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: {ark # mksat. net}, 2003-2004
. , , 2003, 2004
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- .. (V.A..) : (. graphon);
- .. (I.R.G.) (. features of style),
(. simile) (gap-sentence link, question-inthe-narrative, rhyme, epigram, allusion, enumeration, etc.), ;
- .. (I.V.A.) - ( , .),
.. (. epithet), (. ),
(. transposition, convergence, coupling, ,
zoomorphism, elative, reprise .), .

, .
., , metaphor, antonomasia, zeugma, antithesis, climax, periphrasis, transposition
a) V.A.Kukharenko. A book of practice in Stylistics. 2nd rev. and suppl. ed. A manual for students of
Foreign Languages Departments of Higher Educational Institutions. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. 160 p.
b) .. : . .- .
. 2- , . . : , 2000. 160 . .
. . .- .. . 2- .,
. . : , 2000. 160 . .

a) I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. 2nd ed., rev., ed. by L.R.Todd. M.: Higher School, 1977
. . . 2-, . . . ... .: .
, 1977. 332 . .

. : . 4- ., . . .:
, , 2002, - 384 .
style of language

- is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfil a
specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect; (I.R.G.)
- ( ) ,
() (I.R.G.:6);
- , ,
- , , ,
, ;
- is primarily the study of synonymic language resources (Charles Bally);
See: <practical stylistics>, <functional stylistics>, <functional style>; <stylistic device>, <expressive
means>, <stylistic norm>; <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>, <lexical level>, <syntactical level>
expressive means

are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which
exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance
See: <alliteration>; use of diminutive suffixes, use of words with <emotional meaning>, <special
colloquial words>, <barbarisms>, <archaisms>, acronyms, idioms etc.
See: <stylistic device>, <phono-graphical level>; <Stylistics>
stylistic device

is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a
language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalised status and thus becoming a generative model
(I.R.G.:29) - /
( ),
. ( <I.V.A.>)
Types: <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>; <lexico-syntactical SDs>
See: <expressive means>, <convergence>, <foregrounding>, <autology>
practical stylistics

the stylistics, proceeding form the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms
to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishers, writers,
journalists, teachers, etc.). (V.A.K.:10)
See: <functional stylistics>, <Stylistics>,
stylistic norm

the invariant of the phonemic, morphological. lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in language-inaction at a given period of time (I.R.G.)
See: <individual style>, <Stylistics>
individual style
1) a unique combination of language units, <expressive means> and <stylistic device>s peculiar to a
given writer, which makes that writers works or even utterances easily recognisable (I.R.G.:17);
2) deals with problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their
organisation into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser (V.A.K.:10);
See: <stylistic norm>, <Stylistics>
a material, sensuously perceived object (phenomenon, action) appearing in the process of cognition and
communication in the capacity of a representative (substitute) of another object (or objects) and used for
receiving, storing, recasting and transforming information about this object (:1965) (I.R.G.:61)
See: <word>, <lexical SDs>, <Stylistics>

- a unit of language functioning within the sentence or within a part of it which by its sound or graphical
form expresses a concrete or abstract notion or a grammatical notion through one of its <meaning>s and which is
capable of enriching its semantic structure by acquiring new meanings and losing old ones;
- possesses an enormous potentiality for generating new meanings;
Source: <I.R.G.>:62,66

a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of sounds,
possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterised by formal and semantic unity
See: <sign>, <lexical SDs>, <Stylistics>

the ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite context (Prague
linguists) (I.V.A.:11)


See: <irony>, <epithet>, <stylistic device>
functional style
a) a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication
b) includes: <official style>, <scientific style>, <publicist style>, <newspaper style>, <belles-lettres
c) the co-ordination of the language means and <stylistic device>s which shapes the distinctive features
of each style, and not the language means or SD themselves
d) a patterned variety of literary text characterised by the greater or lesser typification of its constituents,
supra-phrasal units, in which the choice and arrangement of interdependent and interwoven language media are
calculated to secure the purport of the communication
Source: <I.R.G.>: 32

, , , , ,
, , .
Source: <I.V.A.>, 320
See: <stylistic device>, <individual style>, <Stylistics>
official style
(the) style of official documents
represented in all kinds of official documents and papers (V.A.K.)

The main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state and the citizen,
citizen and citizen, the society and its members, two or more enterprises or bodies, a person and subordinates)
- the aim is to reach agreement between two contracting parties.
- <features of official style>
[u]Substyles:[/u] the language of business documents, the language of legal documents, the language of
diplomacy, the language of military documents
- each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions;
Syn.: official style, the style of official documents, officialese
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>


Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <official style>
features of official style
- conventionality of expression;
e.g. preamble, central clauses, opening addresses, closing sentences, signatures, seals, dates, names of
- special system of clichs, set expressions \[and highly literary formal words\];
e.g. I beg to inform you, on behalf of, Dear Sir, The High Contracting Parties hereby agree as follows,
hereby, hereto, herein, hereinafter (referred to as), the undersigned, excepted otherwise herein provided,
whatsoever, to authorise, bona fide
- terms;
e.g. immovable property, designated depository, deputy judge, depositions de bene esse, territorial
- the encoded character of language; symbols: special terminological nomenclature, abbreviations,
conventional symbols and contractions;
e.g. MP, IMF, UN, RU, NGO, PLC, LLC, Inc, Gvt, Dept, EXW, $, EUR, VAT, e.o.h.p.
- use of words in their logical <dictionary meaning>. There is no room for words with <contextual
meaning> or for any kind of simultaneous realisation of two meanings;
- word with <emotive meaning> are also not to be found, except those which are used in business letters
as conventional phrases of greeting or close (as Dear Sir);
- absence of any emotiveness: (commercial correspondence) emotional words and phrases;
- compositional patterns, compositional design; infinitive object clauses;
- a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncement into one sentence, the whole
document in one sentence \[according to\] its formal syntactical structure.
Source: <I.R.G.> (the examples excluding)
See: <official style >
scientific style

found in articles, brochures, monographs and other scientific and academic publications (V.A.K.)

The aim is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence,
development, relations between different phenomena, etc. (I.R.G.)
- <features of scientific style>

- < >
- < >
- < >
- < >
Source: <I.V.A.>, 321
features of scientific style
- logical sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelations and interdependence; logical
coherence of ideas expressed;
- objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality, striving for the most generalised form of
- developed and varied system of connectives;
- use of terms specific to each given branch of science;
- direct referential (and primary logical) <meaning> of the general vocabulary; self-explanatory terms;
neutral and common literary words; the possibility of ambiguity is avoided;
- hardly a single word will be found here which is used in more than one <meaning>, nor will be any
words with <contextual meaning>;
- sentence-patterns (postulatory, argumentative, formulative);
- based on facts already known, on facts systematised and defined;
- quotations and references;
- foot-notes, digressive in character;

- impersonality: frequent use of passive constructions;

- impersonal passive constructions are frequently used with the verbs suppose, assume, point out;
- far greater amount of preliminary knowledge;
- there may be hypotheses, pronouncements and conclusions, (backed up by strong belief);
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <scientific style>
publicist style

covering such genres as essay, feature article, most writing of new journalism, public speeches, etc.

The general aim is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the
listener that the interpretation given by the writer of the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to
accept the point of view not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well (brain-washing
[u]Substyles:[/u] oratorical (direct contact with the listeners); radio commentary; essay (moral,
philosophical, literary; book review in journals and magazines, pamphlets); articles (political, social, economic).
- <features of publicist style>
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <publicist style>

See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>
features of publicist style
- combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal;
- features, common with the style of scientific prose and emotive prose;
- coherent and logical syntactical structure, expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing;
- use of words with <emotive meaning>, the use of other SD as in emotive prose, but the SD are not
fresh or genuine;
- individual element is little in evidence here, generally toned down and limited;
- brevity of expression (sometimes epigrammatic) leading feature;
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <publicist style>
newspaper style

1) observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers;
- is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually;
Source: <V.A.K.>:118,8

2) a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the
community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and
instructing the reader.
- primary function is to impart information, Seeks to influence public opinion on political and other
matters (brief news items and communiqus, press reports, purely informational, advertisement and
announcements, editorials)
- <features of newspaper style>
Source: <I.R.G.>
- < >
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>
features of newspaper style
- alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space
- special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper clichs, abbreviations,
- syntactic constructions, indicating a lack of assurance of the reporter as to the correctness of the facts
reported or his desire to avoid responsibility;
- complex sentences with a developed system of clauses;

- syntactical complexes: verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun
- specific word order five-w-and-h-pattern rule: (who-what-why-how-where-when);
- attributive noun groups (e.g. leap into space age);
- headlines are the most concise;
- considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement, the use of emotionally coloured words and
elements of emotive syntax).
Source: <I.R.G.>
e.g. A column 185 feet high with a statue of Admiral Nelson on top was created in Trafalgar Square in
1876. 1867 185 ,
See: < >, <newspaper style>

belles-lettres style
(the) style of imaginative literature

embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing
The unlimited possibilities of creative writing, which covers the whole of the universe and makes use of
all language resources, led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of its contours, it can be
hardly qualified as a functional style.
Source: <V.A.K.>:118,8

The purpose (the cognitive function) is not to prove but only to suggest a possible *interpretation of the
phenomena of life by forcing the reader to See the viewpoint of the writer.
[u]Substyles:[/u] the language of poetry (verse), emotive prose (fiction), the language of drama.
- <features of belles-lettres style>
Syn.: belles-lettres style, style of imaginative literature
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <poetic style>, <supra-phrasal unit>, <functional style>, <stylistic device>, , <stylistic analysis of
poetry>, <stylistic analysis of prose>
features of belles-lettres style
- use of words in contextual and very often in more than one <dictionary meaning>, or at least greatly
influenced by the lexical environment.
- a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree of author's personal evaluation of things or
- a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy;
- the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree (in plays) or a lesser one
(in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poems)
- individual, distinctive properties, aesthetic-cognitive effect.
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <belles-lettres style>,
poetic style
- dealt with verbal forms specific for poetry
But poetry, within the last decades, lost its isolated linguistic position; it makes use of all the vocabulary
and grammar offered by the language at large and there is hardly sense in singling out a special poetic style for
contemporary linguistic situation, though its relevance for the language of the 17th, 18th and even the biggest part
of the 19th centuries cannot be argued.
Source: <V.A.K.>:9
See: <belles-lettres style>, <literary words>
colloquial type of language
- is characterised by the unofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation
- manifests a conscious, mindful effort in choosing and preferring certain means of expression for the
given communicative circumstances,
- is shaped by the immediacy, spontaneity, unpremeditativeness of the communicative situation
Source: <V.A.K.>:9
See: <colloquial words>, <group genitive>; <official style>
functional stylistics

- deals with sets, paradigms (known as <functional style>s) of language units of all levels of language
hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations (Prague School);
- dealing in fact with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most allembracing global trend in style study
- at large and its specified directions proceed from the situationally stipulated language paradigms and
concentrate primarily on the analysis of the latter.
Source: <V.A.K.>:7,9
See: <functional style>, <Stylistics>
phono-graphical level
includes: <onomatopoeia>, <alliteration>, <assonance>, <graphon>
See: <morphological level>, <Stylistics>
morphological level
includes: <onomatopoeia>, <morphemic repetition>, <stylistic use of articles>, <negation>, <tense of
verbs>, <perfect continuous passive>, <continuous participle>, <continuous infinitive passive>, <perfect
infinitive passive>
See: <phono-graphical level>, <syntactical level>, <Stylistics>
(direct) onomatopoeia

the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action (V.A.K.)
e.g. babble, chatter, giggle, grumble, murmur, mutter, titter, whisper; buzz, cackle, croak, crow, hiss,
howl, moo, mew, roar; bubble, splash; clink, tinkle; clash, crash, whack, whip, whisk

a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder,
etc.), by things (machines or tools, etc.) by people (sighing, laughter, patter of feet, etc.) and by animals (I.R.G.)
e.g. hiss, powwow, murmur, bump, grumble, sizzle, ding-dong, buzz, bang, cuckoo, tintinnabulation,
mew, ping-pong, roar
e.g. Then with enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the station.

