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Lathe operations--turning

267
Figure 89 Centering using a short drill
Figure 86 Setting a circular form tool to the work
Drilling in the lathe
When drilling in a lathe it is usual to hold the workpiece
in the chuck and the drill in the tailstock, either in a drill
chuck or directly in the tailstock quill, depending on the
shank (see Fig. 87).
Figure 87 Drilling in the lathe
For accurate, true and smooth holes, the following con-
ditions are essential:
an accurate ground drill;
thr: headstock and tailstock in alignment;
the drill be given a true start by 'centre drilling'.
Methods
True start of drill
This can be done as illustrated in Figure 88 or by 'center-
ing' using a short or flat drill, as in Fignres 89 and 90.
r
Figure 88 Centre drilling using a centre drill
o
~ work-piece
Figure 90 Centering using a short flat drill
tool bit
I
- L L . . L - . L L - " - - " ~ workpiece
Figure 91 centering using a lathe tool
If a true start for the drill is required, the centre spot could
be machined with a single-point cutting tool (Fig. 91).
Large drills used in tailstock
By attaching a lathe carrier to the drill and allowing it
to rest against a metal bar held in the tool-post, large drills
are prevented from rotating and thus damaging the
tapered bore in the tailstock spindle (see Fig. 92).
Figure 92 Lathe carrier attached to large drill
16
Drills and reamers
Drm Types
Taper Shank Drills
Taper shank drills (Fig. I) are general purpose drills suit-
able for a wide variety of materials and applications. They
have morse taper shanks for holding and driving. The
tang at the end of the shank is used for ejecting the drill
from the socket or sleeve.
Fractional drills are manufactured to ANSI
B94.11-l967 Standard. Metric drills are made to the
American Metal Cutting Tool Institute Standard.
Extra length drills-taper shank
Extra length taper shank drills (Fig. 2) are used for deep
holes and for locations that cannot be reached with stan-
dard length drills. Various combinations of diameter,
overall length and flute length are available.
Core drills-taper shank
Taper shank four-flute core drills (Fig. 3) are used to
enlarge drilled, punched or pre-cored holes in a wide
range of materials. A core drill cannot produce a hole
from the solid. The advantages of core drills are: in-
creased productivity, superior surface finish, and greater
accuracy in the hole size and location.
Straight Shank Drills
Jobber drills-straight shank
Jobber drills (Fig. 4) are the most popular drills, used
by engineers, tradespeople and at home. These drills are
designed to give optimum performance in a wide range
Figure 1 Taper shank drill
Figure 3 Taper shank core drill
of materials. They are manufactured to ANSI B94.11
1967 Standard.
Stub drills-straight shank
Stub drills (Fig. 5) are shorter overa.l1 and have a shorter
flute length than jobber drills. Therefore they have greater
rigidity. They are widely used by engineers and trades-
people. Major applications are:
drilling of sheet metal;
drilling of shallow holes in a wide range of materials;
drilling of hard metal, for example stainless steel;
drilling out broken studs;
more accurate hole location.
Long series drills-straight shank
Long series drills (Fig. 6) have the same flute length and
overall length as standard taper shank drills. They are
used for drilling deep holes or in locations that cannot
be reached with standard length jobber drills.
Deep hole drills-straight shank
Deep hole drills (Fig. 7) have been specially designed for
deep hole drilling applications. The parabolic flute design
enables the swarf to be cleared from the drill without
frequent withdrawal of the drill and provides a heavier
web, which makes the drill far stronger than conventional
drills. The improved rigidity of the drill improves produc-
tion rates and the drilled holes are more accurate and
straighter. Deep hole drills are available in various flute
and overall lengths and can be used in locations that can-
not be reached with standard long series drills.
Figure 2 Taper shank drill extra length
Figure 4 Jobber or straight shank drill
Figure 5 Stub drill or straight shank drill Figure 6 Long series straight shank drill
. Figure 7 Deep hoie straight shank drill
142
Drills and reamers 143
Centre Drills (combined drill and countersink)-
Plain Type
Centre drills (Fig. 8) are used to drill female 60 centre
holes in the ends of shafts and components that will later
revolve between centres. Centre drills are also used to
ensure accurate startingand centering. They are manufac-
tured to ANSI B94.1I-1967 Standard.
Masonry Drills-Tungsten Carbide Tipped
Masonry drills (Fig. 9) are used for drilling holes in
masonry materials. These drills are available in three
different lengths: type SF for short fixing devices; type
SB for drilling through 4t in. (29 em) brick plus render
and tile; and type DB for drilling through a double cavity
brick wan plus render and tile. All drills are suitable for
use in portable electric drills, hand drills and drill pres-
ses. A specially designed IMP drill is available for use
in rotary-impact portable drilling machines.
Figure 8 Centre drill (combined drill and countersink)
Panel Drills
Panel drills (Fig. 10) have been developed to drill holes
for rivets in flat and curved panels and are used by sheet
metal workers, and other tradespeople. 'l;hese drills are
recommended only for shanow holes no deeper
than Ittimes the drill diameter. They can also be used
for drilling hard materials such as stainless steel. They
may be either single ended ('Buns-eye') or double ended
('Twin-point'). When using twin-point drills, ensure that
the chuck jaws are fully tightened.
Reduced Shank Drills
Reduced shank drills (Fig. 11) are designed to increase
the drilling capacity oft in., -!-in. and+in. diameter
drill chucks. These drills must be used with extreme care
and run at recommended speeds to avoid overheating of
the drill point.
Figure 9 Masonry drill
Figure 10 Panel drills
Figure 11 Reduced shank drill
-
D Bit
The D bit (Fig. 12) is a round tool bit of hardened steel
ground to the required size and shape (Fig. 12). It is used
as a quick means of making a hole-sizing tool or for
flattening the bottom of a drilled hole.
cutting
edge",
( ('-----'---91'
u-Q ------I.--li1
Figure 12 D bit
Drm Accessoru@s
Drill Chuck
Paranel shank drills and tools are held in a drill chuck
Figure 13 Drill chuck and key
(Fig. 13). Fig. 13 shows the keyed type commonly caned
Jacobs (who has been the largest manufacturer). Keyless
chucks are also used, but lack gripping power.
Drill Sleeves
Drill sleeve. (Fig. 14) are used to increase the taper size
of a tool to suit the machine being used.
Figure 14 Drill sleeve, No. 1-5 inside 2-6 outside
Drill Drift
The drill drift (Fig. 15) is used to remove taper shank drills
Figure 15 Taper shank and socket
144 Drills and reamers
from the machine or sleeve. Never use a file tang or
similar tool. Always place a piece of wood or similar
material on the machine table or work for the tool to land
on as it is drifted out. It must not fall free.
Nomenclature (Fig. 16)
Body The portion of the drill extending from the
extreme cutting end to the start of the shank.
Body clearance The portion of the body reduced in
diameter to provide diametral clearance.
Chiseledge angle The obtuse angle between the tangent
to the projection of the chisel edge at the axis, and the
projection of the line through either outer corner and the
corresponding chisel edge corner on a plane normal to
the (drill) axis. This angle lies in a plane normal to the
drill axis.
Drill diameter The measurement across the cylindrical
lands at the outer corners of the drill.
Flute length The axial length from the outer corners of
the cutting lips to the extreme back end of the flutes.
Helix angle The acute angle between the tangent to the
helical leading edge of the flute at a point in this edge
and a plane containing the (drill and helix) axis and the
point in question. This angle lies in a plane normal to
the radius at the point on the edge. The helix angle is
usually measured at a point close to or coincident with
the outer corner.
Lip clearance angle The acute angle between a plane
normal to the (drill) axis and the tangent, at a point on
the lip, to the drill flank in a plane normal to the radius
at the point in question. This angle is usually specified
and measured at the outer corner.
Lip length The minimum distance between the outer
corner and the chisel edge corner or inner corner. (For
a straight lip it is the true length of the lip.)
Overall length The distance between two planes normal
to the drill axis at the extreme ends of the cutting diameter
and shank respectively.
Point angle The included angle between the projections
of the lines joining the outer corners and the correspond-
ing chisel edge corners on a plane parallel to one (or both)
of these lines and the drill axis.
Web.{core) thickness The diameter of the circle normal
to the axis through the roots of the flutes at the point end
of the drill.
Flutes The grooves in the body of the drill to provide
lips and to permit the removal of chips and allow cutting
fluid to reach the lips.
Operation of drills
For efficient drilling operations, adherence to the follow-
ing guiding principles is recommended. Selection of the
correct drill for the application is most important. Most
drills have a point angle of 118
0
, which is suitable for
most materials. However, performance can be improved
when drilling some materials by repointing the drill. Next
it is important to select the correct speed and feed. The
choice of speed and feed are restricted by the degree of
hardness of the work material. Initially, use moderate
speed and feed, increasing one or both to achieve maxi-
mum production for a reasonable drill life before
resharpening.
The workpiece must be securely held and supported as
close as possible to the drill. Always clamp the work,
never hold it by hand. When using a straight shank drill
TAPER SHANK - IN ACCORDANCE
WITH BRITISH STANDARD 65.10-
MACHINE TAPERS
web
chisel edge
body land width
flutes
If------ flute length
1------- body ------..J
overall length
....
diameter shank
shank-J
I --length
neck
e taper shank
tang tang

