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Braggs Law: 2 sin n d u = , Density:

i i
c A c A
n A
nA
V N V N
= =

, Planar spacing:
2 2 2 2sin
n a
d
h k l

u
= =
+ +
.
























Net force between two atoms: FN = FA + FR
E = F dr OR EN = EA + ER where EA = Att.energy
ER = -B / r
n
(r apx. = 8)
Bond length(r0): when dE/dr = 0

O O O
Chapter 2 Atomic Structure
Chapter 3 Crystal Structures

Chapter 4 - Imperfections

Point Defects # Vacancies (Therm. Stable):
Q
V
RT
V
N Ne

= (N = total # of atomic sites, Q=energy form a vacancy, exponential part = fraction X)


Impurities i.Substitutional: replace an atom; ii.Interstitial: lie between atoms;
Q
sol
kT
sol
X e

= . Linear Defects(Therm. Unstable)Dislocations:


i. edge (l perp.b); ii.screw (l parallel b) Planar Defects Grain boundaries:
1
2
n
N

= (Navg. # of grains/sq. inch at 100X mag, n grain size #).
Solidification Process: 1. Nucleation; 2. Growth; 3. Impingement grain boundaries form. Conditions:
3 2
0 J/m 0 J/m
V S
G G A < A <
G
V
RT
r
P e
A

= (prob. of
getting a critical radius r
*
), 1 / t p :
3 2 4
4
3
T sol s
G r G r t t A = + ,
* 2
V
r
G

=
A

'
1 1 1
' '
1
1 2 1 1 2 2
m C A
C
m m C A C A
= =
+ +
,
'
1 1 2
1
1 2 2 1
1 2
m
m m
n
C A
C
n n C A C A
= =
+ +
,
''
1
1
1 2
1 2
C
C
C C

=
+
,
' '
1 1 2 2
' '
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2
100
avg
C A C A
C C
C A C A



+
= =
+
+
,
' '
1 1 2 2
1 2
1 2
100
100
avg
C A C A
A
C C
A A
+
= =
+

(C-weight %, C-atomic %, C-concentration, A-atomic weight, -density)

Types Interdiffusion: atoms of one metal-into another, Self-diffusion: atoms of metal exchange positions
Mechanisms Vacancy Diffusion: substitutional atoms diffuse into vacancies (used by interdiffusion & self-diffusion). Interstitial Diffusion: atoms move into
interstitials locations (gases, much faster than vacancy). Steady-state Diffusion diffusion flux doesnt change with time:
Concentration Gradient:
dC
/
dx
; J = Diffusion flux; M = mass/no. of atoms; A = Area; t = time

1 M
dM
J
At A
dt
| |
= = |
\ .
, Ficks 1
st
Law:
dC
J D
dx
= (D diffusion coefficient), q JA = (q amount diffusing),
0
Q
RT
D D e

= . Penetration:
2
x
const
Dt
=



Chapter 5 - Diffusion

BCCnot close packed
4
3
a R =

APF = 0.68
CN = 8
2 atoms/cell
FCCclose packed
ABCABC sequence
2 2 a R =

APF = 0.74
CN = 12
4 atoms/cell
HCP close packed
ABABAB
2 2 a R =

APF = 0.74
CN = 12
6 atoms/cell

Types of stresses: Tensile, Compressive, Shear, Biaxial Tension Compression, Hydrostatic.
Stress:
0
F
A
o = (N/m
2
) Strain:
0
l
l
c
A
=

Shear stress:
0
F
A
t = , Shear strain:
0
tan
l
l
u
A
= =
Stress and strain are proportional to each other using E o c = (E Youngs Modulus) or G t = (G
Shear Modulus). Physics of elasticity:
2
2
F U
E
r r
o
c
c c
=
c c
:: , Energy stored:

2
0
0
1
2 2
V
W V
E
o
oc = = ,
Poissons ratio:(.25-.35)
x
z
c
u
c
= (bottom of ratiostrain in direction of applied force) ( ) 2 1 E G u = + .
Deformation: *Note: Elastic doesnt conserve volume, plastic does.*
Anelasticity: Time dep. Elastic behaviour
Work hardening: After they yield, metals get harder to deform. Tensile Strength = Fmax / A0
Ductility: % elongation = [(lf l0) / l0] * 100, % area reduction = [(A0 Af) / A0] * 100
Hardness tests:

indent
indent
P
H
A
: (pressure vs. area) thermal shock QR=k
f
/E
Brinell:

( )
2 2
2P
HB
D D D d t
=


(P-load, D-diameter of steel ball: 10 mm, d-indent diameter),
Resilience:UR=1/2
y

y
=1/2
y
(
y
/E )=
2
2
y
R
U
E
o
=

Tests:-1. Tensile test get Yeild, Tensile strength, Ductility, Youngs mod.,resilience; 2. Compression
tests

Chapter 6 Mechanical Properties of Metals








-Disloc. Density = length of disloc/volume
-Ductile more slip planes (BCC/FCC>12); Brittle less slip planes (HCP).

