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Shi Fang
Bachelor of Computer Engineering/Master of Biomedical Engineering
University of New South Wales, Australia

Nowadays, many countries are speeding up in their video surveillance system update process. Following
numbers of individual video surveillance systems established in different regions and departments, it become
essential to integrate the local video surveillance system as a unified platform. So that it allows the sharing of
video resource. Maximize the capabilities of controlling and commanding from video surveillance system.
However, video surveillance system was developed from many small groups at beginning. It is luck in unity of
layout. Video encoders from different producers were adopted; at the same time, for transferring remote digital
video signal, it must establish wide network. Due to the limitation in bandwidth of wide network digital
transportation, it must adopt the combination of unicast and multicast in order to satisfy the need for large
unified network through limited bandwidth [1]. However, the digital linking devices in wide network, for
example the switcher and router are came from different producer as well, it’s hard to perform multicast over
different network.
This article introduces a special designed video delivery server. Based on the vast number of established local
video surveillance network, it sets up wide video surveillance network by using this delivery server which is
capable of handling encoder and digital linking device from different producer.

Keywords: Delivery, Server, Surveillance.

1 INTRODUCTION • deliver single unicast video stream to

single multicast video stream
This Delivery Server is a general IP digital • deliver single unicast video stream to
video stream server designed for different
manufactories. The Delivery Server provides the multiple unicast video stream + single
ability that copy requested digital video stream to multicast video stream
several identical video streams by following • deliver single multicast video stream to
specified rules and then delivers them to many multiple unicast video stream
receptors/decodes (including hardware decoder and • support one way isolated deliver
software decoder). At the same time, it can perform
the transformation between unicast and multicast
video stream in bi-direction. It can deliver the
multicast video stream to remote terminal through 2 MAIN WORKING PRINCIPLE
LAN connection that multicast is even not
supported. Later on, the video streams are After delivery server received the command
regrouped to multicast stream. It has the ability to from management system, it then receives the
transform single video source to several unicast specified IP video data stream. Follow the
video stream plus single multicast video stream. In command request, copy it into multiple IP video
the area with isolator network interface build-in, the streams and deliver to different destination
Delivery Server supports delivery of isolated video: separately. The main working principle described
deliver video to different network with IP address as below figure:
entirely isolated. It guarantees one-way video
stream is transferred, no any other bi-directional
data communication. Hence it acts as a video
gateway or video network isolator [2].
Main functions are described below:
• deliver single unicast video stream to
multiple unicast video stream

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• Main Power Supply: 90-250V /50-60Hz
self-adaptive AC power source

• Delivery Ability: No less than 66M/s-

90M/s(based on single port input and

Considering different needs, delivery server can be

grouped into two versions: 4 U chassis & 1 U

Figure 1: Deliver Server work flow

From above figure, after IP video encoder delivered

the original IP video stream to video server, video
delivery server then follow the request from
external management program (manage 3.2 Independent Delivery Servers (1 U)
server/centralized management platform/main Figure 2: Independent Delivery Server Example
control system etc) , copy the IP video stream into
multiple identical set and deliver to different 1U version adopts 1 U independent design, suitable
destination. Such destination includes hardware in case that relatively small amount of delivery is
decoder/storage device/software decoder/video needed.
analysis system etc which need IP video stream. The main parameters of 1U independent delivery
server are described below:
• Network port: 4 X 10/100M self-adaptive
3 PRODUCT HARDWARE DESCRIPTION port, RJ-45 Female, self-adaptive
MDI/MDIX network cable
This product consists with embeddable
hardware. All software is programmed inside flash • State indicator light: 10M/100M speed
in order to enhance the stability and capability to
indicator light, data transfer indicator light
protect system from invasion/virus. Based on the
mature hardware system of Archer5400 main
control board, it has passed long period of practical • Protocol: following related Ethernet and
running test and provides better stability for TCP/IP standards, support unicast,
hardware system [3]. multicast, multiple unicast

3.1 Mainly Hardware Parameter • Local control port: RS232 serial port, 9
pins male, “D” type port
• CPU: RISC 400MHz embedded CPU,
internal hardware guide dog • Power supply: AC input voltage 100-240V,
frequency 50-60HZ
• RAM: DDR200MHz 128M high speed
dynamic • Physical dimension: standard 1U chassis,
• Flash: 16M-32M flash
• Weight: 5.2Kg
• Clock: high stability clock module
• Rated power: 35W
• Internal Power Supply: adopted multiple
redundant power supply to enhance
isolability and stability 3.3 Delivery Server Group (4 U)

