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..

2003 .


.
TMN
(elecommunication Management Network)
- .3000. TMN
- ,
(TeleManagement
Forum, TMF).
CMIP SNMP,

ISO.


, ODP, ODMA, CORBA, DCOM (COM+),
OSCA/INA.
TMN GDMO ASN.1
OSS .

Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, Siemens,
IBM, - .

,
, .

2003 .
621.394:615.14
32.88
..
..: -, 2003. 288 .: .
ISBN 588405047X

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1 2.0

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. 1.6 ( [1])
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1 2.0

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1.4

13

GII

(global information infrastructure, GII)


[8,9] . GII
. GII ,
(, , ) . GII , . GII.
GII 4 :
, , ;
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;
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( )

. 1.7. GII
, , , , , ..
, 1 2.0

..

14

, , .
, , . , DSL-, ,
, , , . ,
, (X.25, Frame Relay, ATM, MPLS),
. GII, , , .
GII ,
, (middleware) , . middleware GII
, ,
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, (building blocks).
.
GII , ..
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. GII . 1.8.

1 2.0

..

15

IP-, ,
,


( , )

(m iddlew are)


( ,

e-m ail

IP-

. 1.8. ( [8,10])
, , ( ),
/ . , ,
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IP).
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(middleware) .
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M1 .
, GII.
M2 .
GII :
1 2.0

..

16

- ;
;
;
;
;
;
.

3,7,9,
[10].
M3
. , ,
- .
M4 - ,
.
, .
. 4. Object Management Group (OMG)

(common interface definition language), CORBA IDL. . CORBA 7. 4 .
( )
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, .
, /
. .
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( , );
,
B3.
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B2 .
, . , B2
. B2 (Application
Program Interface, API). , , ..
API , . API UNIX, Java, ActiveX, WIN32.
1 2.0

..

17

3
B2 B3. B3 :
;
;
, ;
, .
, ,
. , .. .
, , . GII .

1.5

GII

( ),
;
.
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.
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, , . , , . (functional reference point) . /
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( ) .
,
GII. (. 1.9) ,
:
GII .
. :

ODP (. 7);

(Service Independent Building


blocks, SIB) ;

1 2.0

..

18

. 1.9.
. 1.9
, , CORBA IDL, HyperText
Markup Language (HTML),
7, .
GII .
(Applications Functions, AF)
, .
(Middleware Functions, MF) ,
:
(Service Control Functions, SCF)
;

. , , ,
.
;
(Management Functions, ManF),
.
(Baseware Functions, BF) , , ,
( ) . :
(Network Functions, NF), , .. GII, (Transport Functions, TF) (Control functions, CF);
(Processing and Storage Functions,
P&SF),
, ;
- (Human-Computer Interfacing Functions,
HCIF), .
,
. ,
,
(softswitch).
:
( , transport functions), ;
1 2.0

..

19


(control functions),
;
(enhanced service
provisioning functions),
, ;
(management functions),
.
, , .
, ,
, .
GII, :
(Application Protocol, AP) ;
(Application Programming Interface, API)
, ;
(Middleware Protocol, MP)
;
(Basic Programming Interface, BPI) , (
API);
, (HumanComputer Interface, HCI) , , ; ;
(Telecommunications Reference Point, TRP) .
. 1.10 , .
1, 9 , ,
, , ( ) (network control functions).
2 ,
, .
3 , .
4
( ),

.
1 2.0

..

20
10

. 1.10. GII [8]


5 , ,
.
6, 7, 8 ,
.
10 (management protocol). .
, GII . . , () . , GII , :
GII
;
GII;
.
, , .
3, 6 9.

1 2.0

..

21

1.
1. .., . . .
.: , 1995.
2. ., ..
// 1996 . 12 . 23-27.
3. .. // - .
2001. 1. C. 26 29.
4. / .. , .. , ..
.; . .. .. . .: , 1998.
5. 134 " 30.11.1996 .
6.
2005 . . 1. ., ,
1996 .
7.
2005 . . 8. ., ,
1996 .
8. ITUT Recommendation Y.110. Global Information Infrastructure principles and framework
architecture. 1998.
9. ITU-T GII Standartization Initiative. Technical information bulletin 99-5. :
[http://www.ncs.gov/n2/content/tibs/files/tib99_5.pdf. 28.08.02]
10. OSS Solutions for Network Operators. White paper, 2002. :
[http: //www.ausystem.se/publications/OSSwp0501.pdf 27.08.2002]
11. Pavlou G. Telecommunications Management Network: a Novel Approach Towards its Architecture and Realisation Through Object-Oriented Software Platforms/ PhD thesis.
: [ftp://cs.ucl.ac.uk/osimis/papers/phd-gp/02-contents.pdf 14.02.2001]
12. Proposed Focused Program on: Operations and Management of Information Networks // National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Technology Program. 1994.
: [www.cs.columbia.edu/dcc/classes/E6998-025/References/atpwpf.ps 3.09.02]

1 2.0

..

22

2.

2.1

, 1 ,
(TMN).
TMN . - .3010.
TMN - M.3xxx, . M.3000 . M.3660 (. 1). TMN,
-,
, , , ..
, TMN (), (International Standard Organizaton, ISO).
TMN , .
, , ,
.
,
,
(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
IEEE), (National Institute of
Standards and Technology, NIST), Hewlett-Packard. [4]

, IEEE POSIX 1003.0:
- , , , , :
() ,
, ;
()
;
, ( ).
.

, , ,
..
, .

. , [3].
; , . [4] ,
2 2.0

..

23

, , , . , , ,
- . 6,
.
,
(portability)

(interoperability) . () .

(Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Sun Microsystems .), . -1 (Join Technical Committee JTC-1) ISO, (International lectrotechnical ommission, IEC) , (International Telecommunication Union, ITU). , 1995 . 1000 ( 80),
.

. , ,
, ..
.
(), , ..
.
. , .
,
ISO/RM (Open System Interconnected / Reference Model),
,
, . (. 2.1).
[2,4-6].

2 2.0

..

SAP

SAP

SAP

SAP

SAP

SAP

24

SAP

SAP

SAP

SAP

SAP

SAP

. 2.1 ISO/RM
(application layer) ,
, , , ..
.
.
(presentation layer) , . , ,
.
(session layer) , .., , (, ) ; .
(transport layer)
. (Service Access Points, SAP), .
; ,
.
(network layer)
,
.
.
(data-link layer)
.
, ;
, ,
. , . 2 2.0

..

25

/ (Network Interface Card, NIC).


(physical layer)
.
, , .

( , ..).

, .
. , , .
, (service), (interface) (protocol).
,

. [5].
,
.
, (primitives). , [5] ,
.. , , , , , .
()
,
. , . .
(entity) , ,
.
,
.. . . [4], (pplication process); , . , (
).
INAP [1]. , .
, ( N) ( N+1).
, N, N-1.
N+1. , ;
N N-1 N-2 . 2 2.0

..

26

SAP. , N+1 N.
N+1 N . . , (. .2.1),
(association), .
, , .. , ,
, .
N+1 , ,
N .
: , .
, (
, ).
. ,
, . , , , .
(Protocol Data Unit, PDU), . 2.2.
(N) - PDU

(N-1) - PCI

N - 1

(N-1) - SDU

(N-1) - PDU

. 2.2.
, .
PDU N N-1 PDU
,
N-1.
N-1 (Service Data Unit, SDU), N-1 N . , N-1
SDU (Protocol Control Information, PCI) N-2. PCI, ,
.
PCI,
.
, OSI/RM
, .
,
2 2.0

..

27

OSI/RF. IEEE. :
;
;
.
. OSI/RF .2.3.

. 2.3 OSI/RF

, , .

, , , (), , .. ,
.
,
.
()
, .

(Application Programmer Interface, API). API
:
;
;
;
, - .
,
,
OSI/RF
.
OSI/RF 2 2.0

..

28

. , OSI/RF ( , ), . OSI/RF , , .
, , , , , -,
.
(), . ,
, ( ) ,
. - , ISO/ITU.
1995 .
, , (Open Distributed Processing, ODP). , 7.

2.2

2.2.1

(OSI management framework) ISO/IEC 7498-4: Basic Referens Model, Part 4, Management Framework (
. 4. ).
, , ..
.
ISO 7498 1984 .
1989 . 1994 . . ISO
7498 . - X.200
. . X.200 , , , , , .. , , .
ISO 7498 , . 2.1.

2 2.0

..


ISO -
ISO 7498
. X.200
ISO 7498 Add.1
. X.200
ISO 7498-2
. X.800
ISO 7498-3
. X.650
ISO 7498-4
. X.700



(Basic Reference Model)

(Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode transition)
2:
(Part 2: Security Architecture)
3:
(Part 3: Naming and Addressing)
4:
(Part 4: Management framework)

29
2.1

1984
1994
1987
1994
1989
1991
1989
1994
1989
1992

ISO/IEC 7498-4, ,
:
;
;
;
.
ISO/IEC 7498-4 , : , , , .
2.3 .
ISO/IEC 7498-4 , (. 2.2)
2.2


ISO/ITU
ISO 9595 / X.710

(Common Management Information Services, CMIS)
ISO 9596-1 / X.711

(Common Management Information Protocols, CMIP)
ISO 10040

(Systems Management Overview, SMO)
ISO 10164

(Systems Management)
ISO 10165

(Structure of Management Information)
ISO 10165-1 DIS

(Management Information Model)
ISO 10165-2 DIS

(Definition of Management Information)
ISO 10165-4 DIS
(Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects)
ISO 10733 CD
,
(Elements of Management Information Related to OSI Network Layer
Standards)
ISO 10737 CD
,
(Elements of Management Infor 2 2.0

..


ISO/ITU

30

mation Related to OSI Transport Layer Standards)


. X.290 (ISO/IEC 9646), .
: , , , , , .

[7]:
(application management)
;

, ;
(systems management) , () ;

(layer management) , N N (, ) . N
.
, , () ,
,
. . N,
, . , ,
, (communications protocol).
.

. ,
N, ,
.

.
:

;
, ;

;
;
;
;
2 2.0

..

31

.

. [8], , , .
1. ,
:
,
, ;
;
, ;
/ .
2. , , :
;
.
3. , :
;
() .
:
, , , , , .
,
.
.
, . ,

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2.2.2

, ;
,
. ,
.
( ; N; N)
.
, , .

(management object).
, ,
,
.. .
.
2 2.0

..

32

,
,
..
. , (. 2.4).

. 2.4

N , , .
. ,
. N ,
. . 2.5
.

2 2.0

..

33


N-

. 2.5 N -

, .
.

2.3

2.3.1


. . - X.700,
,
(functional areas):
(fault management);
(configuration management);
(accounting management);

/
(performance management);
(security management).

FCAPS ( ).
, , ..
,
.
, , (Systems Management Function,
2 2.0

..

34

SMF),
.
SMF TMN. SMF [4,9,11],
SMF. SMF
.
(object management function) c . X.730 . , .
(Common
Management Information Protocol, CMIP), 5.
, . .730,
, .
:

, (CMIS);

,
CMIS.
, , .. , , , . . ,
, ( 4).
, . - X.731 (state management function), ,
, .
, .
.
:
(operability), , . : (enabled) (disabled) ;
, (usage), , , .
: (idle), / (active),
(busy);
, . : (locked), (unlocked),
(shutting down).
, . , .
, ; , ,
2 2.0

..

35

. ,
, .
(relationship management function)
. - X.732
. , , , .
(alarm reporting function) .
- X.733 . . , , . CMIS
. , , :
(crtitical alarm);
(major alarm);
(minor alarm);
(warning);
(indeterminate);
(cleared).
, . , 50%
.
, , , .

, .
, , , .
:
( );
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
(, );
;
..
(event management function) .
- X.734 , , , , .. , - .
2 2.0

..

36


. .
. - X.734 . (Event-Forwarding Discriminators, EFD). , () , ( ),
.
.
( ), .. log- ( ).
,
, EFD , CMIP.
, (log control function)
. - X.735 . , , , .
, .
- .

. , log-, , , , , . log- .

log-, .
(security alarm reporting) .
- X.736 ,

. (security alarms). (,
), ( ,
). ,
.
,
.
( )
.
()
(confidence and diagnostic test classes) . - X.737
,
.
2 2.0

..

37

(summarization function) .
- X.738 , , ,
.
(workload monitoring function) .
- X.739 .
, , . , , . .
- X.732 ,
:
(service);
(peertopeer);
(fallback);
(backup);
(group).
,
,
N, . , ,
,
.

, , ..
. , ,
- . , ,
, . , , , , .
2.3.2

(fault management) (alarms).


,
.
(,
), , , .

() , .
,
. SMF (event
reporting) . - X.734, (logging)
. - X.735, () . - X.733
. - X.737, X.745.
(onfiguration management) (), .
2 2.0

..

38

-
.
.
: () , ;
, ; ,
; ;
;
. SMF - . - X.734, , (logging)
. - X.735, . - X.731,
. - X.732, .
- X.746, (time management) . - X.743,
(software distribution) . -
X.744 (shared management
knowledge) . - X.750.
(accounting management) -
.

, .
- (
), ,
() (usage metering) . SMF . -
X.734, . - X.735
(accounting metering) . - X.742.
(performance
management) , .. . , , , .
.
. , ,
.
( ) . , ,

.
, ()
. ,
,
2 2.0

..

39

.
SMF:
. - X.734, . -
X.735, (metric monitoring) . - X.739, (summarisation) . - X.738, (scheduling) . - X.746
(response time monitoring) . - X.748.
(security management) :
(management of security) -
;
(security of management) - ,
. ,
. - X.800.

,
. SMF:
. - X.734, . - X.735, . - X.736,
(security audit trail) . - X.737,
. - X.741.
,
. ,
, TMN,
. , , .
.

2 2.0

..

40

2
1.

.., .., .. . .:
, 2000. 500 c.

2.

.. : /. .
.. . .: , 1996 . 224 .

3.

.
. .: , 2001.

4.

//
. .: 1995 .

5.

. , :
. . .: , 1995 . 408 .

6.

ITUT Recommendation X.200. Information technology. Open systems interconnection.


Basic reference model: The basic model. 1994.

7.

ITUT Recommendation X.700. Management framework for open system interconnection (OSI) for CCITT applications. 1992.

8.

ITUT Recommendation X.701. Information technology. Open systems interconnection.


Systems Management overview. 1992.

9.

Cekro Z.. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) and OSI Systems Management. Standards and Emerging Trends/ Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Universite libre de
Bruxelles. Faculte de sciences. :
[http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/cache/papers2/cs/5601/http:zSzzSzwww.mice.iihe.ac.bezSzint
ernal-reportzSzstc-98-08.pdf/cekro98telecommunication.pdf 29.08.01].

10. Pavlou G. Telecommunications Management Network: a Novel Approach Towards its


Architecture and Realisation Through Object-Oriented Software Platforms/ PhD thesis.
: [ftp://cs.ucl.ac.uk/osimis/papers/phd-gp/02-contents.pdf 14.02.2001]
11. Tessier Jean Un cadre dapplication pour interfaces de gestion OSI. Matre s sciences
(M.Sc.) en informatique/ Universit de Montral, Dpartement dinformatique et de recherche oprationnelle.
[http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~labgelo/Publications/Theses/msc-tessier.pdf 19.05.01]

2 2.0

..

41

3. TMN
3.1

TMN

3.1.1

TMN

Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) - 1992


. . TMN
. - M.3010. TMN
. . M.3010, TMN
, .
TMN ,

,
(. 3.1). TMN
, ,

[1, 3, 6 8].
TM N

TM N

TM N
S
D
H

S
D
H

. 3.1 TMN ( . - .3010)


TMN .

, , ,

. ,

(. 3.2).

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

42

TMN
(management service).
, TMN
. ,
, (management
function). TMN
,
.
, ,
.
TMN
(reference points),
TMN.
TMN
(Data
Communication Network, DCN). DCN TMN
.
TMN
(Operations Systems, OS).

(OS) TMN

. 3.2 TMN
, (. 3.2)
, ,
,
TMN;
,

,
();
( ), , ,
.
- . ,
OS , [7].

. DCN
,
(Work Stations,WS) ,

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

43

.
-
. Z.300;
TMN.
-
,
- . WS
.
, DCN TMN
TMN.
.
TMN
, .
TMN ,

,
, .
TMN ,
, , SDH, PDH,
,
() 7, ,
, .
TMN ,
(Network Element, NE). TMN
, , ,
.
,
OS.
, [7,15].
, , ,
..
3.1.2

TMN

TMN
:
TMN;


TMN;
TMN;
;
,
.


;
TMN;
.
,
3. 2.0

.. , 2002

44

TMN:

;
, ;
,
, ;
()
,
;

.
TMN
(plane) (. 3.3) [3]:

(TMN)

TM N

. 3.3 TMN

(user plane).
, , ,
, ..

(control plane)

,

, ,
..
.

(management plane)
.
, , ,
, ,

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

45

, ,

.

TMN NE.
TMN.
.

, -
.

,
.
,
,
.
.

,
TMN . TMN
, [4],

. TMN
,
, , ,
(accounting), (service profile
customisation).
.
TMN (
, ),
,
.
.

.
,
, .
,
,
, ,
.. , , TMN
,
.
, TMN,
.
. TMN .

TMN, TMN
. . M.3010

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

46

TMN
:
TMN,
;
TMN, ,

;
TMN, TMN
-
;
TMN (Logical Layered Architecture,
LLA), ,
.
3.2.
3.1.3

- TMN

TMN

. TMN 1985 . IV
( -). TMN M.30
1988 . . 1992 .
, M.3010.
19962000 .
M.30 1988 ., M.3010 1992 .
,
TMN. 1992 . ,
TMN. 1996 .
TMN.
1990-
,
, ,
.
TMN.
2000 ., ITU-T ,
TMN-2000. ,
, ,
TMN, 2000 .
1988 . 20 M.3xxx,
TMN.
TMN, M.3010
TMN ( 3.4 1).
TMN
ISDN (. 1).
(Europe Telecommunication Standart Institute, ETSI),
, TMN, ,
Q.3 SDH,
(. 1).

3. 2.0

.. , 2002


TMN, . M.3000

TMN,
. M.3010

47


TMN, . M.60


TMN,
. M.3020


TMN,
. M.3100


TMN, . M.3200


TMN F
. M.3300
X
. M.3300


TMN,
. M.3180

TMN,
. M.3400

. 3.4 TMN
TMN ,
SNMP- ,
, , TL/1(M),
,
.
TMN :


, , TMN
;


: ,
,
,
. .;

ISO/OSI.


TMN.

3.2

TMN

3.2.1

TMN

TMN :
(functional blocks) ()
TMN, ;
(Management Application Functions, MAF) 3. 2.0

.. , 2002

48

, .
MAF ,
.
. MAF;
TMN (TMN Management Function, TMN MF)
TMN (TMN management function sets).
TMN MAF
. TMN
MF
,
, ,
;
(reference point) TMN.
,
,
,
, .
,
TMN, , :
;
;
-;
;
TMN;
.
TMN
. ,
TMN. ,
TMN .

TM N
TF

OSF

TF

W SF

NEF

. 3.5 TMN

3.5. :
(Operations Systems Function block, OSF);

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

49

(Network Element Function block, NEF);


(Workstation Function block, WSF);
(Transformation Function block, TF).
(OSF TF) ,
TMN. ,
c TMN.
(WSF, NEF TF) . ,
TMN.
TMN (reference point),
.
(q, f x) TMN; (g
m) TMN

g
W SF

W SF

TM N

TM N

OSF

OSF

q
OSF

q
NEF

NEF

TF

(. 3.6).
. 3.6 TMN
, NEF. ,
TMN , ..
, NE. , NEF
,
TMN. TMN, . 3.5 ,
NEF TMN
. NEF,
TMN, . 3.5 TMN.
, OSF.

/ . OSF
NEF q ( . M.3010,
02.2000 .). ,

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

50

M.30 1988 . : q1, q2 q3,


1997 . q3 qx.
.
q3 ,
. q1, q2
,
(,
). ,
q1 q2. qx , 2000 .
q.
3.7 OSF, NEF q . ,
q, CMIP.

OSF

NEF

. 3.7 OSF, NEF q


. 3.7, TMN (
) OSF
q. OSF TMN (
) x.
. 3.7 . 1.9.
, WSF
.
WSF g.
WSF TMN, 3.5 WSF
TMN , g . 3.6
TMN.
, TF
,
.
, . TF
TMN,
. , TMN TF
,
TMN, q (
TMN) m.
m TMN, TF
TMN. , TF ,

.
TF Q- (Q Adaptor

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

51

Function, QAF), TMN (.


, . - M.3010, 05.1996 .). , TF,
QAF , TMN ,
TMN. TF
(Mediation Functions, MF),

NEF/QAF OSF.

. 3.1.
3.1. (. - M.3010)
NEF
OSF
TF
WSF
TMN
q
q
NEF
q
q, x1
q
f
OSF
q
q
q
f
m
TF
f
f
g
WSF
m
g
TMN
.
1
x , OSF .
g WSF , .


,
. , ,

.
,
TMN 2000 . ,
TMN (Data Communication Function, DCF).
,
M.3010, .
, DCN, 1
3 ( ) TMN .
(Message Communication Function,
MCF), ,
,
. MCF
,
DCN.
3.2.2. TMN


TMN, , TMN,
,
,

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

52

. TMN ,
, ,
(phisical blocks).
, ,
.
(interfaces). ,
-
(. 3.8):

TMN

TMN

. 3.8 TMN

TMN :
(NE);
(Mediation Device, MD);
Q- (QA);
(OS);
(WS);
(DCN).
TMN . 3.9.

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

53

TMN

OS

X/F/Q
OS

F
DCN

Q
Q

W S

Q-

Q-

NE

TM N

NE

TM N

. 3.9. TMN

. , .
:
, ,

, .

(Adaptation Device, AD)
, TMN,
, TMN.
, Q-
(Q-adapter, QA).
Q- TMN
Q- TMN.

TMN. TMN, -TMN
,
(, ). X- (X-adapter, XA),
TMN
TMN ,
TMN. ,

TMN
X-.
, MD
TMN,
. Q-
(Q-Mediator, QM) X- (X-mediator, XM). Q-
3. 2.0

.. , 2002

54

TMN, X-
TMN.
.

.
,
OSF, OSF, MF WSF. ,

,
. ,
.
. 3.2 ,
.
3.2 (. - M.3010)
NE

NEF

TF

OSF

WSF

QA,XA,QM, XM

OS

WS
. ; .

3.2.3. TMN


TMN. ,
, .

( ) TMN TMN
.
, ..
. TMN

TMN

-.

TMN

),
.
TMN
P-Part
M-Part
:
TMN
. 3.10

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

55


. M-Part
(message part), -Part
(protocol part). , TMN, M-Part
,
, .. CMIS . - X.710. P-Part
, .
, ..
, .