--f reduced shank E-----
Figure 16 The important features of a drill
146 Drills and reamers
Table 3 (cont)
Material and hole condition
R Monel, nickel
Magnesium and
alloys
Die castings
(zinc base)
Gunmetal leaded
& brass casflngs
None
Sulphur based
oil
Soluble oil
Soluble oil
Soluble oil
and kerosene
Soapy water
Soluble oil
SUlphur base
oil
Cutting fluid
Included
point Speed
angle (ftlmin) (m/min)
118
0
300-400 91-122
118
0
150-300 46- 91
118
0
200-500 61-153
118 40-100 12- 30
135
0
20- 60 6- 18
135-140 30- 50 9- 15
90 100-300 30- 91
118 120-150 37- 46
118 120-140 37- 43
118
0
100-115 30- 35
118
0
65- 90 20- 27
140
0
25- 65 7.6-20
118
0
50- 70 15- 21
118-140 40- 55 12- 17
130-150 30- 40 9- 12
118
0
50- 90 15- 27
125-135 35- 50 11- 15
118 20- 30 6- 9
125-135 40- 55 12- 17
118
0
25- 40 7.6-12
60_90
0
300-500 92-153
170
190-240
45- 55
40- 70
155
70- 90
110-200
160-275
210
110-130
130
200-400
250
300
340
150-200
250
170
250
Hardness
range
(B.H.N.)
Tool and- spring
55 tonne
65 tonne
75 tonne
Ferritic
Martensitic
Austenitic,
Mart. free
machining
Aust. free
mach.ining
3 ~ O / o nickel
steel
Free Cutting
Mild 30 ton
Medium carbon
35 ton
Medium carbon
45 ton
Thermo-plastics
Nickel alloys
Steel, stainless
Wood
K Monei
Plastics
Steel
Steel. alloy
Sleel
Table 4 Recommended feeds for various diameter drills
Diameter of drill
(inches)
Undert
]-to+
ttot
t to 1
1 inch and over
Feed
(inches per revolution)
.001 to .003
.002 to .006
.004 to .010
.007 to .015
.015 to .025
is 118. The angle must be equal on both sides ofthe axis
(59) and the cutting edge lip must be the same length
on both sides of the drill axis (Fig. 17). If the two cutting
edges are not equal in length and/or the angles are not
equal, the drill will cut an oversized hole and breakage
may occur. The drill must be sharpened with a lip clear-
ance of 12 to 15 (Fig. 18). If the lip clearance is
excessive, the strength of the cutting edge is reduced and
may result in fracture of the cutting edge.
Note: It is best to start with a moderate speed and feed, increasing either one,
or both, after observing the action and condltion of the drill.
Use conversion tables for metric equivalents.
Drill Sharpening
Most drilling problems are due to improper sharpening
of the drill. For general purpose drilling the point angle
Hand-grinding drills
Whenever possible drills should be sharpened on a drill-
pointing machine, but when this is not possible the
following guidelines will help when sharpening drills by
hand. The thumb and forefinger of the left hand are used
as a pivot, as illustrated and the back of the drill is held
with thumb and forefinger of the right hand, as shown
in Figure 19. The drill is rotated in a clockwise direction,
advancing into the wheel.
The intense local heat that can be generated in grind-
ing operations frequently results in surface cracking
because of uneven thermal expansion and contraction.
Grinding pressures should therefore be moderate when
pointing drills and the use of a free-cutting wheel and a
copious supply of water is desirable. When water is not
available grinding can be done dry by taking very light
cuts. If excessive heat is generated the drill should not
be cooled in water but left to cool in air. Grinding cracks
that seem invisible can enlarge under working conditions
and quickly lead to tool breakdown.
Lip clearance
chisel angle
125" . 135'
Figure 18 The lip clearance
Point angle
~ ' : >
Figure 17 The point angle
Drills and reamers 147
Table 5 Trouble-shooting chart for high-speed steel drills
Split pointing
Split pointing is recommended to reduce the point pres-
sure and greatly improve the cutting action of the chisel
edge. (Fig. 22.)
Trouble Shooting
A useful chart, which can be used to identify and then
remedy a variety of possible drilling problems, is shown
in Tabie 5.
e
ed
is
:h
Lg
)t
;e
r-
is
Ld
11-
le
,y
~ d
ld
III
n,
d-
19
n.
on
.a
ot
ht
ot
ks
ns
Figure 19 Sharpening by hand
Web thinning
Most drills have a web that is thin near the point of the
drill. As a drill is resharpened it becomes shorter, the web
thickness becomes greater, and the drill point develops
a much longer chisel edge. This longer chisel edge will
result in more pressure being required for penetration,
resulting in greater heat generation and a reduction in the
life of the drill. The chisel edge can be reduced by web
thinning.
For correct web thinning it is important that equal
amounts of material be ground from either side of the
chisel edge until the total length of the edge returns to
the same value as that found on a new drill. (Excessive
web thinning weakens the point of the drill and splitting
of the web may occur.)
The ground surface produced by web thinning must
blend evenly into the flutes without ending abruptly. The
web thinning should extend 50"70 to 100% of the drill di-
ameter along the flute. (See Fig. 20.)
~ ~
-- ---- --- - - ~ - - -
The web is the metal column which separates
~ - ~ .
Web thickness near shank showing web A drill with web
pOint Increase properly thinned
Figure 20 The web and thinned web
POint geometry
Drills are given points on precision automatic grinding
machines. The standard point geometry on drills has an
included angle of 118' with a lip relief angle of 12' to
15'. Such a drill is suitable for most materials. However,
a user will sOmetimes find it necessary to give the drill
a point that is better suited to the material being
machined. (Fig. 21.)
Problem
Short paint-life
Blue cutting lips
outer corners
burnt off
Chipped cutting
lips or outer
corners
Drill breaks
Hole oversize
Rough hole finish
Drill splits up
Tang twisted
Metal welds to
diameter land
or flute face
Possible cause Suggested remedy
Speed too fast. Reduce speed
blues cutting lips Apply cutting fluid
Metal is hard, Reduce speed
wears cutting lips Apply cutting flUid
Insufficient ijp Repaint
relief, drilling dry Apply cutting fluid
Speed too fast Reduce speed
No coolant Apply cutting fluid
Excessive lip Regrind
relief
Excessive feed Reduce feed
Grinding cracks Regrind without
from plunge overheating
cooling
Feed too high Reduce feed
Flutes packed with Wtthdraw frequently
chips to clear
Misaligned or Realign and clamp
unclamped fixture firmly
Blunt drill Resharpen sooner
Spring in work Pack and clamp
more rigidly
Machine spindle AdjusVrepiace
end-play machine bearings
Worn front-taper
on diameter lands,
jams drill in hole Shorten drill, repaint
Cutting lip length Repoint
not equal
Angle, axis to
cutting lips differ Repaint
Point thinning
not central Repoint then thin
Worn machine
conditions Recondition machine
Drill guide bush worn Replace guide bush
Biunt drill Resharpen
Point poorly
sharpened Resharpen
Feed too high
Incorrect or no
cutting fluid Apply cutling fluid
Feed too high Reduce feed
Insufficient lip relief Regrind
Work deflection
upwards at break Support and clamp
through work firmly
Thick web increases
pressure Thin web
Matching tapers Clean up shanks, ream
or shank and sleeves or spindles
sleeve dirty,
burred or worn
Heat from high Use floW of correct
revolutions, coolant if trouble
incorrect or no persists, reduce
cutting fluid speed
Continued on next page
148 Drills and reamers
Table 5 (cant)
Problem
Excessive feed
pressure
Unequal chips
from cutting lips
Drill squeaks
Multi-sided hole
through thin
material
Burrs on hole
underside
Reduced shank
broken from drill
Possible cause
Web too thick
Drill blunt
Insufficient lip relief
Point has unequal
lip lengths and/or
point angles
Insufficient lip fsUef
Front-taper worn on
diameter lands
Excessive lip relief
Blunt drill
Feed too high
Feed too high,
flutes ciogged,
pistol drill leaned
sideways jamming
drill in hole
Suggested remedy
Thin web
Repaint
Regrind
Repaint
Regrind
Shorten drill, repaint
Reduce lip relief to
about one degree;
drill through thin
metal into supporting
metal or hardwood
base; clamp the work
Repaint
Reduce feed
Reduced feed, clear
flutes ,frequently,
keep drill aligned
Using Centre Drills
The centre drill must be held firmly. Misalignment
between drill and workpiece will allow the drill to cut on
one lip only and will impose an uneven cutting load on
the drill point. Forcing or pumping the centre into the
workpiece will split the drill web. Dulling or cutting on
the outer corners or cutting lips indicates an excessive
cutting speed is being used or that the drill requires
resharpening. A plentiful supply of the recommended
cutting fluid must be applied to the centre drill and
workpiece.
Countersinking
Making a cone-shaped enlargement at the entrance of a
drilled hole for the purpose of providing a seat for the
head of a countersunk screw, a bearing surface in the
work for a centre lathe, or a recess in which the end of
a rivet may be spread, is called countersinking.
Figure 23 shows the common countersinking drill used
for this purpose. For large holes a countersink having a
pilot to fit the previously drilled hole is necessary to keep
the drill true and to prevent chatter (see Fig. 24).
CHISEL ANGLE
90 . 100'
.. HARD and TOUGH MATERIALS
MANGANESE STEEL RAILS, etc,
CHISEL ANGLE
115
0
.125
.. CRANKSHAFT or SPLIT POINT for
DEEP HOLES
Ovef'comea excessive thrust (due to heavy web)
HARD and TOUGH MATERIALS
~ 1 1 8 .
CHISEL ANGLE
125 135
.. BRASS and SOFT BRONZE
CHISEL ANGLE CHISEL ANGLE
125
0
135
0
125 135
0
.. HARDWOOD, BAKELITE, HARD RUBBER and .. WOOD, RUBSER, BAKELITE, FIBER,
FIBERS, SOFT and MEDIUM CAST IRON MOULDED PLASTICS
IMPORTANT: lip lengths and angles must b8
equal.
.. REGULAR POINT ... GENERAL PURPOSE,
MILD STEELS, LAMINATED PLASTICS, elc.
.. SOFT ALUMINIUM, MAGNESIUM, COPPER .. HEAT TREATED STEELS. DROP FORGINGS
and MEDIUM HARD BRASS and CONNECTING RODS
CHiSEL ANGLE
115125
CHISEL ANGLE
125 1:35
CHISEL ANGLE
1 2 5 ~ - 1:35"
Figure 21 Point geometry for various materials
Drills and reamers 149
leave .005
11
to
.015/1 chisel edge
'nt
Gn
Gn
he
axis -
~ n
ve
'es
ed grind to follow
1d
chisel edge
Figure 22 Geometry of the split point
a Tabie 6 Recommended speeds for centre drilling
he
he
Speed Number size of centre drill
of
(feeY (metresl Cutting
Material min) min) 2 3 4 5 6 7 fluid
'd
:a
Aluminium and Kerosene and
,p
its alloys 250 76 20537 15278 10213 7640 5093 3820 3055 soluble oil
Brass & bronze,
ordinary 225 69 18382 13750 9191 6876 4582 3438 2749 Dry
Bronze, hightensile 110 34 8986 6722 4493 3361 2246 1660 1344 Dry
Iron cast:
Soft 100 30 8170 6111 4085 3056 2037 1528 1222 Dry, air blast
Medium 75 23 6112 4584 3056 2292 1528 1146 917 or
Hard (chilled) 15 4.6 1224 918 612 459 306 229 183 Soluble oil
Malleable 85 26 6944 5194 3472 3598 1732 1208 1039 Soluble oil
metal or
high nickel steel 40 23 3268 2445 1634 1222 815 611 489 Mineral lard
oil
Plastics 200 61 16340 12222 8170 6112 4074 3056 2444 Dry
Mild .2-.3C 95 29 7761 5806 3880 2902 1938 1451 1161 Soluble or
Mild .4-.5C 75 23 6112 4584 3056 2292 1528 1146 917 SUlphUrized oil
Tool 55 17 4493 3361 2246 1680 1123 840 672 Sulphurized oil
Forgings 45 14 3676 2750 1838 1375 917 687 550 Sulphurized oil
Alloy 25 7.6 2042 1527 1021 762 509 382 305 SulphUrized oil
High tensile:
35-40 Re. 35 10.7 2860 2138 1430 1070 713 534 428 Sulphurized oil
40-45 Re. 30 9.1 ' 2452 1833 1226 917 611 458 367 Sulphurized oil
40-45 Re. 20 6.1 1634 1222 817 611 407 306 244 Sulphurized on
steel:
Free machining 55 17 4493 3361 2246 1680 1123 840 672 Sulphurized oil
Work hardening 35 10.7 2860 2138 1430 1970 713 534 428 Sulphurized oil
Table 7 Recommended feed rates for centre drilling
Drill number Feed (inches per revolution) Feed (millimetres per revolution)
No.1t04 .001 to .003 .025 to .076
No.4 to No.
6 .002 to .006 .051 to .152
No.6 to No. 7 .004 to .010 .102 to .254
Figure 23 Countersink
Figure 24 Countersink with
piiot
Drills and reamers 145
]
i
e
g
,-
e
;t
'r
d
{t
Ie
)f
te
: i ~
re
as
k,
ill
hold it firmly in the chuck as slippage will inevitably cause
drill breakage.
Taper shank drills are driven by tbe taper and not the
tang. The tang is designed for ejection not driving. It is
essential that the drill shank and socket are a good fit and
free of burrs and grit, otherwise slippage will twist the
tang. When removing a taper shank drill ensure that the
correct sized drift is used and take precautions against
damaging the drill point when it falls from the sleeve.
When drilling by hand apply a constant pressure. Do
not allow the drill to 'dwell' as this will cause dulling of
the cutting edge. Some materials harden by being worked
and immediately destroy the cutting lips. The flutes of
the drill must be kept clear. Clogging of the drill flutes
prevents sufficient lubricant from reaching the drill point.
The drill flutes may be cleared occasionally by withdraw-
ing the drill after penetrating about two or three diameters
in depth.
Excessive heat damages the drill cutting lips. Use a
plentiful, well directed flow of cutting fluid to absorb the
heat generated during cutting.
Deep-hole Drilling
Deep holes are usually defined as holes having greater
depth than four times the diameter of the drill. Specially
designed deep-hole drills are available, which are more
rigid than standard drills and clear the swarf more
efficiently. The advantage of deep-hole drills is that faster
feed can be used and deeper holes can be drilled before
swarf has to be cleared from the drill flutes. Oil-hole drills
are also recommended for drilling deep holes.
Deep holes can be drilled using standard drills but it
is necessary to use slower speeds and feeds and to fre-
quently withdraw the drill to clear the flute of swarf.
When using standard drills select the speed and feed, and
reduce by the percentage reduction listed in Table I.
Some Criteria for Drill Usage
Limits of tolerance on the diameter of twist drills are
listed in Table 2.
A guide for selection and use of drills is given in
Table 3.
Recommended feeds for various diameter drills are
shown in Table 4.
Table 1 Recommended speed and feed reduction when deep
drilling with standard drills
Depth of hole Feed Speed
in drill reduction reduction
diameters ('!o) (%)
5 10 12.5
6 12 15
7 14 17.5
8 16 20
9 18 22.5
10 20 25
11 22 27.5
12 24 30
13 26 32.5
14 28 35
15 30 37.5
16 32 40
17 34 42.5
18 36 45
19 38 47.5
20 40 50
Table 2 Umits of tolerance on the diameter of twist drills
Drill diameter at point Back taper on diameter
Up to and
Over including Tolerance Tolerance
0.32 mm
t
+ .0000 - .0005 .0000 to .0008 per inch
.L
t
+ .0000 - .0007 .0002 to .0008 per inch
8
.L
1-
+ .0000 - .0010 .0002 to .0009 per inch
4
.L
1 + .0000 - .0012 .0003 to .0011 per inch
2
1 2 + .0000 - .0015 .0004 to .0015 per inch
2 3 + .0000 - .0020 .0004 to .0015 Inch
ANSI 894.11 1967
Table 3 Guide for seiection and use of drills
Hardness Included
range point Speed
Material and hole condition (B.H.N.) angle (ft/min) (mlmin) Cutting fluid
Aluminium alloys Deep hole 50-140 118 200-300 61- 91
Alum alloys cast High silicon 45-120 118 80-120 24- 37 Soluble oil
Low silicon 35-110 118
0
140-200 43- 61
Aluminium forged Shallow hole 50-140 118
0
200-500 61-153
Alum alloys
Kerosene
forged
Deep hole 50-140 118
0
200-500 61-153
Brass
.Leaded free
machining 100-150 118
0
200-300 61- 91
Bronze
Castings 80-120 118
0
60- 90 18- 27
Wrought 120-220 118
0
35- 80 11- 24 Soluble oil
Cast iron
Chilled or white 400 150
0
15- 25 4.6-7.6
Hard grey iron Over 200 118
0
45- 50 14- 15
Cast iron
Medium grey iron 150-200 90
0
_110
0
60-110 24- 34 Dry or
Soft grey iron Below 150 90
0
140-150 43- 46 compressed
air
Malleable 140 118
0
80-100 24- 34
Cast Iron 8,G,
As cast 220 118
0
40- 50 12- 15
Annealed-ferritic 190 118
0
45- 65 14- 20 Soluble oil
Copper
45-110 100
0
70-100 21- 30
"---
Continued on next psg,
270 Lathe operations-turning
radial line
normal rake
cutting edge
positive inclination
direction of cut
<I
Figure 102
Clearance Angle
A clearance angle of 5' is ground beneath the cutting edge
(see Fig. 102).
15' C_a_p_p,_o_aC_h_a_n_g_le__,,?'"

