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SHORTENING PROCESSES IN B-CAK (BERITA KOCAK) JTVS PROGRAM

A THESIS

By NOVYLIA PUSPITASARI St. N: 120710082

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AIRLANGGA UNIVERSITY SURABAYA 2011

SHORTENING PROCESSES IN B-CAK (BERITA KOCAK) JTVS PROGRAM

A THESIS

By NOVYLIA PUSPITASARI St. N: 120710082

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AIRLANGGA UNIVERSITY SURABAYA 2011

SHORTENING PROCESSES IN B-CAK (BERITA KOCAK) JTVS PROGRAM

Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Humanities Airlangga University Surabaya

By NOVYLIA PUSPITASARI St. N: 120710082

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AIRLANGGA UNIVERSITY SURABAYA 2011

DECLARATION

This thesis contains no material, which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any university. And to the best of this candidates knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person except where due reference is made in the text of the thesis.

Surabaya, 24 June 2011

Novylia Puspitasari

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I dedicate this thesis to: My Beloved Ibuk & Bapak

And

Emak, Mbok,Pak Muk n My Greatest Family

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Approved to be examined Surabaya, 24 June 2011

Thesis Advisor

Erlita Rusnaningtias, M.A NIP: 1977 0924 2005 01 20 01

Head of English Department

Dra. Lilla Musyahda NIP. 1966 1210 2007 01 2001

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AIRLANGGA UNIVERSITY SURABAYA 2011

This thesis has been approved and accepted by the Board of Examiners, English Department, Faculty of Humanities, Airlangga University on 25 July 2011 The Board of Examiners are:

1. Ema Faiza, M.Hum NIP: 1974 10 14 2003 12 20 01

2. Erlita Rusnaningtias, M.A NIP: 1977 09 24 2005 01 20 01

3. Deny Arnos Kwary NIP:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillah finally I can accomplish this thesis after facing many obstacles that occurred during the process of writing. I would like to say my greatest gratitude to Allah SWT, My Lord who always gives me the strength to finish this thesis and encourage me when I feel tired and down. This thesis would never be accomplished without the help of my thesis advisor, Erlita Rusnaningtias, M. A. Thank you for your guidance and useful advice throughout the process of writing this thesis. I would like to say my gratitude to head of English department, Dra. Lilla Musyahda, M.Pd, my academic advisor Sudar Ita Farida, M. Hum for her advice during my years, my thesis writing design lecturer Lusvita Fitri N., M. App. Ling and all my lecturers in English Department Airlangga University. I would say my great gratitude to my parents for giving me chance and support to study until my under-graduate level. My proofreader, Mr. Ahmad Fauzi Rahman, S.Hum for helping me correct the dictions of this thesis. My best friends during my years in English Department: Ermambeng, Wita, NoviBreng, Nufus, Yuniheri, AbazCin, Sari, Kunthi, Afrina, Indah, Niar, Kipli and my best boy friend who support and help me collecting the data, my housemate; Mbak lina, Mbak siti, Mbak Ai, Elita, my colleague in Asco Isuzu and all my friends from kindergarten to university who I can not mention one by one, thank you all for lighting my spirit up when I was down and felt unable to continue my study.

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I hope this thesis can be a motivation to all of my cousins, nephews and niece; Mas Awang, Mas Kiki, Mas Sugi, Rido, Yanti, Baru, Ayu, Desta, Mira, Adam, Huda, Rara, Sofie, Nafis, Azzam, Roni and others. Because this is the first thesis created in my family. The last but not least, I thank the readers of my thesis. I hope this study gives you valuable information. I open any critics to generate more understanding on shortening processes because I believe there are always rooms for improvements.

Surabaya, June 24 2011

Novylia Puspitasari

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Try not to become a man of success but rather to become a man of value, Albert Einstein.

It is possible to fail in many wayswhile to succeed is possible only in one way, Aristotle.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Inside Cover Page . Inside Title page .... Declaration Page .... Dedication Page . Thesis Advisors Approval Page ... Acknowledgement . Epigraph . Table of Content .... List of the Table . Abstract ..

i ii iii iv v vi viii ix xii xiii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ... 1.1. Background of the study . 1.2. Statement of the problem .... 1.3. Objective of the study . 1.4. Significance of the study . 1.5. Definition of Key Terms .

1 1 6 6 7 7

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW .... 2.1. Review of Related Theories ...

9 9

2.1.1. Word Formation Processes .. 2.1.2. Shortening .... 2.1.3. Shortening Types .. 2.2. Review of Related Studies .

9 12 13 20

CHAPTER III: METHOD OF THE STUDY 3.1. Research Approach .. 3.2. Corpus ..... 3.3. Technique of Data Collection .......... 3.4. Technique of Data Analysis .

24 24 24 25 26

CHAPTER IV: DISCUSSION 4.1. Abbreviation .... 4.2. Acronym ...... 4.3. Blend ....... 4.4. Multiple Processes .......... 4.5. Other Shortening Variation ...... 4.5.1. Type I . 4.5.2. Type II ..... 4.5.3. Type III .... 4.6. Interpretation ....... 4.6.1. Variation in Shortening ....

27 27 28 28 34 37 37 39 40 47 49

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION REFERENCES .... APPENDIX .

53 56 58

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LIST OF THE TABLES

Table 4.1: Abbreviation . 28 Table 4.2: Blend type I .. 29

Table 4.3: Blend type II . 30 Table 4.4: Blend type III ... 31

Table 4.5: Blend type IV 33 Table 4.6: Multiple Processes 35 Table 4.7: Free Variation Type . 37

Table 4.8: Free Variation Type IIa .... 39 Table 4.9: Free Variation Type IIb 40 Table 4.10: Free Variation Type III .. Table 4.11: Presentation Number of finding . Table 4.12 : Variation of Shortened Forms based on the word. Table 4.13: variation based on the term 44 47 49 50

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ABSTRACT

Puspitasari, Novylia. Shortening Processes in B-Cak JTVs Program. Undergraduate thesis. Faculty of Humanities. Airlangga University Surabaya 2011.

This study is about the use of shortened terms in B-Cak JTVs Program. B-Cak is a comedy program in the form of news. The aims of this study are to find out the shortened terms used in the program and the shortening processes. The approach of the study is descriptive qualitative. In which the writer describes the shortened terms and identifies the processes. The data was recorded randomly from 30 December 2010 to 4 April 2011 for 23 episodes then analyzed by using Kridalaksanas theory. There are some types of shortening processes: abbreviation, acronym, blend, clipping and alphabetical symbol. He also states that shortened terms may be formed by multiple processes. The result of the study shows that shortened terms that occur are abbreviation, acronym, blend and multiple processes. On the other hand there are some shortened terms can not be describing by using Kridalaksanas theory and classified as other shortening variation. There are three types of other shortening variation; Type I First is other shortening variation which is formed by adjusting pronunciation to the original term; type II is other shortening variation which is formed by deleting; Type IIa is deleting affix or conjunction, IIb is deleting component of the words; Type III is other shortening variation which is formed by combining part of the components without any specific rules. Then, the writer concludes that the use of shortening in B-Cak JTVs program used as entertainment, attract the audience and enrich the variation of the shortening type.

Keywords: shortening, B-Cak, abbreviation, acronym, blend

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of the Study Language is one of the most important things in human life. It is used to

communicate or to deliver message to each other. Time after time, language develops and changes. The development of technology has led to the innovations of certain terms in a language. It enriches the vocabulary of the language. On the other hand, language also changes from complex to simple one for practical reason. Such change can be seen in the innovations of terms or words which involve word formation. According to Siahaan (2008), these innovations include compounding words and forming phrases from stored words in mental lexicon, words derivations, and creating new words through some processes: borrowing, coinage, backformation, and abbreviation. In daily life, people often use shortening to make simpler word. In this case, shortening is used to shorten long words or phrases. It consists of a letter or a group of letters taken from other words or phrases. There are some phenomena of shortened terms in Indonesia. We find them in almost all aspects of life, from formal untill informal situation, such as daily conversation, government, education, politic etc. One example of the usage shortening can be seen in daily conversation as the young people usually shortened gak pake lama as GPL means be hurry which is usually said by someone who is asked to wait by someone else, or EGP

which stands for Emang Gue Pikirin means I dont care. In education, shortening is also used to name the process of student entrance test to university, which has been changed several times, such as Sipenmaru, which stands for Seleksi Penerimaan Mahasiswa Baru was changed into SPMB (Seleksi Penerimaan Mahasiswa Baru) then was changed again into SNMPTN, which stands for Seleksi Nasional Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri. When the students have passed the test and accepted at the university, they will also find the abbreviated terms, such as SKS which stands for Satuan Kredit Semester (compilation of semester credit) then is slipped to Sistem Kebut Semalam (the way of student to do their assignment in one night only). The usage of shortened terms in government can be found in the names of ministers and ministries, such as Depdikbud stand for Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Department of Education and Culture), and ABRI which stands for Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia. The usage of shortening in politic can also be seen on the name of political parties in Indonesia. Most of them use the abbreviation such as PKS which stands for Partai Keadilan Sejahtera, Golkar which stands for Golongan Karya, and PDIP which stands for Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan. The use of shortening does not stop until those points. It is also used on television programs. The writer is interested to analyze the use of shortening processes in one of local television station programs which is about comedy show, named B-Cak.