, , , -
, , , .. (I.V.A.)
e.g. bubble, splash, rustle, purr, flop, babble, giggle, whistle
e.g. ... where white horses and black horses and brown horses and white and black horses and brown and
white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tappety-tap over cobble stones ...(.)
See: <indirect onomatopoeia>, <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>

the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words

e.g. ... silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (E.A.Poe)
e.g. The furrow followed free. (S.T.Coleridge)
e.g. The Italian trio tut-tuted their tongues at me. (T.Capote)
e.g. Nothing so exciting, so scandalous, so savouring of the black arts had startled Aberlaw since Trevor
Day, the solicitor was suspected of killing his wife with arsenic. (A. Cronin Citadel)
Source: <V.A.K.>
e.g. Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering. (E.A.Poe)

a) a phonetic <stylistic device>, which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance;
b) repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the
beginning of successive words;
e.g. Gaunt as the ghastliest of glimpses that gleam through the gloom of the gloaming when ghosts go
aghastpoet parodies his own style. (Swinburne Nephelidia)
e.g. The possessive instinct never stands still. Through florescence and fend, frosts and fires it follows
the laws of progression. (Galsworthy)

e.g. Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, // Doubting, dreaming dreams
no mortals ever dared to dream before. (E.A.Poe)
Source: <I.R.G.>

e.g. Doom is dark and deeper than any sea dingle. (W.Auden)
e.g. Apt Alliterations artful aid. (W.Auden)
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. Dead Dufton, I muttered to myself. Dirty Dufton, Dreart Dufton, Dispicable Dufton then
stopped. (J.Braine) , . ,
, .
See: <repetition>, <phono-graphical level>, <assonance>

the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables (V.A.K.)
e.g. Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul (R.Browning)
e.g. Dreadful young creatures squealing and squawking. (D.Carter)

e.g. Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden, // I shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom
the angels name Lenore -- // Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels name Lenore? (E.Poe - Raven)
See: <repetition>, <phono-graphical level>, <alliteration>

a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)

e.g. silken sad uncertain // rustling of each purple curtain (E.A.Poe)
See: <alliteration>, <assonance>, < rhythm>, <rhyme>
a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)
e.g. Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul. (R.Browning)
See: <alliteration>, <assonance>

1) intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its
authentic pronunciation, to recreate the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the
communication act (V.A.K.) ( ,
.) (I.V.A.)
e.g. I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon wail for the dwiver. (Dickens)
e.g. You dont mean to thay that thith ith your firth time. (D. Cusack)
2) all changes of the type (italics, CapiTaliSation), s p a c i n g of graphemes, (hy-phe-na-ti-on, m-mmultiplication) and of lines (V.A.K.)
e.g. Alllll aboarrrrrrrd.
e.g. Help. Help. HELP (A.Huxley)
e.g. grinning like a chim-pan-zee (OConnor)
e.g. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo // We havent enough to do-oo-oo. (R. Kipling)

- .
, .
e.g. O Music! Sphere descended maid, // Friend of Pleasure, Wisdoms aid! (W. Collins)
e.g. If way to the Better there be, it exacts a full look at the Worst. (Th. Hardy)

e.g. I didnt kill Henry. No, NO! (D. Lawrence The Lovely Lady)

e.g. WILL YOU BE QUIET! he bawled (A. Sillitoe The key to the door)
, , , ,
, () ,
( ).
e.g. You mean youd like it best. Little Jon considered. No, they would, to please me. (Galsworthy Awakening)
e.g. Olwen (smiling at him affectionately): You are a baby. Gordon (furious, rising and taking step
forward): You are a rotter, Stanton. (J.B. Pristley)
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <phono-graphical level>
morphemic repetition
repetition of a morpheme, both root and affixational, to emphasise and promote it (V.A.K.)
e.g. They unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A. Bennett)
e.g. Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossis people brought him home in triumph.
(H. Caine)
e.g. Young Blight made another great show of changing the volume, taking up a pen, sucking it, sipping
it, and running over previous entries before he wrote. As, Mr. Alley, Mr. Balley, Mr. Calley, Mr. Dalley, Mr.
Falley, Mr. Galley, Mr. Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr. Malley. And Mr. Boffin. (Dickens)
See: <repetition>, <occasional words>, <morphological level>
occasional words
extension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words
An effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. They are not
neologisms in the true sense for they are created for special communicative situations only, and are not used
beyond these occasions.
e.g. I am an undersecretary of an underbureau. (I.Shaw)
e.g. Parritt turns startledly. (E.ONeill)
e.g. That was masterly. Or should one say mistressly. (A.Huxley)
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. mother-in-lowed, not-thereness
Syn.:occasional words, nonce-words
See: <morphemic repetition>
lexical level
stratum of words
includes: <literary words>, <neutral words>, <colloquial words>
See: <trope>; <phono-graphical level>, <syntactical level>; <Stylistics>
literary words
learned words
bookish words
high-flown words
- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages,
authorial speech of creative prose;
- mainly observed in the written form;
- contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity, learnedness.
e.g. I must decline to pursue this painful discussion, It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to
my feelings. (Dickens)
See: <neutral words>, <colloquial words>; <special literary words>; <lexical level>
Source: <V.A.K.>
Syn.: literary words, learned words, bookish words, high-flown words
colloquial words
- employed in non-official everyday communication;
- mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational;
- their use is associated with the oral form of communication;
e.g. dad, kid, crony, fan, to pop, folks
d) include <special colloquial words>;

e.g. Shes engaged. Nice guy, too. Though theres a slight difference in height. Id say a foot, her favor.
(T. Capote)
Source: <V.A.K.>
See: <special colloquial words>, <stratum of words>, <colloquial type of language>
special colloquial words
<slang>, <jargonisms>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>
neutral words
the overwhelming majority of lexis (V.A.K.)
See: <literary words>, <colloquial words>
special literary words
such <literary words> as <terms> and <archaisms> (V.A.K.)
<special literary words>, denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities, technique

such <special literary words> as

a) historical words denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use
e.g. yeoman, vassal, falconet
b) poetic words and highly literary words used in poetry in the 17 19 cc.
e.g. steed - horse, quoth - said, woe - sorrow, eftsoons - again, soon after, rondure - roundness
c) archaic words proper in the course of language history ousted by newer synonymous words or
e.g. to deem = to think, repast = meal, - for horse, quoth for said, woe for sorrow;
maketh = makes, thou wilt = you will, brethren = brothers, whereof, aforesaid, hereby, therewith,
e.g. If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle. (J.Steinbeck)
Source: <V.A.K.>
(general) slang
such <special colloquial words> which
- used by most speakers in very and highly informal, substandard communication
- are highly emotive and expressive and as such
- lose their originality rather fast and
- are replaced by newer formations, unstable, fluctuating, tending to expanded synonymity within certain
lexico-semantic groups
e.g. Now take fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded plastered, blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled, stinko, viled,
polluted(K. Kesey)
e.g. Do you talk? asked Bundle. or are you just strong and silent? Talk? said Anthony. I burble. I
murmur. I gurgle like a running brook, you know. Sometimes I even ask questions. (A. Christie)
Source: <V.A.K.>
e.g. pot, grass, groovy, honkie, cool, chick, dough, bread
See: <special slang>
special slang
such <special colloquial words> which
- stand close to <slang>, also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang
- are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (<professional jargonisms> or
<professionalisms>) or socially (<jargonisms proper>)
- cover a narrow semantic field, function and sphere of application
- tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups
Source: <V.A.K.>
Syn.: jargonisms, special slang
professional jargonisms


such <jargonisms> which

- connected with the technical side of some profession
e.g. driller = borer, digger, wrencher, hogger, brake weight
e.g. pipeliner = swabber, bender, cat, old cat, collar-pecker, hammerman
- are formed according to the existing word-building patterns of present existing words in new
<meaning>s, and,
- covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited, offer a vast variety
of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item
See: <special colloquial words>
Source: <V.A.K.>
Syn.: professional jargonisms, professionalism
jargonisms proper
such <jargonisms> which
- served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated;
- originated from the thieves jargon (largo, cant);
- was to be cryptic, secretive (major function);
See: <jargonisms>, <special colloquial words>
Source: <V.A.K.>

coarse <special colloquial words> with a strong <emotive meaning>, mostly derogatory, normally
avoided in polite conversation (V.A.K.)
e.g. There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings this year.
Source: <V.A.K.>
dialectical words

such <special colloquial words> which

- are normative and devoid of any <stylistic meaning> in regional dialects, but used outside of them,
carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong;
- markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same phoneme is differently pronounced in each of
- differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and also
supplying locally circulating <synonyms> for the words, accepted by the language in general.
e.g. son of a bitch, whore, whorehound
e.g. A hut was all the (= the only) home he ever had.
e.g. Mary sits aside (= beside) of her sister on the bus.
Source: <V.A.K.>

foreign words of phrases, sometimes perverted

e.g. chic, bonmot, en passant, delicatessen, matador, reprimand, helicopter, hippopotamus, marauder,
Midi, guerre des baguettes, boulangers, croissants

new words or expressions

e.g. take-away, high-rise, hang-glider, palmcorder, wristphone, cellular phone,
lexical stylistic devices
lexical SDs
include: <metaphor>, <personification>; <metonymy>, <synecdoche>; <cluster SDs>; play on words,
<irony>, <epithet>, <hyperbole>, <understatement>, <oxymoron>
See: <set expressions>, <cluster SDs>, <tropes>, <syntactical SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>, <stylistic


act of name-exchange, of substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in
dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speakers subjective original view and
evaluation of things, for the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of
shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material existence, cause/effect, instrument/result, part/whole, etc.)
See: <metaphor>, <metonymy>

<transference> of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, on the similarity of one
feature common to two different entities, on possessing one common characteristic, on linguistic semantic
nearness, on a common component in their semantic structures.
e.g. pancake for the sun (round, hot, yellow)
e.g. silver dust and sequins for stars
The expressiveness is promoted by the implicit simultaneous presence of images of both objects the
one which is actually named and the one which supplies its own legal name, while each one enters a phrase in
the complexity of its other characteristics.
The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected the more
expressive is the metaphor.
e.g. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass. (S. Lewis)
e.g. They walked alone, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate. (W.S.Gilbert)
Source: <V.A.K.>

a) the power of realising two <lexical meaning>s simultaneously

b) a <SD> when two different phenomena (things, events, ideas, actions) are simultaneously brought to
mind by the imposition of some or all of the inherent properties of one object on the other which by nature is
deprived of these properties
Source: <I.R.G.>

, ,
e.g. beams that streamed through the open window.
e.g. floods of tears; a storm of indignation; the apple of the eye, a leg of the table.
See: <personification>, <simile>, <lexical SDs>

a <metaphor> that involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects (V.A.K.)
e.g. the face of London, the pain of ocean
e.g. Geneva, mother of the Red Cross, hostess of humanitarian congresses for the civilizing of warfare.
e.g. Notre Dame squats in the dusk. (E. Hemingway)

1) <>,
, ,
2) , ,
, , () (I.V.A.)
e.g. Roll on, thou dark and deep blue Ocean roll! (G. Byron)
See: <transposition>, <synecdoche>, <lexical SDs>
sustained metaphor
prolonged metaphor
a group (cluster) of <metaphor>s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon to
present an elaborated image (V.A.K.)
Syn.: <sustained metaphor>, <prolonged metaphor>


<transference> of names based on contiguity (nearness), on extralinguistic, actually existing relations

between the phenomena (objects), denoted by the words, on common grounds of existence in reality but
different semantic (V.A.K.)
e.g. cup and tea in Will you have another cup?
e.g. My brass will call your brass (A. Heiley)
e.g. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile. (C.Holmes)

is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and <contextual meaning>s, a relation
based not on identification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings
represent (I.R.G.)

