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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We wish to take this opportunity to express all the people who have to extended their co-operation various ways in doing our project work successfully. It is our pleasure to acknowledge the help of all those individuals.

We would like to thank whole heartly and express our deep gratitude to our Assistant Professor (Raghu), Sri.B.L.RAO, Head of the departmentof Electronics and CommunicationEngineering,andwe also thankful to

DrN.SuryanarayanarajuM.Tech,Ph.d.,Principal, CHAITANYA INSITITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Kakinada.

With regards, N.Sri Narayana Chaitanya, M.Venkata Sai Mahesh, M.Sukanya.

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A Project Report on POWER CONTROL AID FOR HANDICAPPED PEOPLE Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology In ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Submitted by

N.Sri Narayana Chaitanya M.Venkata Sai Mahesh M.Sukanya

Under the esteemed guidance of

08s01a0439, 08s01a0456, 08s01a0446,

B.L.RAO HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CHAITANYA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to JNTU-KAKINADA) KAKINADA 2344441 2010 2011

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Bonafide Certificate
This is to certify that it is a mini project work on POWER CONTROL AID FOR
HANDICAPPED PEOPLE done by Mr.N.Sri narayana chaitanya,Ms.M.sukanya,

Mr.M.Venkata sai mahesh during the year 2010 - 2011 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering.This workis not submitted to any University for the award of any Degree.

Project Guide

Head of the Department

(Raghu)

(B.L.RAO)

External Examiner

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Bonafide Certificate
This is to certify that it is a mini project work on POWER CONTROL AID FOR
HANDICAPPED PEOPLE done by Mr.N.Sri Narayana Chaitanya during the year

2010 - 2011 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering.This workis not submitted to any University for the award of any Degree.

Project Guide

Head of the Department

(Raghu )

(B.L.RAO)

External Examiner

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Bonafide Certificate
This is to certify that it is a mini project work on POWER CONTROL AID FOR
HANDICAPPED PEOPLEdone by Ms.M.Sukanya during the year 2010 - 2011 in

partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering.This workis not submitted to any University for the award of any Degree.

Project Guide (Raghu)

Head of the Department (B.L.RAO)

External Examiner

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Bonafide Certificate
This is to certify that it is a mini project work on POWER CONTROL AID FOR HANDICAPPED PEOPLE done by Mr.M.Venkata Sai Mahesh during the year 2010 - 2011 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering.This workis not submitted to any University for the award of any Degree.

Project Guide

Head of the Department

(Raghu )

(B.L.RAO)

External Examiner

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Table Of Contents
Chapter-1 Chapter-2 Abstract and introduction Block diagram and Hardware Specifications Chapter-3 HT12E Encoder IC & Functionality Chapter-4 AT89C51 Microcontroller & Functionality Chapter-5 HT12D Decoder IC & Functionality Chapter-6 ULN2003 Relay driver & Functionality Chapter-7 Conclusion ..26 ..30 ..22 ..17 ..13 ..11 ..08

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ABSTRACT
The handicapped people find it a little difficult in doing some things on their won. They require continues guidance of any person to do their daily works. Our project helps the handicapped people to operate the electrical equipment without the help of others on their own with a small wireless remote. The project helps them to operate the lights, fans and other equipment with a remote up to a range of 33met. The receiver is also provided with a buzzer to call any one in the house if they are in need. This prevents the need of continuous guidance of any person. This will help them a lot to do things easy

Introduction
For this purpose we are using RF module of frequency 433.5 MHz, and a 8051 controller for that purpose. The signals given from the receiver to the 8051.89c51 are a 40 pin micro controller with 2k of programmable memory. It has a total of 32 I/O pins and can be used for any purpose. An 8 channel encoder (HT 12E) and decoder (HT 12 D) are used for the purpose for controlling. The total project can be divided in to two parts 1.the transmitter and 2.the receiver.

Transmitter
This block contain the transmitting part which involves a rf transmitter with HT12E encoder ic. The transmission part is having four switches as the HT12E is a four bit encoder. The switches decide the data that has to be transmitting to the receiver.

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Receiver
The receiver part contains the RF receiving module. The data from the transmitter is receiver and is giver to the in put of HT 12D IC (decoder). The decoder decodes the analogue signal and converts it in to digital data and is given to the micro controller. The digital data is processed and the corresponding output is given according to the program in the controller. This output of the controller is given to the ULN2003 IC which is used to drive 4 relays.The ULN works at voltage of 12v. The electrical equipment is connected to these relays. The equipment is turned on off from the data received from the transmitter which is diced by the user.