B-cak is a unique comedy show broadcasted by JTV, a local TV station in Surabaya. This program is about news, reality and jokes that use code switching and code mixing between Indonesian and Javanese. It is broadcasted lively every Sunday-Saturday at 9 to 10 p.m. and will be played again on the next day at 10.30 to 11.30 a.m. This program is presented in the form of news which has a different theme everyday. The presenters wear costume suited to the theme on that day. This program is divided into five segments, which are berita kocak, sekolah or blingsatan, tips and trick with jeng Ana, guest star and interactive show with the audience. The first segment, Berita kocak, delivers amusing news. In this segment, the hosts convey mannered information about mas boyo - masalah suroboyo and the current news in the world. However, the way the hosts delivers the message is informal and full of jokes. The second, sekolah, which stands for seputar komedi (comedy) dan istilah (terminology) In this program there is one reporter that conducts interviews with people in some places to discuss about the terminology of words. The aim of this segment is to test the participant and to add his or her knowledge. If the participant does not know the term or give incorrect answer, the reporter will make joke at the participant. In this segment, there is turn-taking between sekolah and blingsatan. If sekolah is not on the show, then blingsatan will be showed. Blingsatan, (B-Cak keliling sambil liputan), is a live funny report. In this section, the reporter walks around to find events and makes a report on the spot. Sometimes, the reporter also conducts informal interview. The third segment, tips and trick with Nona Ana, shows Nona Ana who makes jokes on

given tips, so that they become tricky tips. The last segment, guest star, is a segment in which B-cak represents one or more guest stars to discuss topic of the day. In this segment, there is also an interactive section with the audiences. The audience calls the phone number showed on the television. The audience can ask questions to the guest star or has tic-tac-toe. The host also slips the name of the caller, for example Hasan becomes hari-hari sudah bosan, Sujarwo becomes suwi belajar ilmu jowo, Antok becomes anak e sitok etc. Sometimes, between each segment, the MC in studio slips the meaning of the terminology that conveys the allusion. For example, for the word operator, the host said that it was the shortening of operasi pagi dapet motor. Here are some other examples of words which are formed through shortening process found on B-cak program; sekolah stands for seputar komedi istilah (about terminology comedy), tektonik stands for tek tok panik (panic tek tok), kejagung stands for kejaksaan agung (attorney general), jaksa stands for jangan memaksa (dont insist), rancu stands for laporan lucu (funny report), gitar stands for digigit gemetar (trembling when bitten), susi stands for suaraku seksi (my voice is sexy), tarno stands for ngitar bendino (playing guitar every day), betis stands for berita artis (celebriti news), blingsatan stand for becak keliling sambil liputan (go around by pedicab while reporting), kurker stands for kurang kerjaan (jobless), jani stands for kerja disini (work here), radit stands for ora medit (not stingy), and obama stand for organisasi bakso malang (Malang meatball organization). Based on the phenomenon, it seems that the shortened terms are made as familiar as possible to the audiences, for example by making these terms similar

to a persons name (such as Hasan or Sujarwo), or using terms that are widely known by the audiences (such as blingsatan). However, the relationship between shortened terms and their meanings (the phrases or long words which are shortened) is miscellaneous. In the other word, it seems that there are no specific patterns that rule the formation process of the shortened term. These phenomena also prove Kridalaksanas statement. In his book (mention the title of his book), he stated that Indonesian users have huge numbers of shortened terms, and ideas and creativity to shorten terms, but they do not pay attention to the rules of word formation and the relation of the shortened and the original terms (Kridalaksana, 2007: p.159). The writer hopes that this research could give a contribution to the development of Morphology, especially word formation processes as part of Morphology (Kridalaksana, 2007). According to Ingo Plag, word-formation is the process in which words are composed of more than one meaningful element (Plag, 2002). The other definition of the word-formation is process of creating new words or terms from the old words to the new uses (Yule, 1996). There are some kinds of word formation processes as proposed by one linguist, Laurie Bauer; reduplication, zero derivation, back formation, clipping, compound, blend and acronym. In analyzing this phenomenon, the writer thinks that the most appropriate theory is the one delivered by Kridalaksana (2007) since the data that will be analyzed is Indonesian. Shortening is reduction processes of one or more lexemes or a combination lexeme thus become a new form of word that is simpler than the

word before. Shortening allows us to shorten a phrase that consists of several words into shorter one. Because of this reason, Kridalaksana (2007) named its processes kependekan (shortening). He also classified this type into five subtypes; singkatan (abbreviation), penanggalan (reduction), akronim (acronym), kontraksi (blend) and lambang huruf (alphabetic symbol). This phenomenon motivates the writer to apply the theory of Kridalaksana to the shortening processes in B-Cak JTVs program. She also tries to reveal how exactly the word shortening processes in B-Cak JTVs program.

1.2

Statements of the Problem Shortened words are used in Indonesian daily life include comedy TV

program that is B-Cak. It shows that shortening processes in Indonesia are free in use, so it can be used in humor. Hence, the function of the abbreviation process is not only to shorten long words or phrases but also to entertain the audiences. Based on the foregoing, the following research questions are proposed; 1. What are shortened terms found in B-cak comedy show? 2. What shortening processes are experienced by the term in B-cak comedy show?

1.3

Objectives of the study Based on the statements of the problem proposed above, the objectives of

the study are: 1. To identify the shortened terms used in B-Cak comedy show.

2. To identify the shortening processes which are experienced by the term in B-cak comedy show.

1.4

Significance of the study Some researches in the field of morphology concerning word formation

processes have been conducted. In B-Cak comedy show, it seems that shortening processes is not only the way people shorten the words in order to make them shorter or easier to be pronounced, but these shortened words are also used to entertain. This study is expected to give the readers new information about the use of shortened word and to give a contribution to linguistics study, especially in the field of morphology. The analysis of the shortened terms in this study can give ideas to the analysis of word formation in other morphological researches. Therefore, it also can be one reference for further researches. The practical significant of the research is to inform the audience about the shortening in B-cak and to make them remember it in their daily life. Thus, they will be interested to watch it again and again.

1.5

Definition of Key Term In this study, the writer thinks that it is a need to describe some terms that

she uses to identify and analyze the issue in order to make the reader understand more. They are; Shortening : A process of deleting one or more parts of lexeme

or combination of lexemes to form new words. (Kridalaksana, 2007)

B-Cak

: a comedy show broadcasted by JTV in the form of news, reality and jokes that uses code switching and code mixing between Indonesian and Javanese

Blend

: word formed by combining the root where at least one of the components is reproduced in one partially. E.g. smog is blended of smoke and fog (Carstair & Mc.Carthy, 2002).

Abbreviation

: A shortening process that combines letters that couldnt be read, so it should be spelled (Kridalaksana, 2007). For example: KPU, which stands for Komisi Pemilihan Umum

Acronym

: combination of the initial letters of the word. E.g. RAM stand for Random Access memory (Carstair & Mc.Carthy, 2002).

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Review of Related Theories In this section, the writer summarizes some theories which are related to the purpose of this study. She believes that the theories are needed in doing analysis in every field of study. Therefore, in this study she explains a number of theories about word formation since shortening is a part of word formation and draw concept of shortening. While in analyzing the data, theory that used is shortening processes categorization that proposed by Kridalaksana.

2.1.1 Word Formation Processes There are several theories about word formation processes. The theories present different definitions of word formation processes. For example Yule (1996) states that word formation is a process of creating new words or terms from the old words to the new uses. Meanwhile, According to Ingo Plag, wordformation is the process in which words are composed of more than one meaningful element (Plag, 2002). Some experts also make different classifications of word formation processes. Laurie Bauer (1988), for example, classifies word formation processes into seven groups. They include: 1. Reduplication, or using of some part of the base more than once in the word, is far more common across languages than the rarer types of affixation. The example of the reduplication word in Africa is amper-

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amper means very nearly and Papua New Guinea ta-tau or men and memero mean boys. 2. Zero Derivation or conversion is contrasting with nothing at all, a lack of derive word, used in some sentences and has some different meanings and functions. The good example in English is the word round it can be used as verb or adjective. 3. Back Formation is a morph with an independent existence elsewhere in the language, and especially where the process is a derivational one. The example the word edit which is backformation from editor and gruntle from disgruntled are backformation for modern speaker. 4. Clipping is the processes of shortening word without changing its meaning or part of speech. The example in English is Delicatessen become Deli. 5. Compound is the formation of a new lexeme by adjoining two or more lexemes. The example in Danish long-eared bat and the example in English whitehouse 6. Blend is two meanings packed up into a word. It takes part of each word. The example is the word glass + asphalt = glasphalt 7. Acronym is the words coined from the initial letters of the words in a name, title or phrase. The example that is used in daily life AIDS stands for Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome. On the other hand, Yule (1996) classifies word formation processes into ten types, of five which are similar to those in Bauers classification. They are compound, blends, clipping, back formation and acronym. The types that differ

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from Bauers classification are coinage, borrowing, derivation and multiple processes. 1. Coinage is new terms or words which can possibly come from the old uses to the new uses. Older examples are aspirin, nylon and, zipper. On the other hands, newer examples are Kleenex and Teflon. 2. Borrowing is the adoption/taking over new words from other language. Some examples of borrowed words in English are the words cave which is borrowed from Arabic word, colleague from French word, and geometry which comes from Greek word. 3. Derivation: accomplished by means of a large number of small bits of the English language which are not usually given separated listing in the dictionaries. These small bits are called affixes and a few examples are morphemes ity, dys-, mis-, which form new word stupidity, dysfunction, misunderstood. 4. Multiple processes: A series of processes which forms a word, for example in the sentence he wallpapered his bedroom. The word wallpapered (V) is formed through two processes. First, the compounding of the words wall and paper to form wallpaper. Second, the conversion of wallpaper from a noun into a verb. The Indonesian linguist, Kridalaksana (2007) states that there are six word formation processes in Indonesia. There are; 1. Zero Derivation is the process of a lexeme becomes a word without any changes.