- <>, :
e.g. Give everyman thy ear and few thy voice. (W.Shakespeare)
e.g. the Crown (The Queen), cup (a drink), hand (a worker), cars full of moustaches (men), a beard (a
man with beard), the Kremlin (the RF government)
See: <synecdoche>, <lexical SDs>

a <metonymy> based on the relations between the part and the whole (V.A.K.)
e.g. He made his way through perfume and conversation. (I.Shaw)
e.g. His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not for old times sake, but because he was worth
his salt. (Maugham)

- ,
. ,
, , .
See: <personification>, <lexical SDs>
cluster SDs
a small group (cluster) of SDs, which
- operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two
- have humorous effect, and
- include: <pun> or <paronomasia> or <play on words>, <zeugma>, <violation of phraseological units>,
<semantically false chains>, <nonsense of non-sequence>;
Source: <V.A.K.>, 48
See: <lexical SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>
play on words
simultaneous realisation of two <meaning>s through
a) misinterpretation of one speakers utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing with a
different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym
e.g. Have you been Seeing any spirits? Or taking any? added Bob Allen. (Dickens) (The first
spirit refers to supernatural forces the second one to strong drinks)
b) speakers intended violation of the listeners expectation
e.g. There comes a period in every mans life, but she is just a semicolon in his. (B.Evans) (a
punctuation mark instead of an interval of time)
e.g. There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic character and full lips. (I.Shaw)
Source: <V.A.K.>, 48
e.g. The Importance of being Earnest (Wilde)

e.g. Bow to the board, said Bumble. Oliver brushed away tow or three tears that were lingering in his
eyes; and Seeing no board but the table. fortunately bowed to that (Dickens)

. (I.V.A.)
e.g. But still he strummed on, and his mind wandered in and out of poultry and politics, ... (Galsworthy)
Syn.: pun, paronomasia, play on words
See: <cluster SDs>

a cluster SD, when a polysemantic verb that can be combined with nouns of most varying semantic
groups is deliberately used with two of more homogeneous members, which are not connected semantically
Source: <V.A.K.>, 49
e.g. He took his hat and his leave. (Dickens)
e.g. He lost his hat and his temper. (Dickens)
e.g. She went home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. (Dickens)
e.g. The Rich arrived in pairs and also in Rolls Royces. (Dickens)
e.g. She plunged into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room.

a) the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in
the context, the semantic relations being, on the one hand, literal, and, on the other, transferred
b) the realisation of two <meaning>s with the help of a verb which is made to refer to different subjects
or objects (direct or indirect)
e.g. Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room. (B.Shaw)
e.g. Whether the Nymph // Shall stain her Honour or her new Brocade // Or lose her Heart or
necklace at a Ball (Pope The rape of the Lock)
Source: <I.R.G.>

e.g. And now must come swift action, for we have here some four thousand words and not a tear shed
and never a [u]pistol, joke safe, nor bottle cracked[/u]. (O.Henry)
e.g. Michael suggested to the camera that it would miss the train. It at once took a final photograph of
Michael in front of the hut, two cups of tea at the manor, and its departure. (Galsworthy)
e.g. , , , .
Source: .. . ., 1973
See: <semantically false chains>, <cluster SDs>
semantically false chains
a variation of <zeugma> when the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but
attached to the same verb, increases (V.A.K.)
e.g. A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Romanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, German,
Music and Mining Engineering. (S. Leacock)
e.g. Men, pals, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters in white aprons. Miss Moss walked through
them all. (A.Milne)
See: <cluster SDs>
violation of phraseological units
restoring the literal original <meaning> of the word, which lost some of its semantic independence and
strength in a phraseological unit or clich. (A.V.K.)
e.g. Little John was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and large.
e.g. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A.Tolkien)
See: <cluster SDs>
nonsense of non-sequence
joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence (A.V.K.)
e.g. Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome. (Y.Esar)
See: <cluster SDs>


- is a <stylistic device> in which the contextual <evaluative meaning> of a word is directly opposite to
its <dictionary meaning>
- is the <foregrounding> not of the logical but of the <evaluative meaning>;
- is the contradiction between the said and implied;
- is subdivided into <verbal irony> and <sustained irony>;
The context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the direction of the evaluation, and
the word positively charged is understood as a negative qualification and (much-much rarer) vice versa. The
context varies from the minimal a word combination to the context of a whole book.
e.g. The lift held two people and rose slowly, groaning with diffidence. (I.Murdoch)
e.g. Apart from splits based on politics, racial, religious and ethic backgrounds and specific personality
differences, were just one cohesive team. (D.Uhnak)
Source: <V.A.K.>
e.g. It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in ones pocket.
See: <lexical SDs>
verbal irony
a type of <irony> when it is possible to indicate the exact word whose <contextual meaning>
diametrically opposes its <dictionary meaning>, in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction between the
said and implied
e.g. She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator. (J.Steinbeck)
e.g. With all the expressiveness of a stone Welsh stared at him another twenty seconds apparently
hoping to See him gag. (R.Chandler)
e.g. Shes a charming middle-aged lady with a face like a bucket of mud and if she has washed her hair
since Coolridges second term, Ill eat my spare tire, rim and all. (R.Chandler)
e.g. Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war. (I.Shaw)
Source: <V.A.K.>
Ant.: <sustained irony>
See: <lexical SDs>
sustained irony
a) a type of <irony>, intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, formed by the contradiction of the
speakers (writers) considerations and the generally accepted moral and ethical codes;
b) a number of statements, the whole of the text, in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction
between the said and implied.
e.g. Many examples are supplied by D.Defoe, J.Swift of by such twentieth c. writers as S.Lewis,
K.Vonnegut, E.Waugh and others.
e.g. When the war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with some
solemnity, hung it in the men-servants lavatory; it was her one combative action. (E.Waugh)
Source: <V.A.K.>
Ant.: <verbal irony>
See: <lexical SDs>

type 1: a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun, i.e. a lexical SD in which
the <nominal meaning> of a proper name is suppressed by its <logical meaning> or the logical meaning acquires
the new nominal component
e.g. He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary \[=any female\], shortly after she arrived,
something ... (Th. Dreiser)
e.g. Your fur and his Caddy are a perfect match. I respect history: Dont you know that Detroit was
founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Caddilac, French fur trader. (J.OHara)
type 2: (vice versa) a common noun serves as an individualising name
e.g. There are three doctors in an illness like yours. I dont mean only my self, my partner and the
radiologist who does your X-rays, the three Im referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr. Fresh Air. (D. Cusack)
type 3: speaking names whose origin from common nouns is still clearly perceived
e.g. The next speaker was a tall gloomy man. Sir Something Somebody. (Priestley)
e.g. Miss Languish , Mr. Backbite - , Mr. Credulous - ,
Mr. Snake - (Sheridan)

e.g. Lord Chatterino , John Jaw , Island Leap-High -

e.g. Mr. Whats-his-name, Mr. Owl Eyes, Colonel Slidebottom, Lady Teazle, Mr. Surface, Miss
Tomboy, Miss Sarcastic, Miss Sneerface, Lady Bracknell
Source: <V.A.K.>, 55

- : (
), , , ,
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <lexical SDs>

<foregrounding> the <emotive meaning> of the word to suppress its <denotational meaning>
- is the most widely used lexical SD;
- expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary;
- semantically there should be differentiated two main groups:
- <affective epithet>s
- <figurative epithet>s
- <transferred epithet>s;
- structurally there should be differentiated: single epithets, pair epithets, chains or strings, two-step
structures, inverted constructions, phrase-attributes
- <chains of epithets> or <strings of epithets>
- <phrase-epithets>
- <inverted epithets> or <reversed epithets>
Source: <V.A.K.>, 58

a <stylistic device> based on the interplay of emotive and <logical meaning> in an attributive word,
phrase or even sentence, used to characterise and object and pointing out to the reader, and frequently imposing
on him, some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception and
evaluation of these features or properties
e.g. wild wind, loud ocean, remorseless dash of billows, formidable waves, heart-burning
smile; destructive charms, glorious sight, encouraging smile
Source: <I.R.G.>

1) - , , ,
, ;
2) - <>,

- (conventional/standing epithet): lady gay, fair lady, fair England, salt seas, salt
tears, true love;
a) : soft pillow, green wood;
b) : bonny boy, bonnie young page, bonnie ship, bonnie isle; false steward, proud
c) : silk napkin, silver cups, long tables;
- ,

.. :
a) , : fair sun, the sable night, wide sea, ..
b) - ,
, , ..
: a grand Style, unvalued jewels, vast and trunkless legs of stone
c) ,
, , :

[m3]- ,
: and angry sky, the howling storm;
[m3]- ,
: : laughing valleys, surly sullen bells;
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. Her umbrella blocked the suns rays but nothing blocked the heat - the sort of raw, wild heat that
crushes you with its energy. (St.Lord The Chapel)
See: <lexical SDs>
strings of epithets
chains of epithets

present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and
even more
e.g. Youre a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature. (Dickens)
e.g. Hes a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (Dickens)
e.g. And then in a nice, old-fashioned, lady-like, maiden-lady way, she blushed. (A.Christie)
e.g. And the eyes watchful, waiting, perceiving, indifferent. (T.S.Eliot)
See: <epithet>
Syn.: strings of epithets, chains of epithets
, a

, , (I.V.A.)
e.g. I-am-not-that-kind-of girl look; Shootsem-down type; To produce facts in a Would-you-believe-it
kind of way (I.V.A)
e.g. the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell (J. Baldwin)
e.g. a move-if-you-dare expression(J. Greenwood)
e.g. There was none of the Old-fashioned Five-Four-Three-Two-One-Zero business, so tough on the
human nervous system. (A. Clarke)
See: <epithet>
inverted epithets
reversed epithets

based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes
syntactically defined and vice versa. The article with the second noun will help in doubtful cases
e.g. this devil of a woman instead of this devilish woman, the giant man (a gigantic man); the
prude of a woman (a prudish woman), the toy of a girl (a small, toylike girl), the kitten of a woman (a
kittenlike woman)
e.g. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A.Cronin)
e.g. a doll of a wife (the wife is like a doll), an angel of a girl (the girls is an angel), a hell of a mess, a
devil of a sea, a dwarf of a fellow, a horse of a girl, a fool of a policeman, a hook of a nose, a vow of a hat, a
jewel of a film (I.V.A.)
e.g. a two-legged ski-rocket of a kid, a forty-pound skunk of a freckled wild cat (I.V.A.)
See: <epithet>
Syn.: inverted epithets, reversed epithets
conventional epithet
standing epithet

See: <epithet>
Syn.: conventional epithet, standing epithet
affective epithet
serves to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker (V.A.K.)
e.g. gorgeous, nasty, magnificent, atrocious
See: <figurative epithet> or <transferred epithet>, <epithet>, <lexical SDs>

figurative epithet
transferred epithet
an <epithet> that is formed of <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <simile>, expressed by adjectives (V.A.K.)
e.g. the smiling sun, the frowning cloud, the sleepless pillow, the tobacco-stained smile, a
ghost-like face, a dreamlike experience, triumphant look
See: <affective epithet>, <epithet>, <lexical SDs>
Syn.: figurative epithet, transferred epithet

a <stylistic device> in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration

It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally
coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.
e.g. My vegetable love should grow faster than empires. (A. Marvell)
e.g. The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar.
e.g. Calpurnia was all angles and bones.
e.g. I was scared to death when he entered the room. (J.D.Salinger)
Source: <V.A.K.>

a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential (unlike <periphrasis>) to the object or

- is a device which sharpens the readers ability to make a logical assessment of the utterance
e.g. He was so tall that I was not sure he had a face. (O.Henry)
Source: <I.R.G.>

Ant.: <understatement>
See: <lexical SDs>

a <stylistic device> in which emphasis is achieved through intentional underestimation (underrating)

e.g. The wind is rather strong instead of Theres a gale blowing outside

is dealt with when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are intentionally
It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally
coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.
e.g. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J.Reed)
e.g. About a very small man in the Navy: this new sailor stood five feet nothing in sea boots. (Th.
Source: <V.A.K.>
Ant.: <hyperbole>
See: <lexical SDs>

a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasise contradictory qualities
simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical unity (V.A.K.)
e.g. low skyscraper, sweet sorrow, nice rascal, pleasantly ugly face, horribly beautiful, a
deafening silence from Whitehall (The Morning Star)
e.g. The Beauty of the Dead, to shout mutely, to cry silently, the street damaged by
improvements (O.Henry), silence was louder than thunder (J.Updike)
e.g. O brawling love! O loving hate! O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke,
cold fire, sick heath! (W.Shakespeare)
e.g. You have two beautiful bad examples for parents. (Sc.Fitzgerald)

a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in which
the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense (I.R.G.)