Relay Unit
Our project contains a ULN2803 IC is used to drive the relays. The ULN2003 and the uln 2803 are of the same family. The difference is only in the out put pins.ULN2803 has 7in put output pins and ULN2003 has 8 input- output pins. The receiver module contain total of 4 relays. In this 2 relays are used to control the lights and one for a fan and other is connected to a buzzer

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

Hardware Specifications
HT12E Encoder IC AT89C51 Micro controller HT12D Decoder IC ULN2003 Relay Unit Power supply

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HT12E ENCODER IC Introduction


HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 212 series of encoders. They are paired with 212 series of decoders for use in remote control system applications. It is mainly used in interfacing RF and infrared circuits. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and data format. Simply put, HT12E converts the parallel inputs into serial output. It encodes the 12 bit parallel data into serial for transmission through an RF transmitter. These 12 bits are divided into 8 address bits and 4 data bits. HT12E has a transmission enable pin which is active low. When a trigger signal is received on TE pin, the programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium. HT12E begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low. As soon as TE returns to high, the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops.

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Pin Diagram

Features
Operating voltage : 2.4V~12V for the HT12E Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology Low standby current: 0.1_A (typ.) at VDD=5V HT12A with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission medium Minimum transmission word : Four words for the HT12E Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor Data code has positive polarity Minimal external components HT12E: 18-pin DIP package

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Applications
Burglar alarm system Smoke and fire alarm system Garage door controllers Car door controllers Car alarm system Security system Cordless telephones Other remote control systems

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Pin Description
Function Name A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 Ground AD0 AD1 AD2 AD3 TE Osc2 Osc1 Output Vcc

8 bit Address pins for input

Ground (0V) 4 bit Data/Address pins for input Transmission enable; active low Oscillator input Oscillator output Serial data output Supply voltage; 5V (2.4V-12V)

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AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER
Introduction
AT89C51 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel's 8051

family. AT89C51 has 4KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 128 bytes of RAM. It can be erased and program to a maximum of 1000 times. In 40 pin AT89C51, there are four ports designated as P1, P2, P3 and P0. All these ports are 8-bit bi-directional ports, i.e., they can be used as both input and output ports. Except P0 which needs external pull-ups, rest of the ports have internal pull-ups. When 1s are written to these port pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. These ports are also bit addressable and so their bits can also be accessed individually. Port P0 and P2 are also used to provide low byte and high byte addresses, respectively, when

connected to an external memory. Port 3 has multiplexed pins for special functions like serial communication, hardware interrupts, timer inputs and read/write operation from external memory. AT89C51 has an inbuilt UART for serial communication. It can be programmed to operate at different baud rates. Including two timers & hardware interrupts, it has a total of six interrupts.

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Pin Diagram

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Features
Compatible with MCS-51 Products 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

Description
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

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Pin Description
Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Function Name P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 Reset P3.0 P3.1 8 bit input/output port (P3) pins P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7 Crystal 2 Crystal 1 Ground P2.0/ A8 P2.1/ A9 P2.2/ A10 P2.3/ A11 P2.4/ A12 P2.5/ A13 P2.6/ A14 P2.7/ A15 PSEN ALE Prog EA Vpp P0.7/ AD7 P0.6/ AD6 P0.5/ AD5 P0.4/ AD4 P0.3/ AD3 P0.2/ AD2 P0.1/ AD1 P0.0/ AD0 Vcc

8 bit input/output port (P1) pins

Reset pin; Active high Input (receiver) for serial RxD communication Output (transmitter) for serial TxD communication External interrupt 1 Int0 External interrupt 2 Int1 Timer1 external input T0 Timer2 external input T1 Write to external data memory Write Read from external data memory Read

Quartz crystal oscillator (up to 24 MHz) Ground (0V)

8 bit input/output port (P2) pins / High-order address bits when interfacing with external memory

Program store enable; Read from external program memory Address Latch Enable Program pulse input during Flash programming External Access Enable; Vcc for internal program executions Programming enable voltage; 12V (during Flash programming)

8 bit input/output port (P0) pins Low-order address bits when interfacing with external memory

Supply voltage; 5V (up to 6.6V)

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HT12D DECODER IC
Introduction
HT12D is a decoder integrated circuit that belongs to 212 series of decoders.