:

Q
X
x
F
f
TMN ,
-, ETSI, TMF. , ,

, ,
TMN. ,
,
. TMN ,
,
. ,
TMN, . - M.3020 6.
, TMN
, .
,
. (.
4).
.

. ,
,
.
, .
,
, . - M.3200
M.3400. ,
. TMN ,
. - M.3100.

6.
TMN: Q-, F-
X-.
Q- ,

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

56

( ). , Q- ,

TMN, . Q- OS
NE OS OS.
F- WS
TMN, OSF TF.
.
X- TMN ,
, , TMN,
.

, TMN.

X- , Q-.
c Q-, X-
TMN [1,2,4].
3.2.4. TMN

,
.

, .

. TMN,
,
(. - X.720), -
TMN.

,
.
-
.

TMN.

(managed object boundary). ,
, (. . 3.11):

3. 2.0

(
)

()

.. , 2002

57

. 3.11

, ;
, ;
, ;
, .
,
.
-
(Guidelines for
the Definition of Managed Objects, GDMO) . - X.722.

.
,
, .
(acknowledgement),
,
.
,
, .

, .
4.
, GDMO.
, ,
.
,
. .
GDMO .

[7,8,12,16](. 3.12).

-,
. Q

(Get,Set,Create)

(notifications),

(replays)

M IB


( )

. 3.12 TMN

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

58

, ,
, -.
, ,
, .
.
.
,
. -
(CREATE), (DELETE),
(ACTION) ,
(GET) (SET)
, GDMO. , ,
-
.

.
.
.
,
.
,
, .. .
,
, , .
,
, . ,
, ..
, .
(Management Information Base, MIB).
MIB,
, .
. MIB
, ,
. MIB
, .. ,
( ),
. , MIB
( , ),
.
,
, ,
GDMO. ,
-, , , ,
.
, (descriminators)
. ,
, .
, ,
. ,

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

59

,

.
TMN ,

.
, ,
( ): , ,
. :
,
(-);
, ;
-;
- -.
,
. GET (), CANCEL-GET ( ),
CREATE () DELETE () ; SET
(), EVENT-REPORT ( ) ACTION ()
. -
TMN , . 3.13.
G
W SF

X
A

OSF

OSF

Q
Q
M

TF
A

A
TF

Q
Q

TF

NEF

TF

NEF

. 3.13. TMN, () ()
TMN
3. 2.0

.. , 2002

60

,
(Shared Management
Knowledge, SMK), TMN.
6.3 X.
[11]
, ,
,
, .
,
7- ,
, .
3.2.5. TMN

TMN
, .
;
, ,
(Logical Layered Architecture, LLA) TMN.

TMN.
1992 . . - M.3010.
1996
. 2000 .
LLA ,
.

TMN
. [14] . 3.14.

SAP

SAP

. 3.14
(SAP )
2 1 2
1.
1 ,
- 2. , 1,
3. 2.0

.. , 2002

61

2;
2 ,
1 ,
.
3
2 3.
, 1
3, 1
2, 2, ,
3. , 1 3 2.
TMN
:
(Network Element Layer, NEL);
(Element Management Layer, EML);
(Network Management Layer, NML);
(Service Management Layer, SML);
(Business Management Layer, BML).
, ,
. 3.15.

, BML

, BMS

Business
OSF
B-OSF

, SML

Service
OSF
S-OSF

, SMS

, NML

Network
OSF
N-OSF

, NMS

, EMS

, EML

Element
OSF
E-OSF

, NEL

Network
Element
NEF

. 3.15 TMN

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

62

TMN - (Business Operation System


Function, B-OSF), /
.
(S-OSF)
,

.
(N-OSF)
TMN, . N-OSF
(E-OSF). , E-OSF
. N-OSF EOSF


S-OSF.
(Network Element Function, NEF)
EML
.
LLA , - OSF
OSF-, ,
. TMN,
TMN q .
NEF E-OSF OSF
.

-
,
.
.
E-OSF .

, .

TMN.
,
:

;
;
,
, ,
,
/, .;
;
.
, OSF NEF
- .
,
.
,
, , /,
3. 2.0

.. , 2002

63

..
.
, :
( );
QoS
;
;
;

;
.
OSF ,
. OSF
. OSF
-,
-.
() ,
.
, ,
.
, ;
.
, ,
.
,
:
(, , ..);
;
;
;
, ,
.


TMN
.
.

, (
).

.
,
. ,
.
,

, ,
. IP-
IP-, ATM,
IP- (. 3.16).

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

64

TM N
IP-

TM N
ATM

OSF

OSF

OSF

OSF

OSF
X

OSF
X

OSF

OSF

NE

NE

. 3.16 TMN ( [6])


x (
X) IP-
, ATM [6,14].
ATM
. , ATM
IP- ATM .
IP ATM
IP-;
IP-. ,
IP-
ATM,
. ,
ATM QoS IP-,
.

,
.

.

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

65


. ,
.
, .

,
. - 7.
TMN
(Management System, MS),
TMN.

, ,
,
DCN.
(): ,
, (),
,
.
TMN
.
, MS OS.
LLA
(. . 3.15):
(Business Management System, BMS)
(Service Management System, SMS)
(Network Management System, NMS)
(Element Management System, EMS)

,

. ,
,
, ..
, ,
,
.
OS ,
. , ,
,
.
MS. OS
[7].

3.3. TMN

ISO/IEC .
1988 . . - M.30
ISO/IEC, , , ISO/IEC
3. 2.0

.. , 2002

66

TMN.
M.30
ISO/IEC .
TMN. TMN
TeleManagement Forum (TMF),
(Network Management
Forum, NMF). .
, TMN
, [14]:
- ,
ISO/IEC;
- ,
ISO/IEC;
(management domains).

- , TMN
.
,
, TMN
.
,
.
,

.
, TMN
,
.
. TMN
.
;
.
,
TMN ,
( ), , (TMN) c
DCN.

, .


. TMN
, , SNMP.
,
.
, , ,
,
() [2].
.
, TMN
.
TMN , , :

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

67


(),
,
;

, , ,
, () ,
;

CMIP
(,
CORBA);


OSI.

OSI
.
, , - 2000 .
TMN (TMN-2000).
:

;
TMN-

OSI (CMIP), SNMP CORBA IDL;

, TMN;
,
.
, ;

(Unified Modeling Language, UML),
- .
.

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

68

3.
1. . . , . .
1. // . Connect 2001. 10. . 74 - 77.
2. .. TMN // . 1998. 5.
3. .. . .: , 1999 .
4. .. . . 1,2 // 1999. 8,9 . 118 - 126.
5. .., .. : ,
// . 2000. 2. C. 83 87.
6. / .. , .. , ..
.; . .. .. . .: , 1998.
7. .
. .: , 2001.
8. ITUT Recommendation M.3010. Principles for a telecommunications management network.
2000.
9. ITUT Recommendation M.3020. TMN interface specification methodology. 2000.
10.

ITUT Recommendation M.3400. TMN management functions. 2000.

11. ITUT Recommendation M.3100. Generic network information model. Amendment 2.


2000.
12. Bieszczad A., Biswas P.K., Buga W. and others. Management of Heterogeneous Networks
with Intelligent Agents./ Bell Labs Technical Journal. October-December 1999. p. 109
135.
13. Lin G., Price J.D., Srinivas T.K. Network Information Models and One Vision
Architecture// Bell Labs Technical Journal. October-December, 1998. p.109 135.
14. Pras A. Network Management Architectures. CTIT Ph. D-thesis series No. 95-02.
Thesis University of Twente, Enschede. With ref. ISBN 90-365-0728-6. 1995.
15. Pras A, Bert-Jan van Beijnum, Sprenkels R. Introduction to TMN. CTIT Technical Report
99-09. University of Twente The Netherlands.
http://www.simpleweb.org/tutorials/tmn/tmn.pdf 19.02.2001
16. Pedro Lopes R., Oliveira Jos Lus. Software agents in network management. 1999.

www.det.ua.pt/Projects/difference/ work/themes/agents_mngt.pdf 1.03.02

3. 2.0

.. , 2002

69

4.

4.1

TMN

, ,
ISO TMN, . - X 720.
(Management Information Model, MIM) . , . . -
X.701, , , , .
, , , (.4.1).
1

MIB

...

. 4.1
,
, , ,
. [4]. ,
, , , , ..
, - . , ,
3. ,
.

,
. ,
. , 4. 2.0

..

70

, .
. . () . ,
. ,
[18].

(managed object class), , ,
/. , , .
,
.
c -. ,
,
, -
.

. - .3100. (generic network information model), , , , . . , , .
. .3100 TMN
(TMN management information model) ,
.

.
, (fragments): c
(nerwork), (management elements), (termination points), (switching and transmission), (cross
connections), (functional areas) [12,14].
, , . 4.1.

4. 2.0

..

71

, . M.3100,
, ,
. ,
. 4.1 ,
(, ,
,
). , ,
, .
4.1


CircuitPack
equipment
equipmentR1
equipmentHolder
managedElement,
managedElementR1
managedElementComplex
software, softwareR1


, , , ,

,
, , ,
;
,
,
TMN,
()
,
,

,
, .4.2.
4.2

managedElement,

, ..

circuitPack
software, softwareR1

()
,
, , ,

equipmentHolder
managedElementComplex

. 4.2 , managedElement .
4.2.

, . 4.1.
, .

. - M.3100 4. 2.0

..

72

- (entity relations diagram).


. - . 4.2.
, Network ()
; Network n .
, (managed element)
, .. , . , , , , .., . 4.2.
1
Network

contains

n
1

contains

Network

n

(,
)

contains

Managed
elem ent

-

(

n
)

. 4.2 (ER-)
[7 - 9]:
.
, .
. , , . () . , .
. ,
. ,
TMN. ,
.
4. 2.0

..

73

.
.
() .
, , , .

, , . ,
.
. .
.
, .
. .
.
.
, .
. .
. ;
.
.
. , . ;
, .
, , ,
.

4.2


(. 4.3). , .. , . , .
- , , .
4. 2.0

..

74

. . , , .

. 4.3
()
. , , , . - ()

, , ,
TMN.
, , . , [3].
, (actions), , , , . (notifications) . (replies) , , .
. : (containment), (inheritance) (allomorphism),
.
, . - X.721,
, (.. ) . , , , (, ). , , , . , 4. 2.0

..

75


, , , , .
, . (ontainment tree) , ( . 4.4).
root

system

log

discrim inator

logRecord

. 4.4.
, . - X.720, (root)
. root
system . 4.4, . - X.721,
, , / . discriminator
. logRecord , log, .. , .
; , .
. , root.
, , . , - , , (
, , , ). .
. (name
binding) . , (superior)
:
[C ]-[ ] - (),
,
.
(naming tree),
, c 4. 2.0

..

76

. , , . ,
(Management Information Tree, MIT).
MIT root, ,
. MIT:

, , .. ;


MIT.

.
. , B A , , , B A. B , WITH
ATTRIBUTE .
.
(Attribute Value Assertion, AVA) , ( .
- X.721):
AttributeValueAssertion ::=
SEQUENCE { AttributeType, AttributeValue}
AttributeType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER
AttributeValue ::= INTEGER

, AVA
OBJECT IDENTIFIER (OID), INTEGER. 4.4.
(Relative Distinguished Name, RDN) ,
. RDN AVA , :
RelativeDistinguishedName ::= SET OF AttributeValueAssertion

(Distinguished Name, DN)


; DN FDN ,
RDN root MIT.
(Local Distinguished Names, LDN)
RDN.
, (human readable name forms) c () /, . - X.721.
MIT , .
4.5.

4. 2.0

..

77

, 1 (alarmRecord, recordId=1), Log c ADM system ATS. , . 4.5 , ATS


c ADM 1, LDN {systemId=ATS,logId=ADM, recordId=1"}.

root

LDN

System

system Id=ATS

RDN

Log

logId=ADM

RDN

alarm
Record

recordId=1

RDN

DN

AVA

. 4.5
(inheritance) , , , .
. , , ,
,
, .
, . - X.720 .
(superior class) , (subordinate class).
.
(base)

top

(derived)

"is-a"

F1

F2

. 4.6.
4. 2.0

..

78

. 4.6 B , .. , , A. , B ( is-a) A. F2 , D.

(inheritance tree ). ,
() . , ,
( ,
).
- , () / () . . 4.6,
, t
(). , ,
top.
- , ,
. , ,
/, .
, . - X.721,
. 4.7.
top

log

logRecord

system

event
logRecord

attributeValue
Change
Record

discrim inator

event
forwarding
Discrim inator

Alarm
Record

. 4.7.
, :
top (. - X.721)
, ;
Alarm Record (. - X.721)
4. 2.0

..

79

, log-
/ ;
attributeValue ChangeRecord (. -
X.721) ,
log ;
log (. - X.721)
/ .
;

logRecord (. - X.721) ,
log; ,
log;
event logRecord (. - X.721) , log - ;
event forwardingDiscriminator (. -
X.721) , ,
,
.
. 4.7. . 4.4
. . 4.4. logRecord
log, , (logRecord) (log).
log logRecord ,
, , ..
, / . ,
. ,
.
, .
, .
, .. .
. ,
.
. , ,
. -
, . , .. - ,
()
, , .
, ,
, (
4. 2.0

..

80

) .
, GSM .
, .. , . ,
, .
TMN, TMN.

. , , . .

4.3

GDMO

,
, -
(GDMO), . - X.722.
() . . ,

, UML 6 2.
, .
, ,
(,
) . , , , .
, [3,7,8].
(template) (parameterized class) , .
.
;
, , , .
, ,
, . , ,
.
(packages), (attributes), (notifications) (actions). (behavior). , GDMO
.
4. 2.0

..

81

(packages).
. ( ) .
(package) , .
. -
, .
,
, , . ,
,
.

, . ,
, .
: , . , , .
, , , . GDMO
. ,
, :
. , ,
. , , ,
. CREATE
() .
GDMO (mandatory) (conditional) .
, PRESENT IF
(, ), . ()
. . ,
. ,
. .
(managed object classes)
(templates), . 4.8.
. , ,
, ( bind), , .. .
() (.. ).
:
<class-label> MANAGED OBJECT CLASS
[DERIVED FROM <class-label> [,<class-label>]* ; ]
[CHARACTERIZED BY <package-label> [,<package-label>]* ; ]
4. 2.0

..

82

[CONDITIONAL PACKAGES <package-label> PRESENT IF condition-definition


[,<package-label> PRESENT IF condition-definition]* ; ]
PRESENT IF condition-definition ;
REGISTERED AS object-identifier ;
supporting productions
ondition-definition -> delimited-string

:
; , REGISTERED AS ( )
DEFINED AS ( ),
.
(), , , . - X.208
(ISO/IEC 8824) , ..
object-identifier -> <ObjectIdentifierValue>
,
ObjectIdentifierValue , . - X.208
(ISO/IEC 8824).
[ ] , , .
* , .
, , . .
, < >, , , .
.
(keywords), ,
[ ]. ,
.
DERIVED FROM <class-label>
-
, top. <class-label>
,
, .. . , , [<class-label>].
CHARACTERIZED BY <package-label> - DERIVED FROM
, ,
, . <packagelabel> , .
CONDITIONAL PACKAGES <package-label> PRESENT IF condition-definition
,
. condition-definition , (, = ) ,
.
, condition-definition, .
, . - X.720 ISO/IEC
4. 2.0

..

83

10165-1.
PRESENT IF condition-definition


. .
REGISTERED AS object-identifier , objectidentifier - (identifier) ,
, .
ACTIONS <actions>, NOTIFICATIONS <notifications>, , .
< > .
, , , , . ,
CREATE DELETE,
.
. - X.722 :
<package-label> PACKAGE
[BEHAVIOUR <behaviour-definition-label> [,<behaviour-definition-label>]* ;]
[ATTRIBUTES <attribute-label> propertylist [<parameter-label>]*
[,<attribute-label> propertylist [<parameter-label>]*]* ;]
[ATTRIBUTE GROUPS <group-label> [<attribute-label>]* [,<group-label>
[<attribute-label>]*]* ;]
[ACTIONS <action-label> [<parameter-label>]* [,<action-label>
[<parameter-label>]*]* ;]
[NOTIFICATIONS <notification-label> [<parameter-label>]* [,<notification-label>
[<parameter-label>]*]* ; ]
[REGISTERED AS object-identifier].
!:
BEHAVIOUR <behaviour-definition-label> [,<behaviour-definition-label>]* - -

, . , . [<behaviour-definition-label>]* ,
BEHAVIOUR. .
ATTRIBUTES
<attribute-label>
propertylist
[<parameter-label>]*
[,<attribute-label>
propertylist [<parameter-label>]*]* -
. propertylist, <attribute-label>, ,

, .
ATTRIBUTE GROUPS <group-label> [<attribute-label>]* [,<group-label> [<attribute-label>]*]* -

,
.
ACTIONS <action-label> [<parameter-label>]* [,<action-label> [<parameter-label>]*]* -
, <action-label>
, .
, .
parameter-labels, ,
; , parameterlabels () , .
NOTIFICATIONS <notification-label> [<parameter-label>]* [,<notification-label> [<parameter 4. 2.0

..

84

label>]*]* - , - .
notification-label . -

, ,
. parameter-label,
, .
REGISTERED AS object-identifier - , object-identifier
, , ,
, , , .
. - X.722 , , , , . -
( ) .
,
:
, , , CREATE DELETE;

, , (, Actions/Operations/ Notifications) ,
;

(relations), , ;

(attributes),
, ;

/ , ,
, , ;

(invariant), ,
, . ( ), ,
, .

, , ,
, , .

.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
,
4. 2.0

..

85

, .
,
,
. - X.721. , ,
. X.733, alarmRecord. , . - M.3100
.
.

,
.

4. 2.0

..

86
- package behavior template

- attribute behavior template


- attribute parameter template

attribute template
- attribute syntax
lefinition
managed object class
template

- attribute group
template

- attribute behavior
definition
- action parameter template

- package template

- characterized by package

- action template

- conditional
package

-action
information syntax definition
- action
replay syntax definition

notification template

-notification behavior template


- notification parameter template
- notification attribute template


notification information syntax definition
- notification
replay syntax definition

. 4.8. ,

4. 2.1

..

4.4

87

,
, (.
. - M.3100) [12]:
network MANAGED OBJECT CLASS
DERIVED FROM
"Recommendation X.721: 1992":top;
CHARACTERIZED BY
networkPackage PACKAGE
BEHAVIOUR networkDefinition;
ATTRIBUTES networkId GET;;;
CONDITIONAL PACKAGES
userLabelPackage PRESENT IF "an instance supports it";
REGISTERED AS {m3100ObjectClass 1};
networkDefinition BEHAVIOUR
DEFINED AS
The Network object class is a class of managed objects that are collections of interconnected
telecommunications and management objects (logical or physical) capable of exchanging information.
These objects have one or more common characteristics, for example they may be owned by a single
customer or provider, or associated with a specific service network. A network may be nested within
another (larger) network, thereby forming a containment relationship. An example of a network that is
contained in another network is a transmission sub-network. It is owned by a single Administration and
can only perform transmission functions.;

, (network)
. - X.721 top.
networkPackage. ( ) networkDefinition. networkId ( ) GET (), ..
. userLabelPackage,
. {m3100ObjectClass1}.
:

, ( ), . , , .
, , . .


:
exampleObjectClass MANAGED OBJECT CLASS
DERIVED FROM "CCITT Rec. X.721 (1992) | ISO/IEC 10165-2 :
1992":top ;
CHARACTERIZED BY examplePackage2 ;
CONDITIONAL PACKAGES
examplePackage1 PACKAGE
ACTIONS activate ;
4. 2.1

..

88

NOTIFICATIONS communicationError ;
REGISTERED AS {joint-iso-ccitt ms(9) smi(3) part4(4) package(4)
examplepack1(0)} ;
PRESENT IF !conformance class 2 of underlying resource implemented
as described in ISO/IEC XXXX! ;
REGISTERED AS {joint-iso-ccitt ms(9) smi(3) part4(4) managedObjectClass(3)
exampleclass(0)};

, exampleObjectClass . - X.721 top; examplePackage2 examplePackage1. examplePackage1 activate (),


communicationError;
{joint-iso-ccitt ms(9) smi(3) part4(4) package(4)
examplepack1(0)}. , :
ISO/IEC XXXX, 2.

. - X.721, X.723 .3100.
, . , . DEFINED AS .
, , , ( . - X.721):
availabilityStatusPackage
AvailabilityStatusBehaviour BEHAVIOUR
DEFINED AS " . X.734, X.735ISO/IEC
10164-5, 10164-6 ... ";

, ,
. . - .3100:
cross-connection
CrossConnectionBehaviour BEHAVIOUR
DEFINED AS " ...
( ):
:
(Unlocked) : Cross-Connection , .
(Locked) : ,
.
:
(Enabled) :
( ).
(Disabled) : ".

. . - X.72:
top
TopBehaviour BEHAVIOUR
DEFINED AS " ... miscellaneousError ,
";

( . - . 3100):
equipment:
EquipmentBehaviour BEHAVIOUR
4. 2.1

..

89

DEFINED AS " ..., ., attributeValueChange, X.721,


, : , , ,
, . , ,
. , stateChangeNotification, X.721, ,
(..
administrativeOperational State). ";

, (
. - .3100):
alarmStatusBehaviour :
AlarmStatusBehaviour BEHAVIOUR
DEFINED AS " ... ( ):
ActiveReportable-Critical
ActiveReportable-Major
ActiveReportable-Minor
ActiveReportable-Indeterminate
ActiveReportable-Warning
ActivePending - cleared / "

, , . .
, GDMO, 1997 . P609 TMN Specification Support ( TMN).
,
EURESCOM , TMN, . EURESCOM
E-MOL (EURESCOM Managed Object and Information Library).
1997 .

www.eurescom.org . :
(managed object);
(management function);
(glossary);
(ensembles);
TMN (TMN guidelines).
, E-MOL
, , ,

. , : ITU-T/ISO,
ETSI, NMF, EURESCOM, IETF.
E-MOL . 4.9.

4. 2.1

..

90

. 4.9 E-MOL ( )
E-MOL , .
, ,
, TariffRule ( ),
EURESCOM.
GDMO, .

. 4.10 link
GDMO
4. 2.1

..

91

E-MOL , , , , . , .. , ,
, . ,
, (.
4.10).

ASCII HTML.
, ,

, . GDMO .
GDMO -,

.

4.5

(Object Identifier, OID) [17,19] ,


, , . () .
. -
X.208.
(.
4.11).

root
ccitt(0)

recom m endation(0)

question(1)

iso(1)

adm inistration(2)

standart(0)

registrationauthority(1)

joint-iso-ccitt(2)

adm inistration
(2)

indetified-orga
nization(3)

. 4.11.
, root
. ccitt, iso joint-iso-ccitt , . , . 4.3.