Figure 101 Inclination and chip space
Normal Rake
Normal rake is ground to suit the metal to be cut. (See
Fig. 102.) Approximately 15' is suitable for mild steel,
5' for cast iron and 0' for brass.
damage the bore. This may be done by adjusting the
height of the boring bar or by grinding the bottom of
the bar, provided that bar strength is adequate, (see Fig.
101).
Shape of the Boring Too!
Boring and turning tools have similar tool angles. In a
boring operation, the work cylinder wraps around the
tool and this affects the angle of inclination and the front
clearance angle.
The boring tool is usually set a little above centre height
(except for taper boring) and this setting must also be
taken into account. Setting the tool above the centre
increases front clearance.
Front Ciearance Angle
The front clearance angle must be kept to a minimum
(to avoid chatter), yet have sufficient secondary clearance
to suit the bore diameter (see Fig. 100).
hollow set
screw

p"
"". ' .... "::. .
, . .<.,
a b
Figure 99 Tool position in boring bars
Advantages of boring bars
Boring bars offer the following advantages over boring
tools:
The overhang may be adjusted to suit the length of the
bore.
The toolbit may be changed or resharpened without dis-
turbing the position of the bar.
The boring bar has a longer life than the solid forged
tool, which must be continually resharpened after a few
uses.
Small adjustments to tool height can be made by rotat-
ing the bar in the clamp.
Boring bars with inserted too/bits
Boring bars are internal tool-holders and offer the same
versatility of tool shape and location as do external tool-
holders. The tool position for a through hole is shown
in Figure 99a, and that for boring to a shoulder in Figure
99b.
Figure 103 Boring tool lor through hole
end,elielT
cutting
edge
Inclination
Inclination is ground to suit the metal to be cut and is
measured from the cutting edge to a radial line extend-
ing to the tool point (see Fig. 101).
Chips fall and collect below the tool, therefore space
must be provided to avoid interference, which would
, !
5
0
i...c-- front clearance
, I ground to minimum
/"? -..,
secondary clearance prevents
interference with hole
Figure 100 Front and secondary clearance on boring tool
Lathe operations-turning 271
Figure 104 Boring tool for counterbore
Boring a Tapered Hole
The set-up for boring a tapered hole is essentially the same
as for parallel boring except for tool setting, compound
slide setting and measuring.
Speeds and Feeds
Revolutions per minute (r.p.m.) The r.p.m. figure is set in
relation to the hole size, material to be cut, cutting tool
material and the rigidity of the set-up. The r.p.m. value
determined from a cutting nomogram or chart makes a
good starting point. Variation in r.p.m. is often required
as a remedy for chatter when the set-up unavoidably lacks
rigidity. In such cases, r.p.in. may be reduced for one
or two cuts until the chatter marks are removed.
Feed The rate of feed is set to suit the conditions as
follows:
Tools with an approach angle can use faster feeds than
tools with a relief angle on the cutting edge (see Figs
103 and 104).
Cast iron, bronze and brass are machined better with
feeds faster than those used for cutting mild steel.
Good finishes require finer feeds.
Note: Tradespeople can generally overcome most
machining problems by variation of speeds and feeds.
Boring Technique and Measurement
I Take a short cut (2 mm approx.) to establish a trial
hole 0.5 mm undersize, measuring with a steel rule. The
trial hole can be used to indicate this size.
2 Using a light cut true the bore.
3 Check for parallelism using inside calipers and a
micrometer, or telescopic gauge and a micrometer, or
an inside micrometer if the hole is large enough.
If the hole is not parallel, check the machine slides
and adjust the gib strips. Interference by the boring
bar or misalignment of the headstock will also cause
errors.
4 Measure the diameter of the bore and calculate the
depth of cut required to reach the finished size.
5 Use cross-slide dial settings for successive cuts (using
automatic feeds) until the correct bore diameter is
reached.
6 Measure the size of the hole in the first 2 mm before
taking the final cut.
face relief
1
J--_r--J
~ : ; : ; : : : ; : : ; : . : - \ o
work / / T
nose radius end relief
cutting edge
Boring Ii Parallel Hole
Difficulty in obtaining good finish and accurate size is
often the most important factor in accurate boring
operations.
Selection of Boring Bar or Boring Tool
It is difficult to provide a rigid set-up because:
the tool must fit into a hole smaller than the finished
size and also allow chip space;
the bar must be long enough to pass through the hole
without interference.
For maximum rigidity select the shortest boring tool (or
set the shortest extension of the boring bar) for the length
of the hole.
Boring tools for through holes produce the best results
if an approach angle of approximately 15 and a relief
angle of 5 are provided (see Fig. 103).
Boring tools for stepped holes must have approximately
5relief behind the tool point for both the face and the
diameter (see Fig. 104).
Nose radius should be kept to a minimum to avoid
chatter, but must be large enough to maintain tool
strength and provide the desired finish.
Tool Setting
Height of the tool When boring parallel holes, it is usual
to set the tool a little above centre height (I mm approxi-
mately). This has no effect on parallelism of the bore but
gives the following two advantages:
. Downward pressures decrease the depth of cut and
therefore prevent damage to the bore should the tool
dig in.
. Morechip space is provided under the bar so there is
less likelihood of the tool digging in because of chips
jamming underneath the bar.
Alignment of the bar The bar is set parallel to the direc-
tiou of travel (feed), otherwise interference might occur,
which could deflect the bar, causing tapering or bell-
mouthing of the hole.
Tool Setting
The tool point must be on centre height (see Fig. 105)
otherwise the tapered sides cannot be machined straight.
tool point on
centre height
Figure 105 Tool point on centre height
150 Drills and reamers
Counterboring
The operation of enlarging the end of a hole to provide
a recess for the cylindrically shaped heads of certain
screws, bolts and pins is called counterboring.
It is essential for a counterbore to be provided with
a pilot to guide it into position and keep it steady during
the cutting. Figures 25 and 26 illustrate two different types
of counterbore.
Figure 25 Counterboring Figure 26 Inserted cutter
type of counterbore
Spot facing
The operation of facing the surface around the end of
a hole to provide a flat seat for a bolt head, the shoulder
on a shaft, or similar fitting, is called spot facing (Fig. 27).
Spot facing may be performed using some counter-
boring tools.
Figure 27 Spot facing
Reamillg produces holes having a high degree of
accuracy, roundness, parallelism, and finish.
The operation may be carried out at the bench, using
a hand reamer, or it may be done in the lathe or drilling
machine using machine reamers (hand reamers may be
used in the lathe if no machine reamers are available).
Types ()f Reamer
Hand Reamers
Hand reamers (Fig. 28) are right-hand cutting tools with
left-hand helical flutes. The cutting end of the hand
reamer is ground with a starting taper to provide easy
entry of the reamer into the hole. The reamer is opera-
ted by using a tap wrench on the square-ended shank.
Adjustable Hand Reamers
As the name implies, adjustable hand reamers are
adjustable for diameter (Fig. 29). They are invaluable in
the jobbing shop where a part is required to have a bore
of non-standard size, for example a +in. reamer can be
adjusted from Hin. to Hin. (12 to 13.5 mm).
Machine Reamers
Machine reamers (Fig. 30) also are right-hand cutting
tools with left-hand helical flutes; they have a 45 bevel
lead, and a morse taper shank.
Chucking Reamers
Chucking reamers (Fig. 31) also are right-hand cutting
tools with left-hand helical flutes and a 45 bevel lead.
They are designed for use in drill presses, turret lathes
and automatic machines.
Taper Pin Reamers
Taper pin reamers (Fig. 32) have a taper of t inch per
foot and are designed to ream holes for standard taper
pins. Thebest results are obtained if the hole to be reamed
is drilled a few thousandths of an inch smaller than the
small diameter of the finished ream hole. The point of
each reamer will enter the hole reamed by the next
smallest size.
Figure 28 Hand reamer
Figure 29 Adjustable hand reamer
Figure 30 Machine reamer taper shank
Figure 31 Chucking reamer straight shank
; ; , , = ~ -
Figure 32 Taper pin hand. reamer
Drills and reamers
;1.. L
Figure 33 Bridge reamer taper shank
151
Figure 35 Morse taper socket reamers-finishing
Bridge Reamers
Bridge reamers (Fig. 33) have been specifically designed
for reaming rivet and bolt holes in structural iron and
steel work. The cutting end of the flutes is tapered to per-
mit the reamer to enter holes that are out of alignment,
thus facilitating the reaming operation.
Morse Taper Socket Reamers
Morse taper socket reamers (Figs 34 and 35) are right-
hand cutting tools with left-hand helical flutes. Both
roughing and finishing types are available.
Shell Reamers
The shell reamer (Fig. 36) is a short reamer, approxi-
mately twice as long as its diameter, and made in sizes
of 1 in. to 2j-in., with a tapered bore and driving slot
enabling it to be mounted onto a suitable shank for
machine reaming. The cutting lead is the same as that
of a machine reamer and the flutes are backed off or cylin-
drically ground. Cylindrical grinding is also referred to
as rose grinding.
Figure 34 Morse taper socket reamers-roughing
Figure 36 Shell reamer
Adjustable Machine Reamer
Many types of single-blade, two-cutting-edge reamers are
available for machine reaming, mainly in mass produc-
tion applications. Three of the many designs are illust-
rated in Figures 37, 38 and 39.


adjusting screw
t ---u: r==-- __-)=3+---+-
Figure 37 Double-ended
cutter
Figure 38 Adjustable
double-ended cutter
steel ball
r adiusting screw
-tt:3 E--
! V
J retaining plate
Figure 39 Floating double-
ended cutter
Lathe operations-turning 273
Tool setting and measuring are done by the same
methods previously described. Advantages are:
Automatic feeds can be used;
The taper length can be considerably longer than is pos-
sible when using a compound slide.
Accurate Setting Angle of the Compound Slide
Firstly clamp a good parallel strip on the cross-slide sur-
face ahead of the tool-post and set it true with the bed
ways by using a clock indicator. Place a sine bar against
the parallel with gauge blocks for the required angle.
Using a clock indicator from the tool-post operating
against the sine bar, the compound slide can be set to
the precise angle. Remember the cutting tool must be on
the centre line to produce the correct angle. (See Fig. 110.)
Figure 110 Accurate setting of angle of compound slide
Reaming produces holes with a high degree of accuracy,
roundness, parallelism and finish more easily and con-
sistently than other methods.
F'reparatkm of the Work
The diameter of the hole must be smaller than that of
the reamer. This diameter depends on:
the type of reamer;
the diameter of the reamer;
the kind of material to be cut.
Note: Reaming does not correct any errors in position
or alignment of the hole, therefore it is necessary to bore
the hOle to the required size, thus correcting errors of this
type.
Before reaming, it is necessary to drill to remove excess
metal. Then the hole is rounded by boring to leave the
reaming allowance as specified in Chapter 16, 'Drills and
Reamers'.
ReamiU1J9 UsiU1Jg a Machine Reamer
1 Prepare the hole by drilling and/or boring.
2 Check the alignment of the tailstock; misalignment can
cause a tapered or oversize hole.
3 Clean the tapered surfaces of the reamer and the tail-
stock quill. Fit the reamer into the tailstock and lock
the tailstock in position.
4 Set the revolutions per minute to give a cutting speed
as specified in Chapter 16, 'Drills and Reamers'.
5 Apply a cutting fluid as required for the type of
material to be reamed. This will help the cutting action,
give a better finish, and reduce wear on the reamer.
6 Enter the reamer into the hole, using a steady even feed
(see Fig. 111).
7 Withdraw the reamer, for which the lathe can be
stopped.
8 Never turn the reamer backwards; this tends to dull
and damage the cutting edge.
Figure 111 Reaming using a taper shank maohine
reamer
Reaming Using a Hand ~ e a m e r
1 Fit a suitable tap wrench to the reamer.
2 Enter the reamer into the prepared hole, then bring the
tailstock centre into position to support the reamer;
then arrange that the tap wrench rests on the top slide
(see Fig. 112).
3 Apply a cutting fluid (as recommended in Chapter 16,
'Drills and Reamers').
4 Turn the workpiece by hand and turn the tailstock
hand-wheel to push the reamer through tbe hole.
5 Withdraw the reamer without turning the work.
Figure 112 Reami ng using a hand reamer
152
Drills and reamers
Reamer Nomenclature (Figs 40 and 41)
diameter
no circular
land
bevel lead
length
bevel lead
taper lead
taper lead ===:3::::::::::::q
angle .=