<>, (
), .(I.V.A.)
e.g. And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true. (A.Tennyson)
e.g. He had a face like a plateful of mortal sins. (B.Behan)
See: <lexical SDs>
syntactical level
include <syntactical stylistic devices>, <repetition>, <sentence structure>, <types of connection>,
arrangement of sentence members, <completeness of sentence structure>
The most conspicuous places in the sentence are considered to be the first and the last: the first place
because the full force of the stress can be felt at the beginning of an utterance and the last place because there is
a pause after it. (I.R.G.)
See: <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>, <lexical level>, <Stylistics>
syntactical stylistic devices
syntactical SDs
include: sentence length, <one-word sentences>, <punctuation>, <rhetorical question>, <parallel
construction>, <chiasmus>, <stylistic inversion>, <suspense>, <detachment>, <ellipsis>, one-member
sentences, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative>, <polysyndeton>, <asyndeton>, <attachment>,
<secondary predication constructions>
See: <repetition>, <enumeration>; <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>, <stylistic
one-word sentences
possess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word- and the sentencestress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which, too, helps to foreground
the content. (V.A.K.)
e.g. I like people. Not just empty streets and dead buildings. People. People. (P.Abrahams)
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>
sentence structure

Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness depend on the
position of clauses, constituting it.
@ loose structure
- opens with the main clause, which is followed by dependent units;
- less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation;
@ periodic sentences
- open with subordinate clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause being withheld
until the end
- are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose
e.g. Such being at bottom the fact, I think it is well to leave it at that. (S.Maugham)
@ balanced sentences
- subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end;
- known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writing;
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>
Source: <V.A.K.>
order of words

and <punctuation> are used to convey the corresponding pausation and intonation in the written form of
speech (V.A.K.)
See: <punctuation>, <stylistic inversion>, <syntactical SDs>

Points of exclamation, points of interrogation, dots, dashes; commas, semicolons and full stops serve as
an additional source of information and help to specify the <meaning> of the written sentence which in oral
speech would be conveyed by the intonation. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Whats your name? John Lewis. Mines Liza. Watkin. (K.Kesey)
e.g. You know so much. Where is she? Dead. Or in a crazy house. Or married. I think shes married
and quieted down. (T.Capote)
e.g. The neon lights in the heart of the city flashed on and off. On and off. On. Off. On. Off.
Continuously. (P.Abrahams)
e.g. ... a truth, a faith, a generation of men goes and is forgotten, and it does not matter! (J.Conrad)
See: <order of words>, <one-word sentences>, <syntactical SDs>
rhetorical question

peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement;
- does not demand any information but
- serves to express the emotions of the speaker and also
- serves to call the attention of listeners;
- makes an indispensable part of oratoric speech for they very successfully emphasise the orators ideas.
Source: <V.A.K.>

a) a special syntactical stylistic device the essence of which consists in reshaping the <grammatical
meaning> of the interrogative sentence;
e.g. Are these the remedies for a starving and desperate populace?
b) a statement expressed in the form of an interrogative sentence;
c) an utterance in the form of a question which pronounces judgement and also expresses various kind of
modal shades of meanings, as doubt, challenge, scorn, irony and so on;
e.g. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? (W.Shakespeare)
- is generally structurally embodied in complex sentences with the subordinate clause containing the
- may be looked upon as a <transference> of <grammatical meaning>;
Source: <I.R.G.>

, , ,
, , ,
e.g. Being your slave, what should I do but tend // Upon the hours and times of your desire?
(W.Shakespeare Sonnet LVII) // .
(. ..)
Source: <I.V.A.>

- contains a statement disguised as a question;

- usually a positive question hiding a negative statement. No answer is expected.
e.g. Can any one say what truth is?
e.g. Do we always act as we ought to?
e.g. What else could I do?
e.g. Who would have thought to meet you here?
Source: .. . . . . ., 2001. C. 307
See: <order of words>, negative-interrogative sentences, <transposition>, <question-in-the-narrative>,
<syntactical SDs>
types: <anaphora>, <epiphora>, <framing>, <catch repetition> or <anadiplosis>, <chain repetition>,
<ordinary repetition>, <successive repetition>; <synonymical repetition>;
- is a powerful mean of emphasis;
- adds <rhythm> and balance to the utterance;
e.g. there lived a little man named Nathaniel Pipkin, , and lived in a little house in the little High
Street, within ten minutes' walk of the little church; and who was to be found every day from nine till four,
teaching a little learning to the little boys. (Dickens)
See: <syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>; <reprise>


(a . . . , a . . . , a . . . ,)
the beginning of two or more sentences (clauses) is repeated
The main stylistic function is not so much to emphasise the repeated unit as to create the background for
the non-repeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded. (V.A.K.)
e.g. I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye
power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams. (J.Braine)
e.g. And everywhere were people. People going into gates and coming out of gates. People staggering
and falling. People fighting and cursing. (P.Abrahams)
e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See
e.g. So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare XVIII)
Ant.: <epiphora>
See: <repetition>

(. . . a, . . . a, . . . a,)
the end of successive sentences (clauses) is repeated
The main stylistic function is to add stress to the final words of the sentence. (V.A.K.)
e.g. I wake up and Im alone and I walk round Warley and Im alone; and I talk with people and Im
alone and I look at his face when Im home and its dead. (J.Braine)
Ant.: <anaphora>
See: <repetition>
(a . . . a)
the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the frame for the non-repeated part
of the sentence (utterance)
The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence, to concretise
and to specify its semantics. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Obviously this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. (W.Deeping)
e.g. Then there was something between them. There was. There was. (Dreiser)
See: <catch repetition> or <anadiplosis>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>
catch repetition
, , ,
(. . . a, a . . .)
the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one
The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantics on a more
modest level. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Now he understood. he understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and then a
black man or a white man. (P.Abrahams)
e.g. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her. (A.Bennet)
e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See
e.g. So long lives [u]this and this[/u] gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare XVIII)
See: <framing>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>
Syn.: anadiplosis, catch repetition, reduplication, linking, epanalepsis
chain repetition
(. . . a, a . . . b, b. . .)
several successive repetitions
The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical reasoning. (V.A.K.)

e.g. To think better of it, returned the gallant Blandois, would be to slight a lady, to slight a lady
would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my character.
e.g. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells and
stagnation of B. Inn Alley. (D. du Maurier)
See: <repetition>
ordinary repetition
(. . . a, . . . a . . ., a . . .)
(. . a . ., . . a . ., . . a . .)
no definite place in the sentence, the repeated unit occurs in various positions
The stylistic function is to emphasise both the logical and the <emotional meaning> of the reiterated
word (phrase). (V.A.K.)
e.g. Halfway along the right-hand side of the dark brown hall was a dark brown door with a dark brown
settie beside it. (W.S.Gilbert)
e.g. I really dont See anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But there is
nothing romantic about a definite proposal. (Wilde)
See: <repetition>
successive repetition
(. . . a, a, a . . .)
a string of closely following each other reiterated units
The most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Of her fathers being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure. (Dickens)
See: <repetition>
synonymical repetition

the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly
different nuance of <meaning> intensify the impact of the utterance (I.R.G.)
e.g. ... are there not capital punishment sufficient in your statutes? Is there not blood enough upon your
penal code? (Byron)
e.g. The poetry of earth is never dead // The poetry of earth is ceasing never... (Keats)
See: <repetition>
parallel construction

reiteration of the structure of several sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical flesh
almost always includes some type of lexical <repetition>, and such a convergence produces a very
strong effect, <foregrounding> at one go logical, <rhythm>ic, emotive and expressive aspects of the utterance.
e.g. When a man wants to kill a tiger he calls it sport; when a tiger wants to kill a man it is ferocity.

- identical. or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close
- is often backed up by repetition of words (lexical repetition) and conjunctions and prepositions
- may be partial or complete (balance);
- is most frequently used in <enumeration>, <antithesis> and in <climax>, thus consolidating the general
effect achieved by these stylistic devices;
- is used in different styles of writing with slightly different functions;
- carries, in the main, the idea of semantic equality of the parts (matter-of-fact styles), an emotive
function (<belles-lettres style>),
Source: <I.R.G.>:208
e.g. Speaking without thinking is shooting without aiming. (Cronin)
e.g. A court is only as sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up. (Harper
Lee) , ,
, . (. .)

e.g. I notice that fathers is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and that fathers is a
rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me. (Dreiser)
e.g. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure -- a ghostly
couple. (V.Woolf)
e.g. So long as [u]men can breathe[/u] or [u]eyes can See[/u]
e.g. So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare XVIII)
See: <chiasmus>, <coupling>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>
reversed parallel construction

a) reversed parallelism of the structure of several sentences (clauses)

b) <inversion> of the first construction in the second part (V.A.K.)
e.g. If the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order SPO, the second one will have it inverted
e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See
e.g. So long [u]lives this and this gives[/u] life to thee. (W.Shakespeare XVIII)

- a group of stylistic devices based on repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of words
and phrases;
- reversed parallel construction, the word-order of one of the sentences being inverted as compared with
that of the other;
- sometimes achieved by a sudden change from active voice to passive or vice versa;
- is effective in that it helps to lay stress on the second part of the utterence, which is opposite in
- can appear only when there are two successive sentences or coordinate parts of a sentence;
- is sometimes used to break the monotony of parallel constructioins;
- always bring in some new <shade of meaning> or additional emphasis on some portion of the second
One cannot help noticing that the first part is somewhat incomplete, it calls for continuation, and the
anticipation is rewarded by the second part of the construction, which is, as it were, the completion of the idea.
- contributes to the rhythmical quality of the utterance, and the pause caused by the change in the
syntactical pattern may be likened to a caesura in prosody;
Source: <I.R.G.>:209-211
e.g. Down dropped the breeze, // The sails dropped down. (Coleridge)
e.g. As high as we have mounted in delight // In our dejection do we ink as low. (Wordsworth)
See: <parallel construction>, <inversion>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>
Syn.: chiasmus, reversed parallel construction
(stylistic) inversion
a syntactical <stylistic device> in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that the
predicate precedes the subject (complete inversion), or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate
pair (partial inversion) (V.A.K.)
e.g. Of all my old association, of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the dead world, this
one poor soul alone comes natural to me. (Dickens)
e.g. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must. (J.Conrad)

aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface <meaning> of the
utterance (I.R.G.:204)
e.g. Talent Mr. Micawber has; capital Mr. Micawber has not. (Dickens)
e.g. Down dropped the breeze (Coleridge)


- full inversion
e.g. Love he did her surely. (Th. Dreiser)
e.g. On the terrace stood a knot of distinguished visitors. (Huxley)

e.g. In one corner sat the band (Huxley)

e.g. On the corner, waiting for a bus, had stood a young woman. (Buechner)
e.g. And only then will you truly joined the common European home (David Atkinson)
e.g. Strange is the heart of woman. (S. Leacock)
- partial inversion
e.g. To a medical student the final examinations are something like death ... (R.Gordon)
- ...
e.g. Money he had none.. (E. Gaskell) .
e.g. Misty mountains they saw. (L. Sinclair)
e.g. This he knew very well. A pretty paradise did we build for ourselves. (Thackeray)
e.g. Terrible it had been! (K. Mansfield)
See: <chiasmus>, <ellipsis>, <syntactical SDs>
a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence with the help of embedded clauses
(homogeneous members) separating the predicate from the subject and introducing less important facts and
details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the sentence
(utterance) (V.A.K.)

