

Conclusion and suggestions


We have seen that the causes of hunger are manifold, making the issue very complex and responsibility attribution disputed. No single cause can be defined and also is it impossible to define a degree of impact of each cause that has been brought forward in literature. Even though hunger is an interface issue between the market and civil society, it has become clear that the state holds considerable responsibilities as well. With all three societal spheres holding responsibility for solving the issue, it is therefore no surprise to see that current efforts addressing hunger take place in partnerships and cooperative initiatives. They are being initiated under the leadership of different organizations and institutions. These collective efforts on global, national and local level are necessary and should be applauded; however, the effectiveness is difficult to measure. Literature on this topic suggests that partnerships with a shared vision, analysis and ambition will be most effective, and moreover leadership taking in different styles contribute to the success of such partnerships. The question remains however how the issue of hunger in Africa should be addressed in the coming years in order to increase the effectiveness of the partnerships and initiatives, and moreover to initiate crucial structural changes. It can be argued that the issue fatigue of hunger in Africa is a barrier to the collective efforts of all three societal spheres, resulting in the provision of only the most necessary aid in times of acute hunger as currently in the Horn of Africa. These reactive and short-term actions of responsibility taking draw away the attention from chronic hunger which is much more devastating and needs a long-term structural approach. Therefore, the issue of hunger should be reframed within the coming years to lead to a reincarnation of the issue. Reframing the issue needs to be however in a positive way, emphasizing the opportunities at The Bottom of the Pyramid for companies, the potential economic growth for national and international governments, as well as actors of the civil society. It should be framed as a paradox, in a way that emphasizes the win-win

29

situation of collective efforts to solve the issue. As the aim is structural change on a mediumto long-term, a proactive approach by a transformational leader is necessary. An individual or an organization of one sphere could take on this role of transformational leadership and the other two spheres should consequently support and follow the initiative. Only in a partnership with all three spheres the optimal progress can be made, therefore there is also an important role for collective and connecting leaders to bring together key people from the three spheres and create a shared analysis, vision and ambition. It should however be noted, that within the partnerships complementarity and division of tasks is important for the success and effectiveness of a cooperation, though structural rigidity needs to be prevented. The crucial milestone in a few years will be whether or not individuals or organizations have been able to form partnerships to initiate structural changes to the global system currently allowing an institutional void for the issue of hunger.

30

Limitations
This paper tried to address the issue of hunger by looking at Africa and the current efforts that exist to solve the issue. However, this research has some limitations. First of all, we only looked at the preconditions in organizational and procedural terms for creating solutions (e.g. types of leadership and partnerships). The content of these solutions such as technological innovations (e.g. genetically modified food and agricultural output enhancing techniques) have been left out of the analysis. This might, however, be an interesting option and could really contribute to fighting hunger. Second, it proved hard (if not impossible) to quantify any of the causes in terms of the most important cause of hunger. Future research should focus on this and try to uncover one or two most influential factors that contribute to the issue. Another option might be, given the disputed causes of hunger in the current literature, to study regions or countries and their context to identify unique causes that lead to hunger. Because the causes are unclear, the responsibility attribution is difficult. Finally, leadership is very context specific. Many factors influence the effectiveness of leadership. Therefore it is difficult to come up with clear and universal recommendations regarding this. One should always consider the context when selecting a leadership style, since different styles may be effective in different contexts.

31

Bibliography
Aalst, van, M.K. (2006). The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters. Disasters, 30 (1): 5-18. Action Against Hunger (2010). Highlights 2010. Retrieved on 18 September, 2011, from http://www.actionagainsthunger.org.uk/fileadmin/contribution/0_accueil/pdf/ACFUK_Highli ghts_2010.pdf. Alliance Against Hunger and Malnutrition (2011). Alliance Partners. Retrieved on 15 September, 2011, from http://www.theaahm.org/alliance-partners/en/. Anderson, S.A. (1990). Report on Nutritional Assessment defined terms associated with food access. Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult to sample populations. Journal of Nutrition (102): 1559-1660. Bckstrand, K. (2006). Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships for Sustainable Development: Rethinking Legitimacy, Accountability and Effectiveness. European Environment 16 (5): 290-306. Baro, M. and Deubel, T.F. (2006). Persistent Hunger: Perspectives on Vulnerability, Famine, and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology (35): 521-538. Bass, B.M. (1998). Transformational Leadership: Industrial, Military and Educational Impact. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Mahwah, New Jersey. BBC (2006). Did Live 8 make a difference?. Retrieved 11-09-2011, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/5128344.stm Bryceson, D.F. and Fonseca, J. (2006). Risking Death for Survival: Peasant Response to Hunger and HIV/AIDS in Malawi. World Development 34 (8): 1654-1666. Bryna Ethiopian Hunger BlogSpot (2011). Issues in Africa, Retrieved on 18 September, 2011, from http://bryna-ethiopianhunger.blogspot.com/2011/04/poverty-and-hunger-inethiopia.html. Buttel, F.H. (2000). Ending Hunger in Developing Countries. Contemporary Sociology 29 (1): 13-27. Clemens, M.A., Kenny, C.J. and Moss, T.J. (2007). The Trouble with the MDGs: Confronting Expectations of Aid and Development Success. World Development 35 (5): 735-751. Clover, J. (2003). Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa African Security Review 12 (1). Collective Leadership Institute (2011). Collective leadership for sustainability, Retrieved on 20 September, 2011, from http://collectiveleadership.com/en/about-cli/collective-leadershipfor-sustainability.html.