bevel lead circular
angle land
taper
lead length
Hand reamer
Figure 40 The important features of a hand reamer
Machine reamer
bevel lead
;;;;.;;;;;
;;;;;;; ::i angle
. I .1
circular l-- bevel lead
length
diameter
Figure 41 The important features of a machine reamer
Circular iand The cylindrical ground surface adjacent to
the cutting edge, on the leading edge of the body land.
Primary clearance That portion of the land removed to
provide clearance immediately behind the cutting edge.
Secondary clearance That portion of the land removed
to provide clearance behind the primary clearance.
Taper lead The tapered cutting portion at the entering
end to facilitate the entry of the reamer into the hole.
(It is not provided with a circular land.) It is 2 included
angle.
Bevel lead The angular cutting portion at the entering
end to facilitate the entry of the reamer into the hole.
(It is not provided with a circular land.)
Back taper The reduction in diameter of the reamer .
from the entering end towards the shank.
Diameter The maximum cutting diameter of the ream-
er at the entering end. It is measured directly behind the
tapered lead on hand reamers and behind the bevel lead
on machine and chucking reamers.
Taper lead length The length, measured axially, of the
taper lead, usually Ittimes the dial1!-eter.
Bevel lead length The length measured axially of the bev-
el lead.
Reamer Tolerances
Limits of Tolerance on Cutting Diameter
The tolerance on the cutting diameter is measured im-
mediately behind the bevel or taper lead for parallel ream-
ers. The diameter tolerance is that of an m6 shaft to Brit-
ish Standard 1916, as stated in B.S. 122: Part 2: 1964,
also Australian Standard B43, Part 2-1967. Reamers
having m6 diameter limits are intended to produce H8
limit holes for high-tolerance reamers and smaller H7
limit holes from low-tolerance reamers.
Table 8 Reamer tolerances
Nominal diameter Cutting-edge
range diameter
(inches) (mm) (inches) (mm)
Up to Up to
Over and Over and High Low High Low
including including
+ + + +
0.0394 0.1181 1 3 0.0004 0.0001 0.009 0.002
0.1181 0.2382 3 6 0.0005 0.0002 0.012 0.004
0.2362 0.3937 6 10 0.0006 0.0002 0.015 0.006
0.3937 0.7067 10 16 0.0007 0.0003 0.018 0.007
0.7087 1.1811 18 30 0.0008 0.0003 0.021 0.008
1.1811 1.9685 30 50 0.0010 0.0004 0.025 0.009
1.9685 3.1496 50 60 0.0012 0.0004 0.030 0.011
Drills and reamers 153
0PWSJt!OI'l elf Reamers
The conditions under which reamers are used vary con-
siderably and the figures given in the following paragraphs
are intended as a guide only.
Correct Hole Size
The correct amount of stock must be left for removal by
the reamer if true holes with good surface finish are to
be produced. For machine reaming, 0.15 to 0.25 mm
(0.006 to 0.010 inch) for reamers up to 10 mm (finch)
diameter and 0.25 to 0.4 mm (0.010 to 0.015 inch) for
reamers IO to 25 mm (f inch to 1 inch) is generally satis-
factory. For these sizes, and particularly those larger, the
amount of stock required is determined by such factors
as type of material, feed, finish required, depth of hole
and chip capacity of the reamer.
For hand-reaming stock, allowances are much smaller
and a nominal allowance would be 0.075 to 0.15 mm
(0.003 to 0.006 inch).
Avoid Chatter
Reamer chatter must be eliminated to obtain the best
results in finish and size. While the geometry of a reamer
includes features to reduce the probability of chatter, lack
of rigidity in the machine jig or holder, or an excessive
distance between the holder and the work, will promote
chatter (the material being cut will also affect chatter).
Some ways to reduce chatter include: reducing the speed,
increasing the rigidity of the tool holder, chamfering the
Table 9 Recommended speeds and cutting fluids for reaming
entering end of the hole, using a piloted reamer, reduc-
ing the angle of clearance.
Selecting Speeds and Feeds
Speeds and feeds for reaming are governed by the finish
required, the material, rigidity of set-up and the cutting
fluid used.
Generally, the feed is two to three times, and the speed
two-thirds to three-quarters that of a drill of the same
diameter.
When close tolerances and fine finish are required, it
may be necessary to finish reaming at considerably slower
speeds than normal.
The amount of feed required will vary with the material
being cut. A good starting point is between 0.025 and
0.10 mm (0.001 and 0.004 inches) per tooth per
revolution.
Too Iowa feed may result in glazing, excessive wear,
and occasionally chatter. Too high a feed tends to reduce
the accuracy of the hole and may lower the quality of
the surface finish.
It is recommended that the highest feed to produce the
required finish and accuracy be used. Table 9 lists recom-
mended speeds and cutting fluids.
Avoid Reversing
Reamers are intended to be passed through the work:
never reverse the rotation of the reamer, even when with-
drawing from the work.
Material
Speed
Cutting fiuid
(ltlmin) (m/min)
Aluminium 150-200 46-61
Aluminium alloys 135-160 41-49
Brass, free cutting leaded 140-200 43-61
Kerosene, kerosene and oil, or soluble oil
Brass 120-160 37-49
Bronze, ordinary 130-200 40-61
Bronze, high-tensile 45-65 14-20
Soluble oll or lard oil
Cast iron, soft 70-110 21-34
Cast iron, medium 55-75 17-23
Cast iron, hard 50-70 15-21
Dry or compressed air
Cast iron, chilled 15-25 5-8
Copper, soft 80-130 24-40
Copper, medium 45-65 14-20 Kerosene, soluble or sulphurized oil
Copper, hard 30-45 9-14
Magnesium and magnesium alloys 150-250 45-76 Dry or compressed air
Malleable iron 50-60 15-18 Mineral oil or soluble oil
Maganese copper 10-15 3-5 Soluble oil or sulphurized oil
Manganese steel 8-12 2-4 SUlphurized oil
Monel metal 25-40 8-12 Soluble, lard, or sulphurized oil
Phosphor bronze, soft 140-170 43-52 Soluble lard or lard oil
Phosphor bronze, medium hard 100-130 30-40
Plastic
65-80 20-24
Soluble oil
Steel, free cutting
80-100 24-30
Steel, 100-200 Brineil
65-85 20-26
Steel. 200-300 Brineli
30-45 9-14
Soluble oil or sulphurized oil
Steei. 300-400 brinell
20-30 6-9
Steel, over 400 Brine11
8-15 2-5
Steel, stainless, free cutting
40-50 12-15 Sulphurized oil
Steel, stainless
154 Drills and reamers
Sharpening of Reamers
When resharpening reamers, grind only the lead at the
leading end, ensuring that the original angle of clearance
is maintained. Care should be taken so that each tooth
is ground exactly even, as any lack of concentricity or
unevenness in the position of the chamfer will promote
rapid tool, wear, poor finish and oversize cutting.
Storage of Reamers
Storage and handling of reamers when not in use should
be given particular attention. Since they are delicate tools,
easily damaged, they should be transported and stored
in containers with separate compartments for each
reamer. They should be covered with a good rust pre-
ventive compound when not in use,
Useful facts and figures
X Machine tapers
Manufacturers over the years have used a variety of tapers
in machine tools; some of these are rarely used today,
although they are nominally still in use. It is advisable
always to be on the alert as some appear to be almost
interchangeable.
Morse Taper
The morse taper is universally used for taper shank tools
and lathe centres.
Morse taper shanks
xxvii
p
T
R
S
Shank Tongue Keyway
Diam. of Oiam. at Standard End of
<3
Number of
plug at end of
Whole
Depth
Depth of
plug Thickness Length Width Length socket to
taper
smali end socket
length hole
depth keyway
D A Bmax S max H min
P' t h13 T Rmax. W A13 L K TAPER
0 6.7 9.045 59.5 56.5 52 1 3.9 6.5 4 3.9 15 49 1:19.212
1 9.7 12.065 65.5 62 56 1 5.2 8.5 5 5.2 19 52 1:20.047
2 14.9 17.780 80 75 67 1 6.3 10 6 6.3 22 62 1:20.020
3 20.2 23.826 99 94 84 1 7.9 13 7 7.9 27 78 1:19.922
4 26.5 3t.267 124 117.5 107 1.5 11.9 16 8 11.9 32 98 1:19.254
5 38.2 44.399 156 149.5 135 1.5 15.9 19 10 15.9 38 125 1:19.002
6 54.6 63.348 218 210 188 2 19 27 13 19 47 177 1:19.180
P max. permissible deviation, outwards only of gauge.
Source: British Standard BS 1660: Part 1: 1988
iSO 296: 1974
continued on next page
Lathe operations-turning 261
28 mm
Taper turning
Figure 64 Stepped spindle
Taper Turning Using a Form Tool
This method of taper turning is often employed when
small parts are to be produced in large numbers. The
length of surface is limited by the ability of the lathe to
cut a broad surface without chattering. About a 12 mm
length of face is often possible. A very short taper is often
known as a chamfer and the method for producing it is
the same as described here.
Shape of the Form Tool
The cutting edge of the form tool must be straight and
horizontal because the surface of the taper is straight. (See
Fig. 65.) A small clearance angle 30 to 50 is used and the
normal rake angle is ground to suit the material to be cut.
When the turned surface of a workpiece is to be conical
instead of cylindrical, the production of such a surface
is known as taper turning.
Taper fits are often preferred between the mating parts
of assemblies used in machines, tools and equipment,
motor cars etc.
Because the taper ensures accurate location with a tight
fit, the parts are readily assembled or separated.
There are four methods by which tapers may be
machined in a lathe, namely by:
use of a form tool;
use of the cross-slide and the top-slide;
use of the taper-turning attachment;
offsetting the tailstock.
Whichever method of turning tapers is adopted, the tool
must be set at centre height, otherwise the angle of the
taper produced will not be accurate.
Position of the Form Tool
It is important that the complete cutting edge of the form
tool is on centre height, otherwise a different taper will
be turned.
The cutting edge must be set to the angle shown on
the drawing. Figure 66 shows a taper with a 90
0
inclu-
ded angle; the cutting edge must be set to 45
0
measured
from the axis. To do this. the stock of the pmlractor is
located along the diameter (which must be parallel) and
the position of the cutting edge is adjusted to align with
the blade. (See Fig. 67.)
Figure 65 Plan view of form tooi
straight
cutting edge
= 6.85 mm
=_6.45 mm __
0.40 mm
top slide
Number of graduations ":
(0.02 mm/grad.) 0.02
= 20 graduations
Use of a Graduated Dial for Cutting Lengths
Tho top slide is fitted with a graduated dial having divi-
sions representing decimal parts of a millimetre. For
machhling short accurate lengths:
I Set the top slide on zero.
2 Locate the tool approximately and lock the saddle
damp.
3 Cut a trial length, locating the tool by using the top

4 Set the graduated dial to zero.
5 Me"stlre the trial length (a depth micrometer may be
Ilsed).
6 Move the graduated dial the difference between the
trial length and the required length.
For example:
Required length
Trial length
19mm
datum
face