a compositional device which consists in arranging the matter of a communication in such a way that the
less important, descriptive, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the main idea being withheld till the
end of the sentence (I.R.G.:218)
e.g. Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend M. was obliging enough to read and explain
to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (Ch.Lamb)
e.g. Only when, after a few minutes, he \[the monkey\] ceased spinning and simply crouched in the pale
light, bouncing softly up and down, his fingers digging into the carpet, his tail curled out stiff, did he start to
speak to them. (Buechner).
See: <periodic sentences>, <syntactical SDs>
detached construction
a <stylistic device> based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of
punctuation (intonation) (V.A.K.)
e.g. I have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (I.Shaw)
e.g. I have to beg you for money. Daily. (S.Lewis)
e.g. She was crazy about you. In the beginning. (R.P.Warren)

placing one of the secondary parts of a sentence by some specific consideration of the writer so that it
Seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to.
The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes a greater degree of significance and is
given prominence by intonation.
Source: <I.R.G.>: 205
e.g. Daylight was dying, the moon rising, gold behind the poplars. (Galsworthy)
e.g. I want to go he said, miserable. (Galsworthy)
See: <attachment>, <parenthesis>, <syntactical SDs>
Syn.: detachment, detached construction
completeness of sentence structure
includes: <ellipsis>, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative> or <aposiopesis>
See: <types of connection>, <syntactical SDs>

a deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence

e.g. What! all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell swoop? (W.Shakespeare)
e.g. In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind. (Dickens)
e.g. His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all one side. (Dickens)

omission of certain members of the sentence

- is typical phenomenon in conversation
- always imitates the common features of colloquial language

e.g. So Justice Oberwaltzer solemnly and didactically from his high seat to the jury. (Dreiser)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <inversion>, <completeness of sentence structure>
apokoinu constructions
apo-koinu constructions
Greek "with a common element"
the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective
- create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that;
- the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one;
Source: <V.A.K.>

the peculiar introducer or demonstrative construction whose attributive semi-clause has a finite verb
- specific semi-complex sentence;
- formed much on the pattern of common subject overlapping;
- should be classed as a familiar colloquialism of occasional use; Source: (Blokh)
e.g. There was a door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson)
e.g. He was the man killed that deer. (R. Warren)
e.g. There was no breeze came through the door. (E.Hemingway)
e.g. I bring him news will raise his dropping spirits. (O. Jespersen)
e.g. or like the snow falls in the river. (O. Jespersen)
e.g. when at her door arose a clatter might awake the dead. (O. Jespersen)
e.g. It was you insisted on coming, because you didn't like restaurants. (S. O'Casey)
e.g. He's the one makes the noise at night. (E. Hemingway)
e.g. And there's nothing more can be done. (A. Christie)
See: <ellipsis>, <completeness of sentence structure>

a stopping short for rhetorical effect (I.R.G.)

- used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech
because the speakers emotions prevent him from finishing the sentence (V.A.K.)
e.g. You just come home or Ill ...
e.g. Good intentions, but ...
e.g. If you continue your intemperate way of living, in six months time ...
e.g. What I had Seen of Patti didnt really contradict Kittys view of her: a girl who means well, but.
See: <completeness of sentence structure>
Syn.: break-in-the-narrative, aposiopesis
types of connection
include: <polysyndeton>, <asyndeton>, <attachment>, <gap-sentence link>
See: <enumeration>, <completeness of sentence structure>
repeated use of conjunctions
- is to strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected sentences
e.g. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and
spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed. (A.Tolkien)
e.g. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his hands, and splashed
him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot. (Dickens)
Source: <V.A.K.>

the <SD> of connecting sentences, or phrases, or syntagms, or words by using connectives (mostly
conjunctions and prepositions) before each component part
- makes an utterance more <rhythm>ical; so much so that prose may even Seem like verse
- has a disintegrating function (generally combines homogeneous elements of thought into one whole
resembling enumeration);

- causes each member of a string of facts to stand out conspicuously unlike <enumeration>, which
integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole
e.g. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one
respect. (Dickens)
Source: <I.R.G.>
Ant.: <asyndeton>
See: <attachment>, <enumeration>, <repetition>, <types of connection>

deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off connecting words

- helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose. (V.A.K.)
e.g. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend into the
vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put the key into his
pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (Dickens)
e.g. It \[a provincial city\] is full of dirty blank spaces, high black walls, a gas holder, a tall chimney, a
main road that shakes with dust and lorries. (J.Osborne - Entertainer)

connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign, becomes a <SD>,
if there is deliberate omission of the connective where it is generally expected to be according to the norms of
the literary language (I.R.G.)
e.g. Soames turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk, like one standing before an open grave,
watching a coffin slowly lowered. (Galsworthy)
Ant.: <polysyndeton>
See: <attachment>, <types of connection>
separating the second part of the utterance from the first one by full stop though their semantic and
grammatical ties remain very strong (V.A.K.)
e.g. It wasnt his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money with which
to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shant beg. I shall simply starve.
e.g. Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent. (T.Capote)
e.g. He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other completely. With a few reservations.
See: <detachment>, <types of connection>, <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>
lexico-syntactical stylistic devices
lexico-syntactical SDs
certain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also
on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (V.A.K.)
- include: <antithesis>, <climax>, <anticlimax>, <simile>, <litotes>, <periphrasis>
See: <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>

a semantically complicated <parallel construction>, the two parts of which are semantically opposite to
each other
- is to stress the heterogenity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectical unity
of two (or more) opposing features. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Some people have much to live on, and little to live for. (Wilde)
e.g. If we dont know who gains by his death we do know who loses by it. (A.Christie)
e.g. Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband. (S.Lewis)
e.g. In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall of man. (S.Evans)
e.g. Dont use big words. They mean so little. (Wilde)

- stylistic opposition, based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the expansion
of objectively contrasting pairs
e.g. saint devil, reign serve, hell heaven, youth age, fiery frosty

The words involved in the opposition do not display any additional nuance of <meaning> caused by
being opposed one to another.
- is generally moulded in <parallel construction>;
- is often signalled by the introductory connective but, when so, the other structural signal, the parallel
arrangement, may not be evident, it may be unnecessary;
- a device, bordering between stylistics and logic;
It is essential to distinguish between antithesis and what is termed contrast. Contrast is a literary (not a
linguistic) device based on logical opposition between the phenomena set one against another.
- has the following basic functions: rhythm-forming (because of the parallel arrangement on which it is
founded); copulative; dissevering; comparative
Source: <I.R.G.>:222-224

() (I.V.A.)
See: <oxymoron>, <parallel construction>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

a semantically complicated <parallel construction>, in which each next word combination (clause,
sentence) is logically more important or emotionally stronger and more explicit (V.A.K.)
Three types:
@ logical climax
a three-step <climax> (the most widely spread model), in which intensification of logical importance, of
emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising step by step (V.A.K.)

is based on the relative importance of the component parts looked at from the point of view of the
concepts embodied in them (I.R.G.)
e.g. Better to borrow, better to beg, better to die! (Dickens)
e.g. Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had no knowledge of the brightness outside.
e.g. For that one instant there was no one else in the room, in the house, in the world, besides
themselves. (M.Wilson)
@ emotive climax
a two-step <climax>, in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened by an
intensifier (V.A.K.)

is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with <emotive meaning> (I.R.G.)
e.g. He was so helpless, so very helpless. (W.Deeping)
e.g. She felt better, immensely better. (W.Deeping)
e.g. I have been so unhappy here, so very very unhappy. (Dickens)
@ quantitative climax
an evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts (I.R.G.)
e.g. They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable
kitchens. (S.Maugham)
e.g. Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed
question. (Dickens)
e.g. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning of life, it was bliss, it was frenzy, it was
everything else of that sort in the highest degree. (Dickens)
e.g. I am firm, thou art obstinate, he is pig-headed. (B.Charlestone)
e.g. No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass that was not owned. (J. Galsworthy)

an arrangement of sentences (or of the homogeneous parts of one sentence) which secures a gradual
increase in significance importance, or emotional tension in the utterance (I.R.G.:219)

Syn.: climax, gradation
Ant.: <anticlimax>
See: <parallel construction>, <repetition>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

a <climax> suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats expectations of the
reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasised idea (V.A.K.)
e.g. It was appalling and soon forgotten. (Galsworthy)
e.g. He was unconsolable for an afternoon. (Galsworthy)
e.g. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything except the obvious.
Ant.: <climax>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes on the grounds of
similarity of some quality
The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called the vehicle.
The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile, which are connected by one of the
following link words: like, as, as though, as if, as like, such as, as ... as, etc.
e.g. She is like a rose.
e.g. He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent. (J.Reed)
e.g. His muscles are hard as rock. (T.Capote)
e.g. The conversation she began behaved like green logs: they fumed but would not fire. (T.Capote)
Source: <V.A.K.>

characterisation of one object by bringing it into contact with another object belonging to an entirely
different class of things
- excludes all the properties of the two objects except one which is made common to them;
- forcibly set one object against another regardless of the fact that they may be completely alien to each
e.g. Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by glare. (Byron)
e.g. Other words live but a short time and are like bubbles on the surface of water they disappear
leaving no trace of their existence. (I.R.G.)
e.g. His mind was restless, but it worked perversely and thoughts jerked through his brain like the
misfirings of a defective carburettor. (S.Maugham)
e.g. It was that moment of the year when the countryside Seems to faint from its own loveliness, from
the intoxication of tis scents and sounds. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>
Compare: <logical comparison>
See: <metaphor>, <epic simile> or <Homeric simile>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>
(logical) comparison
a) an ordinary comparison of two objects belonging to the same classes (V.A.K.)
e.g. She is like her mother.
b) weighing two objects belonging to one class of things with the purpose of establishing the degree of
their sameness or difference
- takes into consideration all the properties of the two objects, stressing the one that is compared
e.g. The boy Seems to be as clever as his mother.
Source: <I.R.G.>
Compare: <simile>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>
(the) tenor
(the) vehicle
See: <simile>
epic simile
Homeric simile
extended <simile>, sustained expression of likeness
See: <simile>
Syn.: epic simile, Homeric simile


a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a possessive evaluation
- the first component is always the negative particle not, while the second, always negative in
semantics, varies in form from a negatively affixed word (as above) to a negative phrase
e.g. Her face was not unpretty. (K.Kesey)
e.g. It was not unnatural if Gilbert felt a certain embarrassment. (E.Waugh)
e.g. The idea was not totally erroneous. The thought did not displease me. (I.Murdoch)
Source: <V.A.K.>

a) is a <stylistic device> consisting of a peculiar use of negative constructions: the negation plus noun or
adjective serves to establish a positive feature in a person or thing
- is a deliberate <understatement> used to produce stylistic effect: it is a negation that includes
- is a means by which the natural logical and linguistic property of negation can be strengthened;
e.g. He found that this was no easy task.
- is used in different styles of speech, excluding those which may be called the matter-of-fact styles, like
official style and scientific prose
b) a construction with two negations
e.g. not unlike, not unpromising, not displeased
e.g. Soames, with his lips and his squared chin was not unlike a bull dog. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>

, ,

e.g. it is not unlikely = it is very likely; he was not unaware of = he was quite aware of
- ;
- :
e.g. it is not difficult to See = it easy to See
- ;
, :
e.g. It is rather an unusual story, isnt it? = You lie. It would not suit be all that well. = It is impossible.
Source: <I.V.A.>, 236
See: <understatement>, <transference>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

a) using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one

b) using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word
They are classified into <figurative periphrasis> (<metaphoric periphrasis> or <metonymic periphrasis>)
and <logical periphrasis> (<euphemistic periphrasis>)
Source: <V.A.K.>

a device which, according to Websters dictionary, denotes the use of a longer phrasing in place of a
possible shorter and plainer form of expression
- aims at pointing to one of the Seemingly insignificant or barely noticeable features or properties of the
given object, and intensifies this property by naming the object by the property;
- makes the reader perceive the new appellation against the background of the one existing in the
language code and the twofold simultaneous perception secures the stylistic effect;
- like <simile>, has a certain cognitive function inasmuch as in deepens our knowledge of the
phenomenon described;
e.g. I understand you are poor, and wish to earn money by nursing the little boy, my son, who has so
prematurely deprived of what can never be replaced. \[= mother\] (Dickens)
e.g. The lamp-lighter made his nightly failure in attempting to brighten up the street with gas. \[= lit the
street lamps\] (Dickens)
If a periphrastic locution is understandable outside the context, it is not a stylistic device but merely a
synonymous expression.