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2. Affixation is the changing of a lexeme into a complex word by adding affixes, for example the word lari becomes berlari. 3. Reduplication: is the changing a lexeme into a complex word by some repetition processes, for example the word sama becomes sesama. 4. Shortening is the process of a lexeme or a combination of lexemes is shortened through some processes, including three processes which are already mentioned by Bauer such as blending, clipping, and acronym. However, there are two processes which are not mentioned by Bauer: alphabetical symbol and abbreviation, for example the word gram is shortened into g and kuliah kerja nyata is shortened into KKN. 5. Composition is process of joining two or more lexemes to form a compound word, for example the word rumah and sakit are joined to form rumah sakit. 6. Back Derivation is the process the changing words which is the input is a lexeme and the output is a complex word. The process is similar to affixation, for example the word mungkir become dipungkiri.

2.1.2

Shortening Shortening is not explicitly mentioned by the Bauer, Yule and Mc. Charty,

it is closely related to some processes mentioned by linguists above such as blends, acronyms, and clipping. Nevertheless, some linguists are different in naming this process, for example Carstairs-McCarthy (2002) naming it as abbreviation instead of shortening. The abbreviation here is put in the same

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section with blend and acronyms. However, he describes acronym, abbreviation and blends differently. He describes acronym as a combination of initial letters in the spelling of some words that are readable, while, abbreviation is described as a combination of initial letters that are unreadable which do not form a wordlike sound; therefore, it is spelled letter by letter. Shortening processes in Indonesian also have some processes.

Kridalaksana (2007) classified this term into five sub-types: singkatan (abbreviation), akronim (acronym), penggalan (clipping), kontraksi (blend), and lambang huruf (alphabetical symbol). This classification will be discussed further in the next section.

2.1.3 Shortening Types There are some theories which are related to shortening types. In this section, the writer will discuss three classifications. First classification proposed by Wallace (1980), he gives the classification of the shortening types in general. The other classification as proposed by Harley (2006) and Kridalaksana (2007) is the more detailed classification. Wallace (1980) describes abbreviation in three types based on its use: 1. Field Abbreviation: Abbreviations that are used in particular subjects such as Mathematics, Chemistry, and Engineering. For example, in

Mathematics, Tan stands for Tangen. 2. Commonly Understood Abbreviations: Abbreviations that are used widely, across subject areas, typically related to the organization of text, and are

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often based on Latin, such as a common symbol e.g. which stands for exemplii gratia or for example. 3. Personal Abbreviation: Abbreviations that are made up by writers themselves, such as abbreviation found in short message service. The second classification is provided by Harley (2006). She states that abbreviation and acronym are sub-parts of extreme clipping. Extreme clipping is formed by using initial letters of the content words in a phrase to stand in for the whole phrase. She also proposes a new term: initialism, which has two subgroups: 1. Acronyms: A collection of initials that are pronounced as a single phonological word according to the spelling conventions of English. 2. Abbreviation: A collection of initials of which the letters are read out one a time. The third classification is made by Kridalaksana (2007). This theory is used to analyze the data. He uses the term pemendekan (shortening) to name the abbreviation process in Indonesian. He divides the shortening process in Indonesia into five categories: 1. Singkatan (abbreviation): is a shortening process formed by a letter or combination of letters that are spelled / pronounced letter by letter. 2. Akronim (Acronym): is a shortening process formed by taking the initial letters of some or all the words in a phrase or title and reading them as a word. 3. Kontraksi (Blends): is a process that shortens a lexeme or a combination of lexemes.

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4. Penggalan (Clipping): is a process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllable. 5. Lambang Huruf (Alphabetical symbol): is a shortening process that produces one letter or more that describes a basic concept of quantity, unit, and chemical element. Kridalaksana also states that a shortening process may be formed by multiple processes or combination of these categories: 1. Abbreviation-Acronym There are some shortening processes in this type; Combining the first letter of each word, for example YTKI which stands for Yayasan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia Combining the first letter by deleting conjunctions, reduplication and articulation, for example BASUKI stand for Badan Asuhan Sekolah dan Usaha Kebudayaan Indonesia Combining the first letter and the number of repetition letter, for example BBN-A3 stands for Bea Balik Nama Alat Angkutan Air Combining the first two letters of the word, for example Wa stands for Wakil Combining the first three letters of the word, for example Acc stands for Accord Combining the first four letters of the word, for example Purn stands for Pu rnawirawan

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Combining the first and the last letter of the word, for example BA stands for Bintara

Combining the first and the third letter of the word, for example Gn stands for Gunung

Combining the first and the last letter of the first syllable and first letter of the second syllable, for example Kpt stands for kapten

Combining the first letter of the first word and the first letter of the second word from a combination word, for example VW stands for VolksWagen

Combining the first letter and the last diphthong, for example Sei stands for Sungai

Combining the first two letter of the first word and the first letter of the second word from combination word, for example Swt, stands for Swatantra

Combining the first letter of the first syllable and the first and last letter of the second syllable of the word, for example Bdg stands for Bandung

Combining the first letter of each syllable, for example hlm stands for halaman

Combining the first of the fourth letter of the word for example DO stands for Depot

Irregular combination, for example Ops stands for Operasi

2. Abbreviation-Blends

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There are some processes types in this term; Combining the first syllable of each component, for example Orba stands for Orde Baru Combining the first syllable of the first component and the second word, for example Banstir stands for Banting Stir Combining the last syllable of each component, for example Menwa stands for Resimen Mahasiswa Combining the first syllable of the first component and the first letter of the next component, for example Himpa stands for Himpunan Peternak Ayam Combining the first syllable of each component by deleting conjunction, for example Anpuda stands for Andalan Pusat dan Daerah Combining the first letter in each phrase with first two letters of last word component, for example Aipda stands Ajun Inspektur Polisi Dua Combining the first two letters of each component, for example Unud stands for Universitas Udayana Combining the first three letter of each component, for example Komrad for Komisi Radio Combining the first two letters of first component and the first three letters of second component by deleting conjunction, for example Abnon stands for Abang dan None (JKT)

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Combining the first two letters of the first and third component, the first three letter of the second component, for example Odmilti stand for Oditur Militer Tinggi

Combining the first three letter of the first and third component, the first letter of the second component, for example Nasakom stands for Nasionalis, Agama, Komunis

Combining the first three letters of each component by deleting conjunction, for example Falsos stands for Falsafah dan Sosial

Combining the first two letters of the first component and the first three letters of second component, for example Jatim stands for Jawa Timur

combining the first four letters each component by deleting conjunction, for example Agitprop stands for Agitasi an Propaganda

irregular blends, for example akaba stands for akademi perbankan

3. Blends-Clipping This process has some sub-classification such as; Reducing the last syllable of a word, for example dok for dokter Deleting the initial syllable of the word, for example pak for bapak Combining the first three letters of a word, for example bag for bagian Combining of the first four letter of a word, for example prof for professor The last word represent the phrase, for example ekpress for kereta api ekpress

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Deleting some part of the word, for example takkan for tidak akan

4. Acronym-Blends This type has some sub-classification based on the function; For chemical material: Shortening the first letter of the word, for example P: Fosfor Shortening the first two letters of word: Ca: Calsium Combining the letter with the number which is describe a chemical formula : N2O : Natrium Oksida Shortening the first and third letters of word : Mg : Magnesium

For measuring: Shortening the first letter of word, for example g for gram Shortening the first letter from the combination of word component, for example Kw for Kilowatt Combining the first and last letters of first word component with the first letter or second word component: Dag: Deca gram Shortening the first, third, and fourth letter of word: Yrd : Yard

For Numeral for example V for 5 For maning city or country Shortening the first two letter of word and adding with one different letter for example Sin for Singapura Shortening the three consonant letters of word, for example Jkt for Jakarta Car serial number for example L for Surabaya

For Currency, for example Rp for Rupiah

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For telegraph, for example hrp for harap Based on the explanation about Kridalaksanas theory (2007), it is used in this study for two reasons. First, the data are in Indonesian. Second, Kridalaksana gives more complete and deeper explanation about abbreviation and its classification in Indonesian word formation process.