4. 2.1

..

92
4.3

,

-

, -
, ANSI
(American National Standards Institute )

ccitt
iso
joint-iso-ccitt

0
1
2

,
OID.
,
root. . ,
. 4.11, .
,

. .
, , {joint-iso-ccitt ms(9) smi(3)
part4(4) managedObjectClass(3) exampleclass(0)}.

. - X.722 , , .. ,
,
{joint-iso-ccitt ms(9)}, ms management systems. ,
ms; 9
. ms ,
, (.
4.4).
4.4

smo(0)
Cmip(1)
function(2)
smi(3)


. - X.701| ISO/IEC 10040
CMIP . - X.711 |
ISO/IEC 9596-1
. - X.7XX | ISO/IEC 10164-X, X

. - Rec. X.72X | ISO/IEC
10165-X, X -

, partX(X) . X.72X | ISO/IEC 10165-X, . - X.724, ,


. {joint-iso-ccitt ms(9) smi(3) part4(4)} (. 4.5).

4. 2.1

..

93

4.5

StandardSpecificExtension(0)
asn1Module(2)
managedObjectClass(3)
package(4)
parameter(5)
nameBinding(6)
attribute(7)
attributeGroup(8)
action(9)
notification(10)


, ..
ASN.1



,



, 0.
ccitt , . 4.6.
4.6

recommendation

question

administration

network-operator

-. 1
26 A Z

-.
: + ( x 32), , , 1988
1992 . = 1. , ,
. - X.121

. - X.121

, . - M.3100
, {m3100ObjectClass 1}.
{ccitt (0) recommendation(0)}.

4.6

ASN.1 BER


, (Abstract Syntax Notation
One, ASN.1). ASN.1 . ISO 8824 [15], Addendum
1 ISO 8824, . - X.208. ASN.1 ISO / (datatypes). ASN.1 ,
, GDMO, , ..
4. 2.1

..

94

. ASN.1 , . ASN.1 , , C++ Java. (. 4.12).

C++


ASN.1
( )

BER

(TCP, CM IP)

Java

BER

(
)

(TCP, CM IP)

. 4.12 ASN.1 BER


ASN.1 ISO
[6,10,18]:

,
(PDU);

, CMIP SNMP.

ASN.1 . , ASN.1,
. GDMO ASN.1 . ASN.1
, - , , .
ASN.1 , . . ,
.
. ,
ASN.1, ,
. . ,
4. 2.1

..

95

.
ASN.1 :
, ( ).
, , ASN.1,
, .. ASN.1. , ASN.1, .. . , ,
, .. .
ASN.1 ,
; , ASN.1,
.
ASN. 1 :
(simple) ,
;
(structured) , ;
(tagged) , ;
, CHOICE ANY (. ).

. , ,
() .
ASN.1
::= , .
ASN.1, CHOICE ANY, - (tag). , ASN.1, , . , ASN.1
, .
,
[ ] . SEQUENCE, , .. OPTIONAL. .
:
(universal) , , SEQUENCE
, GRAPHIC STRING;
(application) ,
,
. - X.500; . ;
(private) ,
,
;
- (context-specific) , , , . - . .
.
4. 2.1

..

96

. - X.208. .
ASN.1 ,
, :
;
;
(--),
;
( ) ( )
, , , ;
; .
ASN.1 (Basic Encoding Rules, BER), .
ASN.1 BER . 4.7. ASN.1 (simple types), , . .
ASN.1 (constructed type), .
. ASN. 1 .
, . . 4.7 ,
ASN.1 , . , . 4.7
21 . (CMIP) ASN.1.
4.7.

1
2
3

ASN.1
BOOLEAN
INTEGER
BIT STRING

OCTET STRING

5
6

NULL
OBJECT IDENTIFIER

7
8
9
10
11-15

17

OBJECT DESCRIPTOR
EXTERNAL
REAL
ENUMERATED

SEQUENCE, SEQUENCE
OF
SET, SET OF

18
19

NumericString
PrintableString

20

TeletexString

16

4. 2.1


(0 1)

-

,
..

21
23

ASN.1

VideoTexString
UTCTime

26
29

VisibleString

97



(GMT),

, :
ChekingAccountBalance ::= INTEGER
-- ,

. ChekingAccountBalance, , .
ASN.1
, ATM,
ETSI 1996 ( E-MOL):
xAtmInfoModel OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {ccitt (0) identified-organization (4) etsi (0) xcoop (1996)
informationModel(0)}

ASN.1.
. . ,
(, ).
, .. . , MACRO, . , MACRO
(DEFAULT) .
CHOICE {} (OR).
{}
. ,
TypeATS ( ) TypeATS1, TypeATS2, TypeATS3. :
TypeATS::= CHOICE { [1] TypeATS-1,
[2] TypeATS-2,
[3] TypeATS-3 }

TypeATS-1 , TypeATS-2 - , TypeATS-3 - .


, CHOICE.
() SEQUENCE {} ,

.
(AND). .
, IndexATS ( ) () Digit-1, Digit-2 Digit-3. ,
.
4. 2.1

..


IndexATS ::= SEQUENCE

98

{ Digit-1,
Digit-2,
Digit-3 }

Digit-1 , Digit-2 - , Digit-3 - ( ).


.
SEQUENCE OF , , . .
.
SET ,
. - SEQUENCE.
. SET OF ,
. SEQUENCE SET
. OPTIONAL. ,
,
OPTIONAL DEFAULT.
ASN. 1 ANY. ANY ,
.
ASN.1 IP- [20] (. 4.13).
0

4
Version

8
Hlen

16

31
Total length

Identification
Tim e to live

19

Type of
service
Flags

Protocol

Fragm ent offset


Header cheksum

Source address
Destination address
IP option

Padding
Data

. 4.13 IP-
ASN.1:
IpPDU ::= SEQUENCE
{
version INTEGER,
hlen INTEGER,
service INTEGER,
total-len INTEGER,
id INTEGER,
flags BIT STRING,
offset BIT STRING,
4. 2.1

..

99

ttl INTEGER,
protocol INTEGER,
checksum INTEGER,
srcaddr INTEGER,
dstaddr INTEGER,
options OptionType OPTIONAL,
data IpDataType
}

ASN. 1 IP- . 4.8.


4.8.
IP
Version
Hlen
Type of service
Total length,
Time to live
Identificator
Flags

Fragment offset

Protocol
Header cheksum
Source address
Destination address
ptions, padding

Data


IP-
IP , 4 6
, 15 , .. 60

,

IP-, 65535

,
,
255


, 4 . 0
, 1
(0
; 1 - ),
2 ,
(0 ; 1 - )

,
, , 0 255
,
IP- ,

IP- ,

IP
,
, ,



ASN.1


ASN.1

version
hlen

INTEGER
INTEGER

service

INTEGER

total-len

INTEGER

ttl

INTEGER

id

INTEGER

flags

BIT STRING

offset

BIT STRING

protocol

INTEGER

cheksum
srcaddr

INTEGER
INTEGER

dstaddr

INTEGER

options OptionType

OPTION

data
IpDataType

[1] SNMP IpAddress, 4 :


4. 2.1

..

100

IpAddress ::= [APPLICATION 0] OCTET STRING (SIZE (4)) ,

[APPLICATION 0] .

. (.
- X.216) , . ,
, , . ,
.. -
(encoding rules), , ( transfer syntax). ( . - X.226)
, .
(. - X. 200),
.

(Basic Encoding Rules,
BER), , , ASN.1, . [11].
ISO 8825 ASN.1 BER .
() , . . BER ASN.1, ASN.1
(. 4.14).

0
tag

tag

15

2 3

length
()

1039


( 128)

7 8

length


(prim itive)

contents
15
()

value
()

15

tag

length

value
()



(constructed)

. 4.14. BER
:
(tag), , ;
(length), contents/value;
contents/value, .
ASN.1 BER:
4. 2.1

..

101

(primitive, definite-length encoding)


contents/value;
(constructed, definite-length encoding) contents/value ,
7 length
contents/value. 27 = 128 ;
(constructed, indefinitelength encoding).

:
;
, ;
, . .
4.14 28*126 = 10 290 .
,
- .
, . , , , - .
tag BER :
- (class) 2 ( . 4.9);

4.9
,


1
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
1
1

- f : f = 0, , f=1,
;
- number .
32, 5 .
32, tag , . 4.15.
, 26 ,
, 67 108 864; 255. 0;

1 1 1 1 1

X X X

X X X X

...

X X X

X X X X

. 4.15. tag

4. 2.1

..

102

- length , ..
contents/value. 8 ,
128 . , (long
form) , . 4.16.

1

0
1


> 128


> 128

125

...


> 128

. 4.16. length
length
, . 4.17.
1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

. 4.17. Length
value/contents
( ). ,
(end-of-contents octets) . .
BER:
( UNIVERSAL2, ,
129) : 02 02 FF 7F;
( UNIVERSAL6,
{2 100 3 }) 06 03 81 34 03.
BER . , (Distinguished Encoding Rules, DER), BER. , ASN.1.
, ASN.1
, SDL. [5,6,13].
BER ASN.1. , . -
X.690 Canonical Encoding Rules ( ),
Distinguished Encoding Rules ( ), . - X.691 Packed Encoding Rules ( ), . X.692
Encoding Control Notation ( ).
X.680
Information technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of
basic notation ( . ASN.1. ).
XML (Extensible Markup Language,
) ,
ASN.1. , . - X.693
XML. ISO World Wide Web (WWW).
4. 2.1

..

103

4.
1. . // . LAN.
1998. 10.
2. ASN.1/C++. Application Programming Interface Part 1: Base Classes and Specific Interface/
NMF 040-1 1998. Issue 1.0.
3. Divakara K. Udupa TMN: Telecommunications Management Network/ McGraw-Hill.
1999. 420 p.
4. EM Programming Concepts/Sun Microsystems. 1996. :
[http://www.dkrz.de/~k202046/em/products/sem/Manuals/dev_guide/em_concepts.doc.html
18.01.01]
5. ETR 298. Methods for Testing and Specification (MTS); Specification of protocols and services; Handbook for SDL, ASN.1 and MSC development/ETSI Technical report. September,1996. : [portal.etsi.org/edithelp/pdf/298__r1.pdf 5.09.01]
6. ETSI ETR 060. Signalling Protocols and Switching (SPS); Guidelines for using Abstract
Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) in telecommunication application protocols/ Second Edition.
1995. : [portal.etsi.org/edithelp/pdf/060__r2.pdf 11.07.01]
7. EURESCOM Project P609. TMN Specification Support. Deliverable 4. TMN Guidelines 97.
Volume 1 of 7: Main part/For full publication. 1997.
[www.eurescom.de/public/projects/ p600-series/P609/P609.HTM 15.03.01]
8. EURESCOM Project P609. TMN Specification Support. Deliverable 4. TMN Guidelines 97.
Volume 5 of 7: Annex D. Process Modelling for PNOs/ For full publication. 1997.
[www.eurescom.de/public/projects/ p600-series/P609/P609.HTM 15.03.01]
9. Hasselmeyer P. A Methodology for Formalizing GDMO Behavior Descriptions. Information
Technology Transfer. Office Darmstadt University of Technology Wilhelminenstr, Germany. : [http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/hasselmeyer99methodology.html
14.05.01]
10. ITU-T Recommendation X.691. Information technology ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Packed Encoding Rules (PER) 1995.
11. ITU-T Recommendation X.690. Information technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished
Encoding Rules (DER). 1994.
12. ITUT Recommendation M.3100. Generic network information model. 1995.
13. ITUT Recommendation Z.105. SDL combined with ASN.1 (SDL/ASN.1)
[http://www.tdr.dk/public/SDL/litt.html 28.04.01]
14. I-ETS 300 293. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN). Generic managed objects. 1996. : [http://pda.etsi.org/pda/home.asp?wki_id=873 1.02.01]
4. 2.1

..

15. ISO
8824
Encapsulations
specifications.
http://www.digest.org/html/gp2b1.htm#A1 4.05.01]

104

16. Layman's Guide to a Subset of ASN.1, BER, and DER An RSA Laboratories Technical Note
: [http://www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/pkcs/index.html 8.05.01 ]
17. Object
Identifiers.
Descriptions.

http://www.alvestrand.no/harald/objectid/ 28.04.01]

18. Pras A. Network Management Architectures. CTIT Ph. D-thesis series No. 95-02. Thesis
University of Twente, Enschede. - With ref. ISBN 90-365-0728-6. 1995. :
[http://www.simpleweb.org/nm/research/results/publications/pras/thesis.html 17.10.01]
19. Sloman M (editor) and others. Network and Distributed Systems management. Addison
Wesley. 1994.
20. Williamson B. J. and Farrell C.A. Independent active program representation using ASN.1.
: [http://asn1.elibel.tm.fr/fr/biblio/ccr-9904-williamson.pdf 19.05.2001]

4. 2.1

..

106

5. CMIP
5.1
(),
(C),
, ..

.
, ISO 9595,
,
(Common Management Information Services Element, CMISE) [6, 7]. - CMISE (Application
Service Element, ASE), .
, .
ASE , ,
, , , . ASE .
CMISE, , (services), (protocol machine) , (Protocol Data Units,
PDU), /, , [9].

.
:
- (a management notification service);
- (management operation service).
. , , , (linked)
(identification parameter).
, .
, ASE:
- (System Management
Application Service Element, SMASE);
- (Common Management
Information Service Element, CMISE);
- (Association Control Service
Element, ACSE);
- (Remote Operations Service Element,
ROSE);
- (co-ordination function).
5. 2.0

..

107

[1], ASE
(INAP)
7.
ACSE , ,
(application associations) - . ASE , ASCE. , , ASE.
ASCE. ,
A-ASSOCIATE, .
ROSE ,
(Remote Procedure Calls, RPC),
(. . 5.1).
, .
[6].
SM ASE

CM ISE

ACSE

API

ROSE

1 - 6

. 5.1.
CMISE , . (Common
Management Information Services, CMIS)
(Common Management Information Protocol, CMIP), ISO
9696.
CMIS . CMIP
, , . CMIS CMIP
. CMIP .
, - . -

5. 2.0

..

108

CMISE :
- , ;
- /,
.
,
. , ,
.
(. . 5.2).
. 5.2. -

, , .
(management information)
. , CMISE ,
[3].

( )

()

CM IS
M IB

M ISE

CM IP

M ISE


(NE), (logfile)
(logRecord) .
.
( ), , , CMISE ,
. , 3
(control plane).
CMISE
. CMISE
. .
(Goverment Network Management
Protocol, GNMP) NIST OMNIPoint 1 -

5. 2.0

..

109

(Network Management Forum, NMF) .


, CMISE ISDN
- - (UserNetwork Interface,
UNI) . CMISE ISDN Q.931 Q.932
, ,
.
CMIP (Management Information Base,
MIB), .. . , , , .
,
. , (termination
point)
() ,
.
,
. (, ISDN), ,
, . ,
LT.
(actions) ,
. (templates)
/ TMN
GDMO ASN.1. - , .

5.2 CMIS
5.2.1

CMIS

, ( ) CMIP
CMIS. CMIS , , .
CMIS (request), (.. , ).
(onfirmed request operations)
, .
, (unconfirmed request operations),
.
, -, , CMIS (receipt, responce) , . .
5. 2.0

..

110

CMIS , -, ,
.
, . , , ( )
. .
CMIS [4] :
1. MultipleObjectSelection , (scoping) . ,
. ,
(. MultipleReply). MultipleObjectSelection .

MultipleObjectSelection,
MultipleReply.
2. MultipleReply
. , (.
MultipleObjectSelection) .
MultipleReply ,
. MultipleReply
.
MultipleReply,

MultipleObjectSelection.
3. filter () CMIS, . . , .
, . ,
. .
4. kernel () CMIS: M-Event-Report; M-Get, M-Set, M-Action, M-Create MDelete ( 5.3). .
5. ConfirmedCancelGet
M-Cancel-Get. .
6. extendedService
. - X.710 . ISO 9595.
, . - X.200, X.210 X.216.
CMIS CMISE. , (.
5.3):
1. (Management Association Services, MAS) ,
5. 2.0

..

111

, .
2. (Management
Notification Service, MNS) - , , .
3. (Management Operation Services, MOS) , , .


( - - )

CMISE

CMIP

ACSE

RO SE

. 5.3 CMIP, CMIS, CMISE


, , MAS (. 5.4):
M-Associate
( ) CMISE
;
- M-Release ,
, CMISE;
- M-Abort , .


SM ASE

M-Associate
M-Release
M-Abort

M-EVENT-REPO RT
M-G ET, M-SET,
M-ACTIO N,M-CREATE,
M-DELETE, M-CANCEL-G ET

CMISE API


CM ISE

. 5.4 MAS MOS

5. 2.0

..

112

MNS (, ), . MEVENT-REPORT.
ISO/IEC 9595 CMIS MOS: M-GET,
M-SET,
M-CREATE,
M-DELETE,
M-ACTION,
M-EVENT-REPORT,
MCANCELGET. M-SET, M-ACTION M-EVENT-REPORT
.
, .
, . ,
(ACSE).
ACSE CMISE:
1. () /
, . , CMISE.
2. () ,
CMISE .
MOS,
. MOS
, (,
); ,
. , MOS .
MOS [5,10].
5.2.2

MOS

M-GET , ,
. / ,
. , MOS, .
M-GET , , , . , ,
.
, .

.
. (linked-ID). , M-GET, ,
.
5. 2.0

..

113

( ), , .
M-GET , , .
M-CANCEL-GET , M-GET.
, M-GET,
. M-GET , , . M-GET ,
. M-GET ,
M-CANCEL-GET, .
, M-CANCEL-GET
, M-GET
. M-CANCEL-GET , .
M-SET , / ,

. ,
, , .
, .
, . , ,
, . , ,
.
M-SET ,
, M-GET. MGET, M-SET ,
. .

( ) .
M-ACTION ( ) .

.
ACTION .
, , . ,
(, ), CMIS
. : -

5. 2.0

..

114

, .
(security control information).
M-ACTION M-SET.
SET ACTION
. ISO/IEC 10165-1 Management Information
Model ( ). , M-ACTION , .
M-CREATE , .
.
. , M-CREATE
.
.
, .
, .
:
-
() . ,
,
(containment). , . , . ;
- , , ,
.
, , , .
. ISO/IEC 10165-1. ,
M-CREATE , . M-CREATE , M-CREATE, .
, .
M-DELETE MCREATE. , . :
. , .
, ,
:
- ;

5. 2.0

..

115

, ,
.
.
.
, M-DELETE
,
.

5.3

CMIP

CMIP MISE , . . CMIP , -, , CMIP


, .
CMIP (PDU)
PDU CMISE, CMIS.
CMIP PDU, . ACSE, , ROSE. CMIP
CMISE (. 5.5). , CMISE, ASCE ROSE
CMIP (. 5.6).
CMISE CMIS- ( ), CMIP PDU. CMIS, , CMISE.
CMIP . - X.710 ( . ISO/IEC 9595) .X.711 ( . ISO/IEC 9596-1).
CMIP CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol Machine,
CMIPM). CMIP. , , CMIS
CM ISE-
. CMIS
CMIP . CMIP MIS

() PDU
, CMIP,
M -GET
M -DELETE
M -CANCEL-G ET
M -EVENT-REPORT
(. 5.7).
M -SET

M -ACTION

M -CREATE

MIP PDU
m -Get

m -Set

m -Delete

m -SetConfirm ed

m -Action
m -ActionConfirm ed

m -Create

m -Cancel-GetConfirm ed

m -EventReport

m -EventReportConfirm ed

m -Linked-Reply

5. 2.0

..

116

. 5.5 CMIS CMIP

. 5.6 CMIP ACSE ROSE


CM ISE
A-Associate
A-Release
A-Abort

RO-Invoke, RO-Reject,
RO-Result, RO-Error

ACSE/ROSE API


ACSE

P-CONNECT
P-RELEASE
P-ABORT



ROSE

P-DATA

5. 2.0

..

117

, ..
CMIPM PDU CMISE. PDU ,
. , PDU ,
. , CMIPM PDU, , CMIS CMIS .
CMISE ASCE : A-ASSOCIATE, ARELEASE, A-ABORT, A-P-ABORT.

MISE

CMIS

CMIP
PDU


CMIS


CMIP
CMIP (CMIPM)

CMIP PDU


CMIP PDU

ROSE

. 5.7 CMIPM
. X.638
:
- R ROSE .
ISO/IEC 9072-4;
- A ACSE .
X.247 | ISO/IEC 8650-2
- P
. X.246 | ISO/IEC 8823-2;
- S
. ITU-T Rec. X.245 | ISO/IEC 8327-2.

. , .
A-ASSOCIATE
. A-RELEASE , ,
, .

.
A-ABORT
. A-ABORT

5. 2.0

..

118

. A-ABORT , .
A-P-ABORT
.
4 , :
1. Event, M-EVENT-REPORT; .
2. Event/Monitor Event ,
MGET .
3. Monitor/Control M-GET, M-SET, M-CREATE, M-DELETE
M-ACTION.
(event reporting) .
4. Full Mgr/Agent, CMIS.
, ( )
Event. ,
- ,
.
.
Full Monitor/Control, Event/Monitor Event
A-ASSOCIATE.
CMIP ROSE: ROINVOKE, RO-RESULT, RO-ERROR RO-REJECT. ROSE 5.1.
5.1
ROSE

ROSE

RO-INVOKE

- . .

,
RO-INVOKE, ()
, ,
() RO- INVOKE
, ( ) ROSE
( ROSE) ( ) ROSE

RO-RESULT
RO-ERROR
RO-REJECT-U
RO-REJECT-T

5. 2.0

..

119

CMIS IP- . M-GET,


CMIP IP . CMISE CMIP, (. 5.8)

CM ISE -

M-G ET


CMISE -


M-G ET

M-G ET

CM IPM

RO -INVO KE

M-G ET

CMIPM

RO -RESULT

RO -RESULT

RO SE

RO -INVO KE

RO SE

M-G et

M -G et
(RO-RESULT )

M -G et
M-G et

M -G et
(RO-Invoke)

M-Get

. 5.8. MGET ROSE


CMIP, CMISE PDU. CMIP , CMISE .
GET,
CMISE MGET.
GET
MGET,
:
- c (APDU)
MGET;
- APDU RO-INVOKE.
,
MGET APDU, CMIPM ,
APDU , CMISE
MGET, MGET. APDU , APDU APDU
() MGET ROREJECT-U.
5. 2.0

..

120

MGET (.. ) :
- MGET, CMISE; LinkedID,
MGET;
- APDU, MGET;
- MGET APDU
RORESULT; ROERROR.
APDU, MGET,
:
- APDU ,
linkedID, MGET CMISE;
- APDU , APDU, ; APDU
RO-REJECT-U.
, CMIP
.
. , CMIP
, .