e.g. the cap and gown (student body); a gentleman of the long robe (a lawyer); the fair sex (women); my
better half (my wife)
Source: <I.R.G.>

, (I.V.A.)
e.g. The beast that bears me. (horse) (W.Shakespeare - L)
See: <euphemism>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>
Syn.: periphrasis, circumlocution
figurative periphrasis
metaphoric periphrasis
metonymic periphrasis
(, )
a <periphrasis> that is made of phrase-metonymies or phrase-metaphors (V.A.K.)
- is to convey a purely individual perception of the described object
e.g. The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa. \
[=wounded\] (I.Shaw)
e.g. His huge leather chairs were kind to the femurs. (R.P.Warren)
e.g. I took my obedient feet away from him. (W.S.Gilbert)
See: <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <periphrasis>
Syn.: figurative periphrasis, metaphoric periphrasis, metonymic periphrasis
logical periphrasis
euphemistic periphrasis
a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by <periphrasis> because the direct
nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description
- offers more polite (euphemistic) qualification instead of a coarser one
e.g. Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise \[the suit \] with which Brooks Brothers cover
the shame of American millionaires \[the paunch (belly)\]. (The Morning Star)
e.g. I am thinking an unmentionable thing about your mother. (I.Shaw)
Source: <V.A.K.>

a) a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more

acceptable one
b) a synonym which aims at producing a deliberately mild effect
e.g. to die = to pass away, to expire, to be no more, to depart, to join the majority, to be gone; to kick the
bucket, to give up the ghost, to go west
e.g. to lie = to possess a vivid imagination, to tell stories; speak with a forked tongue, throw a curve
e.g. They think we have come by this horse in some dishonest manner. \[= have stolen it\] (Dickens)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <periphrasis>
Syn.: logical periphrasis, euphemistic periphrasis, euphemism
{{ .. }}

e.g. And heaved and heaved, still unrestingly heaved the black sea, as if its vast tides were a conscience.
(H. Melville Moby-Dick)
e.g. Sara was a menace and a tonic, my best enemy; Rozzie was a disease, my worst friend. (J.Gary
The Horses Mouth)
e.g. The rank and file of doctors are no more scientific than their tailors; or their tailors are no less
scientific than they. (B.Shaw) (<parallel construction>, <anadiplosis>, <antithesis>, <negation>)
Source: <I.V.A.>

e.g. The more you study, the more you know, the more you know the more you forget. (proverb)
(<parallel construction>, <anaphora>, <anticlimax>)
e.g. Live hundred years, learn hundred years, and die a fool! (proverb) (<parallel construction>,
<epiphora>, <anticlimax>
See: <syntactical convergence>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

, ,

e.g. Hedges have eyes and walls have ears. (proverb)
e.g. I kissed thee ere I killed thee. (Shakespeare)
e.g. A Soul as full of Worth as void of Pride, // Which nothing Seeks to show, or needs to hide, // Which
nor to guilt nor fear its Caution owes, // And boasts a Warmth that from no passion flows. (A.Popa to J.Kregs)
See: <parallel construction>

e.g. See: Sonnet LX by W.Shakespeare, . ,

- ,
See: <tropes>; <lexical SDs>
include: <epithet>, <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <oxymoron>, <periphrasis>, <personification>,
See: <trope>; <lexical SDs>
semi-marked structure

(once bellow a time) (chips of when)
e.g. Colourless green ideas sleep furiously (.)
e.g. a grief ago, a farmyard away, all the sun long, a white noise, the shadow of a sound, a pretty how
town, little whos, he danced his did, for as long as forever is
e.g. He is dreadfully married. He is the most
married man I ever saw. (A.Ward)
Source: <I.V.A.>

, (I.V.A.)
See: <stylistic device>

, , - ,
, (I.V.A.)
See: <synonymical repetition>; <logical periphrasis>; <lexical SDs>

grammatical metaphor


- /
See: <personification>

e.g. ,
, .
, .
e.g. Catch you taking liberties with a gentleman! (B.Shaw)
- ,
, , ,

See: <rhetorical question>
Syn.: transposition, grammatical metaphor
zoonymic metaphor
, .. ,
(, ) (I.V.A.)
e.g. ass, bear, beast, bitch, bookworm, donkey, duck, kid, monkey, mule, pig, shark, snake, swine, tabby,
toad, wolf, worm, angel, devil, imp, sphinx, witch (I.V.A.)
e.g. I was not going to have all the [u]old tabbies[/u] bossing her around just because she is not what
they call our class. (A.Wilson - The Middle Age)
e.g. What were you talking about to that old mare downstairs? (S.Delaney)
e.g. Dont be such a donkey, dear. (C.P.Snow)
Syn.: zoonymic metaphor, zoomorphism
group genitive
group possessive

('s) ,
e.g. She's the boy I used to go with's mother. // She's the man that bought my wheelbarrow's wife. // It's
the young fellow in the backroom's car. // He is the niece, I told you about's husband. (J.Bailey)
- -
, -
Source: <I.V.A.>

is the construction by which the ending -'s of the possessive case can be added to the last word of a
noun phrase, which is regarded as a single unit:
e.g. The king of Spain's daughter.
e.g. John and Mary's baby.
e.g. Somebody else's umbrella.
e.g. A quarter of an hour's drive.
Expressions like these are natural and acceptable.
Informal language, however, permits the extension of the construction to long and complicated phrases:
e.g. The people in the house opposite's geraniums.
e.g. The woman I told you about on the phone yesterday's name is Thompson.
e.g. The man who called last week's umbrella is still in the hall.
In these, the connection between the words forming the group possessive is much looser and more
complicated than in the earlier examples. The effect is often somewhat ludicrous.
Expressions of this sort should not be used in serious prose.

e.g. [u]Substitute:[/u]
e.g. The geraniums of the people in the house opposite
e.g. The name of the woman I told you about on the phone yesterday is Thompson.
e.g. The umbrella of the man who called last week is still in the hall.
Source: The Oxford Guide to English Usage
See: <morphological level>, <colloquial type of language>

e.g. a most valuable idea, the sweetest baby, the newest fashion of all, a most foolish wife; the
orangemostest drink in the world(I.V.A.)
e.g. You cannot be deader then the dead. (E.Hemingway)
e.g. Oh, Josie, you are a naughty girl, you really are. I was hoping youd have everything nice and clean
and tidy when I came in. (J.Osborne and A.Creighton)
See: <morphological level>

, , , ,
, .. ,
. (I.V.A.)
e.g. Beat! beat! drums! blow! bugles! blow! (W.Whitman)
e.g. Tiger, tiger, burning bright. (W.Blake)
e.g. ... where white horses and black horses and brown horses and white and black horses and brown and
white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tappety-tap over cobble stones ...(.)
See: <repetition>, <morphemic repetition>, <alliteration>, <assonance>, <synonymical repetition>
syntactical convergence


e.g. ( ): To make a separate peace
with poverty, filth, immorality or ignorance is treason to the rest of the human race. (S. Levenson. Everything
but Money)
e.g. , , , .

e.g. , .. ,
- .
, ,
, .
e.g. A disorderly rush begins my parents, my wives, my girls, my children, my farm, my animals, my
habits, my money, my music lessons, my face, my soul! I have to cry. (S.Bellow)
Source: <I.V.A.>, 256
See: <convergence>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>


e.g. . , .
Source: <I.V.A.>, 258
See: <zeugma>

- , ;

- , ,
- ,
- ,
e.g. The rank and file of doctors are no more scientific than their tailors; or their tailors are no less
scientific than they. (B.Shaw)
- :
e.g. There is a point of no return unremarked at the time in most men lives. (Gr. Green The
- :
e.g. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. (Macbeth)
- , , :
e.g. Im wondering if I oughtnt to ring him up. (B.Shaw)
- , , :
e.g. Isnt that lovely? I shouldnt be a bit surprised if Robin doesnt do awfully well in some business
quite soon. Gerald, it isnt so very long ago that . If it hadnt been for the children, I wouldnt have wanted
to go on living. (J.Pristley)
- :
e.g. insupportable plagues, effect of that incurable distemper, inexpressible, incurable fools,
inconceivable plagues (J.Swift) ( )
Source: <I.V.A.>, 233
See: <litotes>, <irony>, <double negative>

- , ;
- , ( - ,
?), ;
- ;
- ;
- (<understatement>);
- (<litotes>);
- (<irony>);
- - , , ;
( ,
e.g. <->
e.g. he had never been handsome.
e.g. he was not in the last addicted to ..
- ;
e.g. ( ),
e.g. ( , , ,
- ,
- . .
e.g. No one who ever Seen Catherine Morland in her infancy would have supposed her born to be an
heroine. (J.Austen Northanger Abbey)
Source: <N.F.P.>
See: <litotes>, <double negative>, <morphological level>

- : , ,
- , , -
- ;
- , , ,
e.g. vital issue, tree world, pillar of society, bulwark of liberty, escalation of war
- , , , ;
- , ;

e.g. When the last Labour Government was kicked out (Daily Mail)
- : , ,
( ), , ,
, of;
e.g. Back to work to kill the bill.
e.g. Convict sentenced to life for coffin girl kidnap.
e.g. 28 days strike notice now given.(Daily Worker)
- , ;
- , ;
e.g. render imperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, have the effect of, play a
leading part (role) in, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of; greatly to be desired, a
development to be expected, brought to a satisfactory conclusion
- ;
e.g. by examination of <-- by examining
- ;
e.g. with respect to, having regard to, in view of, on the hypothesis that
- ,
e.g. In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that = I think that ...
- , ;
- :
, ;
e.g. A group of Tory backbenchers yesterday called for severe restrictions of the CND Easter peace
demonstration (Morning Star)
Source: <I.V.A.>, 342

- , :
e.g. A police Advisory Board composed of twelve representatives from police authorities, nine from
the Federation, three representing superintendents, and eight representing Chief Officers with the Home
Secretary or Home Office representative in the chair, has a general consultative and advisory function on
police matters but the Home Secretary need not accept its advice.
[lang id =2] , , : (1)
, (2) , (3)
Source: .. . . 77
See: <features of newspaper style>, <newspaper style>

- , -
- :
, ;
- : -;
- , ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

- : ;
- , ,
- ;
e.g. to sum up, as we have Seen, so far we have been considering; finally, again, thus
- .. ;
e.g. automata, perform, cardinal, comprise, susceptible, analogous, approximate, calculation, circular,
heterogeneous, initial, internal, maximum, minimum, phenomenon phenomena, respectively, simultaneous,
automation automata
- .. ;

e.g. note that, I wish to emphasise, another point of considerable interest is , an interesting
problem is that of , one of the most remarkable of , phenomena is , it is by no means trivial
- ;
e.g. very far from conservative, much less limited, almost all of which, much the same, most essential,
very diverse sorts, long before
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

- . . : 1)
- , 2) ;
e.g. we are coming to realise, we have taken in to be, the tube has shown us, we are beginning to See, we
deal with, we are now speaking
- ;
e.g. As an illustration let us take the language of Euclidean geometry and algebra. (A.Einstein)
- c it one;
e.g. It should be borne in mind, it may be Seen; one may write, one may show, one may assume, one can
readily See
- ;
e.g. I use the same notation as previously --> The notation is the same as previously used.
- , ,
e.g. when we arrived --> at the time of our arrival
- , ,
e.g. Normally two horizontal permeabilities are measured.
e.g. Today we are coming to realize that . We are beginning to See that . Finally, as long as the
automaton is running, .
e.g. The information fed into this central control system will very often contain information concerning
the functioning of the effectors themselves. (N.Wiener Cybernetics )
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