2.2

Review of Related Studies There are many researches that are about word formation and shortening.

Shortening processes which are studied are in communication, internet gaming forum, Short Message Service (SMS), and newspaper advertisement. These studies are Yuniarti (2001) who conducted a study about abbreviation processes in Iklan Jitu Jawa Pos, Driscoll, D. (2003) studied about The Ubercool Morphology of Internet Gamers: A Linguistic Approach, Riskasari (2007) who conducted her study about abbreviation processes in the short message service, Juhamatti (2007) who studied about word formation in internet gaming forum and Rohman (2009) researched about shortening process in Indonesian ministers and ministries names. In this section, the writer discusses three studies conducted earlier related to abbreviation and its use. She uses these studies as her references in conducting her study about shortening processes in B-Cak JTVs program.

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2.2.1

Shortening Processes of Indonesian Ministers and Ministries Names (Rohman)

Rohman (2009) in this study analyzes shortening processes of Indonesian ministers and ministries names in the Susilo Bambang Yudhono era. He found that the names of the government agencies give examples are influenced by the H.M Soeharto era. Rohman also analyzes the shortened term and processes that occur in the name of ministers and ministries names. He found that there are three variations occur in shortening process. First are kinds of shortened term variation as proposed by Kridalaksana those are abbreviation and blends. Second, kind is shortening variations of the words that have the same derivational process which is formed by adding affix per-an derive noun from other word categories. Example the word Menhan from Menteri Pertahanan affix per-an derive noun from adjective tahan become pertahanan. The last kind is the variation of shortened terms that has irregular processes. The example is the word Menko Kesra, It involves twice blending processes. Menko Kesra consists of five components, Menteri, Koordinator, Bidang, Kesejahteraan, and Rakyat. There are similarities and differences between this study and Rohmans. Both of studies are focused on Indonesian words. Both use Kridalaksanas theory of shortening processes. However, Rohmans object is Indonesian ministers and ministries names while this study focuses on to the shortened processes in B-Cak JTVs Program.

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2.2.2

The Ubercool Morphology of Internet Gamers: A Linguistic Approach (Driscoll) Driscoll (2003) analyzes language variation used by online gamers. She

found that particular processes happen in forming words used by this community. They are clipping, acronym, compounds, blends, affixation, alpha-numbering substitution, and some unique words that belong to this community. The examples of word formation that are used are 4 instead of for, lemme instead of let me, moreso instead of more so etc. Although the language is in written form but it is more similar to spoken form. This variant allows creativity in using several features such as alpha-numbering and emoticons that do not exist in regular written form. Both Discrolls study and the writers study have same subject that is word formation which is part of morphology. The difference come from the object, Driscoll focus in internet gamer and mostly in English while this study focus on televise program in Indonesian.

2.2.3

Abbreviation Processes in Iklan Jitu Jawa Pos (Yuniarti) Yuniarti (2001) analyzes abbreviation processes in Iklan Jitu Jawa Pos.

She found that words in Iklan Jitu are abbreviated because of two reasons. The first reason is to save money and the second reason comes from the newspaper editor. They limit the advertisement space because they have to share with other articles. Yuniarti also analyzes the frequency of abbreviated words in Iklan Jitu. She found that the words frequently abbreviated are abbreviations that are

23

commonly understood, for examples PLN and Telkom. Meanwhile, the names or brands such as Nokia, Sharp and Panasonic are rarely abbreviated.

CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE STUDY

3.1

Research Approach The writer conducted a descriptive qualitative approach to analyze the data

and to describe more holistic descriptions of the data. The qualitative approach refers to efforts to describe situations, events in their natural settings, without doing any experiments. It attempts to make sense in interpreting the phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). This approach is used in this research because it is the closely related to the objective of the study that is the shortening processes in B-cak JTVs program based Kridalaksanas theory. There are four major methods used by qualitative researcher such as observation, analyzing text and document, interview, recording and transcribing (Silverman, 1997). The method that is used by the writer is recording and transcribing since the data is taken from television program.

3.2

Corpus In this study, the writer analyzed the usage of word shortening processes

in B-cak JTVs program. B-cak was chosen by the writer as the corpus of the data because this is the comedy program that uses word shortening in its segment. This comedy program is broadcasted every Monday to Saturday at 9 p.m. on JTV. The data used in this study were 65 shortened terms. In attempt to elaborate the analysis the writer took 23 episodes of B-cak randomly from 30 December 2010

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25

until 4 April 2011 as the sample of data. The writer took the transcription from voice recorder in her cellular phone that she used in recording the episode of BCak and video that she got from JTV. Total duration of this episode including commercial break and music is 60 minutes.

3.3

Techniques of Data Collection There are some steps that the writer has done in collected the data. First,

the writer watched JTV channel every Monday to Saturday at 9 p.m. Second, before the program started the writer prepared the cellular phone that was used to recording data by checking the battery, diverting all call in order to avoid disturbance of the recording process. Third, the writer heard the record and transcribed conversation in the B-cak. Fourth, the writer identified shortening that found in B-cak. In collecting the data writer face an obstacle, B-cak changed the format of the program. The first B-cak has Rancu (Laporan Lucu) there are more than five shortening in this segment while in new B-cak writer find less than five shortening so it makes duration of data collection processes longer. The writer tried to ask the video to the producer of the program but they do not allow. Then the writer asked one of presenter his name Bung Repot about the video and he has three latest video of old format. While waiting for the information from JTV the writer searched the video in the internet but she could not found it so writer comes to the studio for watching and to observe closer also asked all of the crew include presenter who have video. Finally she got it from reporter. Briefly, these steps are described as follow:

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Watching the program at 9 p.m Recording the program Transcribing the data

3.3

Technique of Data Analysis After collecting all data, the writer did the analysis as described in the

following steps. First, she grouped the shortened terms into classifications proposed by Kridalaksana (singkatan, kontraksi, penggalan, and lambang huruf). Second, she examined the shortened terms using Kridalaksanas categorization, such as combination of initial letters, combination of first syllables of each component, and so on. Third, she attempted to make some predictions or some adjustments to the groups that can not be described by Kridalaksanas categorization. The shortened terms that could not be explained by using Kridalaksanas categorization were put into a different group named Free Variation Shortening. This group is made to limit the irregular blends and irregular abbreviation group proposed by Kridalaksana. In short, the techniques of analyzing the data are described in following steps: Classifying the shortened terms Examining the processes of their formation Assigning different processes to Other Shortening variation.

CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION

The aims of this study are to describe the word shortened terms in B-cak JTVs Program and to investigate how they are formed by using Kridalaksanas theory (2007). As stated in the previous chapters, Kridalaksana classifies shortening processes into five categories: abbreviation, acronym, blend, clipping, and alphabetical symbol. Based on the data that are collected randomly from 31st December 2010 until 4th April 2011, the writer found that shortenings which are used most are blend, abbreviation, multiple processes, and acronym. There is also other shortening variation. The two processes, blend and other shortening variation are divided into sub processes. Blend divided into four formation processes and other shortening variation divided into three types. The findings of the analysis are presented bellow: 4.1 Abbreviation Abbreviation is a shortening process that combines letters that could not be read, so it should be spelled (Kridalaksana, 2007). There are four combination of initial letter that founded in B-cak, four of them are abbreviations. They are;

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Categorization

Shortened term BB

Original term Bau Badan Penjual Katok Kolor Maling Duit Madrasah Diniyah

Process Combining First Letter of each components

Abbreviation

PKK MD MD

Table4.1 : Abbreviation and Acronym Shortenings above match to Kridalaksanas categorization of abbreviation. Most of them are combination of the first letter of each component. BB is formed by combining initial letter of the components Bau and Badan, PKK is formed by combining initial letter of the components Penjual Katok Kolor, MD is formed by combining initial letter of its component Maling and Duit, the other MD is also formed by combining initial letter of the components Madrasah and Diniyah.

4.2

Acronym Acronym is the words coined from the initial letters of the words in a

name, title or phrase. The example that is used in daily life AIDS stands for Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (Bauer,1988). The writer found the only acronym in B-cak that is B-Nos. B-Nos is formed by combining initial letter of each component and readable, Beatbox Nation Of Surabaya.