Procedure
I Locate the position of the datum face and machine it
by facing.
2 Rough turn the largest diameter approximately 0.6 mm
oversize.
3 Mark the length of the next largest diameter and rough
turn it about 0.6 mm short. A quick method of mark-
ing the length is to position the cutting tool, rotate the
workpiece by hand (to see that everything is clear) and
feed the tool to cut a small mark around the diameter.
Check the position of the mark before proceeding with
the cut.
4 This rough turning is continued with all diameters and
lengths, starting with the largest and proceeding to the
smallest.
5 Then, use the same cutting method for finish turning:
The cutting tool must be sharp.
,. The revolutions per minute are increased.
The feed is decreased.
The finished size may be measured using a micro-
meter when the size is important, that is, when the
size is to fit a mating part, or when the size is expres-
sed with a tolerance.
'1
262 Lathe operations-turning
Figure 66 Included angle
of taper
4 Use the cross-slide to feed the tool into the workpiece.
This process is known as plunge cutting.
Note: An alternative method is to use the saddle to
plunge cut the taper.
5 Check the included angle and make any necessary
adjustments to the position of the tool before cutting
to finished size.
work-piece 1"
-+--_. --- . ,-
I
I, '
Figure 67 Setting the
form tool using a
protractor
Method
I Locate the saddle to align the cutting tool with the area
to be cut.
2 Lock the saddle to prevent it moving away under the
cutting force.
3 Set the cutting speed to suit the material and the largest
diameter. It is sometimes necessary to use a slower
speed to produce a good finish.
Figure 68 Turning a taper on a workpiece held in a
chuck
Taper Turning Using the Top-slide
This method is suitable for turning or boring tapers, but
the maximum length of taper that can be machined is
limited to the amount of travel of the top-slide, and the
feed must be by hand.
Holding the Workpiece
The work may be held in a chuck as shown in Figures
68 and 69, or between centres as in Figures 70 and 71.
Figure 70 Turning a taper on a workpiece held between
centres
Figure 71 Turning a taper on a workpiece held on a
mandrel
1
I
1/2 included
angle
I
--. I
Figure 69 Compound s!ide settirlg
Lathe operations-turning
263
cross-slide
movement
Taper Turning Using a Taper Turning
Attachment
The taper t.urning attachment shown in Figure 73 pro-
vieles a simple method of turning tapers and eliminates
the disadvantages of other methods.
".- frame
_/ L sliding block
Lswivel slide
Description
It is essential in this taper turning operation that the cut-
ting tool is made to travel along an angular path by the
combination of two movements, the saddle movement
and the cross-slide movement (see Fig. 72).
These movements are controlled by a slide (swivel
slide), which may be set to the required angle. The swivel
slide is supported in a frame at the back of the saddle
and. is fixed in position by a clamp on the lathe bed.
A sliding block fits over the swivel slide and is attached
to the cross-slide. As the saddle moves along the bed, the
sliding block follows the angular setting of the swivel slide
and causes the cross-slide to move accordingly.
Types of Taper Turning Attachment
The foregoing principle is applied to two types of taper
turning attachment. The main difference between them
is the method of attaching the cross-slide to the sliding
block and of overcoming the restriction to movement
caused by the cross-slide serew and nut.
Attachment with telescopic feed screw
The telescopic feed screw passes through the sliding block
and therefore as the block moves it pushes the feed screw,
nut and cross-slide.
As the cross-feed screw moves towards the handwhee1
it enters a tube provided for it. A key between the two
enables a drive from the handwheel to the crossfeed
screw, hence depth of cut settings may be made in the
normal way.
To operate:
I Set the swivel slide to the desired angle, which is always
half the included angle.
2 Clamp the swivel slide to the bed so that the tool is
about 12 mm from the work and the sliding block has
sufficient movement to eomplete the taper.
3 Make certain that all slides are clean and lubricated and
that the action is smooth when the saddle is moved by
hand.
4 Proceed with turning the taper.
f ~ ~
resulta'1t lOOI--=.J.
movement
~ ' l
saddle movement
FigUt'8 72 Path of travel
FigUi'e '73 Taper turning
attachment with telHscoplc
screw
Method
I Set the top-slide to the angle.
2 Set the tool at centre height. In taper turning this is
important otherwise the taper will be incorrect.
3 Ensure that the tool position allows for an end-relief
angle.
4 Locate the carriage so that the top-slide movement
covers the length of the taper. Lock the saddle in
position.
S Mark the length of the taper on the work and take a
light cut within the length to check the top-slide set-
ting. Make necessary adjustments.
6 Set the cutting speed and, using a two-handed control'
of the top-slide, feed the tool with successive cuts until
the eorrect diameter and length are reached.
Setting the Top-siide
The base a f the top-slide is graduated in degrees to allow
the setting of the slide at any required angle. The gradu-
ations arc usually numbered from zero at the front to 90
at the sides.
The angle to set the top-slide is the angle that one side
of the work makes with the axial centre line, that is, one-
half of the included angle.
264 Lathe operations-turning
Ii
taper
attachment
raper turning with fixed screw attachment
I The cross-slide nut is disengaged to allow the cross-slide
to move freely.
2 An extension piece is fitted to the cross-slide. This piece
covers the sliding block and is clamped to it, hence as
the sliding block moves so does the cross-slide.
3 The compound rest is set at 90' to enable the top slide
to be used for setting the cutting tool to depth.
Nole: When using these attachments, set each cut with
the tool about 12 mm beyond the end of the work so that
any backlash or 'play' in the attachment will not produce
a short parallel section on the work.
Advantages of Taper Turning Attachments
They can be used for internal or external work.
Automatic feed can be used.
Any work holding method can be used.
The length of stock does not affect the taper.
Time is saved realigning centres because it is unneces-
sary to alter the correct setting.
Tapers can be set in degrees or units of taper to length.
Taper Turning by Offsetting the
Tailstock
When turning, the tool moves parallel to the axis of the
lathe spindle and the ways of the lathe bed; therefore,
if the tailstock is offset, as shown in Figure 75, the work-
piece will be turned smaller at one end than the other,
thus forming a taper. The amount to offset the tailstock
is onehalf of the amount oftaper reckoned on the total
length of the work. This may be calculated by direct
proportion.
axi'3 of work being turned
,
\
lathe axis 1
4---\ --- -'--- \ olfsel -'---'-1
r
I. / b.':-t:=s=J _
travel of too! parallel to ways 01 jatlle
Figure 75 The effect of offsetting the taiislock centre
Measuring the Offset
Two common methods of measuring the olfset are as
follows:
By means of the scale on the end of the tailstock (see
Fig. 76).
By holding a bar in the tool post and using the gradua-
tions on the cross-slide dial to measure the amount
to set the bar back from the tailstock quill. The tail-
stock is then adjusted until the tailstock quill contacts
the bar in the tool-post (see Fig. 77).
Care should be taken when using this method to
avoid errors through backlash in the cross-slide Screw
and nut.
Nole: The above methods must be followed by the 'cut
and check' procedure.
Disadvantages of the Offset Method
It is suitable only for turning external tapers when the
workpiece is held between centres.
The work centres do not bear uniformly on the lathe
centres. This causes them to wear out of shape and
spoils them for parallel turning (see Fig. 78).
The range of tapers that can be cut is limited to the
amount of cross adjustment of the tailstock. For short
work it is inadvisable to use the full range of the tail-
stock adjustment.
When turning duplicate workpieces, a variation in the
length of the material or in the depth of the work
centres will affect the angle of the taper (see Fig. 79).
Each time the tailstock is offset for taper turning, it
must be realigned for parallel turning.
Form turning
In the previous section, the use of various lathe slides were
described:
the saddle for parallel turning
the cross-slide for face turning
the top-slide for taper turning
As with the controlled combinations of saddle and cross-
slide movements in the taper turning attachment, each
of these processes produces straight surfaces.
When form turning, a curved surface is produced and
this often requires the use of two or more slides, which
may be manipulated as follows:
hand-controlled for simple, approximately accurate,
pieces produced in small numbers; or
automatically and mechanically controlled for accurate
pieces or when pieces are to pe produced in large
numbers;
using a specially prepared form tool to plunge cut the
form, (as previously described) - this method is limi
ted to a comparatively short length of cut.
Free-hand Form Turning
Figure 80a represents a handle to be fitted to a control
lever. It requires a smooth outline rather than very
accurate machining. The work can be turned by the free-
hand method using a round nose-cutting tool controlled
by the combined movement.s of the top-slide and
cross-slide.
256 Lathe operations-turning
Methods of Aligning Centres
Approximate methods
By carefully bringing the centres together (Fig. 46) and
adjusting the tailstock for a visual alignment.
By checking the zero lines on the end of the tailstock
(see Fig. 47).
F;gure 41 Checking the alignment 01 the zero lines
Figure 46 Checking the alignment of the points of the
lathe centres. Note the use of white paper to give a
clearer view
Figure 42 Hole too deep
Figure 43 Hole not in
alignment
Figure 'Ill Centring in a drilling machine
Figure 41 Hole too
shallow
F;gure 44 Centres in line, work turned in parallel
Figure 45 Centres out of line, work turned tapered
The method is carried out on the piece of metal to be
turned.
Mount the workpiece between centres and set the tool
for a short light cut.
2 Take a short light cut at the tailstock end of the work-
piece and note the reading on the cross-feed dial (see
Fig. 48).
3 With the machine running, re-set the tool to take a cut
2nd cut 1st cut
cross-feed dial reading
to be the same for both cuts
F;gure 48 Checking the alignment by the cut and check
method
These two approximate methods should be followed by
one of the more accurate methods described below.
Cut and check method
Aligning lathe Centres
For parallel turning between centres, the axis or centre
line of the work must be parallel with the ways of the
lathe bed and therefore with the line of travel of the car-
riage and the tool. To accomplish this, the headstock and
the tailstock centres must be in alignment (see Fig. 44).
If the tailstock centre is out of line with the headstock
centre then the work will be turned tapered (see Fig, 45).
o
o
Lathe operations-turning 257
4 Clamp the tailstock to the bed so that the tailstock
quill has the miuimum overhang for the required
movement of the carriage.
5, Place the workpiece on the headstock centre with the
leg of the carrier in front of the driving pin, and wind
the tai/stock centre into position.
6 Tighten the tai/stock hand-Wheel firmly to ensure that
the lathe centres are properly seated in the work.
7 Readjust the tai/stock hand-wheel so that the work may
rotate freely but without end play. Lock the quill to
retain this adjustment. 'Ibis is important.
If the work is adjusted too tightly, the centres will quickly
heat during cutting and the expansion will cause the centre
to overheat and possibly to weld itself to the workpiece.
If the workpiece is too loose it will rattle and may be
thrown out as it rotates at high speed. This is extremely
dangerous.
The tailstock centre should be carefully watched and
if overheating is noticed or a rattling noise is heard,
readjustment is immediately necessary.
Figure 51 Packing
projection
Figure 52 Carrier contacting
lathe centre
incomplete
contact
no clearance
Figure 50 Carrier tail not
clearing bottom of driving
plate slot
o
Using a parallel test mandrel
This method is very accurate, provided that the mandrel
is approximately the same length as the workpiece, so that
the tailstock will not have to be moved after the setting.
The test mandrel is parallel in diameter having been
accurately ground between centres.
Clean and fit the headstock centre and check for run-
ning true.
2 Clean and fit the tailstock centre.
3 Lock the tailstock to suit the length of work and
mandrel.
4 Clean centres and centre hold and mount the test
mandrel.
5 Clamp a dial indicator in the tool-post, setting the
stylus horizontal at about centre height and square to
the mandrel axis (Fig. 49).
6 Adjust the cross-slide to depress the indicator stylus.
7 Rotate the mandrel to check for running true at each
end.
8 Set the dial to zero at one end and move the saddle
towards the other end. Note the dial reading and adjust
the tailstock to remove any variation.
at the headstock end of the workpiece. The same cross-
feed dial reading must be used.
4 Using a micrometer, measure the diameter at both
positions.
5 If the diameter differs, adjust the tailstock towards the
tool if the tailstock end is larger, but away 'from the
tool if the tailstock end is smaller.
6 The amount of adjustment should be one-half of the
amount of taper reckoned on the total length of the
workpiece.
7 Repeat the procedure until both diameters are the same.
Figu,e 49 Checking the alignment using a test mandrel
and indicator
SeUnng the Workpiece Between Centres
Fitting the Carrier
1 Select a lathe carrier that will fit the workpiece but not
project beyond the driving pin or the driving plate.
2 Fit the carrier to the workpiece so that it will not pre-
vent the proper fitting of the work on the centres. Some
of the faults that may occur if the carrier is not properly
fitted are shown in Figures 50, 51 and 52.
3 Use a copper packing to protect the finished workpiece
from damage by the carrier screw.
Setting the Workpiece
1 See that the bed and slides are clean and lUbricated.
2 Clean the lathe and work centres.
3 Lubricate the work centre at the tailstock end, ensur-
ing that the lubricant fills the reservoir.
The two types of cutting tool in general use are referred
to as 'solid tools' and 'tool bits'.
A solid tool is a large section of tool steel that can be
clamped directly in the tool-post. A tool bit is a small
section of tool steel that must be held in a tool holder.
The tool holder is clamped in the tool-post.
To obtain satisfactory results from either of these tools,
the points discussed below should be Observed.
Note: Solid tools include clamped carbide tip tools.
Overhang and Rigodity
If the cutting edge is extended too far beyond the clamp-
ing position, the tool is likely to deflect under cutting pres-
sure, causing a poor surface finish (chattering) and
inaccuracy.
276 Lathe operations-turning
I
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clearance
Figure 124 Equal side clearance in the groove
Parting-off Procedure
I Set the r.p.m. for a cutting speed about two-thirds
of that required for turning.
2 Move the tool into position for'the cut, using move-
mellts of both the top-slide and cross-slide.
3 Apply a constant supply of cutting compound on
materials needing ii. This is particularly important for
steel.
4 Feed the tool into the workpiece at a steady, cons-
tant rate and observe the chip. Steel should be cut with
a continuous clock-spring type of chip; if this is not
the case a heavier feed should be tried.
Problems When Parting Off
Parting off is a skilled operation but if the method
described is strictly followed the difficulties will be greatly
reduced.
Causes of failure to cut
a blunt tool;
a tool set above centre;
insufficient front clearance on the tool.
Causes of 'chatter'
looseness in the lathe spindle bearings and slides;
nearings in need of lubrication;
tool too wide;
IY excessive front clearance on the tool;
excessiw overhang of the tool;
excessive overhang of the workpiece;
excessive cuttilng speed. If the speed is normal it should
not be reduceduntii other possible causes of chatter
been elimin,ated.
Causes of a tool 'digging in', jamming or breaking
tool incorrectly ground;
'. tool blade not vertical, or not set square to the work;
tool above centre or below centre;
t looseness in the lathe bearings and slides;
too much top rake on the tooL
Work requiring steady rests
A steady rest is used as an additional bearing to support
work that, because of its length, its slender nature Or its
area to be machined, presenls particular machining
difficulties. There are two types of steady rest:
The fixed steady rest, which is boited to the lathe bed.
The travelling steady rest, which is bolted to the carri-
age and therefore travels with the cutting tool.
Fixed Steady Rest
The fixed steady rest (Fig. 125), has a hinged top half,
which may be opened to permit the work to enter. -n,ree
adjustable pads act as bearings to support the work,
3 pads

lathe bed
-_-:::J clamp
Figure -125 Fixed steady rest
Setting Up the Fixed Steady Rest
I Clamp the steady rest to the lathe bed in the
to support the work.
2 Set the work in place, with the pads clear of the S13r-
face. (The work may be held between the "wtre;; or
in a chuck.)
3 Adjust the portion of the work to be supported so that
it is running truly.
4 Adjust each pad so that it lightly touches the work.
If operations 3 and 4 are correctly carried out, the slcady
rest will then be in linc with the headstock spindle bear--
iogs. This is an essential part of the process.
5 Lubricate the pads.
Examples of Work Requiring a Fixed Steaay Rest
Work held In a chuck Figure 126 shows a headstock
spindie where it is required that the taper in the ,;pindlc