- : , , , ;
, ;
- ;
- ;
, , ,

e.g. To cover this aspect of communication engineering we had to develop a statistical theory of the
amount of information, in which the unit of the amount of information was that transmitted as a single decision
between equally probable alternatives. (N.Wiener Cybernetics )
- : ;
e.g. automatic gyrocompass ship-steering systems, anti-aircraft fire-control systems, automaticallycontrolled oil-cracking stills, ultra rapid computer machines, very old steam-engine governor. (N.Wiener
Cybernetics )
- , , (
e.g. that, and that, than, if, as, or, nor; not merely ... but also, whether ... or, both ... and, as ... as ...;
thereby, therewith, hereby
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>
shade of meaning

nuance of meaning
, /
- a component part of meaning;
Source: <I.R.G.>:58
Syn.: seme, shade of meaning, nuance of meaning
See: <meaning>, <word>, <sign>

- representation of a concept;
- takes one of the properties, by which a concept is characterised and makes it represent the concept as a
- in reference to concept becomes, as it were, a kind of <metonymy>;
Source: <I.R.G.>:59
- a component (the inner form) of the word through which a concept is communicated (Antrushina)
- presents a structure which is called the semantic structure of the word

- <grammatical meaning> or <structural meaning>

- <lexical meaning> or <dictionary meaning>
- <logical meaning> or <referential meaning> or <direct meaning> or <denotational meaning>
- <nominal meaning>
- <stylistic meaning> or <connotative meaning>
- <emotive meaning> or <emotional meaning> or <evaluative meaning>
- <contextual meaning>
See: <word>, <sign>, <lexical SDs>
contextual meaning
a meaning imposed by and depends on the context;
Source: <I.R.G.>:58,64
See: <meaning>
lexical meaning
dictionary meaning

- refers the mind to some concrete concept, phenomenon, or thing of objective reality, whether real or
- a means by which a word-form is made to express a definite concept;
- are closely related to a concept;
- are sometimes identified with a concept;
Source: <I.R.G.>:58-59
See: <meaning>
grammatical meaning
structural meaning

- refers our mind to relations between words or to some forms of words or constructions bearing upon
their structural functions in the language-as-a-system
Source: <I.R.G.>:58
See: <meaning>
denotational meaning
See: <referential meaning>
logical meaning
referential meaning
direct meaning

- the precise naming of a feature of the idea, phenomenon or object;
- the name by which we recognise the whole of the concept;
- is liable to change;
- of one <word> may denote different concepts;

- has reference not directly to things or phenomena of objective reality

Syn.: logical meaning, referential meaning, direct meaning
Source: <I.R.G.>:64,66
Ant.: <emotive meaning>, <emotional meaning>
See: <nominal meaning>, <meaning>
emotional meaning
evaluative meaning
stylistic meaning
connotative meaning
See: <emotive meaning>
emotive meaning
- also materialises a concept in the word, but, unlike logical meaning, it has reference not directly to
things or phenomena of objective reality, but to the feelings and emotions of the speaker towards these thighs or
to his emotions as such;
- bears reference to things, phenomena or ideas through a kind of evaluation of them;
e.g. I feel so darned lonely. (Gr.Green)
- has function to reveal the subjective, evaluating attitude of the writer to the things or events spoken of;
e.g. She has not a flirt, not even a coquette. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>:66
Ant.: <logical meaning>, referential meaning, direct meaning
See: <contextual emotive meaning>, <meaning>
contextual emotive meaning
- an <emotive meaning>, acquired by a word only in a definite context
e.g. liberty, justice, stunning, smart
Source: <I.R.G.>:66
See: <emotive meaning>, <meaning>
nominal meaning
- indicates a particular object out of a class;
- serves the purpose of singling out one definite and singular object out of a whole class of similar
e.g. Hope, Browning, Taylor, Scotland, Black, Chandler, Chester
Source: <I.R.G.>:68
See: <logical meaning>, <meaning>
supra-phrasal unit

- a combination of sentences presenting a structural and semantic unity backed up by rhythmic and
melodic unity;
- is used to denote a larger unit than a sentence;
- generally comprises a number of sentences interdependent structurally (usually by means of pronouns,
connectives, tense-forms) and semantically (one definite thought is dealt with);
- can be extracted from the context without losing its relative semantic independence;
- can be embodied in a sentence if the sentence meets the requirements of this compositional unit;
- though usually a component part of the paragraph, may occupy the whole of the paragraph;
- This structural unit, in its particular way of arranging ideas, belongs almost exclusively to the <belleslettres style>, though it may be met with to some extent in the <publicist style>. Other styles, judging by their
recognised leading features, don not require this mode of arranging the parts of an utterance except in rare cases
which may be neglected.
Source: <I.R.G.>:194-196
See: <paragraph>, <belles-lettres style>, <syntactical SDs>

- a graphical term used to name a group of sentences marked off by indentation at the beginning and a
break in the line at the end;
- a distinct portion of a written discourse showing an integral unity;

- (as a linguistic category) a unit of utterance marked off by purely linguistic means: intonation, pauses
of various lengths, semantic ties which can be disclosed by scrupulous analysis of the morphological aspect and
<meaning> of the component parts, etc.
- a linguistic expression of a logical, pragmatic and aesthetic arrangement of thought;
- the length normally varies from eight to twelve sentences (in <newspaper style> - one or two);
Source: <I.R.G.>:198-199
See: <supra-phrasal unit>, <newspaper style>, <syntactical SDs>
{{ . }}
indirect onomatopoeia
a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense
(echo writing) (I.R.G.)
e.g. And the silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain(E.Poe)
- is very effectively used by repeating word which themselves are not onomatopoeic
e.g. Silver bells how they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle // To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells //
From the bells, bells, bells, bells, // Bells, bells, bells, // From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. (E.Poe The Bells)

the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words

@ full rhyme
identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (might right,
needless heedless)
See: <rhyme>
- incomplete rhymes:
[m3]@ vowel rhymes
the vowels of the syllable in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different
(flesh -fresh press)
See: <rhyme>
[m3]@ consonant rhymes
show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels (worth forth, tale tool Treble trouble;
flung long)
See: <rhyme>
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: < rhythm>, <euphony>,
1) a flow, movement, procedure, etc. characterised by basically regular recurrence of elements or
features, as beat, or accent, in alternation with opposite or different elements or features (Websters New World
2) a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and the variations of it, variations which are governed by
the standard (I.R.G.)
See: <rhyme> , <euphony>,
whitewashing device
See: <euphemism>
set expressions
include: clichs, proverbs and sayings, <epigram>s, quotations, <allusion>s

a) a <SD> akin to a proverb, the only difference being that epigrams are coined by individuals whose
names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people
b) terse, witty, pointed statement, showing the ingenious turn of mind of the originator
e.g. A God that can be understood is no God. (S.Maugham)
e.g. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. (Keats)
e.g. He that bends shall be made straight. (S.Maugham)

e.g. Art is triumphant when it can use convention as an instrument of its own purpose. (S.Maugham
The Razors Edge)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <set expressions>, <lexical SDs>

an indirect reference, by word or phrase, to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of
everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing
e.g. No little Grandgrind had ever associated a cow in a field with that famous cow with the crumpled
horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt, or with that yet more famous cow
swallowed Tom Thumb; it had never heard of those celebrities (Dickens Hard Times)
(The <meaning> that can be derived from the two allusions, one to the nursery <rhyme> The House
that Jack build and the other to the old tale The history of Tom Thumb)
Source: <I.R.G.>
e.g. "Don't count your boobies until they are hatched"(J.Thurber)
See: <set expressions>, <lexical SDs>

a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word, phrase, clause, sentence, or other sequence which
interrupts a syntactic construction without otherwise affecting it, having often a characteristic intonation and
indicated in writing by commas, brackets or dashes. (Random House Dict. of the Engl. Lang.)
- a variant of <detached construction>
See: <detached construction>, <syntactical SDs>

a <SD> by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that
they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech),
are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote through it may Seem. (I.R.G.:216)
- integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole, unlike <polysyndeton>
e.g. The principal production of these towns appear to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps,
officers and dock-yard men. (Dickens Pickwick Papers)
See: <polysyndeton>, <parallel construction>, <syntactical SDs>
gap-sentence link
a way of connecting two sentences Seemingly unconnected and leaving it to the readers perspicacity to
grasp the idea implied, but not worded
e.g. She and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and they were in Italy. (Galsworthy)
(the second part, which is hooked on to the first by the conjunction and, Seems to be unmotivated or, in
other words, the whole sentence Seems to be logically incoherent. But this is only the first impression. After a
more careful supralinear semantic analysis it becomes clear that the exact logical variant of the utterance would
be: Those who ought to suffer were enjoining themselves in Italy)
- is generally indicated by and or but
- the omissions are justified because the situation easily prompts what has not been said;
- is based on the peculiarities of the spoken language and is therefore most frequently used in
represented speech;
- has various functions: it may serve to signal the introduction of inner represented speech, it nay be used
to indicate a subjective evaluation of the facts; it may introduce an effect resulting from a cause which has
already had verbal expression;
- displays and unexpected coupling of ideas;
- aims at stirring up in the readers mind the suppositions, associations and conditions under which the
sentence uttered can really exist
e.g. She says nothing, but it is clear that she is harping on this engagement, and goodness know what.
e.g. It was an afternoon to dream. And she took out Jons letters. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <types of connection>

is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author
e.g. For what is left the poet here? // For Greeks a blush for Greece a tear. (Byron Don Juan)
- does not contain statement unlike a <rhetorical question>;
- assume a semi-exclamatory nature;
- is very often used in oratory;
- sometimes gives the impression of an intimate talk between the writer and the reader;
e.g. Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be otherwise? Scrooge and he were
partners for I dont know how many years. (Dickens)
- may also remain unanswered (there are only hints of the possible answers)
e.g. How long must it go on? Now long must we suffer? Where is the end? What is the end? (Norris)
- \[presumes that the questioner does not know the answer\]
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <rhetorical question>, <syntactical SDs>
there is/are the

. , ,
e.g. [u]There was[/u] harmony between father and son again and [u]the old understanding[/u].
e.g. There was the long drive home; the long drive and the warm dark and the pleasant closeness of the
hansom cab. (Galsworthy) , .
Source: .., .. . ., 1965. . 297
See: <stylistic use of articles>, <morphological level>
stylistic analysis of poetry

- (, , );
[m3]See: <rhythm>, <rhyme> , <euphony>, <phono-graphical level>
- (, );
[m3]See: <synonymy>, <antonymy>, <lexical level>
- (, )
[m3]See: <trope>, <tropes>, <lexical SDs>
- ( ,
, );
[m3]See: <stylistic use of articles>, <negation>, <morphological level>
- ;
[m3]See: <syntactical level>
Source: <N.F.P.>
See: <expressive means>, <stylistic device>
stylistic analysis of prose

- , ;
[m3]See: <functional style>, <archaisms>
- ;
[m3]See: <euphony>, <phono-graphical level>
- (, );
[m3]See: <synonymy> , <antonymy>, <lexical level>
- (, , , )
[m3]See: <trope>, <tropes>, <lexical SDs>
- ( ,
, );
[m3]See: <tense of verbs>, <stylistic use of articles>, <negation>, <morphological level>
- ;
[m3]See: <syntactical level>

- :
[m3]- ;
[m3]- ;
[m3]- ( ,
[m3]- ;
See: <expressive means>, <stylistic device>
Source: <N.F.P.>
e.g. I have a must. A win in this match is a must.
e.g. Green waters flowers every day.
e.g. Running exercises leg muscles.
e.g. She madams everybody.
e.g. Turn your oughts into shalls.
e.g. How-do-you-do's were exchanged. (Sweet)
e.g. Warmed by the hot tea, he warmed to the argument.
e.g. Sharp ups and downs marked 1999 for the European Union.
e.g. She came dressed up to the nines.
e.g. Finally, to quiet him, she said uneekly, she hadn't really meant it.
e.g. The differences are now being narrowed.
e.g. Her face, heated with his own exertions, chilled suddenly.
e.g. When he saw who it was, he condescended a sarcastic Thank you, but no Madam. He did not
madam anybody, even good customers like Mrs Moore. (Dickens)
e.g. ... the bounding vitality which had carried her through what had been a life of quite sharp ups and
downs. (McCrone)
e.g. Don't bustle me," said Eeyore, getting up slowly. "Don't now-then me." (Milne)
gender markers
linguistic features of female and male languages
- men and women Seem to differ in terms of their communicative competence or, in other words, in their
knowledge of how to use language in society;
- women and men typically employ different linguistic styles of speech;
- men and women use certain linguistic patterns which are typical of powerful and powerless (the
mens and womens styles of) language;
- Male and female speakers tend to use different kinds of expressions when the make a request. This
reflects the different ideas between male and female speakers about gender and intimacy.
- <gender markers of male language>
- <gender markers of female language>
gender markers of male language
- tend to change their expressions depending on the degree of their intimacy with the listeners
- use polite forms of making a request when the listeners are not intimate.
- if those who do them a favour are close friends, they will ask them in a more casual way, even bluntly
without showing any politeness.
- generally use more polite expressions when they speak to female friends than to males
- choose from different expressions, depending on whom they are talking to
Ant.: <gender markers of female language>
See: <gender markers>
gender markers of female language
- are found not to change their expressions as much depending on the sex of the persons they speak to
- generally use more polite expressions both to the male and female listeners alike.
- tend not to change their way of speaking, depending on whom they are talking to.