4.3

Blend Blend is a word formed by combining the root where at least one of the

components is reproduced in one partially. E.g. smog is blended of smoke and fog

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(Carstair & Mc.Carthy, 2002). This is the most complicated of all Kridalaksanas shortening categorization. The writer found 32 (thirty two) shortened term in Bcak. Each has different formation in forming the blend. The first formation that found is combining the first syllable of each component such as: Categorization Shortened term Supersemar Blend Sulami Sumari Original term Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret Sudah lama minggat Suka mancing rebut Table 4.2: Blend type I Six shortened terms above can be classified into blend of Kridalaksanas shortening process categorization that is a combination of the first syllable of each component. Supersemar is formed by combining first syllable of each component Su- from the word surat, per- from the word perintah, se- from the word sepuluh and mar- from the word maret. Sulami is formed by combining first syllable of each component su- from the word sudah, la- from the word lama and mi- from the word minggat. Sumari is formed by combining first syllable of each component or two first letter of each component su- from the word suka, ma from the word mancing and ri from the word ribut. The next variation in forming blend is combining last syllable of the each component. These shortenings consist of two components such as; Process Combining First syllable of each component

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Categorization

Shortened term Rancu Yanti Santi Singgih Jani

Original term Laporan Lucu Doyan Menanti Bosan Menanti Pusing Menagih Kerja Disini Digigit Gemetar Nggitar Sakbendino Ora Medit Mayit bendino Sakkal Gelem

Process

Combining Last syllable of each component

Blend

Gitar Tarno Radit Yitno Kalem

Table 4.3: Blend type II The shortened terms above can be classified into blend. The shortening process that occurs based on the Kridalaksanas shortening process classification is the combining the last syllable of each component. Rancu is formed by combining the last syllable of each component or three last letter of first syllable and two last letter of second syllable -ran from the word laporan and cu from the word lucu. Yanti and Santi are similar formed by combining the last syllable of each component or three last letter of first syllable and two last letter of second syllable yan from doyan or san from bosan and ti from menanti. Singgih, Radit and Jani are formed by combining the last syllable of each component. Singgih is formed by combining sing from the word pusing and gih from the word menagih. Radit is formed by combining ra from the word ora and dit

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from the word medit. Jani is formed by combining ja from the word kerja and ni from the word disini. Gitar, Yitno and Tarno are formed by combining last syllable of each component or three last letter of first component and two last letter of the last component. Gitar is formed by combining three last letters of first component git from the word digigit and two last letter last components ar from the word gemetar. Kalem is formed by combining three last letters of first component kal from the word sakkal and two last letter last components em from the word gelem. The other variation of forming blend is combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of the last component. Categorization Shortened term Berat Betis Antok Cecak Gayus Blend Jaksa Jukir Susi Mas Boyo Kejagung Original term Becak Surat Berita artis Anake sitok Cerita Becak Gak Diuyus Jangan Memaksa Juru Parkir Suaraku Seksi Masalah Suroboyo Kejaksaan Agung Table 4.4: Blend Type III Combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of last component Process

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Ten shortened terms above can be classified by Kridalaksanas shortening processes categorization that is combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of the last component or some letter in the first component and some letter in the last component. Some shortened terms such as berat, betis, antok, cecak, gayus and jukir are formed by combining first syllable or two first letters of the first component and last syllable or three last letters of the last component. Berat is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and three last letters of the last component be- from the word becak and rat from the word surat. Betis is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and three last letters of the last component be- from the word berita and tis from the word artis. Antok is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and three last letter of the last component An- from the word anake and tok from the word sitok. Cecak is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and three last letter of the last component ce- from the word cerita and cak from the word B-cak. Gayus is formed by combining first syllable or two first letter of the first component and three last letters of the last component ga- from the word gak and yus from the word diuyus. Jukir is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and three last letters of the last component ju- from the word juru and kir from the word parkir. Jaksa is formed by combining first syllable or two first letter of the first component and three last letters of the last component ja- from the word jangan and ksa from the word memaksa. Susi is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of the last component su- from the word suaraku and si from the word

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seksi. Mas boyo is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and last two syllable of the last component mas- from the word masalah and boyo from the word suroboyo. Kejagung is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and whole of second component kej- from the word kejaksaan and agung or two first syllable of the first component keja- and last syllable of the last component gung. The last variation of forming blend is shortened term that consists of three components combining first syllable of the first and second component and last syllable of the last component. There are presented in the table below: Categorization Shortened term Sekolah Sumati Gegana Blend Tupardi Sumarni Tektonik Original term Seputar komedi istilah Suka makan ati Gegabah gae bencana Tukang Parkir abadi Suka markir disini Tek tok Panik Table 4.5 : Blend Type IV The six shortened terms above can be classified by use Kridalaksanas shortening processes categorization. The difference of this group of blend and the group that have been explained above is this term formed by three components while the group before formed by two components. The process that occurs in this term is combining first syllable of the first and second component and last syllable of the last component. Sekolah is formed by combining first syllable or two first Process Combining First syllable of the first and second component and last syllable of the last components

34

letters of first and second component and last syllable of last component se- from the word seputar, ko- from the word komedi and lah from the word istilah. Sumati and gegana formed by combining first syllable or two first letters of first and second component and last syllable or two last letters of last component. Sumati is formed by combining first syllable or two first letters of first and second component and last syllable of last component su- from the word suka, ma- from the word makan and ti from the word ati. Gegana is formed by combining gefrom the word gegabah, ga- from the word gae and na from the word bencana. Tupardi and Sumarni are formed by combining first syllable first and second component and last syllable of last component or two first letters of first component, three first letters of second component and three last letters of last component. Tupardi is formed by combining tu- from the word tukang, par- from the word parkir and di from the word abadi. Sumarni is formed by combining su- from the word suka, mar- from the word markir and ni from the word disini. Tektonik is formed by combining first syllable in this case the first and second component consist of one syllable only so it can said that combining first component or syllable of the first component tek, in the second component it just take two first letter to from the word tok and last syllable of the last component nik from the word panik.

4.4

Multiple Processes Kridalaksana also states that a shortening process may be formed by

combination of some types (Kridalaksana, 2007). Some shortened terms that

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found in B-cak are formed by more than two components therefore a shortened term may be formed by combination of shortening processes. There are seven shortened term that found in B-cak which are formed by combination of abbreviation and blend. They are: Categorization Shortened term B-Cak Blingsatan Multiple Process Obama Jombang Kurker Pelet Gober Original term Berita Kocak Becak Keliling sambil liputan Organisasi bakso malang Joplak Ora Berkembang Kurang Kerjaan Perjaka Letoi Goreng Berasa Combining letter or syllable of each components Process

Table 4.6: Multiple Processes of Abbreviation-Blend Four shortened above: B-cak, Blingsatan, Obama, MIT and Jombang are combination of blends and acronym. Based on the words forming the shortened that found in B-cak, we can also classify these words into three groups based on the number of the components that formed it. First group is the shortened term with two components is B-cak; the second is shortened term with three components, Obama and Jombang; the last is shortened term consisting of four components, Blingsatan. B-Cak is formed by combining first letter of the first component as an abbreviation B- from the word Berita and last syllable of last component as blend cak from the word kocak. Obama is formed by combining first letter of the first component and first syllable the second and the third

36

component. The initial letter O from the word Organisasi are taken as abbreviation, ba- from the word bakso and ma- from the word malang is the first syllable of the component, taking a syllable is a pattern of blend. Jombang has the quite different form with shortening obama although the component that formed is same number; the differences appear in the composition of abbreviation and blend term. Jombang is formed by combining first letter of the first and second component and last syllable of the last component. Initial J from the word Joplak, initial O from the word Ora and syllable bang from the word berkembang form the shortening Jombang. Then the last shortening in this categorization is Blingsatan that consist of the most component. It is formed by combining first letter of the first component B- from the word Becak, last syllable of the second component ling from the word keliling, first syllable or two first letter of the third component sa- from the word sambil and last syllable of the last component tan from the word liputan. Kurker is formed by combining first syllable or three first letters of each component kur- from the word kurang and ker from the word kerjaan. Pelet and gober are formed by combining first syllable of each component or two first letter of first component and three first letter of second component. Pelet is formed by combining two first letter of first component pefrom the word perjaka and three first letter of second component let- from the word letoi. Gober is formed by combining the first syllable of each component go- from the word goreng and ber- from the word berasa.

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4.5

Other Shortening Variation Beside those findings, the writer also finds some shortening processes

which are not explained by Kridalasana in his shortening processes categorization. The writer considered these findings as free variation shortening. There are three types of other shortening variation; Type I is other shortening variation which is formed by editing the letter, Type II is other shortening variation which is formed by deleting component, it has two sub-types IIa deleting conjunction and IIb deleting component and the last type III is irregular processes that combine part component without any specific rules. 4.5.1 Type I In this section the writer tries to adapt shortening pattern made by Kridalaksana to explain some findings. Type I is other shortening variation which is editing the letter of original term to make it familiar to the audience. There are two editing the letter of shortened that writer found in B-cak; Categorization Other Shortening Variation Shortened term Rahmat Tsunami Original term Rada Kumat Suka nampar suami Adjusting pronounciation Process

Table 4.7: Other Shortening Variation Type I Rahmat is formed by combining first syllable or two first letters of the first component and last syllable or three last letters of the last component and add a letter in the middle component, Ra- from the word Rada and mat from the word kumat. It has different with the other shortened that explained before, there is no

38

h letter on original term while there is h the shortened term it makes to make shortened more familiar to the audience. Rahmat Rah Rada -h Rada Kumat Tsunami has the same case with the shortened rahmat whereas the difference is in the place of additional letter. In the word Rahmat additional letter take place in the middle of component and while the word tsunami additional letters take place in the beginning of the word. Tsunami is formed by combining first syllable of first and second component and last syllable of last component and adds a letter in the beginning. su- from the word suka, na- from the word nampar and mi from the word suami also add t letter in the beginning. In this case the word tsu read as su in order match to the original pattern. It can be illustrated as; Tsunami mat kumat