This series of decoders are mainly used for remote control system applications, like burglar alarm, car door controller, security system etc. It is mainly provided to interface 212 series RF and infrared

circuits. They are paired with of encoders. The

chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same number of addresses and data format. In simple terms, HT12D converts the serial input into parallel outputs. It decodes the serial addresses and data

received by, say, an RF receiver, into parallel data and sends them to output data pins. The serial input data is compared with the local addresses three times continuously. The input data code is decoded when no error or unmatched codes are found. A valid transmission in indicated by a high signal at VT pin. HT12D is capable of decoding 12 bits, of which 8 are address bits and 4 are data bits. The data on 4 bit latch type output pins remain unchanged until new is received.

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Pin Diagram

The decoders receive data that are transmitted by an encoder and interpret the first N bits of code period as addresses and the last 12_N bits as data, where N is the address code number. A signal on the DIN pin activates the oscillator which in turn decodes the incoming address and data. The decoders will then check the received address three times continuously. If the received address codes all match the contents of the decoder_s local address, the 12_N bits of data are decoded to activate the output pins and the VT pin is set high to indicate a valid transmission. This will last unless the address code is incorrect or no signal is received.

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Pin Description

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Function

Name A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 Ground D0 D1 D2 D3 Input Osc2 Osc1 VT Vcc

8 bit Address pins for input

Ground (0V) 4 bit Data/Address pins for output Serial data input Oscillator output Oscillator input Valid transmission; active high Supply voltage; 5V (2.4V-12V)

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ULN2003 IC
Introduction
The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. It consists of seven NPN darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current rating of a single darlington pair is 500mA. The darlington pairs may be parrlleled for higher current capability. Applications include relay drivers,hammer drivers, lampdrivers,display drivers(LED gas discharge),line drivers, and logic buffers. The ULN2003 has a 2.7kW series base resistor for each darlington pair for operation directly with TTL or 5V CMOS devices. ULN2003 is a high voltage and high current Darlington array IC. It contains seven open collector darlington pairs with common emitters. A darlington pair is an arrangement of two bipolar transistors. ULN2003 belongs to the family of ULN200X series of ICs. Different versions of this family interface to different logic families. ULN2003 is for 5V TTL, CMOS logic devices. These ICs are used when driving a wide range of loads and are used as relay drivers, display drivers, line drivers etc. ULN2003 is also commonly used while driving Stepper Motors. Refer Stepper Motor interfacing using ULN2003.

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Pin Diagram

Each channel or darlington pair in ULN2003 is rated at 500mA and can withstand peak current of 600mA. The inputs and outputs are provided opposite to each other in the pin layout. Each driver also contains a suppression diode to dissipate voltage spikes while driving inductive loads.

Features
500mA rated collector current(Single output) High-voltage outputs: 50V Inputs compatibale with various types of logic. Relay driver application

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Pin Description
Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Function Input for 1st channel Input for 2nd channel Input for 3rd channel Input for 4th channel Input for 5th channel Input for 6th channel Input for 7th channel Ground (0V) Common free wheeling diodes Output for 7th channel Output for 6th channel Output for 5th channel Output for 4th channel Output for 3rd channel Output for 2nd channel Output for 1st channel

Name Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Input 4 Input 5 Input 6 Input 7 Ground Common Output 7 Output 6 Output 5 Output 4 Output 3 Output 2 Output 1

These are all about the equipments used in the design of our project . All these devices are connected together as shown in the block diagram with the help of some resistors, capacitors and all other components in the circuit design. Here we also use RF sesors for detecting the signal in the trasmitting and recieving also and we are using antennas at both sides of transmitting and recieving end so that for transmitting the signal from transmitter to reciever through wireless medium. In this we are using four relays for operating four devices. These units are driven by the relay driver. Here we are using micro controller for contain some program memory that we have to used for different types of codings.

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CONCLUSION
We would like to conclude this project as very great and enriching the experience to learn about ELECTRONIC gadgets. It involves great equipment that deals with signal and mobile applications. We also learned about the characteristics, components and working of Different ICs together to form a device that can be useful for the hadicapped people to operate the electrical equipment without help of others on their own. For this purpose we are using RF module of frequency 433.5 MHz frequency. The working of this project is just like remote but we are impementing so that the project should be useful.

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