32

Dubrin, A. Dalglish C. and Miller P. (2006). Leadership 2nd Ed Asia Pacific Edition. John Wiley and Sons: Australia England. Food and Agriculture Organization (2000a). The state of food insecurity in the world 2000. Retrieved on 16 September, 2011, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/x8200e/x8200e00.htm. Food and Agriculture Organization (2000b). Principles and Guidelines for FAO cooperation with the Private Sector. Retrieved on 20 September, 2011 from ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/x2215e/x2215e00.pdf. Food and Agriculture Organization (2010). The State of Food Insecurity in The World 2010. Retrieved on 19 September 2011 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdf. Food and Agriculture Organization (2011a). Introduction to the basic concepts of food security. Retrieved on 16 September, 2011, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Food and Agriculture Organization (2011b). Hunger-Basic definitions. Retrieved on 16 September, 2011, from http://www.fao.org/hunger/basic-definitions/en/. Financial Times (1985). Conscience money, Financial Times, December 14, 1985, London. Financial Times (1992). UN action on Nutrition, Financial Times, December 4, 1992, London. Financial Times (1996). Summit will seek to ensure food for all, Financial Times, February 6, 1996, London. Financial Times (1998). Cambridge academic wins Nobel economics prize: Amartya Sen honored for his work on opportunity and inequality, Financial Times, October 15, 1998, London. Financial Times (2002). Skepticism on food request News Digest, Financial Times, June 12, 2002, London, England. FIVIMS (2011). Glossary: Food insecurity. Retrieved 16 September, 2011, from http://www.fivims.org/. Fombrun, C. and Gardberg, N. (2000). Whos tops in corporate reputation. Corporate Reputation Review 3 (1): 1317. Fombrun, C. and van Riel, C. (2004). Fame and Fortune. How successful companies build winning reputations New York: Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Global Issues (2010). Causes of hunger are related to poverty. Retrieved on 15 September, 2011, from http://www.globalissues.org/article/7/causes-of-hunger-are-related-to-poverty.
33

Googins, B. and Rochlin, S. (2000). Creating the partnership society: understanding the rhetoric and reality of cross-sectorial partnerships. Business and Society Review 105 (1): 127144. Green, R.H. (1986). Food policy, food production, and hunger in sub-Saharan Africa: retrospect and prospect. International Journal 71 (3): 768-780. Gupta , J. (2003). Global sustainable food governance and hunger. British Food Journal 106 (5). Hak, T. (2010). How to design and conduct an empirical test of a business theory. Course book for the bachelor thesis course, Rotterdam: Rotterdam School of Management (RSM). Investopedia (2011). Private Good. Retrieved on 7 September, 2011, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/private-good.asp#axzz1XFMCheR8. International Food Policy Research Center (2010) "Global Hunger Index 2010". Retrieved on 21 September, 2011, from http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ghi10.pdf. Kofi Annan Foundation (2011). Our Work. retrieved 12 September, 2011, from http://kofiannanfoundation.org/kofi-annan. Leader Values (2011). Kofi Annan. retrieved at 12 September, 2011, from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1446. Loewenberg, S. (2010). Nigers hunger crisis: a legacy of lessons unlearned. The Lancet 376 (9741): 579-581 Mason, J.B. (2002). Keynote Paper: Measuring hunger and malnutrition during the Measurement and Assessment of Food Depreviation and Undernutrition International Scientific Rome, 26-28 June 2002. Retrieved on 16 September, 2011, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e0d.htm#bm13. Messer, E, Cohen, M.J. & DCosta, J. (1998). Breaking the links between conflict and hunger, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, United States. Mirvis, P. and Googins, B. (2006). Stages of Corporate Citizenship. California Management Review 48 (2): 104-126. Misselhorn, A.A. (2005). What drives food insecurity in southern Africa? A meta-analysis of household economy studies. Global Environmental Change 15: 33-43. Newell, P. and Frynas, J.G. (2007). Beyond csr? Business, poverty and social justice: an introduction. Third World Quarterly 28 (4): 669-681. Ogunniyi, M.B. (2007). Adapting western science to traditional African culture. International Journal of Science Education 10 (1): 1-9.