1. The use of hedges of <parenthesis>.

e.g. sort of, I guess, kind of, you know, well, you See, just
e.g. [u]Well[/u], we were, [u]uh[/u], very close friends. [u]Uh[/u], she was even [u]sort of like[/u] a
mother to me. (Lady Diana Spencer)

2. Excessive use of super-polite forms of expression.

e.g. would you please; Id really appreciate it if you would do smth; would you be so kind and do
something, I awfully ask you to do smth
3. The use of tag questions.
e.g. The crisis in Kosovo is terrible, isnt it? But you can switch on the light, can you?
4. Speaking in italics, i.e. the use of emphatic so and very which is equivalent to [u]underlining[/u]
words in written language, often followed by the sudden rise in intonation pitch:
e.g. This is a very important subject. This problem is of so much importance. It is a very very serious.
e.g. It took a long time to understand why people were so interested in me.(Lady Diana Spencer)
5. The use of the empty adjectives or adverbs.
e.g. divine, daunting, charming, sweet, adorable, tremendous, significant, phenomenal, desperate,
6. Hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation.
7. Lack of sense of humour which means that women are usually poor at telling jokes comparing to men.
8. Direct quotations.
e.g. I asked him: Why did you come home so late? and he said: I was in the pub having some beer
with my friends
e.g. It was a long way off, I thought. ... I said to my husband: What do I do now? and he said: Go to
the other side and speak to them. (Lady Diana Spencer)
9. Special vocabulary, e.g. the use of diminutive forms of specialise colour terms.
e.g. piglet, kitty, chubby, sweetheart, honey
e.g. The Queen wore a yellow dress and a green hat. He was in a dark blue suit.
10. Question intonation in declarative contexts, which may cause a problem for interpreters desperately
trying to figure out whether may cause what was said should be regarded as a statement or as a question.
Source: (Coats 1986, OBarr 1982, Lakoff 1975) cit. by .., ..
. .: , 2001. 105 .
Ant.: <gender markers of male language>
See: <gender markers>
mixed metaphor
two or more metaphors that sound strange or funny when you use them together
e.g. This is a great headache lifted off my shoulders. .
Source: <MacMillan>, 895
e.g. , .
e.g. , .
See: <metaphor>, <convergence>
double predicate
, -
a special type of predicate which presents a crossing of two predicates a verbal predicate and a
nominal predicate
e.g. The moon rose red. (= The moon was red when it rose)
e.g. She went away quite a child; she returned a grown-up woman.
e.g. In that part of Africa the natives go naked all the year round.
e.g. At this idea he went mad.
Source: .. .. . . . . ., 1964. C. 350

combines the features of two different types of predicate: the simple verbal predicate, expressed by a
notional verb denoting an action or process performed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject, and
the compound nominal predicate, expressed by a noun or an adjective which denotes the properties of the subject
in the same way as the predicative of the compound nominal predicate proper does.
e.g. The moon was shining cold and bright.
e.g. My daughter sat silent.
e.g. He died a hero.
e.g. She married young.
e.g. The light came grey and pale.
e.g. The men stood silent and motionless.
e.g. They met friends and parted enemies.
e.g. The moon rose round and yellow.
There are a number of verbs that often occur in this type of predicate, performing the double function of
denoting a process and serving as link verbs at the same time. They are: to die, to leave, to lie, to marry, to

return, to rise, to sit, to stand, to shine, etc.. As in Modern English is a growing tendency to use this type of
predicate, the verbs occuring in it are not limited by any particular lexical class.
Source: .. . . . . ., 2001. C. 342

, :
(to go, to come, to run, to fly, to ride, to rise, to fall, to return, etc.), (to
stand, to lie, to sit, to hang, etc.), (to live, to die, etc.), ,
(to feel, to look, to ring, to smell, to taste, etc.), , (to
Seem, to appear), , (to prove, to turn out)
Source: .., .. . ., 1965. . 305

e.g. This will taste bad. (J. Steinbeck)

e.g. The sky shone pale... (Mansfield)
e.g. The sun rose brightly. (London)
e.g. The sun was shining bright and cold. (London)
e.g. The snow fell soft on his face and hair. (A. Maltz)
e.g. The moon shone peacefully. (Bront).
e.g. She flushed crimson... (Galsworthy)
e.g. He looked stained and worried. (Galsworthy)
e.g. Dusk had gathered thick. (Galsworthy)
e.g. ...Soames stood invisible at the top of the stairs... (Galsworthy)
e.g. ... the poplar tops showed sharp and dense against the sky. (Galsworthy)
e.g. The sun shone out bright and warm... (Dickens)
e.g. Around and around the house the leaves fall thick. (Dickens)
e.g. He resigned his office and died an old man. (Daily Worker)
e.g. They \[carnations\] arrived perfectly fresh. (Mazo de la Roche)
e.g. Catherine's blood ran cold with the horrid suggestions which naturally sprang from these words. (J.
e.g. You've come home such a beautiful lady. (Taylor)
e.g. I sat down hungry, I was hungry while I ate, and I got up from the table hungry. (Saroyan)
e.g. She had set her feet upon that road a spoiled, selfish and untried girl, full of youth, warm of
emotion, easily bewildered by life. (Dreiser)
See: <double passive>, <secondary predication constructions>
double passive

the construction whereby a passive infinitive directly follows a passive verb
Double passives are more acceptable when used in a reporting context. It is better to avoid the passive
form of the verb as much as possible as it tends to convey a weak approach by the individual writing it.
e.g. The building is scheduled to be demolished next week.
e.g. The contract is proposed to be withdrawn.
e.g. Their budget was expected to be reduced.
e.g. The mountain was attempted to be climbed.
e.g. A cheerful atmosphere was endeavoured to be created.
e.g. The piece was originally intended to be played on the harpsichord.
e.g. This topic was claimed to have been studied to death.
e.g. Three people are reported to have been drowned.
e.g. The building was expected to have been completed by then.
e.g. The manufacture of your goods is hoped to be resumed shortly.
The American Heritage Book of English Usage. A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary
English. 1996.
The Columbia Guide to Standard American English by Kenneth G. Wilson.
The Oxford Guide to English Usage.
See: <complex subject>, <secondary predication constructions>, <double predicate>

double possessive
double genitive

the s construction after the of-construction
e.g. a friend of my fathers (= one of my fathers friends)
e.g. a play of Shakespeares (= one of Shakespeares plays)
This can happen because we usually put only one determiner in front of a noun.
e.g. this son of mine, a friend of yours, a cousin of hers,
e.g. Isnt Frank Byers a friend of yours?
e.g. Hes no friend of mine. (= I dont know him.) or (= Hes my enemy.)
The use of demonstratives often suggests criticism:
e.g. That silly uncle of yours has told me the same joke five times.
Source: Longman English Grammar by L.G.Alexander. L., 1988. P. 54
See: <morphological level>
double negative

two negative words in a sentence
- can be used to express an affirmative, but this is rare or sometimes heard in joking;
e.g. Nobody did nothing. (=Everybody did something)
- is acceptable when there is co-ordination;
e.g. Ive never had and never wanted a television set.
- is also possible in different clauses:
e.g. I can never get in touch with Thomas, as he has no telephone.
[m3]Note: the not in the if-clause does not make a true negative:
e.g. I wouldnt be surprised if he didnt try to blackmail you. (i.e. if he tried to blackmail you.)
Source: Longman English Grammar by L.G.Alexander. L., 1988. P. 254, 277

- is possible in standard English, but then both words normally have their full <meaning>
e.g. Compare:
e.g. Say nothing. (=Be silent.)
e.g. Dont just say nothing. Tell us what the problem is. (=Dont be silent...)
- is sometimes used instead of simple positive structures for special stylistic effects
- is rather literary
- can Seem unnatural or old-fashioned in spoken English
e.g. Not a day passes when I dont regret not having studied music in my youth. (More natural: Every
day I regret not having studied music when I was younger. OR: I wish I had studied music when I was younger.)
Source: Practical English Usage by Michael Swan. L., 1996. P. 357
e.g. Nobody never went and hinted no such thing, said Peggotty; I cant do nothing
without my staff. (Hardy)
See: <negation>, <morphological level>
continuous infinitive
e.g. I can recollect yet how I loved him; and can dimly imagine I could still [u]be loving[/u] him if - No,
no! (E.Bronte)
gives more prominence to the idea of the continuity of her love, and this is obviously much stronger than
the mere statement that love might still be there now. The stylistic difference is thus unquestionable, but there
would Seem to be also a grammatical difference. The <meaning> of the continuous aspect is well brought out
here, though the lexical meaning of the verb love would Seem to go against it.
Source: .. . 2- . ., 1971. . 130
See: <morphological level>
continuous participle
is occasionally found, but this use appears to be obsolete:
e.g. The younger Miss Thorpes [u]being[/u] also [u]dancing[/u], Catherine was left to the mercy of Mrs
Thorpe and Mrs Allen, between whom she now remained. (J.Austin)
e.g. Catherine had no leisure for speech, [u]being[/u] at once [u]blushing[/u], [u]tying[/u] her gown, and
[u]forming[/u] wise resolutions with the most violent dispatch. (J.Austin)

The use of the continuous participles Seems to be a means of giving prominence to the fact that the
actions indicated were actually happening at that very moment.
Source: .. . 2- . ., 1971. . 131
See: <morphological level>
continuous infinitive passive
can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring
Source: Blokh M.Y. A Course of Theoretical English Grammar. 4th ed. M., 2003. p. 118
e.g. Despite initial concerns, the MyParty virus Seems to be being contained with only a few thousand
reports so far. (BBC)
e.g. Little has been heard of Saddam Hussein since he was captured at the end of last year but he is
believed to be being held at an undisclosed location in Iraq. (BBC)
See: <morphological level>
perfect continuous infinitive passive
can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring
Source: Blokh M.Y. A Course of Theoretical English Grammar. 4th ed. M., 2003. p. 118
e.g. Around a quarter (23.0%) \[of separate houses in Queensland\] were being rented. Flats and
townhouses were far more likely to have been being rented (71.5% and 63.0% respectively) than houses.
(Queensland Govt)
e.g. Now we know from the documents that we have in Exhibit 37-A, that \[ventilation\] surveys Seem
to have been being done about once a month up until February.
See: <morphological level>
perfect continuous passive
To imagine this ungainly verbal predicate in a sentence, consider:
e.g. That song has been being sung for hours, and Im sick of it.
which implies either the singing of one extremely long song or repetitious performances of the same
Source: Gerald. P. Delahunty, James J. Garvey. Language, grammar and Communication. A Course for
Teachers of English. Colorado, 1994. p. 194
See: <morphological level>


1. - .
, .
, ,
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, (five-w-and-h-pattern rule >
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(cash in hand, cash on delivery, on cash, prompt cash).
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thereby, therewith, hereby,

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> to sum up, as we have seen, so far we have been
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: perform, calculation, circular, phenomenon, maximum, etc.
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arrived <> at time of our arrival), , .

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, . XIX .
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. So you have seen him? This morning.
. , . ,
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There was nothing to listen to.
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