Tsu

Na

Mi

-T

Suka

Nampar

Suami

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4.5.2

Type II Other shortening variation in type II is the shortenings which are formed

by deleting some component. Some shortened terms that found in B-cak are formed by more than two components and most of Kridalaksanas shortening patterns explain the shortening of compound words which have two components. Therefore, a shortened term may be formed by deleting part of component. There are two types of deleting component; deleting an affix or conjunction and deleting component. IIa. Deleting Conjunction There are three shortened terms that found in B-cak that deleting an affix or conjunction. They are; Categorization Other Shortening Variation Shortened term Turonggo Jinak Rano Original term Turu neng omahe tonggo Siji ae kepenak Pengangguran sak bendino Deleting conjunction Process

Table 4.8: Other Shortening Variation Type IIa Two of three shortened above are deleting an affix that is jinak and rano while turonggo is deleting conjunction. Jinak is formed by combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of last component with deleting an affix that exist in the middle of the component. Jinak stands for Siji ae kepenak, jiis taken from the word siji and -nak is taken from the word kepenak while the affix ae is deleted. It is quite different to the word jinak, the word rano formed by combining last syllable of the first component and last syllable of last component

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with deleting an affix that exist in the middle of the component while in this term is combining first syllable or three last letters of the first component and last syllable of last component. Rano stands for pengangguran sak bendino, formed by combining three last letters of first component -ran from the word penggangguran and no from the word bendino by deleting an affix sak in the middle of component. The last term, turonggo, is the most complicated one than the term before. It is formed by combining three first letter of first component, initial letter of second component and four last letters of last component with deleting a conjunction between first and second component. Turonggo stands for turu neng omahe tonggo. It is formed by combining three first letters tur- from the word turu, initial letter of second component o and nggo from the word tonggo with deleting conjunction neng that appear between first and second component.

IIb.

Deleting Component There are twelve shortened term that found in B-Cak which is deleting one

or more component. They are; Categorization Shortened term Sujarwo Bukhori Seruling Sungari Hasan Other Ngepot Original term Suwi Belajar ilmu jowo Bukho saben hari Seru dijadiin guling Suka ngamen tiap hari Hari-hari sudah bosan Ngetik sampe repot Deleting Process

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Shortening Variation

Harja Harjo Cowek Jinak Century

Hari-hari tidak kerja Hari-hari gak kerjo Cowok maleh cewek Ping siji ae kepenak Triliyunan cen metu liwat mburi

Component

Rengginang

Renyah, legi bikin terkenang

Table 4.9: Other Shortening Variation Type IIb From twelve shortened term above can be classified again become four class which is have similar pattern. The first is shortened terms that are formed by three components. It is combining first syllable of first component, deleting second component and take last syllable of last component. These terms are Hasan, ngepot, Harja, Harjo and cowek. The second class is shortened term that formed by combining all of first component, deleting second component and take last syllable of last component. They are Bukori and seruling. The third class is shortened term that formed by four component and deleting third component such as sujarwo, rengginang and Sungari. The last is shortened term that deleting two component that is jinak and century but it has difference in the number of component. Jinak consist of four while century five component. Five shortened term in the first class such as hasan, ngepot, harja, harjo and cowek are formed by combining first syllable of first component, deleting second component and take last component of last component. As the illustration the writer give a draft of shortening process to make clear.

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Component I Ngetik First syllable Nge

Component II + Sampe Deleted

Component III Repot Last syllable Pot

The process that occurs in six term of first class in same with the draft that illustrated above. Hasan stands for hari-hari sudah bosan. Ngepot stands for ngetik sampe repot, harjo stands for hari-hari gak kerjo, harja stand for hari-hari tidak kerja and cowek stands for cowok maleh cewek. Shortened term in the second class is formed by combining all of first component, deleting second component and take last syllable of last component. They are Bukori which stands for Buko Saben Hari and seruling which stand from Seru Dijajadiin Guling. The word Bukori or Buko Saben Hari can be illustrated as: Component I All Part Component II Deleted Component III Last Syllable

Buko

Ri

The third class is shortened term that formed by four component and deleting third component such as sujarwo, rengginang and Sungari. Sujarwo shorten from Suwi Belajar Ilmu Jowo, Rengginang shorten from Renyah legi bikin terkenang and Sungari shorten from suka ngamen setiap hari. Third syllable of each shortened term are deleted such as Ilmu, bikin and tiap. The last term of the shortened are jinak and centuri it is formed by deleting two component that is jinak and century but it has difference in the number of component. Jinak consist

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of four while century five component. Shortening processes of the word century can be drafted as: Triliyunan Deleted Sen All Metu Last Liwat Deleted Mburi Last

Cen

tu
Centuri

ri

In the shortened term centuri the process that occur is deleting two of the component that formed this term they are first and fourth component, take all part of second component and last syllable of third and fifth component so the phrase triliyunan cen metu liwat mburi can be shorten as century. This shortened term also has pronoun adjustment that occurs in the word sen and mburi. In the shortened term there are sen by using c in the first letter and mburi by using y in the last letter. While, shortened term of Jinak is quite different than century. Either century or Jinak deleted two components that formed this shortening. But Jinak is simpler than century, component that formed this shortened are four components they are ping, siji, ae and manak. In this process the components that are deleting first and third components and last syllable of second and fourth component.

4.5.3

Type III There are some shortened terms that found in B-cak that are formed

irregularly, without assigning any specific pattern. These irregular shortening are:

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Categorization

Shortened term Sumirat Surabaya

Original term Suka Melirik Aurat Suka Barang Bahaya Buat makan sehari-hari Saben hari menagih Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Wajah Kurang Ganteng Rokok Makan Gratis

Process

Combining part of each component irregularly

Other Shortening Variation

Bukari Saragih MIT Warga Romantis

Table 4.10: Other Shortening Variation Type III For the detail of the combining process of each shortening is explain below.

1. Sumirat An irregular formation process occurs in the shortening term Sumirat. Sumirat consists of three components; suka, melirik dan aurat. The first and the third components are combined according to the pattern above: the combination of the first syllable of the first component, su- of suka and last syllable of last component, rat of aurat (Kridalaksanas pattern). Meanwhile, the second component is taken from initial and fourth letter, mi of melirik. 2. Surabaya Surabaya is shortened term that formed by combining some part of each component. It consist of three component; suka, barang and bahaya. It is formed by combining first syllable of first component, su of suka; third and fourth

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syllable of second component, ra of barang and first and third syllable of third component, baya of bahaya. Shortly, the process of formation Surabaya is described below: Component I First syllable Su Component II 3rd &4th letter Ra Component III 1st &3rd syllable Baya

Surabaya Suka Barang Bahaya

3.

Bukari Bukari has similar term to Surabaya. It consist of three component; buat,

makan and sehari-hari. It is formed by combining first syllable of first component, bu of buat; third and fourth syllable of second component, ka of makan and last syllable of third component, ri of sehari-hari. The difference with the first term, in this term it just take last syllable of last component while in the first term take first and last syllable of last component. 4. Saragih The shortened term saragih stands for saben hari menagih. This is formed by combining first syllable of first component, third letter of second component and four last letter of last component, Sa- from the word saben, r- from the word hari and agih from the word menagih. It is the most irregular shortened term that takes part of component without any specific rules.

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5. MIT MIT is the shortened term of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah. This is formed by two components by combining first letter of the first component M from the word Madrasah and first and third letter of second component IT from the word Ibtidaiyah. 6. Warga The shortened term warga stands for Wajah kurang ganteng. It is formed by three components. In this shortening processes combine first syllable or two first letter of the first component wa from the word wajah, third letter of the second component r from the word kurang and first syllable or two first letter of the last component ga from the word ganteng. This pattern is almost similar to blend however in this pattern the second syllable is taken the centre letter so this term is classified as irregular shortening. 7. Romantis The shortened term Romantis stands for Rokok makan gratis. It is formed by three components. In this shortening process combine first syllable or two first letter of the first component Ro from the word Rokok, first syllable or two first letter and last letter of the second component man from the word makan and last syllable of the last component tis from the word gratis. This pattern is almost similar to blend however in this pattern the second syllable is taken the first syllable and last letter so this term is classified as irregular shortening.