34

Pigman, G.A. (2006). The World Economic Forum: a multi-stakeholder approach to global governance. Routlegde: New York. Prahalad, C.K. and Hammond, A. (2002). Serving the Worlds Poor, Profitably. Harvard Business Review 80 (9): 48-57. Sachs, J. (2008). Common wealth; economics for a crowded planet. Penguin Group: London. Safty, A. et al (2003). Leadership for human development Universal Publishers: Istanbul. Sanchez, P.A. and Swaminathan, M.S. (2005). Cutting World Hunger in Half. Science 307 (57): 357-359. Sanchez et al. (2005). Halving hunger-it can be done. UN Millennium Project Task Force on hunger. Retrieved on 16 September 2011, from http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Hunger-lowres-complete.pdf. Selsky, J.W. and Parker, B. (2005). Cross-Sector Partnerships to Address Social Issues: Challenges to Theory and Practice Journal of Management 31 (6): 846-873. Sen, A. (1981). Ingredients of Famine Analysis: Availability and Entitlements. Quarterly Journal of Economics 96 (3): 433-464. The Economist (2011). Once more onto the abyss. Retrieved on 19 September, 2011, from http://www.economist.com/node/18929467. The Hunger Project (2011). Become a Corporate Sponsor. Retrieved on 20 September, 2011, from http://www.thp.org/get_involved/corporate_sponsorship. TNT (2011). About us. retrieved on 12 September, 2011, from http://www.tntpost.co.uk/About_Us/. Tulder, van, R. (2011). Issues and Trade-off: Exercises in Critical Thinking, Leadership and Decision-Making in a Bargaining Society. Syllabus for the Master Global Business & Stakeholder Management, module 1: BKM09GBS Leadership & Issues, 2011-2012. Tulder, van, R. (2011). The partnership box. The Partnership Resource Centre. Working Paper. Tulder, van, R. (2011 forthcoming). Partnerships from the perspective of NGOs. Tulder, van, R. and Meijs, L. (2011). The issue life cycle. Lecture slides 9 September, 2011, for the Master Global Business & Stakeholder Management, module 1: BKM09GBS Leadership & Issues, 2011-2012. Tulder, van, R. and Zwart, van der, A. (2006). International Business-Society Management, Linking Corporate Responsibility and Globalization. Routledge: New York (NY), United States.
35

UNDP (2002). Johannesburg Summit Promotes Partnerships for Development. Retrieved on 18 September, 2011, from http://www.undp.org/dpa/frontpagearchive/2002/september/5sept02/. UNDP (2011). Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved on 19 September, 2011, from http://www.undp.org/mdg/goal1.shtml. United Nations (2000). United Nations Millennium Declaration. Retrieved on 19 September, 2011, from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/millennium.htm. United Nations (2011). Former Secretaries-General: Kofi Annan. Retrieved on 12 September, 2011, from http://www.un.org/sg/annan.shtml. UNICEF (2002). Nutrition.. Retrieved on 16 September, 2011, from http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_bigpicture.html. Verdin, J. et al (2005). Climate Science and Famine Early Warning Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 360 (1463): 2155-2168. WEF (2011a). Business Alliance Against Chronic Hunger. Retrieved on 20 September, 2011, from https://members.weforum.org/pdf/initiatives/baach_brochure.pdf. WEF (2011b).Realizing a New Vision for Agriculture: A roadmap for stakeholders. Retrieved on 20 September, 2011, from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/IP/AM11/CO/WEF_AgricultureNewVision_Roadmap_2011. pdf. Westley, F. (1991). Bob Geldof and Live Aid: the affective side of global social innovation. Human Relations 44 (10): 1011-1036. Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989). Visionary leadership and strategic management, Strategic Management Journal 10 (1): 17-32. WFP (2011a). Contributions to WFP 2011 Retrieved on 20 September, 2011, from http://www.wfp.org/about/donors/year/2011. WFP (2011b). Contributions to WFP by Programme Category. Retrieved on 18 September, 2011, from http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/research/wfp216778.pdf. World Food Programme (2011c). What causes hunger?. Retrieved on 15 September, 2011, from http://www.wfp.org/hunger/causes. World Food Programme (2011d). Peter Bakker Ambassador Against Hunger. Retrieved on 12 September, 2011, from http://www.wfp.org/content/peter-bakker-ambassador. World Food Programme (2011e) "Hunger Map 2010". Retrieved on 21 September, 2011, from http://www.wfp.org/hunger/map.

36

World Food Summit (1996). Food Security. Retrieved on 19 September, 2011, from http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story028/en/. World Hunger (2011). 2011 World Hunger and Poverty facts and statistics. Retrieved on 19 September 2011 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm#Number _of_hungry_people_in_the_world. 1 Billion Hungry (2011). Friends. Retrieved on 17 September, 2011, from http://www.1billionhungry.com/friends/. Databases BoardEx (2011) accessed at 12-09-2011 through Erasmus University. LexisNexis (2011) accessed from 09-09-2011 to 10-09-2011 through Erasmus University.

37