5.4

CMIP Tcl

,
Tcl, CMIP,
-
CMIS [2, 8].
cmip. ,
CMIP, .. -,
.
Tcl . , . Tcl ,
. Tcl
Tcl, , , ,
Tcl. , Tcl, ,
. Tcl
, . Tcl ,
. Tcl
SUN Microsystems.

5. 2.0

..

121

Tcl :
< > < >? < >?;
:
- ,
, ;
- ? (. ),
, , . ? , , 0 1
.
[8] Tcl SMISE CMIP.
Tcl Tcl.
Tcl
cmip connect , .
.
cmip wait ,
CMIP.

, .
cmip info cmip,
cmip connect.
mip
cmip# get class instance ? options ?
cmip# get ,
cmip connect. class () instance () , , (options):
-scope scope ? -atomic?
scope . -atomic,
- , , scope .
-filter filter
filter , ..
, .
-attributes attributes
attributes , . , . , .
cmip# set class instance attributes ?options ?
cmip# set . class () instance ()

5. 2.0

..

122

, . attributes () ;
, : , (modify-operation). (replace), (addValue),
(removeValue) (setToDefault).
, .

-nonconfirmed
, set .
, set .
cmip# action class instance action ?options ?
cmip# action -. class () instance () , .
scope filter. ,
, .
cmip# create class ? options ?
cmip# create c .
:
-instance instance | -superior superiorInst
instance , ..
, (. 5.3).
instance, superiorInst , .
-reference referenceInst
referenceInst
, .
-attributes attributes
attributes ; - .
cmip# delete class instance ?options ?
cmip# delete ,
. , , .
cmip# release
cmip# release
, .. .
cmip# abort
cmip# abort , .
,

5. 2.0

..

123

- - . ,
.. . ,
CMIP ( SNMP-)
.
CMIS/CMIP
, SNMP. CMIS/CMIP , . CMIS/CMIP
.
CMIS/CMIP
.
CMIS/CMIP SNMP
. ,
3 SNMP . CMIS/CMIP , . -
CMIS/CMIP TMN.
CMIS/CMIP , CMIS/CMIP.
TCP/IP: , , .
CMIP TCP/IP.
, CMIP , TCP/IP, . , .
. CMIS/CMIP . 1990

SNMP.
, ,
CMOT (CMIS/CMIP TCP/IP), , , , [11].

, ,
CMIS/CMIP, .

5. 2.0

..

124

5.
1. .. . .: ,1997.
2. . Tcl (Tool Command Language). .: , 2001.
3. CMIP/CMIS

Object
Oriented
Network
Management.
http://www.cellsoft.de/telecom/cmip.html 16.01.2001
4. CMIP Services and Topology Agent Programming Guide. Document Number: SC316544-00.
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/cgi-bin/bookmgr/BOOKS/ISTP7000/CCONTENTS
25.03.2002
5. CMIS/C++: Application Programming Interface/ TMF 041. 2000. Issue 1.1.
http://www.tmforum.org/sdata/documents/TMFC1402%20TMFC780%20TMF041.pdf
3.02.01
6. Divakara K. Udupa TMN: Telecommunications Management Network. McGrawHill. 1999
7. ITU-T: Recommendation X.711. Information technology Open Systems
Interconnection Common management information protocol. 1997.
8. Kernchen M., Schoenwaelder J. A Tcl interface to the CMIP protocol.
http://chaos.iu.hioslo.no/doc/tclman/scotty218/cmip.n.html 18.04.2002
9. Raman L. CMISE Functions and Services/IEEE Communications Magazine. 1993.
Vol. 31, 5.
http://www.comsoc.org/livepubs/surveys/public/raman/raman.html 4.04.01
10. Ranganathan Parasuram The Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP).
http://www.ittc.ukans.edu/~ram/docs/801/cmip.html 17.01.01
11. RFC 1095. The Common Management Information Services and Protocols for the
Internet (CMOT and CMIP). October, 1990.

5. 2.0

..

127

6.
TMN
6.1 TMN
TMN

.
TMN . M.3200. M.32xx . TMN
, .
TMN,
, . M.3400.
[17, 18].

. , . ,
7
, ,
.

.
TMN . M.3020.
:
- . M.3207.1 ( 05.1996
.).
- . M.3208.1 TMN : ( 10.1997
.).
- . - M.3208.2 TMN : ( 03.1999 .).
- . - M.3208.3 TMN : ( 02.2000.).
- . - M.3208.3 TMN
IMT-2000 ( 01.2001).
- . - M.3211.1 TMN:
( 05.1996).

TMN. ,
.
. M.3200 ,
,
. 6.1 ( . - .3200, 1997 .):
6. 2.

..

128

+
+
+
+


+
+
+
+
+
+
(Network Provisioning)

+
+
+
+
+
+
(Work Force Management)
, +
+
+
+
+


+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+


+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+


+
+
+
+
+
+


+
+
+
+
+
+
. + , .

TMN

6.1

+
+

+
+

+
+


. , . M.3200
. , ,
, , ,
.., 6.1, .. .
: , , .

, ,
(alarm summary), (alarm
event criteria), ,
.
TMN, , (route larm report),
(request alarm history).
. M.3400. ,
: .
:
6. 2.

..

129

;
;
;
.
TMN
:
-
, .
- TMN .
-
OS

.
- , , ( ), .
- , .
,
.
, .
- .
[3].
[16] TMN. ,
TMN.

.
,
.
TMN . Q.823.1 Management Conformance Statement Proforma, 1997 ( ).
1)
2)
3)
4)

6.2 Q
Q ( Q.3) () OS. Q
TMN. Q . Q.811, Q
. Q.812. . G.784 Q
SDH.

6. 2.

..

130

, Q, . 6.1.
( )

ASE

FTAM
ISO 8571

CMIP

ASCE

ASCE

ROSE

X.227 X.217

X.227 X.217

X.219 X.229

X.226 X.209 X.216

X.225 X.215


ISO 8473-3 (CLNS)
ISO 8208 X.25

ISO 7776 LAPB
X.25

X.21 / X.21 bis
V.35 G.703

ISO 9595 ISO 9596

X.224 X.214

ISO 8473-3 (CLNS)

ISO 8473-4 (CLNS)

ISO 802.3 LCC


ISO 802.3 M AC

Q.921 LapD

ISO 802.2
Ethernet

SDH DCC
2M TS n

CLNP/CONP
AAL5
ATM

. 6.1 Q
,
DCN, Q.
PDU , 2.
PDU (File Transfer Access Method,
FTAM). CMISE . Q, ,
GDMO/ASN.1 CORBA/IDL (. 7).
Q , ,
E1
- . .

Q .
: CMISE
6. 2.

..

131

FTAM . FTAM ASCE, CMISE


ACSE, ROSE. Q ASN.1 BER.
:
- . X.216 ;
- . X.226 , ;
- . X.209 BER ASN. 1.
(), ..
. .
,
.
. Q (). :
- . X.215 ;
- . X.225 ,
.
, .. ,
. ,
, . .
, , , . , ,
,
() .
:
- . X.214 ;
- . X.224 , ;
- ISO 8602 , .

.
:
-
. (Connectionless Network Protocol, CLNP);
- CLNP .
(End System, ES)
(Intermediate System, IS) ISIS.
, ,
CLNP.
6. 2.

..

132

:
- ISO 8348
. c
(Connection-mode Services, CONS) (Connectionless-mode Services, CLNS);
- ISO 8473-1 ;
- ISO 8473-2 CLNS ISO 8802;
- ISO 8473-3 CLNS X.25;
- ISO 8473-4 CLNS ;
- ISO 8473-5 CLNS B- .

. LapD (link
access procedure D-channel, D), .
- Q.921. LapD
. - G.784. Ethernet
(logical link control, LLC). X.25
(high-level data
link control protocol, LapB), ISO 7776.
Q . Q .
- Q
,
(ETSI), -, ISO , ATM (ATM Forum). , ATM ,
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM).
Q ,
. , . , .


Q,
.
ETSI [69, 24]
-, Q V.5.1, V.5.2. www.etsi.org
Q .
,
, . - Q.825
Q.3: ( 06.1998 .).
, ()
Q , .
ETSI.
6. 2.

..

133

. (Entity Relationships diagram, ERdiagram), . . , ETSI


-. 4 . Q
.
ER
( ).
.
,
Q, , , , ,
.
Q ,
ETSI, ISO -, ( ) GDMO .
Q ,

. Q
, ,
, ,
.
, Q . ( ). , , , . ,
- - MIB .
Q , GDMO . .

Q,
.
, Q, , . 6.2 [2,23]. . 6.2
, Q / ( , , ). , Q, , , ( ), , (, ), (, , -, ).
6.2
6. 2.

..

134




Centrex



7

.

V.5


Q ,
.
( ).
, , , .
, Q
, -
, . , Q, . , , , -. / .
Q , - (ITU-T)
X.700 M.3100. , , (, ), . M.3100. (, ) .
Q / .

6.3 X
6. 2.

..

135

X ,
SDH . SDH
[5].
;
(Virtual Container, VC) . SDH (STM-n)
. ,
. SDH [5], , ETSI EN 300 147 V1.4.1. Transmission
and Multiplexing (TM); Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH); Multiplexing structure,
2001. [ ; ; ].

VC-12

VC-2

VC-3

VC-4

. 6.2 SDH
( -), VC. VC
. . VC-n . SDH
VC-12,VC-2,VC-3,VC-4 . VC-n STM-n
.
X , ,
(path provisioning) (fault management).
X OS , (. 6.3)
ETSI , , (ensemble approach). ,
SDH, ,
OS , .
6. 2.

..

136

OS

x
OS

x
X

OS

. 6.3 X
,
.
(Ensemble Service, ENS), . 6.4.
, (Management
Function Sets, MFS), (basic Management Functions, MF), , OS .
ENS

MFS

MF

MFS

MF

MFS

MF

MF

. 6.4
SDH.
[12]. - SDH British Telecom ( 45 . , 36 . ,
2000 . 14 , 200 ), Cable&Wireless (7,2 . , 26 40 ), KPNQWest (14,7
.., 39 ), Telia (10 . , 9 ) (
, 6, 2000 ., -).
. SDH
, SDH
(. 6.5). , .
6. 2.

..

S64

VC-12
VC-4

STM -16

S64

S16

STM-64

S16

S64

STM -16

S16

S16

S16

S64

S64

137


VC-12
VC-4

. 6.5
SDH
VC12, VC4.
(Link Connections, LC), VC4 , .
LC ; , , . , VC12 , [12].

. , . ,
.
, X.
, X VC4 VC12. ,
,
.
, / (path
provisioning) .

VC12 , VC12 (Deliverablerable Link Connection, DLC) .
(link connection) [12]
(), , SDH
. - 7 1 2
(. .. , 7, .: -,
1999, . 20 - 22). link

2005 ., 2, . 214. VC-12
.
6. 2.

..

138

. ID () ID
DLC. , () , :
- DLC;
- DLC, .
, . , DLC
.
MFS, ,
:
- DLC ;
- DLC ;
- DLC
;
- DLC SNC (SubNetwork Connections) , , , ;
- DLC
SNC (Sub Network Connection, )
;
- (DLC) ;
- , SNC.
, . 6.4,
(. 6.3), , , ( ).

6.3

DLC

DLC


6. 2.


DLC (DLC reservation)
(Available Connections Change
Dissemination, ACCD)
DLC
ACCD
ACCD
DLC
SNC
..

139


DLC
SNC
ACCD


(Ability to Connect Change
Dissemination, ATCCD)

LC SNC , LC SNC.
, .
,
() .
.
, ( , ,
).
LC LC,
.

.
MFS, ,
:
- (alarm processing)
;
- (alarm event logging), .
,
X , , , , . 6.4.
. 6.4 (
).

6.4

( ), DLC ( ).
6. 2.

..

140

Managed Object Class


Managed Object Instance
Reserve connection replay /
/

:
DLC LC;
LC .

X
x

MLink Connections
Connection Id (LCId)
passed / /
Connection Id = DLCId
a Network CTP Id = CPId
z Network CTP Id = CPId
failed / /
logical Problem
problem cause = ....
/ /

M-ACTION c :
Mode / /
Base Object C lass
Base Object Instance
Action T ype / /

Confirm ed /c /
MLink Connections
Connection Id (LCId)
reserve connection / /

DLC
M-ACTION mLink
Connection (. 6.6).
. , DLC .
DLC.
() , ; . ,
.
. 6.6. DLC X

: mLink Connection , .
, DLC ( mDeliverable Link
Connection) , DLC ( mNetwork CTP, Connection Termination Point )
(.6.7)
. 6.7 DLC X
,
mDeliverable Link Connection, (reserved). (vailable connections) 6. 2.

..

141

mLink Connection . , ACCD .


, ,
X SDH.
X [11].

6.4 F G
F WS OS
(MD)
. ,
Q X, , ,
. GDMO/ASN.1 IDL (. 4 7). f g. f OS (, ),
OS ; , OS.
F ,
, , ,
OS (MD). , , () ,
, .. F , , ,
. 6.5.
6.5

6. 2.











( )
( )

, ,




..

142

/ , . 6.5,
G [13].
G .
, ,
, . G TMN , .
G , , , .
TMN
. , ,
.
OS, .
.

.
,
G. , G
TMN, ANSI.

, , .
,
. ,
(, , , ,
, , , , ).
ISO 9241 , . . , . , .
. TMN
: 10 , 11 , 13
, 16 .

. Z.300 Z.350.
TMN
OSF/Motif,
Hewlett-Packard Open View. IBM
(Common User Access, CUA) Microsoft.
6. 2.

..

143

, , Hewlett-Packard
Open View, ,

.

.
OS (OS SDH, OS PDH, OS
ATM). OS
OS,
OS.
ANSI ,
10 .
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.

.
,
, .

, ,
, . , , . , ,
, .
. .
, , , ,
, . ,
,
.
. , , . . ,
. , ,
. . 6.6 , .
6.6

6. 2.


,
(, )


,
..

144


(..
,
)

. 6.8
( OSF/Motif).

. 6.8. ( -)
,
.

. ,
.

MIB. ,
.

. . 6.9
.
:
( ), , ,
, ,
. , ,
.
G
,
:
6. 2.

..

145

;
();
.
.

Help ( ) .
, , ,
.
. 6.9
( -)
( )
,
. (. 6.10):
- ;
- ;
- ;
- , ..
;
- ,
;

6. 2.

..

146


() .
. 6.10 ( -)

,
,
.
, G

. . , . G
, TMN.

6.5 TMN
6.5.1

TMN (Unified TMN Requirements, Analysis


and Design, UTRAD) () TMN. , TMN :
- ,
- ,
- .
RAD (user Requirements, Analysis and
Design) [14,16].
RAD
(Unified Modelling
Language, UML).
TMN.
6. 2.

..

147

UML TMN .
UML -.

CORBA,
TMN, UML
(. 2).
TMN ()
. - M.3200. , . - M.3400.
.
UTRAD
,
():
1. ( , ).
2. .
3. .
TMN UTRAD , .
UML (. 2) [21, 22]. (network
management paradigm), GDMO.
():
- ;
- ;
- , .
.
6.5.2

.
-
. , -
.
,
.
. , , .
, .
.
6. 2.

..

148

, .
, ,
, .
,
(
, ) (Leased Circuit Services, LCS)
.
X . ,
Q.
.
. . ,
. ,
,
.
, .
.
, 5 . ,
. ,
: ,
, ; ; ; .
6.5.3

, .
2.1, , . ,
.
UML .
. . - .3020 UML ; UML
SDL.
. , - , - .
, , ,
6. 2.

..

149

, , ,
. .
, (, , ), .
,
, ,
, .
. , , , , .
.
.
, , .
.
,
,

-.
, , .
.
.
2.

TMN. .
TMN
GDMO
, , , , ,
. ASN.1.
4.3, GDMO , .
( ) , . . - X.722 . ,
, . -
X.722 ASN.1. (. 4.3).
, - ISO, .
TMN CORBA IDL. , UML, ,
. ,
( ) , .
6. 2.

..

150

6.6 UML TMN


6.6.1

TMN UML [1, 4]


, ,
(interaction) .
(messages)
. : , . .
, ( , , ).
- . . , :
-
.
.
,
, .
-

.
, , .
-
.
. 6.11. .
.
, . . sendTime ( , )
receiveTime ( , )
a: b: c: d: .
, , . , elapsedTime ( ), executionStartTime (
), queuedTime ( ).

6. 2.

..


{b.receiveTime a.sendTime < 1 }
{c.receiveTime b.sendTime < 10 }

{d.receiveTime d.sendTime < 5 }

a:

151

b: " "

c:

"
"

d:

"
"

< 1 .

. 6.11 UML
, (interaction)
(collaboration) .


(messages), -
- . .
(stimulus).
.
UML / [16, 18].
6.6.2

TMN /

[15]. . X,
;
, - Q
. , , .
- , . , . , , . , , 6. 2.

..

152

, .
(actor),
. - M.3320 TMN .
(service provider) ,

. . ,
, ,
, .
, . , IP- .

; .
. /, ()
. , , Service Name ( ) Service Class (
).

. ,
, - , .
, . - M.3400,
.
,
.
. 6.12 , -
- .
, (use case) ;
, , :

()
,

,
.
, .
, .
- -
(service
provisioning). , ,
, 6. 2.

..

153

<<include>>


(Service Provisioning)

<<include>>


( )

<<include>>


(Trouble Adminisration )


(Maintenance)
: -, . M.3020

. 6.12.


.
. ,
.
include ,

.
6.6.3

UML
/ . ,
, , . 6.13, (request), 1 *. ,
,
(service request).

(Service customer)

(Service request)
<<mandatory>>provider request
number:Single

0...*

customer name

1...1

0...*

(LCS request)


(link service request)


(LCS)
ServiceID:Single

0...*

(link service request)
<<frozen>>link connection ID:Single

. 6.13.
6. 2.

..

154

. (provider request number) . .6.13. , (LCS request)


(link servise request). , .

.
(ustomer name)
(service customer). , 0*.
, , (service
ID). frozen , ,
. , (link connection ID)
, .
(service request class) . 6.14.

( )



()

()

. 6.14.
UML SDL.
, .
. 6.9. . , , 6. 2.

..

155

. , , , .
, .
X ,
. . , UML TMN.

6. 2.

..

156

C 6.
1. . (UML)
Rational
Rose
98i
CASE-

.
[http://www.interface.ru/public/990804/uml4b.htm 5.07.02]
2. .., .., ..
-90 // . 2001. 5. . 12 - 14.
3. . . .: , 2001.
4. .., .., ... -
UML. -. 1999.
5. .. : . .: , 2001 .
6. Baras J., Li H., Mykoniatis G. Technical research report. Integrated, Distributed Fault
Management for Communication Networks. CSHCN T.R. 98-10. (ISR T.R. 98-21)
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7. EN 301 064-1. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN); Information models
and protocols for the management and control of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
switching network element; Part 1: Q3 interface specification. 1999. V1.1.2
8. ETSI EN 300 376-1. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN); Q3 interface at
the Access Network (AN) for configuration management of V5 interfaces and associated
user ports; Part 1: Q3 interface specification. 1999. V1.2.1
9. ETSI EN 300 378-1. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN); Q3 interface at
the Access Network (AN) for fault and performance management of V5 interfaces and
associated user ports; Part 1: Q3 interface specification. 1999. V.1.2.1
10. EN 300 292. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN); Functional specification
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(OS/NE) interface. - 1998. V1.2.1.
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provisioning and fault management. June, 1999 06. V1.1.1.
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[http://pda.etsi.org/pda/home.asp?wki_id=3383 12.08.01]
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1997.
15. Hellerstein J.L. Automating Performance Management Using Case-Based Reasoning.
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16. ITUT:. TMN interface specification methodology. Recommendation M.3020 02/2000.
6. 2.

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17. ITUT: TMN management services and telecommunications managed areas: overview.
Recommendation M.3200. 1997.
18. ITUT: TMN management functions. Recommendation M.3400. 02/2000.
19. ITUT: TMN F interface requirements. Recommendation M.3300. 07/1998.
20. ITUT: TMN F interface requirements. Recommendation M.3300. Prepublished recommendation. 07/1998.
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[http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/01-09-67 7.07.02]
24. Petermueller W. J. Q3 Object Models for the Management of Exchanges.//IEEE
Communications. March, 1996. Vol. 34, 3.

6. 2.

..

158

7.

7.1.

. , , : ,
, , ;
, .
, TMN, . .3010 -
,
,
, . , -, . - [4].

.
.
,
. Hewlett Packard ( PC WEEK 29-30 20.08.02),
Compaq TeMIP 350 000 ,
13 .
,
, / , , .. ,
, TMN.
1995 .
(TeleManagement Forum, TMF)
,

, -,
.
5..7 TMF
defacto ( ) [15,18,28].

7. 2.0

..

159

.
, , , , .
, .
() , , . , ... , , [5, . 17].
.

. , , , , [5, . 124]
.
, , , // , .
.
,
.
,
,
(, , ) ,
. , .. .
,
.
,
. , (. 7.1).

[13], .. ( ).
,
, , , , , ,
.
, (, ), ,
.

7. 2.0

..

160

n-



i-1

. 7.1 ,
. 7.1
(triggers) ( ).
, / , , ..
.
/ , .. . ,

, -
/ . ,
.

.
. .
, ( ) .
,
. , ,
. ; ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
. [18], eTOM.
eTOM Telecom Operations Map ( [4], [3].
7. 2.0

..

161

. ..). eTOM
TOM ,
(ebusiness). eTOM , .
, TOM eTOM.
eTOM
. ,
.

7.2

eTOM ,
( ), , (customer),
(service), (resource), / (supplier/partner)
.
Telecom Network Operation
Map 2000 ., eTOM. , , :
, , ;
, , / ;
, . ,
( , );
.
, ;
, , , ,
;
/ , / ;
(),
.
, (product) , .
(service)
7. 2.0

..

162

.
. eTOM
(eTOM business
process framework), :
;
;
, , . ;
,
, .
eTOM . 7.2.

,
,

, /

(, , )


( , ,)

. 7.2. 0
0 (eTOM business process framework level 0 process). .
() : , , , .. ; , .
, , , ,
.
7. 2.0

..

163

,
: , , ,
, .
,
( , , ), , , , .
,
, eTOM , (fulfillment), (assurance),
(billing).
. eTOM
, .
,
, , ,
, , .
eTOM .
, eTOM, , [4]. eTOM , , , , , ,
, .
.
.
, ,

, eTOM .
. 7.3. 1, .
.
. 7.3 ( 2), . .
. 7.3 , .
(endtoend) ,
.
/ (customer operations processes),
FAB (Fulfillment, Assurance, Billing).
(operations support
& readiness) FAB. , , 7. 2.0

..

164

FAB, , FAB
. FAB
.
(strategy & commit), (infrastructure lifecycle management)
(product lifecycle management) . ,
,
. , ,
. . 7.3
. , .