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4.6

Interpretation Among the processes that proposed by Kridalaksana, clipping and

alphabetical symbol tend to shorten single words. Since the word shortenings in B-Cak consist of more than one word, the most possible formations are abbreviation, blends, acronym, or combination of processes. In the analysis above, the writer classifies the data into five groups: Abbreviation, Blends, Irregular Shortening, Multiple Processes, and Other ShorteningVariations. The last group consists of predictions made by the writer to explain some findings that do not conform with any classes proposed by Kridalaksana. The number of finding word shortenings in B-Cak can be drafted in the table as: Name of Shortening Processes Abbreviation Acronym Type I Type II Blend Type III Type IV Multiple Processes Abbreviation-Blend Type I Type IIa Free Variation Type IIb Type III Table 4.11: Presentation Number of finding Number of Finding 4 1 3 10 10 6 7 2 3 12 7

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From the data presentation above can be seen that the process that is used most is blend. There are 29 number of blend, other shortening variation in the second rank with 24 shortening; 12 type IIb, 7 type III, 3 type IIa and 2 type I, 4 number of abbreviation, multiple processes of acronym and blend are 7 shortenings and only 1 acronym found in this research. According to Kridalaksana, Singkatan (abbreviation) is a shortening process formed by a letter or combination of letters that are spelled pronounced letter by letter. Akronim (Acronym): is a shortening process formed by taking the initial letters of some or all the words in a phrase or title and reading them as a word. Kontraksi (Blends): is a process that shortens a lexeme or a combination of lexemes. In this research the writer found that there are four types in forming blend. The first type is combining first syllable of each component. The second type is combining last syllable of each component. The third type is combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of last component. The last type is shortening that is formed by three components and combining first syllable of the first and the second component and last syllable of the last component. Blend is used for many times because blend is the simplest processes and the shortened are made spontaniusly by presenter based on the name of the audience. Kridalaksana also states that a shortening process may be formed by combination of some processes. In this research the writer found some combination processes of abbreviation and blend. The last term, other shortening variation, the processes that not conform to Kridalaksanas shortening processes categorization. There are three types of other shortening variation that found. First type is other shortening variation which is

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formed by editing the letter to the original term for example shortening tsunami stands for suka nampar suami the letter t is omitted in the pronunciation. Second type is other shortening variation which is formed by deleting; IIa. affix or conjunction, IIb. component of the words. The last type is other shortening variation which is formed by combining part of the components without any specific rules. Among the shortened terms above that are always used in every episode is B-cak because it is the tittle of the program, Sekolah and Blingsatan is the name of the segment of B-cak. The tittle and the segment of this program has been represent that in this program use shortening as entertainment so this studies conducted in morphological field. Beside that, the shortened terms that made are familiar to audience. Most of them are name of Javanese people because most of the audience is Javanese such as antok, sumirat, susi etc.

4.6.1

Variation in Shortening Processes After analyzing the formation processes that found in B-cak, the writer

found that a single word may have more than one shortened form. There are: the word becak, has two shortened forms Be- and B-, the word parkir has two shortened forms; par- and kir, the word Hari has three shortened forms; ha-, har-, and ri; the word berita has two shortened forms; be- and b; the word makan has two shortened form man and k; the word ora has two shortened form ra and o. there is also a shortened term that has two phrase that is Jinak. Jinak stands for ping siji langsung manak and siji ae kepenak. These variations occur differently in

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the shortened terms that found in Bcak. For detailed variations of shortened forms, see Table 12. No 1 2 3 4 Becak Be B Cak Berita Be B Parkir Par Kir Hari Har Ha Ri R Makan Man Ma Ka Ora Ra O Surat Su Rat

Table 4.12 : Variation of Shortened Formsbased on the word As shown in the table 1, two words may have more than one variation that is same. The words Becak and Berita has same shortened term, there are be-, and B. Variant be- is used in two term; Berat which is stand for Becak surat and Betis which is stands for Berita Artis. The term Be- and B- stand for two different word in different phrase. While the term B- is used in Blingsatan and B-cak. Blingsatan stands for Becak keliling sambil liputan, the term B- represent Becak. B-cak stands for Berita kocak, the term b- represent berita. The last term of becak is cak that used in cecak which is stands for cerita becak. The table also shows that parkir has two alternative shortened forms: par, and kir, first and last syllable of the word. Frequently used among these terms are the same each used in one term. It occurs in jukir and tupardi. Jukir is stands for juru parkir and tupardi stands for tukang parkir abadi. From the table above can be seen that the word hari has most shortened term such as har, ha, ri and r. Among these shortened forms, ri is the most frequently used. It occurs in almost every shortened term that use the word hari such as Bukori which is stands for Buko saben hari, Sungari which stands for suka ngamen tiap hari and bukari which stands for buat makan sehari-hari. The term har is used in shortened harja and

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harjo which is stands for hari-hari tidak kerja and hari-hari gak kerjo. The term ha is used in the shortened hasan which is stands for hari-hari sudah bosan and the last is the term r is used in the shortened saragih which is stands for saben hari menagih. Other words that are often shortened are makan and ora. Makan has three shortened term and ora has two shortened term. The word makan has two shortened terms there are ma, ka and man. ma is used in sumati which is stands for suka makan ati. Ka is used in bukari which is stands for buat makan seharihari. Man is used in romantic which is stands for rokok makan gratis. Then, the word ora has two shortened terms there are O and ra, the first and the last syllable of the word. The term O is used in Jombang which is stands for Joplak ora berkembang and the term ra is used in Radit which is stands for ora medit. The last variation based on the word is surat. It has two terms su and rat, the fist and the last syllable of the word. The term su is used in supersemar which is stands for surat perintah sebelas maret and rat is used in Berat which is stands for becak surat. The table above shows the variation of shortening based on the word or a single word has some shortened term. At that time the writer analyzes is there a shortened term that represents some word. Finally the writer found eight number of shortened term that represents more than a word. The shortened term and the word showed in the table below:

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No 1 2 3 4 5

Nak Manak Kepenak -

Su Surat Suwi Suka Suaraku Sudah

O Ora Organisasi -

Tu

Tis

Ri

Turu Artis Hari Metu Gratis mburi -

Table 4.13: variation based on the term There are eight number of shortened term that represents more than a word. Most of them represent two words except the term su. It represents five words such as surat, suwi, suka, suaraku and sudah. Most of them appear in the first syllable. Surat use su as the shortened term in Supersemar which is stands for surat perintah sebelas maret. Suwi use su as the shortened term in sujarwo which is stands for suwi belajar ilmu jowo. Suka use su as the shortened term in three shortening; sumari which is stands for suka mancing ribut, sumati which is stands for suka makan ati and sumarni which is stands for suka markir disini. Suaraku use su as the term in susi which is stands for suaraku seksi. The other terms represent two words only.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION

There is an interesting phenomenon about the use of shortening in Indonesia. Indonesians used shortening in almost all parts of their daily life for different purpose. One of the purposes using shortening is entertainment as used in B-Cak JTVs program. This study investigates the shortened term that found in B-cak and the processes that occur. To achieve the goals of this study, the data were collected from a number recording the program and asking the video to producer. The data consist of 65 shortened tems taken from 23 episodes. Then the collected data were analyzed using Kridalaksanas theory. Kridalaksanas theory was chosen because it gives deeper and more complete explanation about classification of shortening processes in Indonesia and their patterns. Since the data is Indonesian. The findings show that shortenings which are used most are blend, abbreviation, multiple processes, acronym and other shortening variation. Those two processes, blend and other shorthening variation, divided into sub processes. From the finding, writer found there are four variations in combining blend: combining first syllable of each component; combining last syllable of each component; combining first syllable of the first component and last syllable of the last component; shortening that consist of three component that formed by combining first syllable of the first and second component and last syllable of the last component. Other shortening variation is categorizations that are not explain

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by Kridalaksana in his book. It is divided into three types: Type I First is other shortening variation which is formed by editing the letter to the original term for example shortening tsunami stands for suka nampar suami the letter t is omitted in the pronunciation; type II is the other shortening variation which is formed by deleting; Type IIa is deleting affix or conjunction, IIb is deleting component of the words; Type III is other shortening variation which is formed by combining part of the components without any specific rules. The findings also show that variations occur in shortening process. There are a word that is shortened into some term for example the word hari is shortened into 4 term such as ha, har, ri and r. it is used in different shortened term. Otherwise there is also a term that represents more that a word for example the term su- represent some word such as surat, suwi, suka, suaraku and sudah. The variations of shortened terms suggest the creativity and the freedom of Indonesians. This is because there is no strict rule in shortening processes. The formation of shortened terms is based on the users choice. Indonesians are free to form shortened terms. However, the creativity and the freedom are limited by the targets perception or knowledge about the shortened terms. The use of shortening in B-Cak JTVs program shows that shortening processes is not only the way people shorten the words in order to make them shorter or easier to be pronounced, but also these shortened words are also used to entertain. The tittle and the segment of this program have been representing that in this program use shortening as entertainment so this study conducted in morphological field. Beside that, the shortened terms that made are familiar to

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audience. Most of them are name of Javanese people because most of the audience is Javanese such as antok, sumirat, susi etc.