taper to be
-- - ---t--El"-_: __:- machined
Figure 126 Headstock spindle
Lathe operations--turning
277
Figure 127 Supporting work held in a chuck
nose is in line with the two main bearings. The work is
held by the small journal in a four-jaw chuck. A dial indi-
cator is used to check the running truth of both journals.
A pipe centre is a useful aid for supporting the outer end
of the work. The fixed steady rest supports the large jour-
nal, which would otherwise move during the taper boring
operation becauseof the extension from the chuck jaws.
The set-up referred to above is shown in Figure 127.
It applies also to long pieces of work held in a chuck for
drilling, boring, reaming and other internal or external
operations.
If the work has not been machined on the outside, it
may be supported by the tailstock centre while a short
length is turned. The fixed steady rest is then set to this
portion, thus ensuring exact alignment.
Work held between centres Figure 128 illustrates a tie
bolt, which has to be turned and threaded for a consider-
able length from the tailstock support, and because of
its length and small diameter it tends to deflect and chatter
during the cutting process.
.The problem may be solved using the setting shown
in Figure 129.
A short length (a little wider than the steady rest pads)
is turned on the shaft. .
The steady rest is set to the turned portion.
Note: Turning the short length may be very difficult,
even if light cuts are used. If the shaft is square, hexagonal
or irregular in shape, it may be undesirable to machine
it round. In such cases a 'cathead' is used to fit loosely
over the work and is adjusted by set-screws until the bear-
ing surface runs true. The steady rest is then adjusted to
the .cathead (see Figs. 130 and 131).
Figure 129 Supporting work held between centres
Figure 130 The cathead
Figure 131 Using the cathead
Figure 128 Tie bolt
__ __
-4-__ 900600
278 Lathe operations-turning
The Travelling Steady Rest
The travelling steady rest (Fig. 132) is used to support
work that is to be turned or otherwise externally machined
for most of its length. Two pads act as bearings to sup-
port the work and are normally positioned behind the cut-
ting tooL
Figure 132 Travelling steady rest
To Set the Travelling Steady Rest (Plain Turning)
Figure 133 Supporting work with a travelling steady rest
Clamp the steady rest to the carriage with the pads clear
of the work.
2 Set the work in place (see Fig. 133).
3 Set the cutting tool in advance of the pads (about 2
to 4 mm)
bearing pad
Figure 134 Bearing pad behind the tool
4 Take a cut at the tailstock end of the work to about
the width of the pads. This establishes a true surface
on which the pads operate (Fig. 134).
5 Adjust the pads to lightly touch the true surface.
6 Lubricate the pads continually as the cut is being taken.
Note: Any further reduction in diameter will require
resetting of the pads.
Examples of Work Requiring a Travelling
Steady Rest
Figure 135 shows a cross-slide screw for a lathe. The
spindle is to be turned all over and then a 20 x 3.0 mm
pitch Acme thread is to be cut.
Turning the blank (plain turning) The work should be held
between centres and turned in progressive steps. The
travelling steady rest should be used to support the work
and should be set as described above.
Cutting the thread This is performed as follows:
I Grind and set the screwing tooL
2 Position the screwing tool (by moving the top-slide)
behind the pads (see Fig. 136). This will support the
work throughout the screw-cutting process and should
not require readjustment although the screwing tool
position will alter.
3 Cut the thread, keeping the pads lubricated.
Problems with Unstable Work
Many turning problems can be solved by using either fixed
or travelling 'steadies'. There are occasions when the use
of both types is needed to provide enough support to the
work. The skilful machinist may also consider the alter-
ation of tool angles as a means of reducing the distort-
ing pressures on slender shafts.
Consider the forces acting towards the axis of the work
in the two examples shown in Figures 137 and 138.
In Figure 137, the forces are inclined to the axis and
therefore contribute to deflection even though the chip
is thinner for the same feed rate. In Figure 138 the direc-
tion of the force is changed and the length of the chip
is reduced by setting the cutting edge square to the axis.
This, together with changes of speed and feed, should
be tried when steady rests fail to solve the problem.
Work requiring the use of mandrels
Use of Mandrels
Much work, such as gear blanks, pulleys, bushes and
sleeves, has to be gripped in a chuck while the bore is
~ t '
Ie
28
lathe operations-Turning
j
Mm,mting and removing ChllCk, faceplate,
driving piate and centre
The back or the back plate of the chuck is machined to
suit the design of the lathe spindle nose. Back plates are
screwed, (see Figure I). Other chucks are bolted directly
to the spindle nose (see Fig. 2). A number of designs
include a driving key and keyway. The camlock (Fig. 3)
is now widely used and accepted for its simplicity in use
and its rigidity.
The design of the mating parts includes a flat locating
surface and a cylindrical or tapered recess to ensure that
the face and the axis of the chuck run true. When mount-
ing the chuck these locating surfaces must be clean and
undamaged.
Threaded parts, and shoulders and recesses, must be
clean and free from burrs to ensure proper engagement;
they must not be forced together by extra leverage or
impact.
Figure 1 Screwed spindle nose and chuck
Figure 3 Camlock spindle nose and chuck
Fitting the Chuck, Faceplate and Driving
Plate
The sequence should be as follows:
I Place a board on the lathe bed to protect the bed from
possible damage.
2 Check all mating surfaces for cleanliness and freedom
from damage.
3 Lubricate mating parts with a light application of oil.
4 Carefully lift the chuck into place and lock it securely
by hand. Do not force the two together by using extra
leverage or impact.
5 Check that the diameter and the face are running true
by starting the machine and observing the surfaces.
Figure 2 Two types of less common spindle noses and chuck backplates
247
251
Fitting the Chuck Jaws
The jaws and their corresponding slots are numbered.
They must be engaged in the correct sequence, beginning
with No. I jaw, then as the scroll is turned, No.2 jaw,
and finally No.3 jaw. Before assembly, the jaws and the
scroll should be cleaned, then lubricated lightly with oil.
Setting Up Workpieces in a Self-centering Chuck
Workpieces suitable for this chuck are, within limits,
automatically centered. The limits of accuracy will depend
on the care previously taken with the chuck.
If the work must protrude far from the chuck jaws or
if it is in the form of a disc, it will require either the outer
end or the face to be tapped true. (See Figs 8 and 9.) A
soft hammer must be used on finished Or soft metals.
Methods of Holding Work
The three methods of holding workpieces (see Fig. 6) may
be employed on self-centering chucks; however, a second
set of reverse jaws (see Fig. 6b) must be used because
the curvature of the scroll thread in each jaw cannot be
reversed.
Figure 17 Self-centering chuck
Uses of Self-centering Chucks
A self-centering chuck will remain accurate only if used
in the proper manner. The three-jaw chuck should be used
for holding accurately machined, rolled or extruded,
round or hexagonal sections.
bination scroll plate and bevel gear, which is rotated by
small bevel pinions with square holes for the chuck key
(see Fig. 17).
Lathe operations-turning
counterbalance
weight
Figure 16 Counterbalancing work in the chuck
If aids are not available, or if they are too small to
ensure accuracy, then some preliminary marking out
will be necessary.
If the machining is external it is usually good practice
to set up to an internal surface that will ensure even
wall thickness and balance of revolving parts (see Fig.
14).
If the machining is internal, use an external surface for
setting up (see Fig. 15).
Counterbalancing Using an Independent Chuck
Counterbalancing is the technique of applying weights
to the chuck of the face plate to bring the work into cor-
rect static balance. When irregular work is held in a chuck
or, as will be explained later, on a faceplate, its shape
or the method of holding it may cause a portion of the
weight to be off centre. Operating the lathe under these
conditions will cause:
@ vibration;
uneven cutting speed;
work to be machined out of round;
excessive wear on the bearing of the lathe;
a dangerous situation, particularly if the spindle is
rotated at high speed.
How to counterbalance
1 Set the lathe so that the spindle is free to rotate.
2 Spin the work by hand and allow it to come to rest.
Chalk mark the light portion at the top.
3 Select the weights (to approximately match the amount
of balance) and attach them at the top. Slots or T-slots
are provided for purposes of attachment (see Fig. 16).
work
j
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I
4 Spin the work and allow it to come to rest. The heavy
area will swing either side of the centre at the bottom.
Mark the light portion at the top.
5 Move the balance weight towards the second chalk
mark.
6 Continue this process until it is found that the work
will stop in any position without a tendency to reverse
direction.
The Three-jaw Self-centering Chuck
Self-centering chucks usually have three jaws (see Fig. 17),
but some have two or four jaws. This type of chuck is
so constructed that the jaws move in unison and there-
fore are always the same distance from the centre.
, The movement of the jaws is obtained with a com-
Faceplates are required for holding work that cannot be
conveniently held in a chuck. The shape or size of the
work and, in some cases pre-machining, may indicate the
selection of a faceplate as a more suitable holding device
than a chuck (see examples illustrated in'Figs 18 to 23.)
Methods of Holding Work
Work Clamped Directly to Faceplate
Work that has been previously faced or machined is the
type most suited to being directly clamped to the
faceplate. This method ensures that any operation done
while the work is on the faceplate will be either parallel
to or square with the original face. Figure 18 shows a cast-
ing clamped directly to the faceplate before being bored
and faced.
252 Lathe operations-turning
Figure 19 Clutch member on faceplate
counterbalance
" " ' ~ " weight
stop
the casting and the face adjacent to the faceplate have
been previously machined and the position of the bore
has been marked out. The bosses on the casting make
it necessary to rest the casting on parallel strips.
?-_--:", gauge rod
The following method of setting up this eccentric is
typical of most work that is clamped against the faceplate:
1 Place the faceplate upwards on the bench, clean the
mating surfaces and remove any burrs.
2 Place the work on parallel strips, which are laid in
approximate position on the faceplate.
3 Locate the bore of the work in the approximate centre
of the faceplate using the surface gauge or other suit-
able equipment, measured from the outer diameter of
the faceplate.
4 Clamp the work lightly, Avoid using bolts longer than
the required length and set the clamps so that the pres-
sure is on the parallel strips.
5 Mount the faceplate on the spindle nose and check for
trueness, rotating by hand.
6 Set up the work to the marking out by tapping with
a soft-faced hammer to obtain adjustment. (It should
be noted that heavy work must be supported by a hoist;
this will allow clamps to be released enough to permit
adjustment.)
7 Tighten all clamps and re-check the setting.
S Counterbalance.
9 Proceed with the machining.
parallel strips
Figure 21 Eccentric set up for boring
setting strips
Figure 20 Work set on setting strips
Work Clamped to an Angle Plate
An angle plate is used in conjunction with a faceplate
when the work face to be machined is at right angles to
the locating face. A cast iron elbow is set up (see Fig.
22) with the elbow clamped to the outer face of the angle
plate.
parallel strips
clamp
set screw
machined face
face
/ plate
Note: Parallel strips are used to pack work out from
the faceplate so that boring tools do not foul the
faceplate. The clamps must be placed directly over the
parallel strips. Parallel strips may be necessary to pack
work out from the faceplate when the work has bosses
or projections preventing direct clamping.
Another example of work clamped directly to the
faceplate is shown in Figure 19. In this case the work,
which is the sliding member of a cone clutch, has to be
turned and has been bored accurately true to the conical
face, which was turned at a previous setting.
Note: Set screws have been substituted for the packing
of the clamp plates. The advantages are that they do not
slip, they are adjustable, and they are part of the clamp
itself. The clamps are also placed where they will not dis-
tort the work. If there is danger of the clamp distorting
the work, the latter may often be gripped in special jaws.
(See Fig. 24.)
One of the advantages of the faceplate is that, when
several parts are to be machined, stops can be used to
set the work quickly. Holes can be spaced or bored in
liIle on the faceplate by using stops, gauge blocks and
setting strips (see Fig. 20).
The eccentric illustrated in Figure 21 is typical of the
class of work clamped to the faceplate. The outside of
~ C l a m p
Figure 18 Work clamped to a faceplate
Lathe operations-turning 253
counter balance
angle ---"'?'
plate -===?/
Figure 22 Cast iron elbow set on angle plate
fuming betweelll centres
General DescriptiOlI1
Centres
The headstock and the tailstock of a lathe have morse
tapers into which centres may be fitted.
These centres are used to support a workpiece at each
end. The headstock centre rotates with the workpiece and
is therefore only a support. The tailstock centre usually
remains fixed and therefore not only supports the work-
piece but also acts as a bearing (see Fig. 26).
Figure 23 Bearing set on angle plate
pin for straight
carriers
Figure 26 Work supported between centres
Driving Plate
A driving plate is fitted to the headstock spindle using
the same method as for fitting a chuck. The driving plate
rotates the workpiece through a lathe carrier attached to
it.
The driving plate may have a driving pin or a slot to
engage with the lathe carrier (see Fig. 27).
Figure 27 The driving plate
Lathe Carriers
The lathe carrier is a simple clamp attached to the work-
piece (see Figs 26 and 28).
A straight carrier is used with driving plates having a
driving pin.
A bent leg carrier is used with slotted driving plate.
Note: For safety reasons, the selected carrier should not
have any portion extending beyond the driving pin or the
driving plate.
angle
plate
==-::1 work
face plate
The use of face and angle plates (Fig. 23) ensures that
all bearings bored at that setting will be identical in height
from the base to the centre of the bore, and the bore will
be machined parallel to the base. The special design of
the angle plate allows the split bearing to be machined
without extending the angle plate beyond the periphery
of the faceplate. Such an extension could be very dan-
gerous and would be likely to foul the lathe bed.
Special adjustable jaws may be clamped in any con-
venient position on the faceplate (see Fig. 24). Holding
and adjusting the work is simplified and subsequent work-
pieces are easily set up. Figure 25 shows a simple bracket
for holding a large pulley on the faceplate. These brackets
can also be used if adjustable jaws are not available.
" chuck ~ "'=;m-!
jaws
Figure 24 Special adjustable jaws
Figure 25 Bracket holding device Figure 28 Some types of carriers
186

\ gear
rack /'
Marking and measuring tools
Construction of Dial Indicators
A study of a dial indicator will show that great care must
be exercised when using the instrument to prevent damage
to the bearings and gears. Figure 98 shows a view inside
a dial indicator that is face down and has had the back
removed. Movement of the contact point moves the rack,
which turns a small pinion. A large gear is fixed to the
same shaft as the small pinion and meshes with another
small pinion (shown dotted) in the centre front of the
indicator. The pointer is attached to the central pinion
shaft. A very light return spring keeps the contact point
against the work.
The gears act as a compound lever arrangement, and
a small movement of the contact point is magnified to
an observable movement of the pointer.
contact point
... ---
FI\lure 98 Construction of a dial indicator
continuous
reading dial
type
Types of Dial Indicator
A variety of indicators are used in the workshop. Figure
99 shows two plunger-type dial indicators. The
plus or minus
dial type
Figure 99 Plunger-type dial
indicators


_
,
I-I
, '" f
II
..
Figure 100 A range of finger-
type dial indicators
Marking and measuring tools 187
o
drill
spindle
Figure 104 Testing size of work Dial indicator set up as
a comparator
When a dial indicator is set up as shown in Figure 104,
it may be used for comparing the sizes of parts. The
original setting is obtained by using a gauge or workpiece
of known size. The gauge is rested on the surface plate,
and the indicator set to it with its pointer on zero. Varia-
tions of size will be measured when the work pieces are
passed between the surface plate and the dial indicator.
When a finger-type indicator is set up as shown in
Figure 105, the angle of taper of a workpiece can be
checked using a sine bar. Figure 106 shows the same type
of indicator being used to check straightness of a
workpiece.
pivot
Figure 101 Testing chuck work
continuous-dial type can be used for measuring move-
ment, and the plus-or-minus dial type can be used as a
comparator. Figure 100 shows a range of finger-type dial
indicators.
Uses of Dial Indicators
Dial indicators have many applications in the workshop,
some being:
to set work accurately in a machine;
to test the accuracy of machine slides, and play adjust-
ments, etc.
to use, in conjunction with other equipment, such as
gauges and surface plates, as a simple comparator. machine table
Figure 101 shows a dial indicator used for testing work
that is held in a lathe chuck. The indicator is supported Figure 103 Testing running truth of a machine spindle
from either the lathe bed or the toolpost and carefully
brought into contact with the work until the pointer has
moved about 0.5 mm on the scale. The dial is set to zero
and the work turned by hand so that the error of setting
can be noted. The setting is tested as close to and as far
from the chuck jaws as possible.
Figure 102 Using an internal attachment
Figure 102 shows a dial indicator fitted with an attach-
ment that penmits internal or otherwise inaccessible places
to be Checked. This attachment is a 1:1 ratio lever, the
b
end of which will enter small spaces such as a cylinder
ore.
. A typical set-up for testing the bearings of a machine
IS shown in Figure 103 which depicts a dial indicator being
Used to test a drilling machine spindle for true running.
work-piece
Figure 105 Checking the angle 6f taper of a workpiece
&
14.4 ALIGNING A WORKPIECE
After the workpiece has been fastened securely
to a face plate, It will be necessary to align the
centre punch mark, hole or diameter with the
axis of the lathe. Punch marks can be aligned
with a centre tester, or a wiggler and indicator,
if greater accuracy is required. An indicator
should be used when truing holes or diameters.
The centre tester, which is mounted on the tool
post, consists of an adjustable needle, held in a
universal joint. The point of the short arm is
placed in the centre punch mark. When the
lathe spindle is rotated by hand, any
misalignment of the work is magnified and
indicated by rotation of the long arm around
the tailstock centre.
The centre finder consists of a needle (wiggler)
held at one end by a universal joint. The shank
of the centre finder is gripped by a drill chuCk
mounted in the tail stock spindle. The point of
the wiggler is placed in the centre punch mark.
A dial indicator Is mounted on the tool post with
its point in contact witt) the wiggler. When the
lathe spindle is rotated by hand, any
misalignment of the work is shown by a
deflection of the dial indicator needle.
14.4.1 Truing a Centre Punch Mark
With a Centre Tester
CENTRE TESTER
C):::':::!~ ~ = : O
G=! 0
Shank
-r-
~
~ = = = -
Tighten all bolts securely and recheck the
accuracy of the centre punch mark
alignment.
i
i
1,

Mount a centre tester on the tool post.