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The hardware in the system is packed with CPU
and operates system in a way that it is relatively
tight and special designed for independent device,
not as interfered easily with other software and
hardware as those un-embedded system (e.g.
general computer system) does. Hence it has
advantage on stability, so that it become easy for
installation, maintenance, administration and
Figure 3: Delivery Server Group Example performs the module design on system. As the
result it increases the stability (include the stability
for performance) and consistency on system
• Physical dimension: 19 inch standard 4U dramatically.
4.2 System Constructions
• Fully equipped weight: approx 12.5Kg It is adopted the basic working principal of
internal-core data process + hardware delivery for
• Power Supply (include power from our delivery server. So that it supplies the best
equipment rack) < 135W delivery efficiency.
When IP video stream from source transferred into
• Heat dissipation: <100W delivery server, base on the request received
previously, the server then perform quick search on
system internal delivery table and follow the related
Single Archer5400 chassis can insert 5 pieces of request to perform different instruction including
delivery server card in maximum. There are 4 copy/transform/delivery.
10M/100M network port on each card. This system construction can be concluded as three
Each delivery server card is described as below: layers:
• Network port: 4 X 10/100M self-adaptive • User port layer ---- responsible for joining
port, RJ-45 Female, self-adaptive user administration port
MDI/MDIX network cable
• User application layer ---- responsible for
• State indicator light: 10M/100M speed performing analysis and execution on user
indicator light, data transfer indicator light command from high level

• Protocol: following related Ethernet and • Hardware internal core layer ----
TCP/IP standards, support unicast, responsible for performing
multicast, multiple unicast analysis/transform/delivery on video
• Local control port: RS232 serial port, 9
pins male, “D” type port Through different layers, it guarantees the data
delivered in high efficiency and also perform
management strategy in a highly flexible way.
After adopting delivery server group, we can This system construction is showed on figure
perform flux balance on each server based on below:
different requirement, set the threshold value on
flux, so that to perform balance control
automatically [4].
In fact delivery server group is acting as a stack in
order to enhance the capability of expansion for
delivery; hence to suit customer needs better in the
way as these needs are always increasing and


4.1 Embedded System Platform

Embedded Linux is adopted as internal
firmware platform for our delivery server.
Based on the advantage from embedded design:

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system requested the same IP video stream, it can
System Architecture copy and deliver the stream from local directly; this
is where auto-cascading delivery needed [6].
User Interface
User Interface (optional) Performing auto-cascading delivery simultaneously,
it can greatly simplify the complications on external
application system. Hence let the management
User/Application Layer
system focus on management performance and
Management Module optimization.
5.2.3 Function on Permission Control
Core Layer
when there is insufficient bandwidth in WAN,
Delivery at the same time new data request from superior
Socket Receiver Socket Sender management system is arrived, it rises an issue
about how to deal with existing video digital stream
on local and the high priority data request from
Management IP Command IP Video Stream Output
superior system. this issue can be handled by
Source IP Video Stream IP Video Stream Output
delivery server after putting the permission control
strategy on management system, so that it
guarantees the permission control on real time,
Figure 4: System Architecture guarantees the accuracy on state (the state in
delivery server is the most recent and accurate one),
so that enhance the reliability of permission control,
avoid the problem that superior management
5 SYSTEM APPLICATION MODE system can not get requested data on time.
5.2.4 Function on Advanced General Command
5.1 “Full time” Delivery Mode The meaning of advanced general commands is
Under this mode, delivery server only performs a that the management system will send unified
single job: responsible for IP video data delivery. control command and no longer differentiates the
Although it can add some additional function with different video sources (encoder). It’s like:” please
simple condition, such as feedback of data state send the video picture from station No.1, camera
(state of delivery table, enquiry etc), statistical No.32” without understanding what device camera
value on data flow, it never need delivery server to No.32 is adopted. So that the commands which
participate the management work on control system. from different devices are differentiated by using
The delivery server can be simply considered as an different encoder “driver” through the delivery
execution parts for management control system. server. Hence it greatly simplifies the complications
on management system. Different encoders can
5.2 Intelligent Delivery Mode unitize the control by adding different drivers.
Under this mode, beside from acting as basic 5.2.5 Function on auto flux balance
delivery server, it also needs delivery server to When single delivery server can not fully
participate works on condition-management control support the great amount of delivery workload, auto
system. Precisely it can be grouped by functionality flux balance is needed: gathering other delivery
into different combinations as described below: servers together to complete the delivery job for
single IP video stream. The auto flux balance is
5.2.1 Function on Flux Monitory & Control kind of work to keep this in line, it manages servers
Delivery server can monitor the data flux on together to form a unified delivery working group.
delivery port in real time, and base on presetting
threshold value to start different processing mode,
for example, after threshold value reached to 60%, 6 AREA OF APPLICATION
enable the function on flux balance, when
threshold value reach 80%, trigger the alarm 6.1 Local Delivery Server
function, when threshold value reach 90%, it gives If poor network performance of some encoders is
pause to new server or performs high priority showed, or from management reason that
control strategy etc [5], all the process plans can be requesting multi-deliver on video delivery server, it
handled by control system settings and download to can be done by choosing local delivery server.
delivery server for auto run. Follow different requests, it can be classified into
5.2.2 Function on Auto-Cascading Delivery two cases:
For a multi-level networking, there is always
cascading delivery problem. To maximize the 6.11 Conditional Delivery Mode
utility of the WAN or the bandwidth on the If there are a lot of local encoders, decoders, or
bottleneck of network, we want that when an IP different devices have different capabilities of
video stream is arrived to local, once superior network delivery, or from management reasons, it