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REFERENCES

Bauer, L. (1988). Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press

Carstairs-McCarthy, A. (2002). An Introduction to English Morphology Words and Their Structure. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press

Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S.(eds.) (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oak, California: Sage

Hudson, R. (1986). Word Grammar. New York: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Juhamatti, K. (2007). Word Formation on Internet Gaming Forum. Retrieved November 5th, 2010, from http://um.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu200810015777

Kridalaksana, H. (2001/2007). Pembentukan Kata Dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Plag, I. (2002). Word-Formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Siahaan, S. (2008). Issues in Linguistics. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Silverman, David. (1997). Interpreting Qualitative Data. London: SAGE Publication Riskasari, S. (2007). Abbreviation Processes in the Short Message Service. Universitas Airlangga: Unpublished thesis. Rohman, A.F. (2009). Shortening Processes of Indonesian Ministers and Ministries Names. Universitas Airlangga: Unpublished Thesis

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Yule, G. (1996). The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University press Yuniarti, A.(2001). Abbreviation Processes in Iklan Jitu Jawa Pos. Universitas Airlangga: Unpublished thesis

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APPENDIX

30 December 2010 1. BSS : jumpa lagi pemirsa lagi lagi kita berjumpa. apa kabar? semoga anda baik baik saja karena kami juga baik baik saja. Bersama saya bung repot dan saya bung sukir selama satu jam kedepan kita akan mengencani anda dalam B-Cak berita kocak ter.. ter.. ter.. 2. BR : ya pemirsa mari kita saksikan Rancu Laporan Lucu kali ini tentang pengangguran 3. BS : Masnya namanya siapa? I : Harja mas BS : apa Harja mas? I : hari hari tidak kerja 4. BS : Klo masnya siapa? I : Harjo mas, hari hari gak kerjo 5. BS : Masnya yang ini siapa? I : Klo saya Rano Pengangguran sak bendino 6. I : saya ini lulusan MIT BS : Waaah MIT itu mana mas? I : madrasah ibtidaiyah 7. BS : Masnya ini namanya siapa? I : saya Saragih BS : Saragih siapa mas? I : saben hari menagih 8. BS : dengan mas siapa ini mas? I : Singgih BS : Singgih siapa mas? I : pusing menagis 9. BS : Bapaknya ini romantis gak bu? I : iya Romantis, rokok makan gratis

31 December 2010 1. BS I 2. I BS I : Bapaknya ini romantis gak bu? : iya Romantis, rokok makan gratis : kalo ibuk ini kalem : Kalemnya gimana pak? : sekali ditari sakkal gelem

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3. BS I 4. BS I 5. BR I BR 6. A I BS 7. BR I BR

: Yang itu namanya siapa pak? : itu namanya Turonggo hobinya Turu neng omahe tonggo : iya dengan bapak siapa ini pak? : pak Sujarwo suwi belajar ilmu jowo : iya dengan bapak siapa pak? : Bukhori : Buko saben hari : iya dengan siapa dimana ini? : bapak Sumirat : bapak sumirat suka melirik aurat ya? : selamat malam dengan siapa dimana ini? : dengan pak Hasan di Jambi pak : pak Hasan ini hari-hari sudah bosan

02 January 2011 1. A : yah nanti kita akan Ngepot ya ngetik sampe repot bersama nona Ana makanya jangan kemana-mana 2. BS : dengan siapa ini? I : Antok BS : wah ini pasti anak e sitok

05 January 2011 1. BR : iyaaah pemirsa jumpa lagi bersama saya dalam Blingsatan Becak keliling sambil liputan kali ini saya akan memberikan liputan tentang home industry pembuatan rengginang 2. BR :Ya pemirsa saya sekarang sedang berada di home industry rengginang, renyah, legi, bikin kita terkenang

13 January 2011 1. BS I BS 2. BR I 3. BS : masnya ini pegang apa? : Gitar : digigit gemetar ya mas : Namanya siapa mbak? : Susi mas, kan suaraku seksi : Namanya siapa mas?

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I BS 4. BS I BS

: Tarno : Gitar sakbendino ya mas nya ini : kalau masnya yang ini pegang apa mas? : Seruling mas : Seru dijadiin guling hahahah..

19 January 2011 1. BR I BR 2. BS I BS : Namanya siapa mas? : Yitno : Mayit sakbendino : Ibunya namanya siapa? : ibu Sumati : ibunya Suka makan ati ya

24 January 2011 1. BS : yaah kita akan membahas tentang Mas boyo masalah suroboyo

01 February 2011 1. BS I 2. BS I BS I : mas ini namanya siapa mas? : Sungari soalnya saya suka ngamen tiap hari (1 febuari 2011) : ngamen ini sampingan atau gimana ini mas? : lhoh ya Bukari mas : apa bukari itu mas : buat makan sehari-hari hahahaha

04 February 2011 1. BR I 2. BR I 3. BR I : bapak ini disini jadi apa pak? : Jukir mas juru parkir : bapak namanya siapa pak? : Tupardi mas, tukang parkir abadi : kalau parker disini ini ada langganan gitu gak pak? : ada mas namanya Sumarni suka markir disini

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07 February 2011 1. BR : narapidana seperti Gayus itu bisa jalan-jalan kemana aja BS : Gayus kan memang gak diuyus makanya bisa plesiran kemana saja 2. BR : Kasus malinda ini merupakan kasus yang terjadi diperbankan setelah kasus Century BS : iya kasus bank century itu mengakibatkan triliyunan cen metu liwat mburi

11 February 2011 1. BS I BS 2. BS I : mbak siapa mbak? : Santi : Bosan Menanti : ini namanya pisang apa mbak? : Pisang gober goreng berasa

14 February 2011 1. BS I BS 2. BR BS BR 3. BS BR BS : namanya siapa mas? : Sumari : waaah mas nya ini suka mancing ribut : Oooh memang anaknya itu Pelet kok : apa pelet bung : perjaka letoi (hahahaha..) : dia ditolak karena warga : Lhoh lha kenapa kok Warga : warga itu ya Wajah kurang ganteng

16 February 2011 1. BR : semua anggota istana kepresidenan sibuk mempersiapkan kedatangan obama di Jakarta BS : di malang juga ada obama organisasi bakso malang 2. BR : namanya siapa mas? I : Radit BR : masnya ini brarti Ora medit

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21 February 2011 1. BS : oke pemirsa mari kita saksikan Sekolah Seputar komedi istilah malam ini yak tarik cak... 2. BR : kalau istri ikut pkk itu gimana mas? Didukung apa tidak? I : ya didukung dukung saja pkk itu kan baik menambah wawasan sosial BR : Pkk itu apa sih mas? I : Pkk.. hmmm.. penjual katok kolor mungkin mas hahahah..

24 February 2011 1. BR : iyah ini terjadi gempa lagi di cilacap ini, ada gempa Tektonik BS : gempa tektonik itu kalau dengar Tek tok panik warga disana itu 2. BR : ada gempa menghantui di cilacap untung tidak diikuti tsunami BS : iya, tsunami masih dijepang ikut suami, namanya tsunami suka nampar suami

10 March 2011 1. A : yak malam ini kita kedatangan berat ya becak surat yang datang lewat facebook kita ini 2. A : iya pak Budi dimana? I : Jombang A : Jomplak ora berkembang

11 March 2011

1. BS : iya dengan siapa dimana? I : Yanti di sidoarjo BS : oh yanti ini Doyan Menanti ya? 2. BR : iya mbak, supersemar itu sendiri artinya apa mbak? I : Supersemar supersemar Surat perintah sebelas maret 3. BS : ini gimana kelanjutan kasus ini pak, katanya sudah dibawa ke kejagung ya pak?

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I BS I 4. BS BR BS

: saya dengarnya juga seperti itu pak : Kejagung itu apa pak? : Kejaksaan Agung : kalau di tidak boleh itu ya Jaksa : lha kok jaksa apa? : Jangan Memaksa

12 March 2011 1. BR BS BR BS 2. BR BS 3. BR 4. BS : untungya bom bisa dijinakkan oleh tim gegana Gegana : kamu tau gegana? : apa gegana : gegabah gae bencana hahahah.. itu kalau kamu itu : Tim yang dikerahkan ini dari Surabaya : Iya soalnya mereka Suka barang bahaya : untung bomnya itu jinak siji ae kepenak : kalau bom saya ini juga Jinak ping siji langsung manak

14 March 2011 1. BS : iya malam ini kita ada Betis berita artis yang datang dari kangen band ini 2. BS BR: iya ini berita datang dari personel kangen band kedapatan memiliki paket sabu-sabu ada andika, bebe dan personel lainnya BS : BB itu kan Bau badan kok bisa bawa sabu itu loh 3. BS : ada ada saja ulah mereka itu kayak Kurker alias kurang kerjaan hahahah..

17 March 2011 1. A I BS I : komunitasnya ini namanya apa mas : B-Nos : ada kepanjangannya gak itu B-Nos itu mas? : Beatbox Nation of Surabaya

18 March 2011 1. A : komunitasnya ini namanya apa mas

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I BS I

: B-Nos : ada kepanjangannya gak itu B-Nos itu mas? : Beatbox Nation of Surabaya

31 March 2011 1. BS : kasus penipuan miliaran rupian ini bernama MD alias Maling duit 2. BR : malam mini B-cak temanya kan religi jadi MD itu madrasah diniyah

04 April 2011 1. BS : Rahmat itu rada kumat lhawong enak-enak jadi cowok kok malah jadi cewek 2. BR : iya Rahmat ini cowek cowok maleh cewek

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