, ,

(SIP)


( F ulfilm ent)

( A ssurance)

( B illing)



, ,
, -

. ,

,

. 7.3 1
, (
):
(
);
, ( );
- (
7. 2.0

..

165

);
, ( ).
, .
. , , , . , , IP ..
.
SIP , ,
(customer perations processes) ,
, , . , 7
( ). SIP , .
, (supply chain management). , . , ,
online, .

, (Business Support System, BSS) (Operations
Support System, OSS) [17,19]. OSS 7.6.


.
,
, . .
.
7.3. (fulfillment) .
2
(Level 2), . 7.4.

7. 2.0

..

166

. 7.4 2
2 . , ,
.
, ,
.

7.3

, TMF , , ,
,
. , TMF
,
. , ..
( ) .
TMF , ,
,
. TMF
3 TMN, TMN.
2000 .
Telecom Operation Map (), eTOM, 7.2. TOM 2000 .
(. 7.5).
. 7.5 .
7. 2.0

..

167

7.3. . 7.5 . 7.4,


.

QoS

. 7.5.
,
. ,
. TOM , , :
(service fulfillment), .. , ;
( , ,
, , ,
, );
, .. ,
, .
. 7.5 , .. . , ; ,
, .
. 7. 2.0
..

168

. , , . , .
, 7.2,
, .
, . ,
. .
. 7.5 ,
, , . : (customer care) (service
development and operations processes).
, , , . , ,
.
, .
. ,
, , .. [7].
,
, . . , , .

. . 7.6.
(Service Agreement Level, SLA) [8].

.
. 7.6. , ,
SLA (, ). 7. 2.0

..

169

/
. . ,
( ,
).
, , . .

SLA

FAB
c

. 7.6 TOM

,
. ,
. .
, , . 7.6, ,
7. 2.0

..

170

. , , , . [13] .

. ,
, . ,
, , ,
. ,
. (. . 7.1)
, :
;
;
(,
);
,
.
, , . , , ,
, .
(network planning and development) .
.
(network provisioning) ,
.. , , .
(network inventory management) ,
.

.

( ). ,
, (,
Q) ,
.

7.4

7. 2.0

..

7.4.1

171

1960 1980 . , . , SNMP CMIP,


. . C
. ,
[12,14].
TMN
:

, ;

CMIP ;

.
1995 . ISO/IEC .900,

(Open Distributed Processing, ODP). CORBA (. 7.6)
. ODP-
. .903 (Open Distributed Management Architecture, ODMA).

. , . .
. .

. , .
. 7.7. . , .

7. 2.0

..

172

...

...

...

. 7.8
[11]:
( );
( ; );
( CORBA).
ODMA , , . ODMA , , , CORBA,
.
ODMA , OSI CORBA, ODMA
, . [10,19]:
(Common Object Request
Broker Architecture, CORBA) Object Management Group (OMG);
(Java Remote Method Invocation, Java
RMI), Sun Microsystems;
(Microsoft Distributed Common Object Model,
DCOM), COM+.

, .

7. 2.0

..

7.4.2

173

INA

1990 . Telcordia Technologies ( Bellcore) OSCA , (Information Networking Architecture, INA).


OSCA/INA [20]. OSCA (object packaging)
(building block).
(contracts).
TMN , MIB . , MIB, ,
.. . .
,
, .. . , TMN, Q, .
, . , TMN, , . ,
, (operability) (interoperability). OSCA . OSCA
,
.
.
INA
(loosely-coupled distributed computing) (service
contracts) (management contracts). , -
.

. , ,

. , . ,
, .. .
;
, , , , . .
OSCA/INA :
(Process Automation Building Blocks, PABB);
(Human Interaction Building Blocks, HIBB);
(Enterprise Information Building Blocks, EIBB).
7. 2.0

..

174

( ), , , . , , . , . ,
, .

( . 7.8).

CAM I

CAMI

. 7.8
:
, , , , , , ;

;

, .
.
(Common Application Management Interface, CAMI),
;
,

;
. 7. 2.0

..

175

().
, CAMI
CORBA CORBA .
WEB. ,
CORBA
WEB c XML (eXtensible Markup Language).
,
(tier) . OSCA/INA (. 7.9):
(Enterprise Information Tier, EIT),
(Process Automation Tier, PAT),
/ (Human Interaction Tier,
HIT).
EIT , .. , .
(EIBB) , . ,
( ).
PAT . (PABB) , , ,
. , ,
.
HIT ( ) , ,
(User Centered Design, UCD), ,
.
(HIBB)
. ,
. ,
. EIBB
, . PABB , HIT,
EIT . HIBB , .
. 7.9 , ( ) . . , .
, .
7. 2.0
..

HIT

176

PAT

EIT



TMN

. 7.9 INA
, ,
(Distributed Processing Environment,
DPE). .
, , TOM TMN.
(object
encapsulation), , . , , .

. .

(trading service), , . . , .

.
(Common Business Objects, CBO). , ,
. 7. 2.0

..

177

, SDH, , .
(TOM).
. , . HIT () ; PAT ; EIT .
: HIT - Java,
EIT - SQL EJB-QL. , , ,
.

7.5


TeleManagement Forum Application Component Team (ACT)
(Technology Integration Map, TIM). ,
OSCA/INA . , TIM [28] .
I. (An
Applications Components Direction Statement) (re-usable)
.
II. (Technology Direction
Statement) ,
(Operating Support System, OSS).
III 1 2,
.
TIM 1999 .
(Technology Integration Map
Framework). TIM I
. TIM , . , .
TIM Telecom Operation Map () (. 7.10). TIM TOM , . 7.10
7. 2.0

..

178

(application direction).
-
.
, .
.
, . ? , ,
.
.
,
.
(Technology Direction Statement).
, . ,
, . TMF ,
(Service Providers Integrated Requirements for Information Technology).
SPIRIT TMF OMG.
SPIRIT - (off-the-shelf technology, OTS).
, 1996 . TMF .
OTS TMN.
, ,
, .
. 7.10 TMF
.

7. 2.0

..

TM N

179

TO M
/

(
G B921 v. 3.0)
TIM

,
(
G B909 v. 3.0)

TM F


TIM



TIM

Spirit -

. 7.10
TMF

TOM.
TOM TIM,
.
. ,
.
(logical system). ,
.

, . .
.
, , .
(middleware),
.
. 7.10 , .
. , 7. 2.0

..

180

[6 ].

7.6

OSS

OSS (Operating Support System) [4], [3]. OSS /


,
.
, , .
, , /
.
, ,
. OSS
, , .
, ,
OSS, [25]:
,
(SDH, ATM, DPT) . ;
, , , , ,
IP, . ,
(service network);
()
. , , (
), , .
, OSS, ,
:
:
;
;
;
( );
(,
).
:
/ ;
/ ;
7. 2.0

..

181

;
.
:
;
, .
:
, ;
;
.
():
;
;
;
;
.
OSS Telcordia
, . 7.11.

OSS
O SS

API

CRM

, IP- AT M, Frame Relay

SDH, PDH

. 7.11 OSS

.
, (CMIP, SNMP, HTTP)
, OSS . , .
7. 2.0

..

182

TMN, TMF, ,
, .
OSS , , . 7.1.
7.1
OSS

()/

+++


()

++

+
+++

+
++

+
++

++
++

:
+++ OSS
++ OSS
+ OSS

, OSS
. , , OSS. ETSI (message bus). () OSS,
.
OSS , .
. 7.12 [29].
:
;
. ,
, ;
( );
,
7. 2.0

..

183

, .

QoS

...

. 7.12 OSS c
( ETSI)

, (Enterprise Application Integration, EAI). : CORBA, TIBCO (
Hewlett-Packard), Kabira, Corus.
, ,
, (adaptation unit). , API, . 7.11.
, . , (tag), ASN.1.
, , .
,
OSS, . OSS ,
, ,
. , , XML.
, . - (common business object model)
,
. 7. 2.0

..

184

.
, (workflow engine) TN Forum OSS (New
generation OSS, NGOSS).
NGOSS .
NGOSS, 2000 .,
, . NGOSS , .. . NGOSS ( . ). TOM ,
NGOSS.
OSS.
OSS ,
. 7.10, 5 20 . OSS .
, 60% 70%
, OSS .
, OSS
.
OSS.
OSS,
OSS. , . ,
(, IP
DSL) ,
OSS. ,
,
. :
, , ;
, , OSS ;
, .
JP Morgan Securities Inc, OSS: ; / ; , .. .
Telcordia OSS (, , ) 2030 , IDC,
Synergis, JP Morgan , 2004 .
OSS OSS NGOSS,
7. 2.0

..

185

, , , . , OSS OSS .
OSS.
OSS, , ( , , ),
OSS. , BSS/OSS [9].
, OSS ,
. OSS.

7.7

CORBA

7.7.1

middleware

,
.
:
CORBA ( , );
DCE - (),
Open Group;
DCOM - Microsoft ;
DTP - (Distributed Transaction
Processing);
, , X/Open TP, TxRPC, ATMI, CICS.

. , -
[21,22], TMF
[1,2,23,24,26]
CORBA.
.
(Distributed Component Object Model, DCOM)
- , Microsoft
- OLE
(Object Linking and Embedding), COM ActiveX.
80- ,
. 90- OLE 2.0,
- (Component Object Model, COM).
OLE
, COM.
7. 2.0

..

186

COM ,

.
, . DCOM
: . OLE ActiveX, OLE .
DCOM . .
. DCOM - , , .
DCOM . , DCOM. DCOM.
-
, DCOM . DCOM ,
, . , , DCOM , .
- DCOM ( , DCOM) - , . : , .
DCOM .
CORBA DCOM ,
. , DCOM
, , ,
. ,
. Microsoft
, IETF, DCOM
Microsoft. , ,
DCOM ,
, - [10].
Microsoft , (transaction server) DCOM
, , , ,
. , CORBA DCOM .
, OMG COM/CORBA [16].
, [1], Java RMI ( Sun Microsystems)
, CORBA.
(Distributed Transaction Processing, DTP)
- .
, (, )
. , ( ), 7. 2.0
..

187

. ,
CORBA .
CORBA (Common Objects Request Broker Architecture - ) - , OMG.
CORBA (OMA, Object
Management Architecture) OMG.
OMA (core object model), (reference model). , .., , .
, ,
.
OMA : (Object Request Broker, ORB), ,
(object services), (common facilities) (application objects). , CORBA - , ORB, , .
CORBA (
2 4), : . . (signature), , .
. , CORBA .

(. 7.13) [16].

7. 2.0

..

188

DII

ORB

IDL
stub

IDL

IDL

ORB
:

, ORB
, ORB
STUBS

. 7.13 CORBA
.
, ,
(.. ),
. () .
CORBA , (Interface Definition Language, IDL). . IDL
. , IDL,
(, ). , (API).
CORBA - ORB, [2]. ORB , . .
() , , ,
() (). ORB ,
CORBA, -, ,
.
. 7.13 .
. ORB. , , , , 7. 2.0
..

189

, .. [1,2]. CORBA. () ( -),


ORB , . , .
, . ( TMN ).
, (object adapter)
( )
(.. ). (.. ,
). , , . , , ,
, . ,
. ORB.
, : ,
( ),
;
.
ORB () , . , ,
, . ,
, CORBA , , ORB.
(), (),
.
. , CORBA 7.4 ,
.
CORBA ,
, .
IDL,
(stub). stub IDL, ,
, .
, , , .
(skeleton),
IDL,
.
, . , .
7. 2.0
..

190

ORB . , (Dynamic Invocation Interface, DII) (Dynamic Skeleton Interface, DSI) , , . , . , , . DII DSI
CORBA (Interface Repository, IR), IDL. DII
, IR.
, , , , .
IDL ,
, SDL 4.3
GDMO. , SDL,
.

7.7.2

CORBA

CORBA
Multi-Technology Network Management Solution Set. NML-EML Interface Version 2.0. TMF 814. Version 2.0. August 2001 ( . 2 NML-EML). TMF , . Catalyst Project. (Interface Implementation
Specification, IIS),
.
IIS
(Network Management System, NMS) (Element Management System, EMS). ( ) NMS, ( ) - EMS. :
, (PDH, SDH, ATM, MPLS). ATM ., , [27];
, EMS,
, ;
;
, ;
EMS ;
(, , , ) ;
.
7. 2.0

..

191

, , IDL ( -):
struct ManagedElement_T {
globaldefs::NamingAttributes_T name; /* , EMS
. */
string userLabel; /* , , ..
NMS. , .
/ */
string nativeEMSName; /*,
EMS. 0*/
string owner;
/*NMS . setOwner */
string location;
/* .
, , , , . .
*/
string version;
/*
. */
string productName; /* ,
. .
*/
CommunicationState_T communicationState; /* EMS .
*/
boolean emsInSyncState; /* EMS
. false , ; true , */
transmissionParameters::LayerRateList_T supportedRates; /* (crossconnect
rate) . */
globaldefs::NVSList_T additionalInfo; /*
, EMS NMS . */
};

:
string - ;
const - ,
;
struct , ; - ManagedElement_T;
boolean ;
/* */ - ;
productName - ;
:: - , ,
, . :
globaldefs , , MNS EMS. ,
7. 2.0

..

192

globaldefs - ;
transmissionParameters - , ,

, , (SDH), (1.5Mbit/s async/PDH signal,


2Mbit/s PDH signal, OC3_STS3_and_RS_STM1, ATM_VC for ATM Virtual
Channels, Gigabit ethernet, Fibre Channel).
ORB
. ,
, , .. ,
, , ,
,
EMS, -. , . 6.9.
- [21],
, ,
, / GDMO, . - M.3100, BasicLayerNetworkDomain (
) BasicSubnetwork (
), . - G.855.1.
GDMO. , . - (network interface) NetworkR1 , GDMO. GDMO IDL . . , : ManagedElement
( ) Network ( ) . . . 3120
54
.
TMN CORBA
:
. - Q.816 TMN, CORBA (
01.2001);
. - Q.821.1 TMN,
CORBA ( 09.2001);
. - Q.822.1 TMN, CORBA ( 10.2001).
, , (object dapter).
,
.
, CORBA, . , , . . , ORB.
, , . 7. 2.0

..

193

Factory.
, (. 7.14).

( Get, Set, Action)

( )


(Notification)

CORBA
( )


ODP

. 7.14 CORBA
, , ( ) raises ( ).
,
.
, (-).
CORBA
IDL. IDL (object services)
(common services) CORBA.
. IDL .
, TMN : GDMO ASN.1. IDL
, CORBA
(, ).
IDL .
7.7.3

CORBA CMISE/SNMP

CORBA (, ), ORB. ORB, ORB, . 16 CORBA.



(, [11], - ) CORBA:
(naming service)
,
. ;
(life cycle service) , () ;
7. 2.0

..

194

(event service) ( ). ()
, ,
. ( );
(security service)
,
, . ;
(transaction service)
, ,
.
CORBA CORBA (CORBA object services), .
, CORBA
, : , , , , /, , , ..
CORBA,
CORBA.
CMISE
CORBA (basic distributed management interaction facilities). CORBA,
- . (management broker)
CORBA , 5
CMISE, GET, SET, ACTION, DELETE, CREATE, CANCEL - GET,
Event-Report.
[24] (object
selection service). ,
. ,
.
TMN,
CORBA. CORBA.
CORBA
(. . 7.15).

7. 2.0

..

IDL

CORBA

CORBA-CMIP

(,
)

195

CM IP
(Get, Set, Action)
CM IP

Notitfication

GDM O

CORBA

CMIP

. 7.15 CORBA CMISE


CORBA . (interaction facilities) CORBA.
CORBA.
CORBA.
, CORBA, , , CORBA IIOP.
CORBA TMN.
,
GDMO/ASN.1, CORBA
GDMO/ASN.1 IDL. ETSI
TMF (Joint Inter-Domain Management,
JIDM). ,
CORBA TMN SNMP
, .
CORBA
. 7.16, , CORBA/IDL,
. , ORB
CORBA CORBA .

CORBA

Web-
http://www.omg.org/corba/cfindex.htm.
CORBA CMISE
. 7.2. [30].

7. 2.0

..

196


SNM P

CORBA-

GDM O/ASN.1

IDL

TM N
/OSI

SNM P

CM IP
DII

IDL
stubs

ORB

IDL

SNM P

CORBA/
CM IP

CORBA/
SNM P

IIOP
ORB
IIOP
CORBA
-CORBA

. 7.16 CORBA
7.2

7. 2.0

CMIP

CORBA

ORB

CORBA OID

ACSE

ORB

C Notification service ( 3.0)



GDMO

IDL

M-GET,
M-SET,
M-CANCEL-GET,
M-CREATE,
M-DELETE

Request
Response
CancelRequest
LocateReply
CloseConnection
MessageError

ASN.1

..

197

4 [31] CORBA
TMN(SNMP):
1) CORBA CMIP;
2) CORBA SNMP;
3) CMIP CORBA;
4) SNMP CORBA;
CORBA . - ,
CORBA, DCE. ,
(Remote Procedure Call, RPC). DCE
. DCE
40 .
CORBA
COM CORBA,
, CORBA
. , [3].
, OMG Forester Research. 50 , ; 44%
CORBA Java, 24% - COM/DCOM, 12% - Java,
CORBA, COM/DCOM, 16% , 4%
. , , , CORBA.

7.8

. /. (. 7.3) [28].
7.3.

1
2
3
4

Web/JAVA

(TM )

CORBA, DCOM, RMI


CMIP/GDMO
SNMP/MIB
SQL, SQL-Net, ODBC,

7. 2.0

..

198

:
1. -
/ - - . ,
- (Client Relations Management, CRM).
1. -
Web / Java- . -
. , WEB,
. .
2.
- .
2 - CORBA. (workflow) . CORBA de-facto, de-jure,
.
3.
, , ,
. C
, , , .
3 -
- CMIP/GDMO/ASN.1 SNMP/MIB.
4.
,
.
4 - SQL
ODP .
, , Internet/WWW,
.
.
(Intranet).
, -.
firewalls (, , ). , ,
. ,
-.
Web-.
7. 2.0
..

199

, WWW , .
:
1.
, .
2.
.
3. ,
.
/JAVA.
.
(think client). , Java. , , JAVA . -:
1. , JAVA .
2. ,
(applets). , , .
Java , ,
.
, . , [12,14] TINA ( ) .

7. 2.0

..

200

7.
1. .. . // . 1998. 7. . 8 - 18.
2. .. // 2000. 1. . 29 32; 2000. 2 . 79 83.
3. .., .. TMN : //
2000. 4. . 93 98.
4. .., .. // MAC.
2001. 2(18). C.20 24.
5. . ., .. : . ., , 1997 . 328 .
6. . . .: , 2001.
7. .., .., .. (Call
center). .: -, 2002. 272 .
8. .., .., ..
: .// . 2002. 8 . 32-34.
9. .. // . 2002. 3. . 62 64.
10. . CORBA COM. :
[www.interface.ru/borland/corbacom.htm 3.08.02]
11. . . OMG/CORBA, Microsoft/COM Java/RMI. . . - .:, 2002. 510 .
12. Adamopoulos D.X., Pavlou G., Papandreou C.A. A UML Based Methodology for the
Creation of TINA Compatible Telecommunications Services. 1999. :
[www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/G.Pavlou/Publications/ Conference-papers/Adam-00d.pdf
12.08.02 ]
13. GB910. Telecom Operations Map/ TeleManagmentForum. March, 2000. Approved
version
2.1.

:
[http://www.tmforum.org/sdata/documents/TMFC1276%20TMFC665%20TMFC31%20G
B910%20v2[1][1].1.pdf 1.09.01]
14. Berndt H., Hamada T., Graubmann P. TINA: Its Achievements and its Future Directions.
IEEE Communications. 2000. [http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys/
16.01.01]
7. 2.0

..

201

15. TMF 605. Connection and Service Management Information Model (CaSMIM) Information Agreement./TeleManagementForum 2001. Public Evaluation.Version 1.5.

:
[http://www.tmforum.org/documents/public_evaluation/TMF605v1_5.pdf
10.09.01]
16. CORBA. TheCommonObject Request Broker: Architecture and Specification./ OMG.
2002. Version 3.0. [http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/02-06-33
5.09.02]
17. Corley S., Hickie J. Agent-Oriented Workflow Management for Telecommunications
Business Processes. - Ongoing work of the EURESCOM project P815, Communications
Process Integration using Software Agents. 1999. :
[http://www.eurescom.de/~pub-deliverables/p800-series/P815/papers/icin2000.doc
15.10.01]
18. GB921. enhanced Telecom Operations Map (eTOM) The Business Process Framework. /
TeleManagmentForum 2002. Approved version 3.0. :
[http://www.tmforum.org/sdata/documents/TMFC1279%20TMFC1259%20TMFC1200%
20GB921v3[1][1].0.pdf 5.08.02]
19. Generic Management Model For Corba, Cmip and Snmp. Dissertation der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakult. At der Universit. at Zurich zur Erlangung der Wurde eines Doktors
der Informatik vorgelegt von Bela Ban von Kreuzlingen TG. Dezember, 1997.
: [http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/bba/papers.html 3.09.02]
20. GB909. Generic requirements for telecimmunications management building blocks. Part 1
of the Technology Integration Map./TeleManagmentForum. 2001. Public evaluation
version
3.0

:
[http://www.tmforum.org/documents/approved_versions/GB909%20P1v3_0.pdf 7.09.01]
21. ITU-T Recommendation M.3120. CORBA generic network and network element level
information model. 2001.
22. ITU-T Draft Rec. Study Group 4. TMN Guidelines for Defining CORBA Managed Objects// Telecommunication Standardization Sector Contribution (WP4/4). Torrance, CA,
USA. 14 18 August, 2000.
23. Park Jong-Tae, Su-Ho and others. Design and Implementation of TMN SMK System Using CORBA ORB// Journal of Network and Systems Management. Plenum Press.
June, 1998. Vol.6. No. 2.
24. Pavon J. Building telecommunications management applications with CORBA // IEEE
communications surveys.
Second Quarter 1999. :
[http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys 16.01.01]
25. Pinnes E. Operations and Management for Next Generation Networks./ Presentation in
ASTAP IP-based Networks Management & Internet Charging Seminar Bangkok. February 22-24, 2001.
7. 2.0

..

202

26. Potonnie O., Hauw L.H., Ranc D., Bardout Y., Canela Z.. Implementing TMN using
CORBA Object Distribution, Alcatel Telecom RD. 1997.
[http://olivier.potonniee.online.fr/public/docs/mmns97.pdf 3.09.02]
27. Parasuram Ranganathan, Deepak Sreenivasamurthy A CORBA-based approach for offboard control of ATM switches. The University of Kansas. 1998.
28. GB 909. SMART TMN. Technology Integration Map. Issue 1.1 // TeleManagmentForum.