Place the left hand point of the centre
tester, i.e. short arm, in the centre punch
mark.
Adjust the cross slide and the centre
tester until the right hand point of the
centre tester, i.e. long arm, is close to the
point of the tail stock centre.
Rotate the lathe spindle by hand and
observe how much the point of the centre
tester revolves around the tailstock
centre.
Tap the workpiece with a hardwood block
or brass rod until the point of the centre
tester does not revolve around the
tailstock centre when the lathe spindle is
rotated.
61
Wiggler
Drill chuck mounted
in tailstock spindle
CENTRE FINDER
-.:s
\
late
Centre tester
~
Tailstock cen:l
-------_._---------_/
III Mount a drill chuck in the tail stock
spindle.
14.4.2 Truing a Centre Punch Mark
With a Wiggler and Dial
Indicator
III Grip the shank of the centre finder in the
chuck and adjust the tallstock spindle
until the point of the wiggler fits into the
centre punch mark.
Dial indicator
Truing a centre punch mark
with a wiggler and dial indicator
Lock the tail stock and tailstock spindle In
position.
Place the point of the indicator in contact
with the wiggler body as close as possible
to the wiggler point.
Mount a dial indicator on the tool post.

l.
III
:z'

J
. ~
I
,
I
III
I

l
III

Rotate the lathe spindle by hand and stop when the indicator is at the high spot.
Tap the workpiece with a hardwood block or brass rod, until the indicator needle registers one
half of the run out.
Continue to tap the workpiece until there is no movement of the indicator needle when the
work Is rotated by hand.
Tighten ail bolts securely and recheck the accuracy of the centre punch mark alignment.
14.4.3 Truing a Hole or
Circumference With a Dial
Indicator
III Mount a dial indicator with an Internal or
external attachment, as required on the
tool post.
III Move the indicator into contact with the
workpiece until the needle registers
approximately one half turn.
@ Rotate the lathe spindle by hand and note
the high reading on the dial indicator.
Tap the workpiece with a hardwood blook
or brass rod until tile indicator registers
one haif of the difference between the
high and low readings.
Work
I ~ '
/""':'
Truing a diameter
with a dial indicator
- To prevent damage to the indicator, always tap the workpiece away from the indicator.
til ConUm)e tapping the workpiece until the indicator needle registers no movement when the
lathe spindle is rotated by Iland.
.\
Tigllten all bolts secureiy and recheck the accuracy of tile setup.
62
41 Clean the face plate thoroughly and
mount it securely on the spindle.
14.5 TURNING WORK ON A FACE
PLATE
Balance the work on the face plate
accurately to reduce vibration during
machining.
Work
Counterweight
I
b\ Angle plate
BALANCING WORK ON A FACE PLATE
Always turn the lathe spindle one full turn
by hand to ensure that the work on the
face plate clears the bed and carriage.
Clamp the workpiece to the face plate
using the shortest bolts and clamps
available to ensure maximum clearance
between the lathe carriage and the work
during the machining operation.

Set a lathe speed such that there is no


excessive vibration evident when the
work is rotating.
14.6 BALANCING
Work may be mounted on a face plate in such a way that the centre of gravity of the work does not
coincide with the lathe centre. When the lathe is operating, the out-of-balance forces set up
vibrations causing chatter and poor surfaces on the workpiece. To eliminate the vibrations, the work
on the face plate must be counter balanced.
Balancing is accomplished by bolting a weight, or weights, on the face plate diametrically opposite
the workpiece. The size of the weight and its position is varied until a balance is obtained.
I
To check the balance, disconnect spindle
drive.
Sel the face plate so that weights, workpiece
and lathe spindle are approximately in a
horizontal line.
If the weight falls below the horizontal line it is
too heavy or too far out from the centre of the
plate, if it rises, it is too light or too close to the
centre. In either case an adjustment must be
made until the balance weight remains in the
hOrizontal position.
The degree of balance required will depend
upon the accuracy desired and the speed of
machining.
Work machined at a low speed does not need
to be balanced as accurately as work machined
at a higher speed.
Horizontal centre line
Checking balance of face plate
1
63
14
Screw threads
A screw thread is a uniform helical ridge formed on the
surface of a cylinder by producing helical grooves of the
required shape and depth.
Uses for screw threads
Screw threads have the following uses:
to fasten parts together, as when using bolts and nuts,
set screws, studs, or threaded pipe joints;
to adjust the position of parts, as with the adjusting
screws for gib strips on machine slides Or the blade of
a lawn mower;
to exert force, when using a vice, a screw jack, or a
screw press;
to transmit motion, as by the lathe cross-slide and top-
slide screws:lathe lead screw, or elevating screw for
a machine table.
Screw thread terms
An external thread is a thread formed at the outside of
a cylinder as on a bolt.
An internal thread is a thread formed in a round hole,
as in a nut (Fig. I).
The pitch (P) is the distance from a point on one thread
to the corresponding point on the next thread, measured
parallel to the axis. (Fig. 2.)
The lead (L) is the distance a nut will travel along in one
revolution (measured parallel to the axis).
The threads per inch (TP!) are the number of threads or
pitches in a length a f one inch. The term 'threads per inch'
is used in the imperial system.
The pitch in inches may be found by dividing one inch
by the number of threads per inch. In the metric system,
pitch is expressed in millimetres.
The major diameter (MD), or outside diameter, is the dia-
meter measured over the crests of an external thread or
across the roots of an internal thread.
The minor diameter (md), or root diameter, is the dia-
meter measured at the roots of an external thread or
across the crests of an internal thread.
Hand of threads (Fig. 3)
A right-hand thread is advanced by turning it to the right,
or clockwise.
A left-hand thread is advanced by turning it to the left,
or anticlockwise.
bolt nut
Right hand
Figure 3 Hand of threads
Left hand
Figure 1 Nut and bolt
Figure 2 Thread terms
CommOil V-thread forms
and proportions
A complete study of thread forms is too vast to be
included here, but the main features may be summarized
as follows:
In each standard form the shape of the thread may be
V, square or rounded, depending on the reason for using
it, and in each of these forms there are a number of
pitches to suit the diameter of the screw or the special
requirements of the job.
ISO Metric Thread
The ISO metric general purpose Screw thread series is in
common use throughout Europe and has been adopted
in Australia.
117
118 Screw threads
A C
ISO metric thread British Association thread (BA)
Basic form of screw thread AS 1275-1985 Basic form of screw thread AS 2829-1986
s
h
_____v _
Screw
H
H
------"--- ---
P= Pitch = No. of per inch.
H Theoretical depth = 0.86603 x P

/ \ / \ S
___I L. __ -! '__
P == PlIch:= No. of per ,inch,
H Theoretical depth 1.13634 x P
h depth P
S = Rounding at crest and root == 0.26817 x P
R = Radius at crest and root == 0.18083 x P
Figure 6
Unified and American threads
(U.N.C. & N.C.) (U.N.F. & N.F.)
Basic form of screw thread BS 1580-1962
In practice the root
is rounded and cleared
beyond a width 0\ \:_ Nput !- H
----.... 8
2H
8
H
4
D
H
6
H
6
h
H
____--+4