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need use modes described below: streams are delivered through delivery server.
1. When first user established video link to Speaking to management system, all the video data
this encoder, this video IP stream will be linked are came from delivery server. Logically the
from encoder to decoder directly, delivery server is delivery server is to consider as a centralized video
not participating for job. source.
2.When this video is requested by second Unified delivery sever mode is shown on below
user, in another words this video will be linked to picture:
second connection, the delivery server will be
activated from management control server, switch
video link from both user to the stream which
established by delivery server at same time. So that
both users receive video IP data stream from
delivery server.
3. If any other new user tries to establish
link to this video, it will receive video IP stream
from the same delivery server.
Conditional delivery mode is described on below

Figure 6: Unified Delivery Mode

From above picture, we can see that: encoders are
grouped as original data layer. Decoders are
grouped as destination layer. Delivery server is the
meeting point of two layers. The logic relationship
between layers is very clear; the request to the
management system is relatively simple. It
dramatically reduced the difficulty of development
of management system. There is not “delivery
switch” stage at all; it can guarantee the real-time
Figure 5: Condition Delivery Mode system running stably & smoothly.
Under the conditional delivery mode, the
development of management system is relatively 6.2 Gateway Delivery Mode
complicate, management system need to know At some circumstances, we only allow single-
clearly the state of encoder in real time, when the direction delivery for video data to some individual
delivery server is needed. Under this mode, it may or private networks. There is no permission for any
be a stage of switching direct encoder/decoder link data returning from the secured network to the
to delivery server stream. During this “delivery video data network. For this special need, we can
switch” stage, the current real time user can be adopt the 1U dependent delivery server which has
effect considerably (there is not “seamless” switch delivery capability for two network segment and
[7]). There are also chances which leading to switch working under the gateway delivery server mode.
failing. As a consequence the video is watching by
current user may be lost. (It is like failing on mobile The gateway delivery mode is shown on below
phone switching, can not communicate). Once the figure:
failing appeared, it must need reconnection to be
established manually for coverage. The biggest
advantage of conditional delivery server is: fully
utilize the network capability of encoder, decrease
the number of delivery server. At the same time,
reduce the latency of local picture.

6.1.2 Unified Delivery Mode

Compared with conditional delivery server,
under the unified delivery sever mode all video

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[1] Juniper Networks: Video Distribution in a

Hybrid Multicast-Unicast world: Introduction to
Automatic IP Multicast Without Explict Tunnels,
Juniper Networks Inc, pp.5-8 (2005)
[2] Adam H. Li, Dong-Seek Park, John D:
Villasenor Video Stream Services – Stage 1. 3GPP2,
[3] Avtrace: Video Delivery Servers: evaluation
report, Avtrace Inc, pp. 5-12(2006)
[4] Yang Ding Yi, Lu Hong Ying: the design of the
video monitor system for the railroad transport
security based on IP net work technology, Micro
Computer Information, pp.12-14(2004)
[5] Li Zhong Nian, Xia Zhen Hua: Design of An IP
Video Monitoring and Control System Based on
Direct Show. Chang Jiang University, pp.20-
Figure 7: Gateway Delivery Mode 34(2005)
[6] AI Shu Hua , Xu Li Hong , Xu Sheng Lin: IP
As above figure, it can show that for a complicated Multicast Technology Research Based on
and isolate-needed network, after adopting the Embedded Video Monitoring System. Computer
gateway delivery mode, it can guarantees the video and Modernization, pp.34-40(2006)
network is not effect by external network mostly. [7] Dong Qian, Xie Jian Yin: A Utility Maximizing
This is because delivery server is acting as an Rate Control Algorithm, Journal Of system
isolation device between the two networks. Simulation Dec, pp.23-30(2003)

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