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Title: From:

Harvard referencing guide Ian Harwood, Senior Tutor Jean Leah, Learning & Teaching Co-ordinator Fiona Lindsay, Management Subject Librarian Date: 20th November 2009 (Updated 10/1/2011 IAH)

The School of Management requires all students to acknowledge their sources and use a consistent style of referencing throughout their assignments. Using software packages such as EndNote (http://www.soton.ac.uk/library/infoskills/bibliographic/endnote/index.html) or Reference Manager (http://www.soton.ac.uk/library/infoskills/bibliographic/referencemanager/index.html) can help you to reference consistently (so long as you choose the correct style).

The Harvard method of referencing is internationally known and commonly used in the School. There are two main aspects to referencing: 1) in-text citations, where you need to state the author(s) within the body of your report, and 2) a reference list, which gives the full details of the item(s) you have referred to. Both of these aspects are explained below.

1. Citing within the text

Use the name of the author(s) and year of publication. Note, when citing an author in the body of the text, you do should not include their initials. If you are making a direct quotation, in quotation marks, you should also include the page number(s). List the full references at the end of a piece in alphabetical order by author. Larsen (1995) observed that

When directly quoting from a source, ensure that quotation marks are used and the relevant page numbers are given.

Larsen (1995, p 25) observed that the sample sizes were not

Works with no author

When a work has no author (including legal materials) or the author is anonymous, cite in-text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use italics for the title as follows:

This was apparently not the case in seventeenth-century England (On travelling to London, 1683).


On travelling to London (1683) reveals that this was not true.

Multiple authors
When a work by two or three authors is cited in parentheses, the textual reference should be as: (Larsen and Green, 1987) (Larsen, Green and Withers, 1987)

When the authors' names are incorporated in the text, the ampersand is replaced by 'and':

Larsen and Green (1987) were unable.... Larsen, Green and Withers (1987) agreed....

For a work that has more than three authors, only the surname of the first listed author is used, followed by the expression 'et al.' (or 'and others'). For example, a work by Larsen, Green, Withers and Gonzales becomes:

Larsen et al. (1987) have found....

....is the best example (Larsen et al. 1987). You must include a full reference though, using all of the authors names, in the reference list at the end of the report.

More than one item by the same author published in the same year
Brown (2009a) wrote that..

It has been stated (Brown 2009b)

Citing a web site

To cite a Web page within the text of an assignment, give the address of the site (e.g. http://www.apa.org). To cite a document from a web site you must follow the author/date format. In both cases, an entry will still be required in the reference list.

2. Creating a reference list at the end of your report A list of references contains only details of those works cited in the text. If relevant sources that are not cited in the text are included, the list is called a bibliography (it is important to understand whether your lecturer requires a reference list or bibliography). The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author it is important to make sure that you use the authors surname (i.e. family name) followed by their initials. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list in sequence by the first significant word of the title.

Examples of types of printed references

Articles/chapters in a book
Bibliographic details are arranged in the sequence:

Authors surname and initials, Year of publication, Chapter title IN, Editor(s) of book, Title of book (in italics), Place of publication, Publisher, Article or chapter pages

Blaxter, M. (2006), How to balance the books, IN, Brown, C. Accounting in the 21st century, London: Academic Press, pp.120-135.

The appraisal interview' (1997), IN Human Resource Management, Bowd, B. (ed), New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, p.67.

Bibliographic details are arranged in the sequence:

Author/ editor(s) surname(s) and initials, Year of publication, Title of book (in italics), Edition of book, Place of publication, Publisher

Book with a single author

Adam-Smith, P. (2005), Management Today, 2nd ed., London: Longmans.

Book with 2 authors

Butler, J.D. and Walbert, D.F. (eds) (2003), Accounting and finance, Cambridge: CUP.

Book with 3 or more authors

Leeder, S.R., Dobson, A.J., Gibberd, R.W. and Patel, N.K. (1996), The UK banking system, London: Wiley.

Book with no author (note edition)

The Concise Oxford Dictionary (1992), 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Journal Article (hardcopy)

Bibliographic details are arranged in the following sequence:

Author surname and initials, Year of publication, Article title, Title of journal (in italics), Volume of journal, Issue number of journal, Article pages

Journal article
Dewhirst, C. (2007), Cost accounting, Accounting Today, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 44-45.

Journal Article (no author):

Selling your Grannie. (1999), Marketing Management, 1, pp. 529-530.

Newspaper article
Legge, K. (2008), 'Labor to cost the "Keating Factor"', Times on Sunday, 1 Feb., p. 2.

Unpublished Lecture Notes

Harwood, I.A. (2008), A brief history of management theory (Part 1), lecture notes distributed in the unit MANG1003 Introduction to Management at The University of Southampton, Southampton, 14 October, 2008.

Government and Parliamentary Publications

Act of Parliament
Copyright Act 1968 (Cwth), ss.1-3 London: The Stationary Office.

Government Report:
Office of the Status of Women (1981) London: The Stationary Office.

Examples of types of electronic references:

Journal Article
Bibliographic details are arranged in the following sequence:

Author surname and initials, Year of publication, Article title, Title of journal (in italics), Type of medium [Online], Volume of journal, Issue number of journal, Article pages or indication of length, "Available:" statement: supplier/database name/identifier or number if available/item or accession number, Access date note, this is the date that you last accessed the item

Full text Journal Article from an Electronic Journal

Skargren, E.I. and berg, B. (2009), Risk management, Journal of Risk Management [Online], Vol. 77, No. 2, pp. 201-7., Available: www.jrm.co.uk [Accessed: 8th February 2009].

Full text journal article from Electronic Database

Sale, P. and Carey, D.M. (2008), Information systems', Journal of Information Systems and Management [Online], Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 6-22, Emerald Available: http://info.emeraldinsight.com [Accessed: 12th June 2009]

Full text Journal article from Electronic Database (no author, no page number)
'Backbytes - spicing up the internet' (2005), Daily Telegraph, [Online], 24 Jan., 1,130 words, NexisUK Available: www.lexixnexis.com/nexis [Accessed: 17th February 2007].

Electronic Mail

E-mail (Personal)
Corliss, B. (2009), News from Seattle, E-mail to X.Li, [Online], 13 Jan., Available: E-mail: xli@uvmvm.uvm.edu [Accessed: 15th January 2009].

Discussion List
Berkowitz, P. (2008), April 3, 'Supply chain anomalies '. Supply Chain Forum [Online]. Available E-mail: SUPPCHAIN-L@yorkvm1.bitnet [Accessed: 3rd April 2008]


Web page
Beckleheimer, J. (2009), How do you cite URL's in a bibliography? [Online]. Available: http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html [Accessed:13th December 2009]

Web page (no author)

Educating entrepreneurs for the 21st century (Initial workshop draft), [Online], (2007), Available: www.ilt.ac.uk [Accessed: 16th May 2009].

Web page (no publication date)

Prizker, T.J. [ n.d.], Office management, [Online], Available: www.ingress.co.uk [Accessed: 12th December 2008].

And finally

More than one item by the same author published in the same year
Dewhirst, C. (2007a), Cost accounting, Accounting Today, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 44-45. Dewhirst, C. (2007b), Management of the audit sheet', Finance and Accounting, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 32-39.

Dont forget, you must reference all of your sources. The main thing is to adopt a consistent style throughout your work.

Source: Adapted from documentation provided on the Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice, University of Southampton, 2003.

If you cant find the example you are looking for in the above, then further examples can be found here:

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2005), Cite them right: the essential guide to referencing and plagiarism, Newcastleupon-Tyne: Pear Tree Books.