=0.21651 xP
=0.125xP
------"--
-

___I \..._-'-_--1 ,-_
,
H
British standard Whitworth thread (B.S.W.)
Basic form of screw thread BS 84-1956
Nut
P
Screw
P=Pitch mm
H = Theoretical depth =: 0.86603 x P
5
i3H=Actual depth
H
8 = Trvncation
H
'4 = Truncation
r == Radius
Figure 4
.,----;k-----------k----+H
8
B
=0.54127xP
=0.10825xP
=0.21651 x P
=0.14434xP
P= Pitch = No, of per inch = Actual depth
H Theoretical depth x P H T .
h =Actual depth =0,640327 x P '8 = runcatlon
= Rounding at crest and root=0.160082 x P =Truncation
R=Radius at crest and root =O.137329xP r =Radius
Figure 5 Figure 7 '---_--=-- ---1- __--'---- --'-
The metric form has a thread angle of 60. The depth
is proportional to the pitch.
In practice the root of the male thread is a radius
beyond the theoretical P/4 width. (See Fig. 4.)
Note: The metric thread is very similar to the unified
thread.
Whitworth TluElaJd
The Whitworth form has a 55 thread angle. The depth
is proportional to the pitch and is calculated by multiply-
ing the pitch by 0.6403. Depth = 0.64P is sufficiently
accurate for most workshop applications. (See Fig. 5.)
The crest and the root of the thread are rounded.
The relationship between the major diameter and the
number of threads per inch is the difference between the
various standards using this form. The common stan-
dards using the Whitworth form are the following:
British Standard Whitworth, BSW- a coarse series
used for bolts, nuts, and screws for general purposes.
British StandardFine, BSF- a fine series used on equip-
Screw threads 119
Figure 8 Unified form
British Association Thread, lElA
The British Association thread is a series of small-
diameter threads devised to fill the need for small work
belowi in. diameter not catered for by the Whitworth
standard. It is mainly used in the manufacture of electri-
cal and instrument components. (See Fig. 6.)
10.00 -
2(0.81)
== 10.00 - 1.62
8.38 mm
md = MD-2d
10.00 - 1.82
8.18 mm
1
== TO
Example 2, Imperial.'
Calculate the minor diameter of a t in BSW thread.
This thread has 10 TPI. For these calculations the depth
of a Whitworth-form thread may be taken as O.64P.
Pitch = T ~ Depth = 0.64 x P
I 0.64 x /0
=: 0.064 in.
Minor diameter = major diameter - twice depth of
thread
md = MD-2d
0.750 - 2(0.064)
= 0.750 - 0.128
= 0.622 in.
Example 3:
Calculate the minor diameter of a 1 in. UNC thread to
be cut on a bolt.
From the above table I in. UNC has 8 threads per inch.
The maximum depth for a UNC bolt thread may be cal-
culated from the formula.
Depth 0.61P
I
0.61 x 8
0.076 in. (approximately)
md = MX-2d
= 1.000 - 2(0.076)
= 1.000 0.152
= 0.848 in.
National pipe NPSF, NPTF for American water,
steam, gas and conduit (pipe and electrical conduit are
identical).
American Petroleum Institute, API.
V-thread calculations
The Minor Diameter
In order to calculate the minor diameter of a thread, it
is necessary to know:
the form of the thread;
the major diameter;
the pitch, or the number of threads per inch.
Example 1, Metric:
Calculate the minor diameter of a 10-1.5 pitch ISO metric
bolt and nut.
Bolt Nut
(See Fig. 4 for depth (See Fig. 4 for height
proportion.) proportion.)
Depth 0.61P Height 0.54P
= 0.61 x 1.5 = 0.54 x 1.5
= 0.92 mm = 0.81 mm
Minor diameter (md) = major diameter (MD) - twice
depth of thread (d)
md = MD-2d
10.00 -
2(0.91)
!'
8
max. minor
dia.
flat at crest
Crest is rounded & cleared beyond ~
Radius at root rounded
beyond a width of ~
II' internal thread \0
%
///
. pitch
-4 S'
external thread
Internal
Unified Threads
Unified threads have been adopted to replace and inter-
change with the older American 60 threads known as
National Coarse (formerly Sellers) and National Fine
(formerly SAE). (See Figs 7 and 8.) Standards using the
unified form are the following:
Unified coarse, UNC for general purpose bolts and
nuts.
Unifiedfine, UNFused where minor diameter strength
is important and/ or where vibration may cause the nut
to slacken.
ment where finer pitch will be more satisfactory because
of the larger minor diameter of the thread, or because
a finer pitch thread has less tendancy to slacken under
vibration.
Other standards using the Whitworth form are the Brit-
ish Standard Brass BSB-26 TPI for all diameters and
the British Standard Pipe, BSP, used on water, steam,
and gas pipes.
120
Screw threads
Example 4:
Calculate the minor diameter of a I in. UNC nut. The
depth of thread is calculated from the basic formula.
Depth 0.54P
I
0.54 x 8"
0.067 in. (approximately)
md=MD 2d
1.000 - 2(0.067)
= 1.000 - 0.134
0.866 in.
Practical 'Tapping Sizes'
The size to drill the hole before tapping depends on:
whether a full depth thread is necessary- on work
where the nut will be left fastened, a thread 75-80070
of the full depth has proved satisfactory, and is much
more economical to produce;
the nature of the metal to be tapped- full threads may
be produced in ductile metals, although the hole has
been drilled larger than the minor diameter of the
thread.
The size may be obtained by one of the following
methods:
by reference to a table showing the tapping drill sizes
and the difference between the drill size and the minor
diameter;
by calculating the minor diameter and then selecting
a drill after taking into consideration the percentage
depth of thread required and the type of metal to be
tapped;
by subtracting the pitch from the major diameter, which
will result in the production of metric threads approxi-
mately 93070 of full depth, and Whitworth threads
approximately 78070.
Example 1 using the last method:
Calculate the tapping size drill for a 10 to 1.5 metric
thread.
Tapping size drill MD - pitch
== 10.00 - 1.5
8.5 mm
Screw Thread Table
Table I shows the relationship between diameter, pitch,
and tapping drill size for V-thread forms.
Table 1 Diameter pitch and tapping drill size for V-thread forms
ISO ISO B.S.
metric metric metric BSW BSF SA conduit Brass UNC UNF BSP BSPT NPSF NPTF
coarse fine conduit
Thread form* A A A B B C B B D D B B D D
Number Maj.diam.
Pitch (mm) Threads per inch
or (in.) (mm)
Tap driii Tap driii size (mm)
size
0 .06 1.52
80
1.20
1
.062 1.57
60
111
12
10 .067 1.70
72.6
T4
1 .073 1.85
64 72
1:5 1:5
.0787 2.00
0.4
T6
9 .075 1.91
65.1
1.55
2 .086 2.18
56 64
TI T6
8 .0866 2.20
59.1
T8
3
.0937 2.38
48
32
1.9
7 .0984 2.50
0.45 52.9
2T 2T
3 .099 2.51
48 56
2.0 IT
6 .1102 2.80
47.9
2:3
4 .112 2.84
40 48
2.3 2:4
Screw threads
Table 1 Diameter pitch and tapping drill size for V-thread forms (cont.)
121
ISO ISO B.S.
metric metric metric BSW BSF BA conduit Brass UNC UNF BSP BSPT NPSF NPTF
coarse fine conduit
Thread form'" A A A B B C B B 0 0 B B 0 0
Number Maj.diam. Pitch (mm) Threads per inch
or (In.) (mm)
Tap drill Tap drill size (mm)
size
.118 3.00
0.5
2.5
1
.125 3.18
40
..
2.5
5 .126 3.20
43
2.7
6 .138 3.50
0.6 32 40
2.9 2.85 2.95
4 .142 3.61
38.5
3.0
5
.156 3.96
32
:l2
3.2
.157 4.00
0.7
3.3
3 .161 4.09
34.8
3.4
8 .164 4.17
32 36
3.5 3.5
.177 4.50
0.75
3.8
2 .185 4.70
31.3 56 64
4:0 T.8 T.8
3
.1875 4.76
24 32 24 32
,$
3.7 4.0 3.5 IT
10 .190 4.83
24 32
I
3.5 IT
.1968 5.00
0.8
I
4.2
1 .2087 5.30
28.2
,
4.5
12 .216 5.49
24 28
4:5 4.7
7
.2187 5.55
24 24 32
:l2
4.5 4:5 4.9
0 .236 6.00
1.0 25.4
5.0 5.'1
1
.250 6.35
20 26 26 20 28
"4
5T 5.3 5.3 5T 5.5
.2756 7.00
1.0
6.0
5
.3125 7.94
18 22 26 18 24
16
6.5 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.9
.315 8.00
1.25 1.0
lf8 7.0
A '" ISO metric thread
8 "" British Standard Whitworth thread
C "" Brlllsh Association thread
o = Unified thread
t Nominal ~ i z e of pipe
Screw threads
Table 1 Diameter pitch and tapping drill size for V-thread forms (cant.)
121
ISO ISO B.S.
metric metric metric BSW BSF BA conduit Brass UNG UNF BSP BSPT NPSF NPTF
coarse fine conduit
Thread form" A A A B B C B B D D B B D D
Number Maj.diam. Pitch (mm) Threads per inch
or (in.) (mm)
Tap drill Tap drill size (mm)
size
.118 3.00
0.5
2:5
t
.125 3.18
40
2.5
5 .126 3.20
43
U
6 .138 3.50
0.6 32 40
2.9 2.85 2.95
4 .142 3.61
38.5
3.0
5
.156 3.96
32
32
3.2
.157 4.00
0.7
3.3
3 .161 4.09
34.8
3A
8 .164 4.17
32 36
3.5 3.5
.177 4.50
0.75
3.8
2 .185 4.70
31.3 56 64
"4:Q'" 1:8 1:8
3
.1875 4.76
24 32 24 32
11l
3.7 4.0 3.8 n
10 .190 4.83
24 32
3.9 n
.1968 5.00
0.8
I
42
1 .2087 5.30
28.2
4:5
12 .216 5.49
24 28
4.5 4.7
7
.2187 5.55
24 24 32
32
4.5 4.6 4.9
0 .236 6.00
1.0 25.4
5.0 5.1
1
.250 6.35
20 26 26 20 28
'4
5:1 5.3 5.3 5:1 5.5
.2756 7.00
1.0
6.0
f,; .3125 7.94
18 22 26 18 24
6.5 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.9
.315 8.00
1.25 1.0
6:8 ro
A "" ISO metric thread
B "" British Standard Whitworth thread
C "" British Association thread
o "" Unified thread
t Nominal size of pipe
122 Screw threads
Table 1 Diameter pitch and tapping drill size for V-thread forms (cont.)
ISO ISO B.S.
metric metric metric BSW BSF BA conduit Brass UNC UNF BSP BSPT NPSF NPTF
coarse fine conduit
Thread form* A A A B B C B B D D B B D D
Number Maj.diam. Pitch (mm) Threads per inch
or (in.) (mm)
Tap drill
Tap drill size (mm)
size
1.
3543 900
1.25
T8
3
1375 9.53
16 20 26 16 24
-e-
7.9 8.3 8.5 8.0 8.5
t pipe
t ~
10.32
28 28 27 27
8.8 8.2 8.7 8.4
.3937 10.00
1.5 1.25
8.5 8,8
10.00
1.0
9
7
.4375 11.11
14 18 26 14 20
f6"
9.3 9.8 10.2 9.4 10 a
.4724 12.00
1.75 1.25
10..3 10.8
t
.500 12.70
12 16 18 26 13 20
10.5 1TO 1TO lT8 10..8 1T5
+pipe
t 17"
13.49
19 19 18 18
~ ~
Tril 11.0 lT2 lTO
.551 14.00
2.0 1.5
12.0 12.5
Spark
14.00
1.25
plug 12.75
9
.5625 14.29
12 16 26 12 18
TIl
12.0 12.7 13.2 12.2 12.8
5
625 15.88
11 14 18 26 11 18
1r
13.5 14.0 14.25 14.75 13.5 14.5
.630 16.00
2.0 1.5 1.5
14 14.5 14.5
t pipe
t 11/1
17.46
19 19 18 18
;6
15.25 14.5 14.75 14:5
11
.6875 17.46
11 14 11 16
1'6
15.25 15.5 15.0 16.0
-
.709 18.00
2.5 1.5
15.5 16.5
3
.750 19.05
10 12 16 26 10 16
4"
16.5 17.0 17.0 180 16.5 17.5
767 20.00
2.5 1.5 1.5
17.5 18.5 18.5
13
.812 20.64
10 16
TIl
18.0 19
t pipe
t 27/1
21.43
14 14 14 14
'"
19.0 18.0 18.0 17.5
.866 22.00
2.5 1.5
19.5 20.5
7
.875 22.23
9 11 26 9 14
8
19.5 20.0 21.0 19.5 20.5
.945 24.00
3.0 2.0
21.0 22.0
.984 25.00
1.5
23.5
1" 1.000 25.40
8 10 16 26 8 12
22.0 22.5 23.5 24.25 22.0 23.5
Screw threads
Table 1 Diameter pitch and tapping drill size for V-thread forms (cont.)
123
IPTf
D
27
84
18
11.0
18
14.5
14
17:5
ISO ISO B.S.
metric metric metric BSW BSf BA conduit Brass UNe UNf BSP BSPT NPSf NPTf
coarse fine conduit
Thread form* A A A B B C B B D D B B D D
Number Maj.dlam. Pitch (mm) Threads per inch
or (in.) (mm)
Tap drill Tap drill size (mm)
size
-
-i- pipe
t1 ~ u
26.99
..1L
14 14 14
24.5 23.0 23.0 23.0
1.063 27.00
3.0
24
1"
1.125 28.58
7 9 7 12
1-g-
25.0 25.5 25.0 26.5
1.181 30.00
3.5
26.5
1 ~ ' 1.250 31.75
7 _9_ 16 7 12
28.0 28.5 30 28.0 29.5
1.260 32.00
1.5
30.5
1.299 33.00
3.5
,
29.5
1/1 pipe
t 1 ~ f /
34.13
11 11 11.5 11.5
31.0 2M 2M 29.0
3"
1.375 34.93
6 6 12
1-g-
30.0 31.0 33.0
1417 36.00
4.0
32.0
1 ~ ' 1.500 38.10
6 8 14 6 12
33.5 34.5 36.0 34.0 36.0
1.535 39.00
4.0
35.0
1.575 40.00
1.5
38.5
1 ~ ' pipe t 1 ~ r 42.86
11 11 11.5
40.0 38.0 37.5
13/1
1.750 4445
5 7
..
39.0 40.5
1 ~ ' pipe t 1 ~ 4842
11 11 11.5
45.5 43.5 43.5
1.968 50.00
1.5
48.5
2" 2.000 50.8
4.5 14
44.5 4M
2
1
' pipe t2f'
60.33
11 11 11.5
57.0 55.0 56.0
A "'" ISO metric thread
B "" British Standard Whitworth thread
C '" Br!tish Association thread
o "" Unified thread
t Nominal size of pipe
124 Screw threads
Sqllsre-thread forms
The square thread is mainly used as a motion-transmitting
screw or for screw jacks and similar components. The
screw is cut to the standard shown in Figure 9 and the
nut is cut 0.025 to 0.1 mm wider and deeper to achieve
running clearance.
T
D -
.t
A
"T
Worm thread
P=Pitch
T=PxO.335
B=PxO.31
D=PxO.6866
W=PxO.s
A=PxO.318
T
D
.-l-
P= Pitch
D=PxO.75
F=PxO.125
Buttress thread
-D
.J...
Trapezoidal thread-Metric
P= Pitch
D=PxO.s
A=PxO.5
B=PxO.366
W=Px0.4865
Tool width (PxO.366)-0.125
45
Worm-thread forms
--- -- Axis- -.-----11--
:.
o
o Basic Pitch Dia. '"'00 5.
9 at large end of ring gauge 2. :
2.
f /'. V4" taper per loot
'J"'r'rrr
V
'YI-'\7fiK9'<1"'d"t-=r-
B.S.P.T. Basic Laior Oi) --1 p L ThIckness of I;!
at large end of ring gauge-----l Rmg Gauge I jR

'"
ro
"-

Figure 11
Figure 12
As its name implies the worm thread is the thread used
on a worm gear. It is a true basic rack wrapped around
a diameter and is similar to the Acme thread; the propor-
tions are shown in Figure 13. Many worm drives used
in industry are far removed from this basic 14 V2 p.a.
form and are too numerous to mention here.
There are many other thread forms used to a small
extent in all fields of engineering.
Figure 14 British standard pipe taper form thread
Square thread
P= Pitch
D=PxO.5
F=PxO.s
Acme thread-Imperial
P=Pitch
D=PxO.5
A=PxO.5
B=PxO.37 Figure 13
Tool width =(P x 0.37)-0.005"
W=Px0.4872

, ,
I I

Acmethread forms
-
I
:
I
'-
r-p---i
, I
Acme thread is used as a motion transmitter more so than
the square thread. It is used on feedscrews, leadscrews
etc. in machine tools. The screw is cut to the standard
shown in Figure 10, and the nut cut wider and deeper
to achieve running clearance. It is advisable on long
screws working horizontally to have a minimum of clear-
ance on the outside diameter in the nut so that it acts as
a bearing. This stops the wedging action that can take
place on the thread flanks as the screw droops.
Trapezoidalthread forms
The trapezoidal thread is the metric equivalent of the
Acme thread, (Fig. ll).
Figure 9
Bllttressthread forms
Figure 10
Screw threads of this type are designed to resist heavy
axial loads in One direction. Figure 12 shows the simplest
form, which may have a flat or radius in the bottom of
the thread. Other forms have the angle on the load side
at up to 5, with the other side varying from 33 to 50
.depending on the application.
Lathe operations-cutting threads 301
Figure 41 Pitch and lead of double-start thread
Single start Multiple start
Figure 38 Views of single- and multiple-start threads
Figure 38 shows an end view of a single-start thread
and similar views of a multiple-start thread. Compare the
views.
Note: The number of startsis readily determined from
the end view, and the threads are equally spaced. Some
of the terms defined below are applicable to both single-
and multiple-start threads.
Pitch
o
w ~ pilch
2
D ~ pilCh
2
Figure 39 Pitch of single-start thread
Pitch is the distance between a point On one thread and
a corresponding point on the next thread, measured
parallel to the axis of the screw (see Fig. 39).
Thread proportions are all based on the pitch, irrespec-
tive of whether they are multiple or single start.
Lead
Lead is the distance that a nut will move along a screw
in one revolution.
Figure 40 shows a view of a double-start thread with
only the first groove cut, where pitch and lead are identi-
cal. Note the unusually wide spaces between the grooves.
Figure 41 shows the thread of Figure 40, but with the
second groove cut. This second groove is shown by
broken outline for clarity. Note that although the lead
Figure 40 Lead of single-start thread
is identical in both illustrations, the pitch in Figure 41
is only half the pitch in Figure 40.
The relationship between pitch and lead can be
expressed as:
. lead
pItch = number of starts
Effect of Pitch and Lead on Minor Diameter
An increase in pitch increases the depth of the groove and
reduces the minor diameter, therefore pitch must be
proportional to the minor diameter to maintain a balance
of strength.
Figure 42 shows a spindle with a single-start at one end
and a multiple-start thread at the other. The lead of both
threads is the same, but the depth of the multiple-start
thread is only half that of the single-start thread. A three-
or four-start thread would be one-third and one-quarter
as deep respectively as a single-start thread of equal lead.
The minor diameter of a multiple-start thread is always
larger than that of a single-start thread of equal lead and
outside diameter. Minor diameter has, in all threads, a
direct relationship to the pitch when a standard form is
used.
Single start Double start
Figure 42 Comparison of minor diameters
Effect of Lead on Lead Angle
The principal reason for using multiple-start threads is
to achieve increased nut movement per rotation, while
maintaining good thread proportions. This does,
however, reduce the holding or clamping effect of the
screw.
Figure 43 illustrates single- and multiple-start threads
of the same pitch but with different leads. The lead angle
of the multiple-start thread is considerably greater.
If these lead angles are considered as wedges being used
to lift a weight, the single-start thread should be more
effective in terms of lifting power (mechanical advantage)
Limits-fits and tolerances 45
[ ===NOt go1[]
Figure 26 A plain plug gauge
limil mark
Figure 27 Ataper ring gauge
Figure 29 shows a special gauge for checking screwed
shafts, while Figure 30 is an enlarged detail of the gaug-
ing roller.
Figure 31 shows the 'Go' and 'Not go' anvils on another
type of gauge used to check threaded shafts, and Figure
32 shows a gauge for checking screwed holes. Figure 33
shows a spring plunger type of depth gauge used for
measuring the depth of a hole, while the detail of the
gauge and work is illustrated in Figure 34.
Go
spring loaded pin
Figure 33 Afiush pin depth gauge

Figure 32 Agauge for checking internal threads

1:'<
. 1 I I.,..,
<3 .- +-_1 _ -:
-.- -. ! 1 ".. I
Go I Not go
anvils --- anvils
Figure 31 Achaser type thread gap gauge
Figure 30 Details of gauging element
Figure 29 Aroller type thread gap gauge
Using a limit gauge This method is much faster than
measuring the part with a micrometer. Limit gauging is
used extensively in such work as the external and inter-
nal sizing of both parallel and tapered work, checking
the depth of holes and bores, checking screw threads and
work of this nature. In some circumstances, machine
operators use limit gauges to check their work; but in
large-quantity production the work passes into a depart-
ment where the efficient use of gauges ensures inter-
changeability of parts. Usually the gauges used by the
operator are set a trifle finer than the specifications
demand, and hence the components should have no
trouble in passing the check in the inspection room.
While the gap gauge (Fig. 25) checks plain shafts, the
plug gauge (Fig. 26) is used to check plain holes.
Figure 27 shows another gauge used for testing a
tapered shaft, while Figure 28 shows a taper plug gauge
for checking a tapered hole.
[_
tolerance
Figure 28 Ataper plug gauge