Strengthening mechanisms:
All inc. Tensile and Yeild strength, red. Ductility.
1.Grain size red. = Hall-Petch eqn.(not for very large/small d)
2.Solid solution hardening=T/C fields held by the C/T by solute.
3.Work/Strain Hardening=due to jogs & & &
4. Particle/Second phase hardening =
Annealing process: 1. Recovery-annihilation; 2.Recrystalllisation(Therm. Activated)-nucleate new
grains, driven by energy stored ;3.Grain growth- &
Chapter 7 Dislocations
Chapter 8 Mechanical Fracture
3 classes 1.Overload; 2 Fatigue = cyclic stresses; 3.Creep(>0.4Tm) = High steady load at high T
2 modes 1.Ductile: cup/cone behave.-elong.-rough surface(nuc.& coalesce voids);2.Brittle:flat surface-cleavage-
intergranular(b/w grains) or transgranular(thro grains);; Mechanics:stress conc.- [internal crack(l=2a),
external(l=a)], crack.tip (rho = curvature); criticalstress= ;Fracture
toughness= ;condition for propagation ,if ideal brittleness=> ; max.
allowable crack length . Ductile as T =>Brittle-low temp(ductile-brittle transistion).Fatigue-stress
ratio=min/max.,S-N curve=>fatigue limit(ferrous materials)-below it never frac.; fatigue strength(nonferrous) =>for
someno.of cycles; fatigue life=>cycles to failure at a stress.
Steady state Creep rate ; lifetime
Chapter 9 Phase Diagrams
Phase homogeneous, unique chem & phy prop. Phase Diag(PD)- map wrt T,P,C.
1.Unary PD - P vs T = 1 phase at a time(Triple/Invariant point);
2.Binary PD- i.Binary isomorphous=complete solubility, for phase conc.-drop perp. from tieline, for rel. phase conc.-
lever rule.,eqbm vs non eqbm cooling.
ii. Binary Eutectic Systems-incomplete solubility, *Eutectic reac.= L->S+S, struc= striations; *Peritectic
reac=S+L->S; *Eutectoid reac.= S->S+S (Hypoeutectoid vs hypereutectoid steel=>thing that
forms before crossing eutectoid isotherm = proeutectoid). For steel => 0.022<hypo<0.76<hyper<6.70
Chapter 18 Electrical Properties of Solids

Ohms Law: V IR =
or
J oc = (J-current density, J=I/A, o - electrical conductivity,

1 / o = ((-m)
-1
), c - electric field intensity, / V l c = ),
Resistivity: / RA l =
, p=VA/Il , where l is the distance where voltage is measured, A is the area perpendicular to the direction of the current.
E kT
g
p e

(pprobability, #of electrons excited (holes created)), if Eg>2 eV, then p0 insulator. For semiconductors, as T|, Ne|.
Metals: Electron Drift Velocity

d e
v c =
Conductivity:
e
n e o =
(n - #free e
-
s(m
-3
), e charge of e
-
,

- electron mobility (m
2
/V-s)
T| n|, but + dominant o+ (more collisions impede movement).
Resistivity (Matthiessens Rule):

thermal impurity dislocations
= + +
.
T| R| + Pt=po+aT; Pi=aci(1-ci); ci=at%/100
Semiconductors: Intrinsic (pure):

( )
e h
n e o = + (n=p), Temp. dependence:

2
0
E kT
g
n n e

= Extrinsic (doped): n-type:



e
n e o ~ (excess e
-
, n>>p, n=#of
valence e
-
#dopant atoms, add group V P); p-type:

h
p e o ~ (excess holes, p>>n, p=#of holes in valence#dopant atoms, add group III Al to group IV
Si). Temp. dep.:

0
E kT
g
n n e

=
.
2 E kT
g
e
e e o

=
.

For semiconductors, T+ o+. Forward bias: Reverse bias: Capacitance charge density:

1 1 2 2
/ /
Q V
A h h c c
=
+
Typical
conductivity ranges metals: 10
7
, semiconductors: 10
-4
. Orbitals: s-shell: N states; p-shell: 3N states; d-shell: 5N states (2 e
-
/state)
Heat Capacity:

dQ
C
dt
= , for T<uD, C=AT
3
; for T>uD, C=3R (uD - Debye temperature, R gas constant, A-temp dep. constant)
Thermal flux:

dT
q k
dx
= q-heat flux (W/m
2
), k-thermal conductivity (W/m-K), dT/dx- temp.gradient
Thermal Stress: induced by constraints, diff. matls. bonded, T gradients:

( )
room
thermal
room
L
T T
L
c o
A
= = ,
thermal
E E T o c o = = A
, delta T=init-final
Cooling rate:
f
R
k
Q k T TSR
E
o
o
= A = ~ .
elec
k
L
T o
=

- linear coefficient of thermal expansion(deg. C
-1
)
Chapter 19 Thermal Properties of Solids