1998.

:
[http://www.tmforum.org/sdata/documents/TMFC1333%20TMFC679%20TMFC609%20
GB909p2v1[1][1].1.pdf 5.09.01]
29. White paper. OSS Solutions for Network Operators. :
[http: //www.ausystem.se/publications/OSSwp0501.pdf 27.08.2002 ]
30. Divakara K. Udupa TMN: Telecommunications Management Network/ McGraw-Hill.
1999. 420 p.
31. .., .. : , // . 2000. 2. C. 83 87.

7. 2.0

..

205

8. SNMP
8.1

SNMP

( )
. - , / , . , TMN, , ,
.
, , ,
, SNMP.
SNMP 1980- . [3,4,7,14]:
1. (High-level Entity Management
System, HEMS) . , HEMS -,
.
2. (Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol,
SGMP). , ; , IP. SGMP
.
3. CMIP TCP (Common Management over TCP, ) , (. 2) CMIP , .
(HEMS, SGMP CMOT) , 1987 . 1988 .
Internet Activities Board (IAB).
. IAB ,
SGMP, SNMP,
;
, ( , MIP).
, SNMP , CMIP. 1990 . SNMP 1 .
SNMP ( ,
CMIP) ,
1993 ., TCP/IP,
. SNMP IETF (
) TCP/IP ,
.
SNMP (management)
( , ,
),
.
8. 2.2

..

206

SNMP
, . , , TCP/IP, RFC 1157 Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) ( ).
SNMP , , . SNMP
,
, .
SNMP: SNMP Version 1
(SNMPv1) SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2). ,
SNMPv2 , . SNMPv3 ,
3 .
SNMP 2. SNMP , SNMP .

SimpleWeb
http://www.simpleweb.org,
http://www.citforum.ru, http://www.laes.ru/list/pve/SNMP/.

8.2

, SNMP

SNMP ,
. SNMP (, ), ,
.
, , , SNMP-. SNMP-
,
. SNMP- (Network Management Systems, NMS) SNMP. . 8.1 [6].
CMIP SNMP. CMIP
; SNMP
.

8. 2.2

..

207


NM S

SNM Pv2

M IB



SNM Pv2

M IB


( )


SNMP



SNM Pv2

M IB

SNM Pv2

M IB

SNM Pv2

M IB

SNM Pv2

M IB

. 8.1 SNMP
, -,
, , , , , ..
, -
.
-
:
;
;
, ;
( );
;
.

SNMP- SNMP (Management Information Base, MIB). , MIB , , ,
, ,
, .
MIB .
MIB, SNMP, , MIB I MIB II. , MIB
RMON. MIB I ( RFC 1156) . 8
, 114 . , System , 8. 2.2

..

208

- , / ; IP IP ( IP-, IP-).
, MIB , IP, TCP UDP, IP-, TCP-,
. ()
, . ,
sysUpTime, , /
1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0, : isoorgdodinternetmgmtmib2systemsysUpTime0. , 4.5.
MIB TMN
,
(. 8.2.).
MIB-II
System (m ib-2 1)
Interfaces (m ib-2 2)
Address translation
(m ib-2 3)
IP (m ib-2 4)
ICMP (m ib-2 5)

SNMP (m ib-2 11)


Transm ission (m ib-2 10)
Exterior Gateway
Protocol (m ib-2 8)
User Data Protocol
(m ib-2 7)
TCP (m ib-2 6)

:
mib-2 x - ;
System ( , , );
Interfaces - ( , , );
Address translations - IP- ;
IP (Internet Protocol) - ;
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ;
TCP (Transaction Control Protocol)- ;
UDP (User Data Protocol) ;
Exterior Gateway Protocol - ;
Transmission - ;
SNMP- SNMP.

. 8.2. () MIB II SNMP


. 8.2 MIB
, . , , , SNMP-. (identificator, ID) MIB MIB, MIB. , MIB II (RFC 1213),
1992 ., 185, 10.
SNMP , .
MIB 8. 2.2

..

209

, ,
. MIB ISO (ISO IEC),
.
MIB (Structure of
Management Information, SMI), , MIB:
network adresses ( ) - . 32- IP;

counters () - , , , . , ;

gauges (, ) - , , . ,
( );

ticks ( ) - ,
- . ticks ,
;

opaque ( ) - .
, , SMI.

, ,
:
2 147 483 648 2 147 483 647;
0 65 535 ;
, ASN.1.
MIB , ASN.1. SMI : (module definitions), (object definitions) (trap definitions).

ASN.1 MODULE-IDENTITY (. RFC 1442, 1993 .).

ASN.1 OBJECT-TYPE. () ASN.1 NOTIFICATION-TYPE.
(information module) ASN.1,
, .
:
MIB,
OBJECT-TYPE NOTIFICATION-TYPE;
MIB;
MODULE-COMPLIANCE OBJECT-GROUP;
8. 2.2

..

210

AGENT-CAPABILITIES.
SNMP ,
, MIB. MIB- SNMP- , , . MIB , (descriptor files). ASN. 1 ,
MIB- .

8.3

SNMP
SNMP -

.
1.

(standard message format),


UDP. ( , SNMP).

2.

(standard set of managed objects) (values) - SNMP,


.
TCP, IP, UDP . , , (dot-notation).

3.

(standard way of adding objects). , , SNMP defacto . ,



( )
.
, 1 SNMP,
:
Get () , () ;
GetNext ( ) , ( ) , SNMP;
Set () , (,
);
Trap () ; , .
PDU (.
). () . 8. 2.2

..

211

, :
1.

(GetRequest).
Get, MIB . SNMP
, TCP .

2.

(GetNextRequest). SNMP
SNMP ( GetNext), , . ,
SNMP, ,
MIB GetNext. , , ,
.

3.

(SetRequest). SNMP , ( Set), , , , ..


.

4.

(TrapMessage) SNMP , (reach


out) ( Trap) , . ,
, SNMP-
, .

, SNMP ,
:
GetBulk ,
;
Inform NMS rap
NMS ;
Report
.
InformRequest GetBulkRequest. . 8.3.

8. 2.2

..

212

GetRequest
Responce

GetNextRequest
Responce

GetBulkRequest
Responce

SetRequest
Responce

Inform Request
Responce

Trap
Report

. 8.3. (response)

(Protocol Data Units, PDU), SNMP
(.8.4).
Get, Get-next, Set, Responce PDU
SNMP

SNMP
PDU
SNMP

SNMP
PDU

- ,

Trap PDU
SNMP PDU

. 8.4. PDU SNMP (v. 1 v.2 )


. 8.1.
8.1.

SNMP
(community)

PDU

(Request-ID).

(Error-status).

(Error 8. 2.2

SNMP

Get ( 0), Set ( 2), GetNext ( 1), Responce ( 3)





..

213

index)

,
(Variable bindings).

PDU

PDU
(Enterprise)
(Agent address)

(Generic trap type)

(Specific trap code)

(Time stamp)
,
(Variable bindings)

Trap ( 4)
,
,


,

PDU, GetBulRequest Inform,


[14].
, SNMP .

8.4

MIB

SNMP, MIB, , SNMP .


SNMP, MIB. ,
. - SNMP,
"" ,
. "" (branch)
, , :
1. MIB (discrete MIB objects)
. ".0" (" ") . ( " .0"
"" SNMP, ).
2. MIB (table MIB objects) (multiple) . ,
"." () .
". " () "" SNMP. .
.
SNMP . .
SNMP . , , .
. .
, .0(-).
SNMP, .
8. 2.2

..

214

. , SNMP ifDescr,
, .
, .
c SNMP
Entry, Table. , ifDescr,
ifEntry,
ifTable.
SNMP () MIB
:
1. MIB (text type MIB objects) SNMP
DisplayString,
( 256 ). , . - sysDescr ifDescr.
MIB.
2.

MIB (counter type MIB objects ) SNMP


, .
SNMP MIB, , ipInReceives,
ipOutRequests snmpInPkts.
, .

3.

MIB / (gauge type MIB objects) SNMP


, . MIB ( "" (private)
MIB ). - tcpCurrEstab.

4.

MIB (integer type MIB objects) SNMP


, .
"" "",
"" MIB .

5.

MIB (EnumVal type MIB objects) SNMP , (textual label)


. MIB
ifAdminStatus,
"up(1)"(), "down (2)"() "testing(3)"(). ,
().

6. MIB "" (time type MIB objects) SNMP


. ,
. HH: MM: SS: hh "-- ". , sysUpTime ,
, .
7.

MIB (object type MIB objects) SNMP SNMP.


MIB, SNMP. - sysObjectID.

8.

MIB ip (IPAddr type MIB objects) SNMP -

8. 2.2

..

215

IP .
IP (). ipRouteDest, ipRouteNextHop, ipRouteMask.
9.

MIB (PhysAd type MIB objects) SNMP


. , . - ifPhysAddress.

10. MIB "" (string type MIB objects) SNMP .


ASCII, .
, ,
. ,
"" MIB .
11. MIB "" (table type MIB) - , (table entries).
Entry, , , .
12. MIB (branch type MIB objects) SNMP
, , , .
SNMP , (read-only), (read-write)
(write-only). SNMP .
SNMP - MIB (MIB ompiler),
. MIB,
, -
. .
,
. MIB , ,
.
, MIB , , ,
.
MIB (browser MIB), SNMP , NMS. , .
MIB / ASN.1, , SNMP.
:
SNMP-
ASN.1;
8. 2.2

..

216

ASN.1 ;
, NMS, .
MIB
RFC 1213, , -
.

8.5

SNMP

SNMP.
.
SNMP , , , . . SNMP, , , , .
, SNMP.
SNMP ,

[10],
.
, 3 SNMP .
- SNMP
:
1. () (alarm polling functions). SNMP (thresholds)
, .
/.
, ,
(.. ), (..
).
2. (trend monitoring functions). SNMP- ,
MIB, . , ( ). , .
3. (trap reception functions). SNMP- ( ) SNMP-, . SNMP- - SNMP,
.
/ .
c
, SNMP- , , .
8. 2.2

..

217

4. (management tool set). SNMP-


. - MIB, MIB . SNMP-
SNMP.
5. MIB (compiler). SNMP- , MIB, .
SNMP , [2]. SNMP
,
. SNMP - . SNMP
CMIP, ,
, Set ( ) SNMP .

8.6

3 SNMP

SNMP
3, RFC 2570 Introduction to SNMPv3 ( SNMP, 1999 .); RFC 2571 An Architecture for Describing
SNMP Management Frameworks ( SNMP, 1999
.); RFC 2572 Message processing and Dispatching ( , 1999 .); RFC 2573 SNMP Applications ( SNMP, 1999.);
RFC 2574 User-Based Security Model ( ,
1999.). , SNMP :
, ,
NMS , .
NMS, SNMP;
;
, ;
- ;

.
. 8.5 SNMPv3
[13]. :
SNMP (SNMP engine);
SNMP (SNMP application).
8. 2.2

..

218

SNMP , ..
, PDU, ,
,
, SNMP. SNMP :
(dispatcher);
(message processing system);
(security subsystem);
(access control subsystem).
SNMP-. , SNMP ( 1 2). , SNMP.
SNM P

SNM P-

(IPX, UDP)

. 8.5 SNMP 3

8. 2.2

..

219

SNM P

M IB

SNM P-

(IPX, UDP)

. 8.5 SNMP 3
, PDU , SNMP.
/
(header) . , .. PDU
.
(security subsystem)
. SNMPv1 SNMPv2
. , SNMPv3
, :
;

;
, , TCP/IP;
.
SNMP .
PDU SNMP. .
(), .
, MD5 SHA. HMAC-MD5-96 HMAC-SHA-96. DES (Cipher Block Chaining, CBC) [13,14].
8. 2.2

..

220

SNMPv3
, , .

MIB
. RFC 2275.
,
(view) , ,
MIB. , . , () ,
.
SNMPv3 :
(command generator applications)
;
(notification receiver application)
, , Inform Request, Trap, Responce;
(notification originator application) , InformRequest;
(proxy forwarded applications) SNMP, .
SNMP v3 (. 8.6).
. 8.2.

m sgVersion
m sgID

m sgGlobalData=
HeaderData

m sgFlags
m sgSecurityM odel

m sgSecuirityParam etrs
contextEngineId

m sgM axSise

contexNam e

SecuirityModel
m sgData=
ScopedPDU
(
)

Data (PDU)

. 8.6 SNMP v3

8. 2.2

..

221
8.2


msgVersion
Header data
msgID

msgMaxSize
msgFlags

msgSecurityModel

msgSecurityParametersl

contextEngineId

contextName
Data (PDU)

SNMP, SNMPv3(3)

SNMP
, SNMP
. 0 231-1
484 2311, ()
(). (Get, Set, Inform), PDU, .
0 1
0 231-1
, .
: 1 SNMP v1; 2
SNMP v2; 3 SNMP v3
( )
SNMP SNMP .
( PDU)
. ,
contextEngineId , PDU
(PDU)


, SNMPv3:
( );
( );
( );
, ,
;
( ), , , , .
SNMPv3, .
, SNMP CMIP. - .
SNMP- , ,
, IP-, . SNMP
. SNMP
.
SNMP .
SNMP- ,
, ,
.
SNMP , 8. 2.2

..

222

. SNMP , , SNMP , SNMP ( ),


, .
SNMP 1 2
, CERT Advisory CA-2002-03
Multiple Vulnerabilities in Many Implementations of the Simple Network Management Protocol ( CERT SNMP)
12.02.2002.
SNMPv1. 3 SNMP
. SNMP, [5], ISDN SNMP. , SNMP
CMIP, .

8. 2.2

..

223

8
1. .., .. . , , .
- :-. 2000 . 672 .
2. . Snmpconf - ( . - 7 2001)
[http://www.ccc.ru/magazine/depot/01_07/read.html?web2.htm 1.09.02]
3. .. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). .
http://www.techno.it.ru/article/nms/snmp.htm#data22
4. .. TCP/IP. SNMP.// . - 7. 1996 .
5. Chiotis T., Berdekas K., Karounos T., Maglaris B.. The ISDN Controller MIB: SNMP
Management of Narrow-Band ISDN Interfaces. Journal of Network and Systems Management. 1994.
6. Harrington D, Presuhn R, Wijnen B. An Architecture for Describing SNMP Management
Frameworks. IETF. April 1999.
7. RFC 1441. Introduction to version 2 of the Internet-standard Network Management
Framework. IETF. April 1993.
8. RFC 1442. Structure of Management Information for version 2 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
9. RFC 1444. Conformance Statements for version 2 of the Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
10. RFC 1446 Administrative Model for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April, 1993.
11. RFC 1448. Protocol Operations for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
12. RFC 1450. Management Information Base for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
13. Stallings W. SNMPv3: A Security Enhancement for SNMP
http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys/4q98issue/stallings.html 15.01.2001 .
14. Stallings W. SNMP, SNMPv2, SNMPv3, and RMON1 and 2, Third edition. Reading,
MA. - Addisson-Wesley. 1998.

8. 2.2

..


9.

224

.............. 225
9.1 ................................................................... 225
9.1.1
......................... 225
9.1.2
................................................................................................. 226
9.1.3
() ............................................................. 227
9.1.4
........................................................................................................... 228
9.1.5
............................................ 229
9.1.6
, , ................................... 230
9.2 ............................................................................. 232
9.2.1
......................................... 232
9.2.2
............................................. 235
9.2.3
Objective Systems Integrators .............................................................................. 236
9.2.4
ISR Global Telecom.............................................................................................. 238
9.2.5
Harris ................................................................................................................... 238
9.2.6
Evidian Bull........................................................................... 239
9.3 S&NMS SIEMENS ........................................................... 240
9.3.1
S&NMS..................................................................................... 240
9.3.2
S&MNS........................................................ 241
9.4 TEMIP COMPAQ................................................................ 244
9.5 HP OPENVIEW HEWLETT-PACKARD ................................. 247
9.5.1
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN ............................................................................... 247
9.5.2
OEMF............................................................................................ 249
9.5.3
(FMP).................................................................. 251
9.5.4
FMP............................................................................................................................ 253
9.5.5
hp icm..................................................... 254
9.5.6
.................................... 255
9.6 REMEDY ARS ......................................................................................... 257
9.7 TIVOLI IBM..................................................................... 260
9.7.1
Tivoli NetView...................................................................................... 260
9.7.2
Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity ...................................................... 262
9.8 SOLSTICE ENTERPRISE MANAGER SUN...................... 263
9.9 ............................... 266
9.9.1
......................................................... 266
9.9.2
......................................................... 267
9.9.3
........... 270
9.10
.................................................................................. 272

9. 2.2

..

225

9.

9.1

9.1.1

[7], , TMN, , . . TMN , , , HP Open View Telecom, Digital TeMIP, Vertel TMN
Manager Platform & Agent Platform, Siemens S&MNS, Tivoli NetView, Harris Network
Management. .
, .
, , . , , MIB,
, , , . , . ,
, , .

, :
- ;
- ;
- LLA TMN;
- ;
- ;
-
.
,
.
, ( ) . , , .
.
[12], 34.003-90 . 34.003-90 . ,
, . , 9. 2.2

..

226

34.003 - 90 ,
. ()
(OSS) ( OSS . 7.6)
, .
(, OSS);
/ .
, ( )
. ,
()
.
34.601 90 . . ( 01.01.1992).
9.1.2

1.1.

, . ( ),
,
- (12 ) ( 5 ).
1.2. ()
, . , , .
1.2 , ,
.
, 1.2 ( )
. , /
. ,
.
1.1 1.2
.
1.3. ( )
- () , ,
, 11-101-95,
-1 ().
9. 2.2

..

227

11-101-95, ()
, .
:
- , , .
- .
- .
- - .
- .
- , , ,
.
- .
-
.
-
. , - , ,
- . -
( ).
,
.
9.1.3

()

2
. . / .
- , , .. ( ).
, / ; .
.
,
. /, ,
(). ()
() ()
.
, () , . .
9. 2.2

..

228


.
.
, 9.1.5.
, () ,
() .
.
, ,
- ,
. , . , ,
.
,
.
9.1.4

3.1. () .
1.1 1.2 ,
2.
- , (, , ).

( ).
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
. , , ,
.
3.2.

- , ,
.
:
- ;
- (, );
- , (
);
- ;
- ;
- ;
9. 2.2

..

229

;
-;
;

(, , ).
3.3. -. -

3.2
. , - , - .

, .
- . - :
- , ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
, ,
, - .
() / .
9.1.5

() ( 4)
.
34.602-89.
() . , , , / , , .
, , .
, .
, .
34.201 - 89. , .
.

9. 2.2

..

230

5.1. -

, ..
. ;
, .
()
.
.
, , .
5.2. -

- .
5.3. -
5.3. .
:
1. ( ).
1.1. , .
1.2. .
1.3. , .
1.4. .
1.5. .
2. .
2.1. , , .
2.2. , .
2.3. .
2.4. , .
2.5. ( ), .
2.6. , .
2.7. , , .
2.8. ( , ).
3. ( ).
4. ( ).
5. ( ,
).
9.1.6

, ,

6.1. /

.
. 9. 2.2

..

231

, ,
,
/ . .
6.2. - ()

,
. , .
. .
6.3.
()
, .. ,
.
, .. , .
6.4.

.
6.5.
.
.
6.6. -
- , , .
6.7.
, , , , , , , .
6.8.

, , ,
, , , , .
, /
.
9. 2.2

..

232

6.9.
, , , . .
.
, .
6.10. ()
()
. .
.
, , .
6.11.

.
:
-
;
- , ;
- , ;
- ;
- .
.
7...15 . , ,
.

9.2

9.2.1


, ,
[7,10]:
-
, , (, SDH, ATM);
- ,

(. 1.2) .
9. 2.2

..

233

, . , , MCI, Sprint, Deutsche


Telekom.
( )
()
[1]. , 10
. ().
. , ,

, , , .
, . ,

( SDH, ).
, , . . , , .
. .
. ,
TMN. .
. , . , ,
.
, . , ,
. , ,
. , OSS ,
7.6.

, ,
.
. Hewlett Packard ( PC WEEK 29-30 20.08.02)

Compaq TeMIP 350 000 . ,
13 . .
, . , - ( ComputeRewiev, 08.09.1999,
), ... - 10 300 .
. ( ..),
9. 2.2

..

234

, 1% .
3%. , ( ) - 10 %. ,
, , Compaq TeMIP 35 000 000 .
.
, 9.1
.
, .
. , , .
,
. , , .
, .
. :
- Cisco Works Cisco Systems;
- Optivity Network Management System (NMS) 9.0 Nortel;
- 46020 MainStreet Newbridge, Alcatel;
- Ericsson Packet Backbone Network (Ericsson PBN) Element
Management Access (EMA) Ericsson;
- ITM Lucent
Technologies.
, . ,
.

. . ,
; . ,
. , , , , ,
, .
,
, , . ,
. ,
.

9. 2.2

..

9.2.2

235

, . ,
. ,
. , .
,
,
, . , , , ,
, . (, , )
. , , .
.
(SLA).
SLA.
SLA
,
, (, ). , , ,
, .
, , (. 2.2 2.3) [4,12]:
- ,
;
-
;
- OS OS
;
- ;
- , ( , , ..);
- ,
.
, , (API) API.
9. 2.2

..

236

, , (.
2.1) [16,17]:
- , .. , , ;
- - ;
-
;
- ;
- (. 7.7);
- ;
-
;
- ;
- (CMIP, SNMP);
- .
, , :
- / , ,
( );
- - , , ,
(. 7.7) [3];
- ;
-
.

, . , 9.3 - 9.6.

9.2.3

Objective Systems Integrators

Objective Systems Integrators (OSI) NetExpert (www.osi.com/solutions/netexpert_vpm.shtml), OSS. NetExpert , (Unified Management Architecture, UMA)
OSI. , ,
NetExpert NetExel.
UMA ,
.
NetExpert Virtual Service Management (NetExpert VSM) OSS
. NetExpert VSM :
9. 2.2

..

237

SNMPv3, CORBA, CMIP/Q3, TCP/IP, X.25, ;


- WebOperator Java;
- ;
- CORBA Access ;
- NXRI Action Request
System (ARS) Remedy (. );
- VisualAgent ;
- Common Class Library .
NetExel , , , , SLA
. , , :
- CM Exel
;
- FM Exel , SLA;
- PM Exel , ;
- AM Exel
, ,
.

OSS/BSS,
-


NetExpert VPM

OSS

OSS

. 9.1 VPM NetExpert


NetExpert VPM ,
,
9. 2.2

..

238

. NetExpert VPM , .
NetExpert VPM
NetExpert VSM, OSS API (. 9.1).
NetExpert VPM :
- Work manager ( ) Web- ,
, , , , ;
- Process and task builders ( ) , ;
- OSS domain manager ( OSS) NetExpert
VSM NetExpert MIB OSS.
9.2.4

ISR Global Telecom

ISR (www.isrglobal.com) .
OSSnet , TMN. OSSnet


, , , , , , .
OSSnet :
- Sun Solaris, Windows NT;
- Sun Solaris, Windows NT, Windows 95, Windows 98;
- , ODBMS;
- X.25, TCP/IP, ASCII. TL1, CORBA, SNMP .;
- Java, C++;
- CORBA, ODBMS;
- (GUI) Java, Web, Window 95, Window 98;
- Java.
9.2.5

Harris

Harris (http://www.harris.com) Harris Network


Management (HNM) . :
-
, ;
- ,
;
-
;
- ;
- , ;
- , ODBMS;
-
;
9. 2.2

..

239

SNMP CMIP/Q3 ;
- ;
- , .
HNM
().
:
- Category Maintenance ;
- Scene Builder ;
- View Builder ;
- View Administration .
, :
- Fault Management System ;
- Text Alerts ;
- Log Reviewer ,
( );
- Database Synchronization HNM;
- ,
;
- API HNM;
- : Informix Oracle.
Harris .
HNM:
- Sun ULTRA SPARCTM
Solaris; HP 9000 Series 700 HP-UX;
- Windows NT, Java,
X Window Emulation.
[3] HNM 60 , , ,
Lucent Technology, Nortel, Futjitsu.
9.2.6

Evidian Bull

Evidian Bull (http://www.bull.com, http://www.evidian.com/telco/) OpenMaster for Telecom


, , X.400
. OpenMaster for Telecom
(Alcatel, Nortel
Matra Cellular, Matra Ericsson Telecommunication Matra Communication),
.
OpenMaster for Telecom ,
Operations Support Systems (OSS). Web-.
:
- ;
- ;
9. 2.2

..

240

;
Trouble Ticketing ( ).
QoS:
- ;
- ;
- .
, (Rapid Application Development,
RAD).
OpenMaster for Telecom ,
, Agent Integrator ( ), ,
Q3, .

, .

9.3

S&NMS Siemens

9.3.1

S&NMS

Siemens AG (Service &


Network Management System, S&NMS, . http://w4.siemens.de/networks/gg/wn/
cs/themen/snms/design2.htm) [9]. , , [2] ( domain element management, domain network management, domain
service management), Siemens : crossdomain network management,
crossdomain service management.
: (general fault management),
(connection
management),

/ (performance management), (accounting data collector). , , (billing & customer care). S&NMS .
S&NMS Siemens
AG , ,
, , SDH, , IP . , ,
, S&NMS
Siemens , Siemens*

9. 2.2

..

Custom er Care & Billing


Cross-dom ain
Service Mgm t
Dom ain
Service M gm t

Billing & Custom erCare


( )

Coordinated Service Provisioning - NetManager

Elem ent
Managem ent

Billing
( )

Coordinated Service Provisioning - Unisphere

Accounting Data Collector


IN Service
M gm t.

Provisioning
FastLink

Provisioning
EW SD
SURPASS

Provisioning
xPressLink

ATM
service

IP
service

Provisioning
transm ission

Provisioning
M obile
Subscribers

Perform ance Managem ent

Cross-Dom ain
Service
Mgm t.
Dom ain
Network
Mgm t.

241

Connection Managem ent


General Fault Managem ent
Signalling
M anagem ent

E2E Access
Path
M anagem ent

E2E Layer 2
M anagem ent

IN
Com m ander

AccessIntegrator

NetM anager

M ainStreetXpress
46020

M ainStreetXpress
46xxx

Unisphere
M ngt.Center

TNM S/
EM NS

M obile
Netw ork
M ngt.

INXpress

FasrLink

EW SD/
SURPASS

XpressLink

M ainstreetXpress
(ATM )

IP Sw itch

Infinity
/OSN

M obile

Call
Routing

Network
Elem ent

IP Routing

SDH Path
M anagem ent

M obile Netw ork


M anagem ent

:
Mgm t. -
Coordinated Service Provisioning -

. 9.2. S&NMS
S&NMS (. 9.2):
- NetManager EWSD;
- AcessIntegrator FastLink;
- IMNS ;
- SPOTS/SPOTSXpress .
S&NMS
IP, . .
:
- SNMP;
- FTAM/FTP;
- Java/CORBA.
S&NMS .
9.3.2. S&MNS

(call routing) (signalling management) NetManager. ,


, ,
, EWSD, SURPASS
(mobile network). .
InterXpree MNS 7000
(endtoend layer 2 management), , ,
9. 2.2

..

242

ATM (ATM path management), ATM, Q.SIG. (EndtoEnd


MultiService Access Management, E2E Access Management),
xDSL ( FastLink)
AccessIntegrator.
IP (IPRouting Management) Unisphere Network Management Center ( ). .
SDH
(Element Network Management System, ENMS)
(Transmission Network Management System, TNMS).

TransXpress,
.
( , mobile network) Mobile Integrator. - , , .
. 9.3

:
ATM
Data service
e-mail
FTP
HTTP (HTML )
ISUP - 7
SCCP
7

SURPASS hiQ softswitch


SURPASS hiG /

TDM
VolP IP
WDM
WWW World Wide Wed

. 9.3 S&NMS
9. 2.2

..

243

(general fault management)


(Integrated Network Management
System, IMNS).
,
. . () .

( ). INMS (, , , ).
(Service User Network Interface, SUNI).
INMS ,
. , . SLA.
INMS (ConnectionTechnology,
CT). INMS ,
WDM/SDH/PDH, ATM, EWSD, Frame Relay, X.25, , , . 30 CT. INMS
. ,
.
Network Connection Management ( )
.

. InterXpress MNS 7000.
()
SPOTS XDMS.

.
SLA.
(domain service management application)
:
- (IN service management) INXpress;
- IP (IP service management) c Unisphere (Unisphere Service Management Center, SMC);
- ATM (ATM service management) c
MainStreetXpress 46020;
- EWSD SURPASS (service provisioning for
EWSD and SURPASS hiA) c NetManager;
- (service provisioning for fastlink subscribers)
AccessIntegrator;
- XpressLink (service provisioning for XpressLink
subscribers) MainStreetXpress Network Service Management
System;
- (transmission service provisioning) c
ENMS TNMS;
9. 2.2

..

244

(service
provisioning for mobile subscribers) SwitchCommander.
Cross Domain Service
Management
, IP,
IP , IP IPVPN.
xDSL IP.
NetManager Unisphere
Management Center (UMC). .
,
, .
(Accounting Data
Collection And Conversion, ADC) NetManager.
,
, (
) .
, S&NMS (customer care system)
Arbor/BP (Kenan System) .
.
PC Week. Russian Edition 1998 . 3 INMS. , Deutsche Telekom,
, , ,
, - . . 13 : Post und Telekom Austria AG, (), Bulgarian
Telecommunications Company (), Deutsche Telekom AG (), LatTelekom
(), Lietuvos Telecomas (), Hungarian Telecommunications Company (),
(), ROM Telecom S.A. (), Slovensk telekomunik (), SPT Telecom (), Telekomunikacja Polska S.A. .
Telecom Slovenije.
INMS
Sinix Workgroup Server. .25
64 /. .400.
Workgroup Server X-Motif. ,

64 /. , .
INMS 1993 .,
13 . , , , .
Siemens Nixdorf.
9.4

TeMIP Compaq

TeMIP (Telecom Management Information Platform) Compaq 9. 2.2

..

245

. -
( TeMIP (TeMIP Introduction), 1998).
:
-

;
;
;
;
;
- (trouble ticketing).
,
, , SLA.
TeMIP ,
TMN :
- GSM;
- SDH;
- ;
- ;
- ATM;
- ;
- 7.
TeMIP :
- -
( ), (
);
-
.
TeMIP .
(API)
,
.
TeMIP : TeMIP (TeMIP
framework), (TeMIP fault and trouble management), TeMIP Windows NT, TeMIP Windows NT UNIX (TeMIP access library)
. , TeMIP (TeMIP application developers toolkit)
Visual TeMIP Expert System Access;
SNMP; .
TeMIP
(alarm generator access module),
TeMIP.
TeMIP G
, , , . G, F
.
9. 2.2

..

246

TeMIP , .
, ,
, .
.
, , IP.
. , , . ,
. IP Poller
SNMP. TeMIP
, ,

. .
TeMIP GDMO/ ASN.1 TeMIP (TeMIP management specification language),

(GDMO Browser).
TeMIP :
- ,
;
- ACSII/TL1, OSI/CMIP Q3,
SNMP .;
- , X Windows, OSF/Motif, MS Windows NT;
- , , ;
- ,
;
- ;
- OSI- Q3, TeMIP
TMN-;
- - , CORBA, Java Microsoft
toolkit.
TeMIP ,
. TeMIP TMN .
9.4.
TeMIP . .3010, CMIS/CMIP ISO 9595, 9596,
SNMP 1 2, SQL ORACLE SYBASE.
. Q.821, M.3100, .3110, .3200, .3300, .4100, G.773, Q.811,
Q.812, X.721, X.208, X.209, X.711, X720, X.722, X.730, X.731, X.732, X.734, X.736, X.737,
X.738, X.739, X.740, X.741, X.745, X.746, X.749, X.750.
GSM 12.00, 12.01, 12.03, 12.06, 12.11, 12.20, ETSI IETS 300
637, IETS 300 653.
HewlettPackard Compaq
TeMIP HewlettPackard; HP Open View TeMIP solutions
( 1.09.2002 . www.openview.hp.com).
9. 2.2

..

247

TeM IP


M D ()

MIR

CM IP, ASCII
TeM IP

Q

Q

S
D
H

S
D
H


TMN

. 9.4 TeMIP TMN



TeMIP:
- TeMIP RealTime Network Operations;
- TeMIP TeMIP Expert;
- TeMIP Fault Management;
- TeMIP Service
Monitor.

:
- ATM, Frame Relay DSL TeMIP Broaband Service Controller;
- SDH,SONET TeMIP Broaband Service Controller.
TeMIP Brirish Telecom, 1000 , .

9.5

HP OpenView HewlettPackard

9.5.1

HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN

Hewlett-Packard OpenView Telecom


Distributed Management (DM) TMN , ,
. 16 [3, 4, 11].
2000 ., Hewlett-Packard (HP), OpenView Communications/Service Assurance (HP OVC/SA),
9. 2.2

..

248

QoS .
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN,
HP OVC/SA. . 2000 . Hp OpenView: A Manager's Guide, J. Huntington-Lee
, McGraw-Hill, Computer Communications.
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN , , . HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN
, , , , X/Open, IETF SNMP
NMF. CMIP,
RFC 1006 (TCP/IP) SNMP. HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN , - . HP
9000, HP-UX 10.20, 11.0 11.11,
Sun SPARC Solaris 2.6, 7 8.

Intel MS Windows NT 4.0 MS Windows 2000.
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
HP OpenView Communications ( - Telecom) DM TMN
:
- DM TMN Agent

(-
),

,
, , ,
-
;
- DM TMN Manager (managers devellopers kit), DM
TMN Agent Network Node Manager, -, OpenView Windows GUI.
Network Node Manager ,
, (outsourcing)
(enterprise service providers). Hewlett-Packard,
HP OpenView Network Node Manager HP OpenView . Network Node Manager ,
. (event correlation technology),
,
9. 2.2

..

249

.
TCP/IP IPX ,
Java, WEB- .
(GUI)
HP OpenView
. HP OpenView , .
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN
HP OVC/SA.
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN . 9.5.

. 9.5 HP
OpenView
9.5.2

OEMF

HP
OpenView OEMF (OpenView Elements Management Framework), Hewlett Packard, , . M.3400 ITU-T,
. , OEMF,
, , , , ( ). OEMF . 9.6.

9. 2.2

..

250

:
DCN (Data Communication Network) ;
Performance management server ();
Configuration management server ;
FMP (Fault Management Platform) server .

.9.6
(OEMF)
OEMF ,
, , .. ,
. [3] OEMF ORB CORBA.
OEMF , , HP OpenView FMP (Fault Management Platform),
Remedy (Trouble Ticketing System). , . , HP AcceSS7,
OEMF.
TMN OEMF
(. 9.7), OEMF
. OEMF API, .
HP OEMF :

9. 2.2

..

251

, TMN HP OpenView Distributed Management TMN Platform, ;


(HP Fault Management Platform, FMP)
HP OpenView Distributed Management TMN Platform;
( ), ;
,
;

(Event Correlation Services, ECS);
API,
, ..

:
OMS ;
EMS .

. 9.7 HP OEMF TMN

9.5.3

(FMP)

Fault Management Platform (FMP) ,


. HP
OpenView DM Telecom TMN , . FMP . 9.8.
FMP ,
FMP . , -

9. 2.2

..

252

(MD) Q, FMP .

:
Data communication network (DCN) ;
Network map ;
Performance Measurement ;
Transmission network ( );
Trouble ticket ;
Alarm handler ;
Problem management service ;
Switching network ( ).

. 9.8
Fault Management Platform (FMP) OEMF
FMP , , . TMN .
FMP
. , , .
OEMF, FMP .
API, FMP. API
HP OpenView DM Telecom TMN .
MD RS-232, TCP/IP SNMP. X.733 FMP,
CMIP. X.25 , . , ,
9. 2.2

..

253

,
. . ,
X.733,
.
, FMP
, .
,
. FMP
, FMP.
FMP.
CMIP FMP CMIP, HP
OpenView DM Telecom TMN, ( ) CMIP-Lite TCP/IP.
9.5.4

FMP

FMP . ,
.
( ) CMIP CMIPLITE ,
. . . (
). FMP ,
, . .
.
.
, ,
( .
X.733), ,
. , .
,
, .
. ,
, . , ( ). ,
.
, ,
9. 2.2

..

254

,
( ), , .
( ) , , . .
9.5.5

HP ICM

(Integrated Service Management, HP ICM) Hewlett-Packard. HP ISM:


- HP OpenView ,
;
- HP Process Manager ,
/
;
- HP Internet Usage Manager - ,
.
HP ISM .
HP Service Delivery , , ,
.
HP Service Assurance. (SLA) ,
. , : , ( ) . HP Service Assurance one
.
HP IP- :
- HP OpenCall;
- Softswitch
Hewlett-Packard;
- HP
;
- HP VoIP;
- HP, .

.
Hewlett-Packard (Mobile e-Services Architecture, MESA),
HP Mobile e-Services Bazaar (www.hpbazaar.com.).
HP (MESA) 2 2.5,
(3G)
. MESA , 9. 2.2

..

255

IP. MESA , , , , ,
, , , ,
.

. HP,
, DTMF WAP . .
HP Mobile Enterprise
-
,
. Hewlett-Packard ,
, - . HP always-on.
HP
, . HP ISM IDC
(Internet Data-Center),
HP:
- ;
- ( , , , , );
- ,
web-;
- .
Hewlett-Packard, 67% ,
- hp openview.
9.5.6

FMP , .
,
, HP OpenView Network Node Manager,
.
, OEMF -
:
-

( ), (mediation device), (fault management server) .


;

( ),
. (. 9.1, Model 200, 300, 400)

9. 2.2

..

256

;
-

, , ,
.

- OEMF (Model 100, 200, 300, 400).


9.1 ( 2000 .)
9.1
OEMF

(MD)
X-

(K=1000)


Model 100
0 (1)

Model 200
5

Model 300
10

Model 400
20

3
10 K

5
20 K

10
30 K

10
50 K

D270
384 MB
8 GB

D370
512 MB
8 GB

K260
768 MB
8 GB

K260
768 MB
8 GB

, -
, FMP.
OEMF (OEMF client software for
workstations).
HP OEMF ,
. , TeMIP, :
- Trouble Ticketing ( ) ARS
Remedy;
- Command Cambio;
- NPR Metrica;
- 7 AcceSS7 Hewlett-Packard. 7, , , ;
- Remote Fiber Optic
.
HP Open View TeMIP 170
,
10 ( ).
Siemens, Alcatel, Nortel, Lucent, Nokia Fujitsu.
HP Open View TeMIP Motorola, Siemens, Marconi, Tellabs, Ericsson. ,
British Telecom HP Open View TeMIP,
ATM, FrameRelay, ADSL.
WorldCom (, , ) 10 000 100 000
. HP Open View TeMIP ,
7%.
9. 2.2

..

257

HP OpenView OEMF
2000 .
( .. , ) .
Remedy Cambio. . , DX200 Nokia
Alcatel 1000 S12. 1998 . HP OpenView OEMF
, .
Hewlett-Packard HP
OpenView ServiceCenter/SLM . .
HP Open View TeMIP
TeMIP. , HP OVC/SA,
OEMF, HewlettPackard .

9.6

Remedy ARS

. OEMF , .
trouble tickets.
Action Request System (ARS)
Remedy (. 9.9).

Help Desk

WEB
&
EMail

Remedy

.9.9. ARS Remedy


ARS
, 9. 2.2

..

258

. ARS :
- ;
- (
, );
- - ;
- ( );
-
;
- ;
- ;
- , ,
.
, , , , ,
.
. 9.10 , ARS
Remedy ( ).


- 2

- 1

. 9.10
- HP OEMF
ARS Remedy, . , . Remedy
,
.
9. 2.2

..

259

. Remedy Help Desk ( ) , (, , , WEB- .).


. ,
(, ,
, , , ). Help Desk
, . , Help Desk
(, ).
Remedy Rapid Results for Help Desk
, .
Remedy Asset Management , .
ARWeb ARS Web-.
Remedy Change Management , ,

.
Remedy Customer Support ,
, ,
, .
Remedy Rapid Results for Customer Support
.
Flashboards , -.
Remedy Link for Oracle Applications , Remedy Oracle Applications.
Remedy Link for the Palm Computing Platform (, - ).
Remedy Purchasing@Work .
Remedy Service Level Agreements
, .
Remedy

. Remedy (Remedy strategic service suite) : Asset Management, Service Level Agreements, Change Management Purchasing@Work. ARWeb
Flashboards, .
,
,
, ARS . .
ARS , , . , ARS
9. 2.2

..

260

/ , , .

9.7

Tivoli IBM

9.7.1

Tivoli NetView

Tivoli NetView TMN IP,


. http://www.sysadm.ru,
Tivoli NetView , , TCP/IP-, ,
SNMP,
. Tivoli IBM.
Tivoli NetView :
- ,
;
- Web-;
- ;
- ;
- .
Tivoly.
. Tivoli NetView SmartSets
, ,
. , . SmartSet , , , . , SmartSet,
Cisco Systems, ,
15 . Cisco, SmartSet, .
. Tivoli NetView
, . Tivoli NetView , Tivoli, Tivoli
Enterprise Console (TEC). ,
, Tivoli NetView , , e-mail
.
. Tivoli NetView . , ,
Tivoli NetView . , ,
, . , , , ( ).
. Tivoli NetView Web-
, . Web-,
9. 2.2

..

261

, , ( , , , ).
. TCP/IP
. , Cisco's Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
(unnumbered serial interfaces), , .
Tivoli NetView , .
, , , ,
, , , .
, Tivoli NetView.
: ,
. Tivoli NetView ,
.
. Tivoli . (mid-level manager),
,
.
Tivoli NetView ,
,
Tivoli NetView.
, .
Tivoli Enterprise. , Tivoli NetView
Tivoli Enterprise. Tivoli Enterprise Console
, Tivoli Enterprise NetView.
Tivoli Inventory Tivoli Inventory
. Tivoli Service Desk
Service Desk , NetView.
Tivoli Tivoli Manager for Network
Connectivity, ,
NetView,
Tivoli Enterprise Console Tivoli Service Desk.
Tivoli Decision Support Guides. , ,
.

. Tivoli Decision Support Network Guides Tivoli
NetView ( ).
Tivoli Decision Support Guides Tivoli NetView:
- Network Element Status
: , , , SNMP, MIB-II .
- Network Event Analysis NetView
.

9. 2.2

..

Network Segment Performance ,


RMON.
.
Tivoly NetView 9.2.
9.2


Tivoli
Web-
SmartSets
.

262


,
Tivoli NetView Mid-level Manager, Tivoli NetView
Web-
,
Web-

, .

:
Tivoli NetView Client/Server AIX 4.1.5 - 4.3.3, Solaris
2.5.1, 2.6, 2.7, Tru64 UNIX 4.0D - 4.0F, Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 4
(Intel Alpha).
Tivoli NetView Mid-level Manager (MLM) AIX 4.1.5
, Solaris 2.5.1, 2.6 2.7, TRU64 Unix 4.0D - 4.0F, HP-UX A09.07 ,
B10.01 , Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 4 (Intel Alpha).

9.7.2

Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity

,
, , .
Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity ,
, IP- , Tivoli Enterprise Console . , .
Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity
:
- ;
- ;
- , Tivoli Enterprise Console.
Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity , Codebook Correlation ( ). Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity ( ) . , .
. Tivoli Enterprise Console,
.

9. 2.2

..

263

Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity Codebook


.
( )
. . .
,
.
Tivoli
Enterprise Console ,
, Tivoli Decision Support Tivoli Service Desk.
Tivoli Tivoli Enterprise Console
Tivoli Manager for Network Connectivity Tivoli Enterprise Console.
Tivoli Manager for Network
Connectivity
, . HP OpenView Tivoli NetView
: HP-UX, AIX, Solaris, Windows NT.
Tivoli Manager for Network
Connectivity : Tivoli Enterprise Console 3.1 3.6,
Tivoli Framework 3.2 3.6, Tivoli NetView 5.0 HP OpenView 5.01.

9.8

Solstice Enterprise Manager SUN

, SUN Microsystems
Solstice Enterprise Manager (
http://www.sun.com/products-n-solutions/nep/software/tmn/index.html, Suns Telecommunications Product Giude, 1998), ,
. , . (runtime) .
SUN Microsystems Solstice Enterprise
Manager , CMIP, SNMP, .

(Management Protocol Adaptors, MPA),
(Management Information Server, MIS). MPA MIS,
CMIP SNMP. MPA
, TL1, ASCII .
,
. ,
9. 2.2

..

264

, . MIS , MIS.

M IS

M IS

M IS

CM IP
M PA

CM IP-

SNM P
M PA

CM IP-

M PA

CM IP-

. 9.11 Solstice Enterprise Manager


MIS :
- MIB,
, MIB;
- ;
- , (
) , MIS ,
.
;
- ,
;
- SNMP, , , ;
- GDMO,
;
- GDMO-SNMP;
- , ISO
( OmniPoint 1.0), (MIB-II);
- ASN.1.
MIS ;
MIS Solstice Enterprise Manager's C++ API, (Portable Management Interface, PMI). ,
Solstice Enterprise Manager ,
TMN.
PMI
, .
9. 2.2

..

265

C++
, MIS.

:
- , MIS
;
-
PMI ;
- ;
- ;
- - , PMI,
, ;
-
Get, Set, Create, Delete, Action.

, .
(Application Launcher)
SUN , .
(Viewer)
.
, ,
, , . Viewer
( )
.
(Discover Tool)
, , .
(Request Designer)
.
(Log Manager)
. Log Viewer.
(Object
Editor/Browser) , ,
,
MIB, MIS.
(Alarm Manager) ,
.
(Grapher)
, .
C (Configure Applications Tool)
, (.
Application Launcher).
- (Relational Database
Logging Daemon) . 9. 2.2

..

266

SQL
Oracle, Sybase, Informix.
Solstice Enterprise Manager ,
.
C++
SPARCworks developer.
SUN Microsystems - Solstice TMN Agent Toolkit, CMIP; Q.3.
Solstice TMN Agent Tester.
Q- SNMP
(Solstice TMN/SNMP Q-Adaptor);
CMIP SNMP (.
- X.731), (. - X.730),
(. - X.733). Solstice Enterprise
Manager .
Solstice Enterprise Manager SPARC, Sun Solaris 2.5, 2.5.1. 2.6.

9.9

9.9.1

- ( www.tlsoft.ru) 1994 . - , ,
:
1. .
2. :
- ,
- ,
- .
3. :
- ,
- ,
- ,
- .
4. :
- ,
- ,
- ,
- .
5. .
-:

() , .
9. 2.2

..

267



.
, .


.
.
-
( ).

.
. ,
, Web-, , ,
, .
2001 .

() , , , Q3,
.


,
, .


, ,
.
,
.
.

,
- 2001.
9.9.2

(
) ,
, , 9. 2.2

..

268

.
.
:
-
, ,
;
-
, .
, TMN,
.
- Q3.
/, , .
:
- - ;
- - (
).
.
. , ,
.. . .
- . , ,
. ,
HOP (VC-4) LOP (VC-12,
VC-2 VC-3), , . ,
(Termination Point, TP), TP .

, .
,
.
( ), .

Q3ne. , Q3nn,
.
. 9.12.

9. 2.2

..

269

:
;
.

. 9.12
- , . / ,
, .

, .
.
6.4.

, Siemens, Alcatel, Fujitsu, NEC, GPT, Marconi, Italtel.
,
, . 9.3:
9.3

HP 9000 T600

HP 9000 C180

HP-UX 10.20

Oracle 7.2.3

CSP OA&M 3.1.1
OSI
CSP OSI 3.1

Tcl /Tk
9. 2.2

..

270

2001 . - -, . 2001 .
( ) .
9.9.3

, , , . , , , ,
, , , .
, , ( 15 ) , .
:
- / ;
- (, - );
- ;
- .
,
, :
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
-
.
TMN.

,
Q3.
, , , .

, .
( )
. ,
( 15 .).
, . , , . ,

9. 2.2

..

271


.
.
( , , , ..).
(
), (
) .
, ,
, , ,
.
Ericsson Siemens. .
,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
. 9.13.

Q3

. 9.13
,
, . 9.4.

9. 2.2

..

9.4


OSI

272

HP K580
HP 3000
HP-UX 10.20
Oracle 8.0.4
CSP OA&M 3.1.1
CSP OSI 3.1
OSF Motif
PSC 3.2.

Telecom Italia 1995 . 2000 .


1.0,

.

9.10

.
-.
. , .
,
,

(SLA), . (service
assurance) [16,17].
- -, , , - ( ), , .. ()
[14, 15].
( )
. , ..
. ,

Q [8] MIB.
, Q, . .
9. 2.2

..

273

()
SDH (. 9.14),
/ , ( ).

:
E-OS (Element Operation Sustem)
N-OS (Network Operation Sustem)
SNMS (Subnetwork Management Sustem)
EMS (Element Management Sustem)

. 9.14
( , , -)

.
,
/ , ,
, .
,
, , ..
. IP-,
. , ,
9. 2.2

..

274

,
. ,
.
, ( ) .
, , , , .. [5, 6].
, .
.
(middleware), . (
).
, ,
().
,
.
, ,
(OSS).
, ,
- .
OSS.
, , ,
, .
( ). , , ,
- . , - ,
.
, (, ),
.

9. 2.2

..

224

9.
1.

.., .., ..
TMN // . 1999. 12. .57-61
2. . // . 2000. 4. . 86 92.
3. ..
. // . 7. 1998. . 8 18.
4. .. // .
2000. 1. C. 33-34.
5. .. // .
2001. 1. C. 26 - 29.
6. .., .. // . 2000. 11.
7. .. . 2 // .
1999 11.
8. , . -90 L6:
TMN // . 1998. 9.
9. , . //
. 2000. 2. . 88 89.
10. ., ., ..
: // . 1994. C. 3 17.
11. .. Open View Communication - // . 2000. 14(64). .18-19.
12. . . .: , 2001.
13. .. // 1998. 11
C. 14 16.
14. Deri L. Network Management for the 90s // IBM Zurich Research Laboratory. - University
of Berne. 1996.
http://www.misa.ch/public/papers/deri96j.pdf 2.09.02
15. Erfani S., Lawrence V.B. and others. Network management : Emerging Trends and
Challanges // Bell Labs Technical Journal. Oct.-Dec. 1999. - Vol. 4, No. 4. - pp. 3 - 22.
16. Project P812. TMN Evolution Service Providers Needs for the Next Millennium./
EURESCOM. Deliverable 1. TMN Evolution. 1999. Volume 1 of 2: Main Report.
www.eurescom.de/.../P800-series/P812/final_p812/
main_results/evolution/812d1finalIntrodu.html 4.10.01
17. Project P812. TMN Evolution Service Providers Needs for the Next Millennium.
EURESCOM. Deliverable 1. TMN Evolution. 1999. Volume 2 of 2: Annexes. Project
P812. TMN Evolution Service Providers Needs for the Next Millennium./ EURESCOM.
Deliverable 1. TMN Evolution. 1999. Volume 1 of 2: Main Report.
www.eurescom.de/.../P800-series/P812/final_p812/
main_results/evolution/812d1finalIntrodu.html 4.10.01

9.10.1

9. 2.2

..

281

.1

- http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.

M
ITUT Recommendation M.3010. Principles for a telecommunications management network. 2000.
ITUT Recommendation M.3016. TMN security overview. 1998.
ITUT Recommendation M.3020. TMN interface specification methodology. 2000.
ITUT Recommendation M.3030. Telecommunications Markup Language (tML) Framework. 2002.
ITUT Recommendation M.3100. Generic network information model. 1995.
ITUT Recommendation M.3120. CORBA generic network and network element level information model.
2001.
ITUT Recommendation M.3200. TMN management services and telecommunications managed areas:
overview. 1997.
ITU-T Recommendation M.3207.1 TMN management service: maintenance aspects of B-ISDN management.
1996. [ ]
ITU-T Recommendation M.3208.1 TMN management services for dedicated and reconfigurable circuits network
: Leased circuit services. 1997.
ITU-T Recommendation M.3208.2 TMN management services for dedicated and reconfigurable circuits network
: Connection management of pre-provisioned service link connections to form a leased circuit service. - 1999
ITU-T Recommendation M.3208.3 TMN management services for dedicated and reconfigurable circuits network
: Virtual private network. 2000.
ITU-T Recommendation M.3210.1 TMN management services for IMT-2000 security management. 2001.
ITU-T Recommendation M.3211.1 TMN management service: Fault and performance management of the ISDN
access. 1996.
ITUT Recommendation M.3320. Management requirements framework for the TMN X-Interface. 1997.
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ITUT Recommendation M.3600. Principles for the management of ISDNs. 1992.
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ITU-T Recommendation Q.811. Lower layer protocol profiles for the Q3 and X interfaces. 1997.
ITU-T

Recommendation

Q.812.

Upper

layer

protocol

profiles

for

the

Q3

and

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ITU-T Recommendation Q.816 CORBA-based TMN services. 2001. [ TMN,


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2000.
ITU-T Recommendation Q.821.1 CORBA-based TMN alarm surveillance service. 2001.
ITU-T Recommendation Q.825 Specification of TMN applications at the Q3 interface: Call detail recording.
1998.
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ITUT. Information technology Open systems interconnection Basic reference model: The basic model.
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ITUT Recommendation X.650. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Basic Reference
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ITUT Recommendation X.680. Information technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification
of basic notation. 2002. (pre-published)
Recommendation X.690. Information technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of basic encoding Rules
(BER), Canonical encoding rules (CER) and Distinguished encoding rules (DER) 2002. (pre-published)
ITUT Recommendation X.700. Management framework for open system interconnection (OSI) for CCITT
applications.. 1992.
ITUT Recommendation X.701. Information technology. Open systems interconnection. Systems Management
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ITUT Recommendation X.710 Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Common
Management Information Service. 1997.
ITUT Recommendation X.711. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Common
Management Information Protocol: Specification. 1997.
ITU-T Recommendation X.720. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of
management information: Management information model. 1992.
ITU-T Recommendation X.722 Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of
Management Information: Guidelines for the definition of managed objects. - 1992.
ITUT Recommendation X.800. Security architecture for Open Systems Interconnection for CCITT applications
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ITUT Recommendation X.901. Information technology - Open distributed processing - Reference Model:
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ITUT Recommendation Z.105. SDL Combined with ASN.1 (SDL/ASN.1). 2001.
ITUT Recommendation Z.109. SDL combined with UML. 1999.
Y.
ITUT: Global Information Infrastructure principles and framework architecture. Recommendation Y.110.
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..

283

2
UML
.2.1 UML
UML
. Object Managing Group (OMG) 1997 . UML - CASE.
UML , ..
, . , UML , - . , CASE-. , .
UML :
, .. ;
( ) - ;
, ..
.
UML

, .
, ..
, , ,
. .
, , ,
-, , - .
UML
,
(Component Based Development, CBD).
.
, - . , , .
UML 1994 . Rational Software
Corporation. 1995 . 1996 . OMG UML Partners
consortium ( UML)
UML 1.0. Digital
Equipment Corp., Hewlett-Packard, i-Logix, IntelliCorp, IBM, ICON Computing, MCI Systemhouse, Microsoft, Oracle, Rational Software, TI, Unisys. 1997 . UML
2. 2.0

..

284

1.1. OMG . OMG


UML 1.3, 1999 .
UML 1.3 OMG Unified
Modeling Language Specification :
1. UML Summary ( UML).
2. UML Semantics (, .. UML).
3. UML Notation Guide ( UML).
4. UML Standard Profiles ( UML ).
5. UML CORBAFacility Interface Definition ( CORBA, UML CORBAFacility
UML).
6. UML XMI DTD specification (
XML).
7. Object Constraint Language Specifications (
).
A. UML (UML Standart Elements).
B. OMG Modelling Glossary ().
UML :

, ;

;

;
.
UML . ; .
UML , , , , .
UML :
- (meta-metamodel);
(metamodel);
(model);
(user objects).
de facto .
- , ..
. - - . - , (),
- . - , . , -, (.. ) .
, .. -.
() . , -, .
2. 2.0

..

285

- Class, Attribute, Operation, Component, 4.2. .


.
, ( ). : getAlarm, clearAlarmStatus, OptionalAtribute.
TMN UML :
, (use case model), ;
(class model),
, .. ;
(collaboration model) (sequence model), , ;
(behaviour model),
;
(activity model),
( ).

.

. UML
, .
(, ), (, , ). .
,
(component model),
.
( ) . (). Alarm2345, Object_123 ..

.2.2 UML
, UML , , , . , , ,
. ,
,
.
, UML,
( ) :
(connection), .. ;
(containment), .. ,
;
(visual attachment),
2. 2.0

..

286

.
,
,
.
UML , , , . , ,
- . UML, :
(class) ;
(package) , ;
(interface) , ,
, ,
;
(template) - ,
;
(utility) ,
. public;
(object) ;
, (association) ,
.
UML .
(class) ( , descriptor) ,
. UML
. , ,
, , . (. .2.1);
. . ,
, , ,
(public).
.
, 3 (. .2.1).

. .2.1 UML
( ) (
, ). ,
. ,
. , (xceptions).
. .2.1 Window () size (), visibility
2. 2.0

..

287

(). , ,
. - display (), hide ().
.
(stereotype) UML,
. , . , -
interface, - utility. : facade, framework, stub, topLevel, . , .
,
( ), . , ,
( ). , .
.2.2 (Alarms)
NotifyDispatch.
<<NotifyDispatch>>
alarm
CommAlarm (in name : Object Name, in severity : SeverityType, in probablyCause : ProbablyCause Type

. .2.2.
UML. (Alarm).
, (communication Alarm,
commAlarm), NotifyDispatch, UML
( )
. .

NotifyDispatch .
commAlarm , communicationAlarm . - X.733. , ObjectName , SeverityType ,
ProbablyCause Type - .
(ackage) ,
. UML
. import () access ().
.
, {abstract}.
UML , . 2. 2.0

..

288

- -
import access .
. , , Package-name::Class-name.
, .
;
(::).
(type)
, . . ,
, , . , , .. , , .
.

(Realization).
,

, , .
- (type-instance correspondence).
, , . UML ,
.. , (, descriptor), .
UML: - (Class-Object), - (Association-Link), (Parameter-Value) ..
- , .
.
(ssociation). , ,
. UML (, ) . (binary association), .. .
. (.. ) (association role).
, ,
(. .2.3).
. . ,
. :
< >< >[,< >< >]*
< > < >
, ' * ' , .
2. 2.0

..

289

:
01
0*
35,10...20,100,200*

ass ()

110 000

. .2.3
(qualifier) , ..
,
.
,
, ()
. :
0...1 - , ;
1 - , ;
* - ,
.
,
, ,
.
, . .2.4. ,
. ( + )



1
010 000

. .2.4.
2. 2.0

..

290

, . .2.4. ,
. ( + ) , ,
, , ,
. .
(interfaces)
.
, . , .
.
; UML. , ( ) , ,
(. .2.5).
UML ,
interface. , , . ,
. ,
, ,
. , . .2.5 ,
,
.

interface

. .2.5
, , ..
UML .
(name) ,
.
, ::. ,
_::_,

_1::_2::...::_N::_.
2. 2.0

..

291

(eywords). UML ,
, , ,
. , keyword.
( )
, .
;
, , .
. .2.1 ,
, .
.2.1

Access


Access

Bind

Binding

Derive

Derivation

Import

Import

Refine

Refinement

Trace

Trace

Use

Usage






,


,
.
Usage (call, create, send),
Usage

(Expression) , . , . , BankAccount * (*) (Person*, int).

.2.3 UML, TMN


TMN
UML: Actor, Class, Stereotype, Use case, Activity Diagram, Class Diagram, Collaboration Diagram, Sequence Diagram, State Diagram.
(ctor), .. ,
, . ,
2. 2.0

..

292

.
.
, (use cases). UML . , , ,

.
, .
,
(ollaboration).
,
, . . . c
Extend, Include. Include ,
, .
Extend , .
. .2.6.
, .
, . , Uses, .
. , , , .

<<extends>>

<<uses>>

. .2.6.
, . ; :
;
;
2. 2.0

..

293

, .
, , (actors). , ,
. ,
, , .
, .
(class diagrams) .
. , ( ) , , , SQL DDL, .
(behavior
diagrams), :
(statechart diagrams),
(activity diagrams)
(interaction diagrams), (sequence diagrams) (collaboration diagrams).
(implementation diagrams) (component diagrams) (deployment diagrams).
. .2.2 TMN
UML. , UTRAD.
.2.2
TMN
(user)

(management role)

UML
actor
actor

(management function)

use case

(management function set)

use case

(management service)
(management scenario)

use case

sequence diagram

(telecommunication resource
type)

class

2. 2.0

..

TMN
(management goals)

2. 2.0

UML

294

UML

..

295

A
ACCD
ACSE
AD
ADC
ADSL
AF
AIS
ANSI
AP
AP
API
ASE
ASN.1
ATCCD
ATM
BER
BMF
BML
BMS
BPI
CAMI
CASE
CBD
CBO
CCS 7
CDMA
CERT
CF
CLNS
CMIP
CMIS
COM
CONS
CORBA
CRM
CUA
DCF
DCC
DCE
DCN
DCOM
DII

Agent ( )
Available Connections Change Dissemination -

Association Control Service Element
Adaptation device
Accounting data collection and conversion

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Application Function
Alarm Identification Signal
American National Standard Institute
Application Process
Application Protocol
Application Programming Interface
Association Service Element
Abstract Syntax Notation no 1 1
Ability To Connect Change Dissemination

Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Basic Encoding Rules ()
Basic management functions
Business Management Layer
Business Management System
Basic Programme Interrface
Common Application Management Interface

Computer-aided software engineering

Component Based Development ,

- Common Business Objects -


Common Channel Signaling no 7 7
Code division multiplexing access

Computer Emergency Response Team



Control Function
Connectionless Mode Services
Common Management Information Protocol

Common Management Information Service


Component Object Model
onnection-Mode Services
Common Object Request Broker Architecture

Client Relations Management


Common User Access
Data Communication Function
Data Communications Channel
Distributed Computing Environment
Data Communication Network
Distributed Component Object Model
Dynamic Invocation Interface

. 2.

.. , 2002


DER
DLC
DPE
DPT
DSI
DSL
DTP
DWDM
EAI
ECC
EEI
EFD
EIBB
EIT
EML
EMS
ENS
ES
ETSI
FTAM
FTP
GDMO
GII
GOSIP
GPRS
HMI
HTTP
ID
IDC
IDL
IEC
IEEE
IETF
IIOP
IIS
INA
INAP
IP
IR
IS
IS IS
ISDN
ISO
ITU-T
ITU-SS
HCIF
HCIF
HDLC
HDSL
HIBB

296

Distinguished Encoding Rules


Deliverablerable Link Connection
- Distributed processing environment ()
- Danamic Transport Data
Dynamic Skeleton Interface
Digital Subscriber Loop
Distributed Transaction Processing
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Enterprise Application Integration


Embedded Communication Channel
Environment External Interface
Event Forwarding Discriminators
- Enterprise Information Building Blocks
- Enterprise Information Tier
Element Management Layer
Element Management System
Ensemble service
End System
European Telecommunication Standard Institute
()
File Transfer Access Methode
File Transfer Path
Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects
- Global Information Infrastructure
Government Open System Interaction Profile

- General Packet Radio Service
Human-machine interface
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Identificator
Internet data-center -
Interface Definitiom Language
International Electrotechnical Commission

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers



Internet Engineering Task Force

Internet Inter-ORB Protocol ORB


Interface Implementation Specification
- Information networking architecture
Intelligent Network Application Part

- Internet Protocol ,
Interface Repository
- Intermediate System
Intermediate System to IS
Integrated Service Digital Network ,
International Standard Organizaton
International Telecommunication Unit
International Telecommunication Unit Standardization Sector

Human-Computer Interfacing -
Human-Computer Interfacing Function -
High-level data link control protocol

- High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line
- Human Interaction Building Blocks

. 2.

.. , 2002


HIT
LAPB(D)
LC
LCC
LCS
LLA
LT
M
MAF
ManF
MAS
MCF
MD
MESA
MF
MF
MFS
MIB
MIS
MIS
MNS
MO
MP
MPA
MPLS
NE
NEF
NEL
NIC
NF
NIST
NGOSS
NMF
NML
NMS
NPDU
NSAP
NT
ODBC
ODMA
ODP
OID
OLE
OMG
ORB
OS
OSS
OSE/RF
OSF
OSI
OSIE
OTS
PABB
PAT
PDU
PMI

297

- Human Interaction Tier /


Link Access Procedure B (D) channel B(D)
Link Connection
Logical Link Control
Leased Circuit Services
Logical Layer Architecture
Line Terminal ISDN
Manager ( )
Manager Application Function
Management Function
Management Association Services ( )
Management Communication Function
Management Device ,
Mobile e-Services Architecture
Mediation Function
Middleware Function ( )
Management function sets
Management Information Base
Management Information Service
Management Information Server C
Management Notification Service
Management Object ,
Middleware Protocol
Management Protocol Adaptors
Multi-Protocol Label Switch
Network Element
Network Element Function
Network element layer
Network Interface Card
- Network Function
National Institute of Standards and Technology
,
Next Generation Operation Support System

Network Management Forum -
Network Management Layer
Network Management System
Network Protocol Data Unit
Network Service Application Point
Network Terminal ISDN
Open DataBase Connectivity
Open Distributed Management Architecture

Open distributed processing ()


Object Identificator
Object Linking and Embedding
Object Management Group
Object Request Broker
Operation System ( )
Operation Support System ( )
Open System Environment / Reference Model

Operation System Function


Open System Interaction
Open System Interaction Environment
Off-the-shelf technology - ,
Process Automation Building Blocks
Process Automation Tier
Protocol Data Unit
Portable Management Interface

. 2.

.. , 2002


POSIF
RPC
P&SF
PI
Q
QA
QAF
QoS
RAD
RAD
RDSL
RFC
RMON
ROSE
RPC
SAP
SCF
SDH
SDL
SDU
SDSL
SLA
SMAE
SMASE
SMC
SMI
SMF
SML
SMK
SML
SMS
SNC
SNMP
SPIRIT
SQL
STM
SUNI
TF
TF
TCP
TIM
TINA
TMF
TMN
TRP
UDP
UMA
UML
UMTS
UNI
UCD
UTRAD

298

Portable Operating System Interface ()



Remote Procedure Call
Processing and Storage Function
Protocol control information
Q-interface Q
Q-adapter Q-
Q-adapter Function Q-
Quality of Service
[user] Requirements, Analysis and Design ,
rapid application development
Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line

Request For Comments ( IETF)
Remote Monitoring
Remote Operations Service Element
Remote Procedure Call () .
Service Access Points
Service Control Function
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Specification and Description Language
Service data unit
Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Service Level Agreement
Service Management Application Element
Service Management Application Service Element

Service Management Center
Structure of Management Information
( )
Systems Management Function
Service Management Layer
Shared Management Knowledge
Service management layer
Service management system
SubNetwork Connections
Simple Network Management Protocol
Service Providers Integrated Requirements for Information Technology

Server-Client Language - ( -)
Synhronous Transport Module
Service user network interface
Transformation function
Transport Function
Transmission Control Protocol (
TCP/IP)
Technology Integration Map -
Telecommunication Information Networking Architecture

TeleManagement Forum
Telecommunications Management Network
Telecommunications Reference Point
User Datagram Protocol
Unified Management Architecture
Unified Modelling Language
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
User-Network Interface -
User Centered Design ,
Unified TMN Requirements, Analysis and Design TMN,
[]

. 2.

.. , 2002


V
V-n
VDSL
VoIP
X-adapter
XML
WS
WSF

-
-
-
-

-
-
-

299

Virtual Container
Virtual Container of level n n (n=1, 2,3,4)
Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line

Voice over IP IP
X-adapter X
Extensible Markup Language
Working Station
Working Station Function



,








( , )


-




()





-











-




-

. 2.

.. , 2002